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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433698/adipose-crosstalk-with-other-cell-types-in-health-and-disease
#1
REVIEW
Chan Hee J Choi, Paul Cohen
In addition to storing and mobilizing energy, adipocytes secrete circulating factors to signal to other tissues and coordinate energy metabolism. These functions can become disrupted in the setting of obesity, contributing to the development of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Since the discovery of leptin and adiponectin, an increasing number of adipokines have been identified and their functions elucidated. More recent studies have highlighted other modes by which adipose tissue can participate in crosstalk with other cell types and tissues...
April 19, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433638/metabolomic-analysis-for-combined-hepatotoxicity-of-chlorpyrifos-and-cadmium-in-rats
#2
Ming-Yuan Xu, Pan Wang, Ying-Jian Sun, Yi-Jun Wu
Pesticides and heavy metals are widespread environmental pollutants. Although the acute toxicity of organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) and toxic heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is well characterized, the combined toxicity of CPF and Cd, especially the hepatotoxicity of the two chemicals with long-term exposure at a low dose, remained unclear. In this study, we investigated the toxicity in the liver of rats upon subchronic exposure to CPF and Cd at environmentally relevant doses. Rats were given three different doses (1/135 LD50, 1/45 LD50 and 1/15 LD50) of CPF and Cd as well as their mixtures by oral gavage for 90 days...
April 19, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433632/role-of-microrna-130b-in-placental-pgc-1%C3%AE-tfam-mitochondrial-biogenesis-pathway
#3
Shaoning Jiang, April M Teague, Jeanie B Tryggestad, Steven D Chernausek
Diabetes during pregnancy is associated with abnormal placenta mitochondrial function and increased oxidative stress, which affect fetal development and offspring long-term health. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) is a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism. The molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of PGC-1α in placenta in the context of diabetes remain unclear. The present study examined the role of microRNA 130b (miR-130b-3p) in regulating PGC-1α expression and oxidative stress in a placental trophoblastic cell line (BeWo)...
April 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433631/detection-of-camp-and-of-pka-activity-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-single-cells-using-fluorescence-resonance-energy-transfer-fret-probes
#4
Sonia Colombo, Serena Broggi, Maddalena Collini, Laura D'Alfonso, Giuseppe Chirico, Enzo Martegani
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and protein kinase A (PKA) play a central role in metabolism regulation, stress resistance and cell cycle progression. To monitor cAMP levels and PKA activity in vivo in single S. cerevisiae cells, we expressed an Epac-based FRET probe and a FRET-based A-kinase activity reporter, which were proven to be useful live-cell biosensors for cAMP levels and PKA activity in mammalian cells. Regarding detection of cAMP in single yeast cells, we show that in wild type strains the CFP/YFP fluorescence ratio increased immediately after glucose addition to derepressed cells, while no changes were observed when glucose was added to a strain that is not able to produce cAMP...
April 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432755/mitochondria-and-ageing-role-in-heart-skeletal-muscle-and-adipose-tissue
#5
REVIEW
Kerstin Boengler, Maik Kosiol, Manuel Mayr, Rainer Schulz, Susanne Rohrbach
Age is the most important risk factor for most diseases. Mitochondria play a central role in bioenergetics and metabolism. In addition, several lines of evidence indicate the impact of mitochondria in lifespan determination and ageing. The best-known hypothesis to explain ageing is the free radical theory, which proposes that cells, organs, and organisms age because they accumulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage over time. Mitochondria play a central role as the principle source of intracellular ROS, which are mainly formed at the level of complex I and III of the respiratory chain...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432637/polluted-pathways-mechanisms-of-metabolic-disruption-by-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals
#6
REVIEW
Mizuho S Mimoto, Angel Nadal, Robert M Sargis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Environmental toxicants are increasingly implicated in the global decline in metabolic health. Focusing on diabetes, herein, the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which metabolism disrupting chemicals (MDCs) impair energy homeostasis are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Emerging data implicate MDC perturbations in a variety of pathways as contributors to metabolic disease pathogenesis, with effects in diverse tissues regulating fuel utilization...
April 21, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432557/proteomic-analysis-of-mitochondrial-proteins-in-the-guinea-pig-heart-following-long-term-normobaric-hyperoxia
#7
Lucia Lichardusova, Zuzana Tatarkova, Andrea Calkovska, Daniela Mokra, Ivan Engler, Peter Racay, Jan Lehotsky, Peter Kaplan
Normobaric hyperoxia is applied for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases and clinical conditions related to ischemia or hypoxia, but it can increase the risk of tissue damage and its efficiency is controversial. In the present study, we analyzed cardiac mitochondrial proteome derived from guinea pigs after 60 h exposure to 100% molecular oxygen (NBO) or O2 enriched with oxygen cation (NBO+). Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry identified twenty-two different proteins (among them ten nonmitochondrial) that were overexpressed in NBO and/or NBO+ group...
