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Browning Adipose

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793055/fatty-acid-activation-in-thermogenic-adipose-tissue
#1
REVIEW
Sandra Steensels, Baran A Ersoy
Channeling carbohydrates and fatty acids to thermogenic tissues, including brown and beige adipocytes, have garnered interest as an approach for the management of obesity-related metabolic disorders. Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (β-oxidation) is crucial for the maintenance of thermogenesis. Upon cellular fatty acid uptake or following lipolysis from triglycerides (TG), fatty acids are esterified to coenzyme A (CoA) to form active acyl-CoA molecules. This enzymatic reaction is essential for their utilization in β-oxidation and thermogenesis...
May 21, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791203/short-term-thermoneutral-housing-alters-glucose-metabolism-and-markers-of-adipose-tissue-browning-in-response-to-a-high-fat-diet-in-lean-mice
#2
Zachary Stephen Clayton, Carrie E McCurdy
Systemic insulin resistance and glucose intolerance occur with as little as 3 days of a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice and humans; the mechanisms that initiate acute insulin resistance are unknown. Most laboratories house mice at 22{degree sign}C, which is below their thermoneutral temperature (~30{degree sign}C). Cold stress has been shown to increase white adipose tissue (WAT) browning, alter lipid trafficking and impair immune function, while energy intake and expenditure decrease with increasing ambient temperature; importantly, dysregulation of these parameters have been strongly linked to obesity-induced insulin resistance...
May 23, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789429/brown-adipose-tissue-development-and-function-and-its-impact-on-reproduction
#3
M E Symonds, Peter Aldiss, Neele Dellschaft, James Law, Hernan Fainberg, Mark Pope, Harold Sacks, Helen Budge
Although brown adipose tissue (BAT) is one of the smallest organs in the body, it has the potential to have a substantial impact on both heat production as well as fat and carbohydrate metabolism. This is most apparent at birth which is characterised with the rapid appearance and activation of the BAT specific mitochondrial uncoupling protein (UCP)1 in many large mammals. The amount of brown fat then gradually declines with age, an adaptation that can be modulated by the thermal environment. Given the increased incidence of maternal obesity and its potential transmission to the mother's offspring, increasing BAT activity in the mother could be one mechanism to prevent this cycle...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788444/norepinephrine-and-thyroxine-are-predictors-of-fat-mass-gain-in-humans-with-cold-induced-brown-adipose-tissue-activation
#4
Brittany Begaye, Paolo Piaggi, Marie S Thearle, Kaitlyn Haskie, Mary Walter, Mathias Schlögl, Susan Bonfiglio, Jonathan Krakoff, Karyne L Vinales
Context: In healthy adults with detectable cold-induced brown fat activation (CIBA), the relationships between sympathetic nervous system (SNS) or thyroid activity during energy balance (EBL) with CIBA and body composition change are undetermined. Objective: To investigate the relationships between CIBA and thermoneutral catecholamines and thyroid hormones measured during EBL and to determine if CIBA, catecholamines, or thyroid hormones predict body composition changes...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787809/eet-enhances-renal-function-in-obese-mice-resulting-in-restoration-of-mfn1-2-ho-1-signaling-and-decrease-in-hypertension-through-inhibition-of-sodium-chloride-co-transporter
#5
Joseph Schragenheim, Lars Bellner, Jian Cao, Shailendra P Singh, David Bamshad, John A McClung, Omri Maayan, Aliza Meissner, Ilana Grant, Charles T Stier, Nader G Abraham
BACKGROUND: We have previously reported that epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) has multiple beneficial effects on renal and adipose tissue function, in addition to its vasodilatory action; it increases insulin sensitivity and inhibits inflammation. In an examination of the signaling mechanisms by which EET reduces renal and peri-renal fat function, we hypothesized that EET ameliorates obesity-induced renal dysfunction by improving sodium excretion, reducing the sodium-chloride cotransporter NCC, lowering blood pressure, and enhancing mitochondrial and thermogenic gene levels in PGC-1α dependent mice...