April 21, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432552/subchronic-nandrolone-administration-reduces-cardiac-oxidative-markers-during-restraint-stress-by-modulating-protein-expression-patterns
#8
Barbara Pergolizzi, Vitina Carriero, Giuliana Abbadessa, Claudia Penna, Paola Berchialla, Silvia De Francia, Enrico Bracco, Silvia Racca
Nandrolone decanoate (ND), an anabolic-androgenic steroid prohibited in collegiate and professional sports, is associated with detrimental cardiovascular effects through redox-dependent mechanisms. We previously observed that high-dose short-term ND administration (15 mg/kg for 2 weeks) did not induce left heart ventricular hypertrophy and, paradoxically, improved postischemic response, whereas chronic ND treatment (5 mg/kg twice a week for 10 weeks) significantly reduced the cardioprotective effect of postconditioning, with an increase in infarct size and a decrease in cardiac performance...
April 21, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432541/genome-characteristics-of-the-proteorhodopsin-containing-marine-flavobacterium-polaribacter-dokdonensis-dsw-5
#9
Kiyoung Yoon, Ju Yeon Song, Min-Jung Kwak, Soon-Kyeong Kwon, Jihyun F Kim
Bacteria in the genus Polaribacter, belonging to the family Flavobacteriaceae, are typically isolated from marine environments. Polaribacter dokdonensis DSW-5, the type strain of the species, is a Gram-negative bacterium isolated from the East Sea of Korea. Whole genome shotgun sequencing was performed with the HiSeq 2000 platform and paired-end reads were generated at 188-fold coverage. The sequencing reads were assembled into two contigs with a total length of 3.08 Mb. The genome sequences of DSW-5 contain 2,776 proteincoding sequences and 41 RNA genes...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432465/ppar%C3%AE-activation-regulates-lipid-droplet-formation-and-lactate-production-in-rat-sertoli-cells
#10
A Gorga, G M Rindone, M Regueira, E H Pellizzari, M C Camberos, S B Cigorraga, M F Riera, M N Galardo, S B Meroni
Sertoli cells provide the structural and nutritional support for germ cell development; they actively metabolize glucose and convert it to lactate, which is an important source of energy for germ cells. Furthermore, Sertoli cells can oxidize fatty acids, a metabolic process that is assumed to fulfill their own energy requirements. Fatty acids are stored as triacylglycerides within lipid droplets. The regulation of fatty acid storage in conjunction with the regulation of lactate production may thus be relevant to seminiferous tubule physiology...
April 21, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432400/-the-intestinal-microbiome-and-metabolic-diseases-from-obesity-to-diabetes-and-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#11
S C Bischoff
BACKGROUND: The intestinal microbiome consists of about 10 million genes, many of which encode digestive enzymes. This explains why animal and human experiments revealed that the intestinal microbiome adapts to food intake and optimizes energy harvest from food. This function is considered beneficial in states of lack of food, but following overnutrition, it might support the development of obesity. OBJECTIVES: The relevance of the intestinal microbiome for the pathogenesis of obesity and associated metabolic diseases such as fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus and for the clinical management of such diseases shall be discussed...
April 21, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432362/succinate-supplementation-improves-metabolic-performance-of-mixed-glial-cell-cultures-with-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#12
Susan Giorgi-Coll, Ana I Amaral, Peter J A Hutchinson, Mark R Kotter, Keri L H Carpenter
Mitochondrial dysfunction, the inability to efficiently utilise metabolic fuels and oxygen, contributes to pathological changes following traumatic spinal cord or traumatic brain injury (TBI). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that succinate supplementation can improve cellular energy state under metabolically stressed conditions in a robust, reductionist in vitro model of mitochondrial dysfunction in which primary mixed glial cultures (astrocytes, microglia and oligodendrocytes) were exposed to the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432307/arsenic-metabolism-in-high-altitude-modern-stromatolites-revealed-by-metagenomic-analysis
#13
Daniel Kurth, Ariel Amadio, Omar F Ordoñez, Virginia H Albarracín, Wolfgang Gärtner, María E Farías
Modern stromatolites thrive only in selected locations in the world. Socompa Lake, located in the Andean plateau at 3570 masl, is one of the numerous extreme Andean microbial ecosystems described over recent years. Extreme environmental conditions include hypersalinity, high UV incidence, and high arsenic content, among others. After Socompa's stromatolite microbial communities were analysed by metagenomic DNA sequencing, taxonomic classification showed dominance of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, and a remarkably high number of unclassified sequences...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432125/sequential-adaptive-changes-in-a-c-myc-driven-model-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#14
James M Dolezal, Huabo Wang, Sucheta Kulkarni, Laura Jackson, Jie Lu, Sarangarajan Ranganathan, Eric S Goetzman, Sivakama Bharathi, Kevin Beezhold, Craig A Byersdorfer, Edward V Prochownik
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common cancer that frequently over-expresses the c-Myc (Myc) oncoprotein. Using a mouse model of Myc-induced HCC, we studied the metabolic, biochemical and molecular changes accompanying HCC progression, regression and recurrence. These involved altered rates of pyruvate and fatty acid β-oxidation and the likely re-directing of glutamine into biosynthetic rather than energy-generating pathways. Initial tumors also showed reduced mitochondrial mass and differential contributions of electron transport chain Complexes I and II to respiration...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432118/molecular-basis-for-exercise-induced-fatigue-the-importance-of-strictly-controlled-cellular-ca-2-handling
#15
Arthur J Cheng, Nicolas Place, Håkan Westerblad
The contractile function of skeletal muscle declines during intense or prolonged physical exercise, that is, fatigue develops. Skeletal muscle fibers fatigue acutely during highly intense exercise when they have to rely on anaerobic metabolism. Early stages of fatigue involve impaired myofibrillar function, whereas decreased Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) becomes more important in later stages. SR Ca(2+) release can also become reduced with more prolonged, lower intensity exercise, and it is then related to glycogen depletion...
April 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431972/mitochondrial-energy-metabolism-of-rat-hippocampus-after-treatment-with-the-antidepressants-desipramine-and-fluoxetine
#16
Roberto Federico Villa, Federica Ferrari, Laura Bagini, Antonella Gorini, Nicoletta Brunello, Fabio Tascedda
Alterations in mitochondrial functions have been hypothesized to participate in the pathogenesis of depression, because brain bioenergetic abnormalities have been detected in depressed patients by neuroimaging in vivo studies. However, this hypothesis is not clearly demonstrated in experimental studies: some suggest that antidepressants are inhibitors of mitochondrial metabolism, while others observe the opposite. In this study, the effects of 21-day treatment with desipramine (15 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) were examined on the energy metabolism of rat hippocampus, evaluating the catalytic activity of regulatory enzymes of mitochondrial energy-yielding metabolic pathways...
April 18, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431525/membrane-enriched-proteome-changes-and-prion-protein-expression-during-neural-differentiation-and-in-neuroblastoma-cells
#17
J A Macedo, D Schrama, I Duarte, E Tavares, J Renaut, M E Futschik, P M Rodrigues, E P Melo
BACKGROUND: The function of the prion protein, involved in the so-called prion diseases, remains a subject of intense debate and the possibility that it works as a pleiotropic protein through the interaction with multiple membrane proteins is somehow supported by recent reports. Therefore, the use of proteomic and bioinformatics combined to uncover cellular processes occurring together with changes in the expression of the prion protein may provide further insight into the putative pleiotropic role of the prion protein...
April 22, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431522/comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-neisseria-meningitidis-wildtype-and-dpra-null-mutant-strains-links-dna-processing-to-pilus-biogenesis
#18
Getachew Tesfaye Beyene, Shewit Kalayou, Tahira Riaz, Tone Tonjum
BACKGROUND: DNA processing chain A (DprA) is a DNA binding protein which is ubiquitous in bacteria, and is required for DNA transformation to various extents among bacterial species. However, the interaction of DprA with competence and recombination proteins is poorly understood. Therefore, the proteomes of whole Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) wildtype and dprA mutant cells were compared. Such a comparative proteomic analysis increases our understanding of the interactions of DprA with other Nm components and may elucidate its potential role beyond DNA processing in transformation...
April 21, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431343/measurement-of-physical-activity-levels-in-the-intensive-care-unit-and-functional-outcomes-an-observational-study
#19
Lisa J Beach, Kate Fetterplace, Lara Edbrooke, Selina M Parry, Rachel Curtis, Thomas Rechnitzer, Sue Berney, Linda Denehy
PURPOSE: Primary aims were: (1) objectively quantify levels of physical activity with the sensewear armband mini-fly motion sensor (SWA-MF), (2) evaluate the correlation of SWA-MF measurement of active and resting energy expenditure against the ICU Mobility scale (IMS) and indirect calorimetry respectively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adults mechanically ventilated ≥48h and anticipated to remain in ICU≥5days were included. Physical activity (PA) was measured using a SWA-MF (over the first five days); energy expenditure was measured with both the SWA-MF and the Deltatrac II metabolic cart on day three; highest level of mobility was assessed on the IMS...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431259/allosteric-regulation-of-metabolism-in-cancer-endogenous-mechanisms-and-considerations-for-drug-design
#20
REVIEW
Jamie A Macpherson, Dimitrios Anastasiou
Alterations in metabolic processes have been linked to various diseases, including cancer. Although gene expression can dictate long-term metabolic adaptation, many metabolic changes found in cancer are associated with altered allosteric properties of the underlying enzymes. Small molecule-protein interactions and intracellular signalling converge to orchestrate these allosteric mechanisms, which, emerging evidence suggests, constitute a promising therapeutic avenue. In this review we focus on glucose and energy metabolism to illustrate the role of allostery in cancer physiology and we discuss approaches to streamline the process of targeting aberrant allosteric pathways with small molecules...
April 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
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