May 19, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787752/systemic-inhibition-of-janus-kinase-induces-browning-of-white-adipose-tissue-and-ameliorates-obesity-related-metabolic-disorders
#6
Kikid Rucira Qurania, Koji Ikeda, Donytra Arby Wardhana, Agian Jeffilano Barinda, Dhite Bayu Nugroho, Yuko Kuribayashi, Elda Putri Rahardini, Pranindya Rinastiti, Gusty Rizky Teguh Ryanto, Keiko Yagi, Ken-Ichi Hirata, Noriaki Emoto
Browning of white adipose tissue is a promising strategy to tackle obesity. Recently, Janus kinase (JAK) inhibition was shown to induce white-to-brown metabolic conversion of adipocytes in vitro; however effects of JAK inhibition on browning and systemic metabolic health in vivo remain to be elucidated. Here, we report that systemic administration of JAK inhibitor (JAKi) ameliorated obesity-related metabolic disorders. Administration of JAKi in mice fed a high-fat diet increased UCP-1 and PRDM16 expression in white adipose tissue, indicating the browning of white adipocyte...
May 19, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787512/browning-of-human-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-after-its-transplantation-in-nude-mice
#7
Lihong Qiu, Zhaoxiang Zhang, Hui Zheng, Shaoheng Xiong, Yingjun Su, Xianjie Ma, Chenggang Yi
BACKGROUND: The clinical unpredictability of autologous fat grafting originates partially from the unique characteristics of adipose tissue. Evidences of adipose remodeling toward browning (developing of brown-like adipocytes in white adipose tissue) in response to trauma are emerging. With regard to fat grafting surgery procedure by which adipose tissue depots are directly and ubiquitously traumatized, whether it affect adipose phenotype change toward browning has not been previously reported...
May 16, 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785004/a-direct-tissue-grafting-approach-to-increasing-endogenous-brown-fat
#8
Nicole R Blumenfeld, Hwan June Kang, Anna Fenzl, Ziwei Song, Janice J Chung, Ranjodh Singh, Roshawn Johnson, Ayse Karakecili, Jun B Feranil, Ninna S Rossen, Vivian Zhang, Sahir Jaggi, Bret McCarty, Steven Bessler, Gary J Schwartz, Robert Grant, Judith Korner, Florian W Kiefer, Brian M Gillette, Samuel K Sia
There is widespread evidence that increasing functional mass of brown adipose tissue (BAT) via browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) could potentially counter obesity and diabetes. However, most current approaches focus on administration of pharmacological compounds which expose patients to highly undesirable side effects. Here, we describe a simple and direct tissue-grafting approach to increase BAT mass through ex vivo browning of subcutaneous WAT, followed by re-implantation into the host; this cell-therapy approach could potentially act synergistically with existing pharmacological approaches...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784793/camp-inducible-coactivator-crtc3-attenuates-brown-adipose-tissue-thermogenesis
#9
Young-Sil Yoon, Wen-Wei Tsai, Sam Van de Velde, Zhijiang Chen, Kuo-Fen Lee, Donald A Morgan, Kamal Rahmouni, Shigenobu Matsumura, Ezra Wiater, Youngsup Song, Marc Montminy
In response to cold exposure, placental mammals maintain body temperature by increasing sympathetic nerve activity in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Triggering of β-adrenergic receptors on brown adipocytes stimulates thermogenesis via induction of the cAMP/PKA pathway. Although cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and its coactivators-the cAMP-regulated transcriptional coactivators (CRTCs)-mediate transcriptional effects of cAMP in most tissues, other transcription factors such as ATF2 appear critical for induction of thermogenic genes by cAMP in BAT...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777200/a-map-of-the-pgc-1%C3%AE-and-nt-pgc-1%C3%AE-regulated-transcriptional-network-in-brown-adipose-tissue
#10
Ji Suk Chang, Sujoy Ghosh, Susan Newman, J Michael Salbaum
Transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α and its splice variant NT-PGC-1α play crucial roles in regulating cold-induced thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). PGC-1α and NT-PGC-1α are highly induced by cold in BAT and subsequently bind to and coactivate many transcription factors to regulate expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, respiration and thermogenesis. To identify the complete repertoire of PGC-1α and NT-PGC-1α target genes in BAT, we analyzed genome-wide DNA-binding and gene expression profiles...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775611/reduced-adiposity-by-compensatory-wat-browning-upon-ibat-removal-in-mice
#11
Zhengyu Piao, Baiqiang Zhai, Xiaoxiao Jiang, Meng Dong, Changguo Yan, Jun Lin, Wanzhu Jin
The strong effects of classic brown adipose tissue (BAT) and recruited beige adipocytes in treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome have been attracting increasing research interest. Cold treatment is an effective, convenient approach to stimulate BAT activity and induce white adipose tissue (WAT) browning. Here, we utilized prolonged cold exposure (from 2 h to 2 weeks in a 4° cold chamber) to elucidate dynamic changes in BAT and in WAT browning during acute and chronic cold exposure in mice. BAT mass decreased quickly, with reduced lipid droplet sizes within 8 h of cold exposure owing to the utilization of BAT pre-storage triglycerides, and subsequently increased during prolonged cold exposure...
May 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773653/inhibition-of-protein-arginine-methyltransferase-5-enhances-hepatic-mitochondrial-biogenesis
#12
Lei Huang, Jehnan Liu, Xiao-Ou Zhang, Katelyn Sibley, Sonia M Najjar, Mary M Lee, Joae Qiong Wu
Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) regulates gene expression either transcriptionallyly by symmetric dimethylation of arginine residues on histones H4R3, H3R8 and H2AR3, or at the post-translational level by methylation of non-histone target proteins. While emerging evidence suggests that PRMT5 functions as an oncogene, its role in metabolic diseases is not well defined. We investigated the role of PRMT5 in promoting high fat-induced hepatic steatosis. High fat diet up-regulated PRMT5 levels in the liver, but not in other metabolically relevant tissues such as skeletal muscle or white and brown adipose tissue...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771387/functional-brown-adipose-tissue-and-sympathetic-activity-after-cold-exposure-in-humans-with-type-1-narcolepsy
#13
Lotte Hahn Enevoldsen, Marie Tindborg, Nichlas Lindegaard Hovmand, Christina Christoffersen, Helga Ellingsgaard, Charlotte Suetta, Bente Merete Stallknecht, Poul Joergen Jennum, Andreas Kjær, Steen Gammeltoft
Study objectives: To investigate the activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in type 1 narcolepsy patients during cold exposure using two separate scans of sympathetic and metabolic activity of BAT in order to evaluate whether orexin deficiency leads to altered non-shivering thermoregulation in narcolepsy. Methods: Seven patients with type 1 narcolepsy and seven healthy controls underwent two consecutive scans after 2 h cold exposure: 123I-meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine (123I-MIBG) single photon emission computed tomography and 18F-2-deoxy-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography and computed tomography to visualize sympathetic innervation and metabolic activity of BAT, respectively...
May 15, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769150/adipose-tissue-uncoupling-protein-1-levels-and-function-are-increased-in-a-mouse-model-of-developmental-obesity-induced-by-maternal-exposure-to-high-fat-diet
#14
E Bytautiene Prewit, C Porter, M La Rosa, N Bhattarai, H Yin, P Gamble, T Kechichian, L S Sidossis
With brown adipose tissue (BAT) becoming a possible therapeutic target to counteract obesity, the prenatal environment could represent a critical window to modify BAT function and browning of white AT. We investigated if levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and UCP1-mediated thermogenesis are altered in offspring exposed to prenatal obesity. Female CD-1 mice were fed a high-fat (HF) or standard-fat (SF) diet for 3 months before breeding. After weaning, all pups were placed on SF. UCP1 mRNA and protein levels were quantified using quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively, in brown (BAT), subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) adipose tissues at 6 months of age...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764530/influence-of-maternal-adiposity-preterm-birth-and-birth-weight-centiles-on-early-childhood-obesity-in-an-indigenous-australian-pregnancy-through-to-early-childhood-cohort-study
#15
K G Pringle, Y Q Lee, L Weatherall, L Keogh, C Diehm, C T Roberts, S Eades, A Brown, R Smith, E R Lumbers, L J Brown, C E Collins, K M Rae
Childhood obesity rates are higher among Indigenous compared with non-Indigenous Australian children. It has been hypothesized that early-life influences beginning with the intrauterine environment predict the development of obesity in the offspring. The aim of this paper was to assess, in 227 mother-child dyads from the Gomeroi gaaynggal cohort, associations between prematurity, Gestation Related-Optimal Weight (GROW) centiles, maternal adiposity (percentage body fat, visceral fat area), maternal non-fasting plasma glucose levels (measured at mean gestational age of 23...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758934/adipose-tissue-derived-stem-cells-from-affected-and-unaffected-areas-in-patients-with-multiple-symmetric-lipomatosis-show-differential-regulation-of-mtor-pathway-genes
#16
Oliver Felthaus, Teresa Schön, Daniel Schiltz, Thiha Aung, Britta Kühlmann, Friedrich Jung, Alexandra Anker, Silvan Klein, Lukas Prantl
BACKGROUND: Multiple symmetric lipomatosis is a rare disease characterized by the excessive growth of uncapsulated masses of adipose tissue. Although the etiology has yet to be elucidated, a connection to brown adipose tissue has been proposed recently. The mTOR pathway which is found to be regulated in lipomatous tissue as well as associated with brown adipose tissue can be inhibited by a compound called rapamycin. METHODS: We isolated adipose tissue derived stem cells from both affected and unaffected tissue and treated these cells with different concentrations of rapamycin...
2018: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758288/micrornas-in-brown-and-beige-fat
#17
REVIEW
Deborah Goody, Alexander Pfeifer
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy as heat and its activity correlates with leanness in human adults. Understanding the mechanisms behind the activation of BAT and the process of "browning", i.e. the appearance of inducible brown adipocytes called beige or brite (brown-in-white) cells in white adipose tissue (WAT), is of great interest for developing novel therapies to combat obesity. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small transcriptional regulators that control gene expression in a variety of tissues, including WAT and BAT...
May 11, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757496/skin-temperature-may-not-yield-human-brown-adipose-tissue-activity-in-diverse-populations
#18
EDITORIAL
Jaana T Sarasniemi, Kalle Koskensalo, Juho Raiko, Pirjo Nuutila, Jani Saunavaara, Riitta Parkkola, Kirsi A Virtanen
In a recent review of Acta Physiologica, Rodriguez et al1 suggests that the metabolically active brown adipose tissue (BAT) can be detected studied using 18 F-FDG-PET/CT. Although this method is commonly used in BAT research, it is very expensive and time-consuming and exposes the subjects to ionizing radiation. Therefore, more affordable and radiation-free methods have been developed, such as thermal infrared imaging (IR) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) 2 . This article is protected by copyright...
May 14, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757434/hdac3-selective-inhibition-activates-brown-and-beige-fat-through-prdm16
#19
Jiling Liao, Juan Jiang, Heejin Jun, Xiaona Qiao, Margo P Emont, Dong-Il Kim, Jun Wu
It has been reported that class I histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition increases thermogenesis in fat, but adipocyte specific Hdac3 deletions have presented inconsistent results. In this study, we observed that HDAC3 protein levels were lower in brown fat compared to that of inguinal subcutaneous adipose tissue, and were decreased in both fat depots upon cold exposure. PRDM16 physically interacted with HDAC3, and treatment with HDAC3-selective inhibitor RGFP966 induced thermogenic gene expression in murine and human fat cultures...
May 10, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757365/multifaceted-roles-of-beige-fat-in-energy-homeostasis-beyond-ucp1
#20
Carlos Henrique Sponton, Shingo Kajimura
Beige adipocytes are an inducible form of thermogenic adipose cells that emerge within the white adipose tissue in response to a variety of environmental stimuli, such as chronic cold acclimation. Similar to brown adipocytes that reside in brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots, beige adipocytes are also thermogenic; however beige adipocytes possess unique, distinguishing characteristics in their developmental regulation and biological function. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of beige adipocytes, focusing on the diverse roles of beige fat in the regulation of energy homeostasis that are independent of the canonical thermogenic pathway via uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)...
May 10, 2018: Endocrinology
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