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Browning Adipose

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329372/practical-review-of-recognition-and-management-of-obesity-and-lipohypertrophy-in-hiv-infection
#1
Jordan E Lake, Takara Stanley, Caroline Apovian, Shalendar Bhasin, Todd T Brown, Jaqueline Capeau, Judith S Currier, Michael P Dube, Julian Falutz, Steven K Grinspoon, Giovanni Guaraldi, Esteban Martinez, Grace A McComsey, Fred R Sattler, Kristine M Erlandson
Background: Obesity and lipohypertrophy are common in treated HIV infection and contribute to morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods: We present a consensus opinion on the diagnosis, clinical consequences and treatment of excess adiposity in adults with treated HIV infection. Results: Obesity and lipohypertrophy commonly occur among HIV-infected adults on ART, and may have overlapping pathophysiologies and/or synergistic metabolic consequences...
February 24, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324157/water-fat-mri-in-a-hibernator-reveals-seasonal-growth-of-white-and-brown-adipose-tissue-without-cold-exposure
#2
Amanda MacCannell, Kevin Sinclair, Lannette Friesen-Waldner, Charles A McKenzie, James F Staples
Obligate hibernators, such as ground squirrels, display circannual patterns which persist even under constant laboratory conditions, suggesting that they are regulated by endogenous rhythms. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is important for thermogenesis during periodic arousals from hibernation when core body temperature rises spontaneously from 5 to 37 °C. In most small eutherians BAT growth requires several weeks of cold exposure. We hypothesized that in the thirteen-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus), a hibernator, BAT growth is regulated, in part, by an endogenous rhythm and we predicted that this growth would precede the hibernation season without cold exposure...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324110/effects-of-metreleptin-in-pediatric-patients-with-lipodystrophy
#3
Rebecca J Brown, Cristina Adelia Meehan, Elaine Cochran, Kristina I Rother, David E Kleiner, Mary Walter, Phillip Gorden
Context: Lipodystrophy syndromes are rare disorders of deficient adipose tissue. Metreleptin, a human analog of leptin, improved metabolic abnormalities in mixed cohorts of leptin-deficient children and adults with lipodystrophy. Objective: Determine effects of metreleptin on diabetes, hyperlipidemia, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), growth, and puberty in leptin-deficient pediatric patients with lipodystrophy. Design: Prospective, single-arm, open-label studies with continuous enrollment since 2000...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324027/follistatin-targets-distinct-pathways-to-promote-brown-adipocyte-characteristics-in-brown-and-white-adipose-tissues
#4
Rajan Singh, Melissa Braga, Srinivasa T Reddy, Se-Jin Lee, Meher Parveen, Victor Grijalva, Laurent Vergnes, Shehla Pervin
We previously demonstrated that Fst expression is highest in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and skeletal muscle, but is also present at substantial levels in epididymal (Epi) and subcutaneous (SC) white adipose tissues (WAT). Fst promotes mouse brown preadipocyte differentiation and promotes browning during differentiation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Fst-transgenic (Fst-Tg) mouse show significant increase in circulating Fst levels and increased brown adipose mass. BAT of Fst-Tg mice had increased expression of brown adipose-associated markers including uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), PRDM16, PGC-1α and Glut4...
January 16, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323987/fibroblast-growth-factor-23-mineral-metabolism-and-adiposity-in-normal-kidney-function
#5
Sarah Zaheer, Ian H de Boer, Matthew Allison, Jenifer M Brown, Bruce M Psaty, Cassianne Robinson-Cohen, Erin D Michos, Joachim H Ix, Bryan Kestenbaum, David Siscovick, Anand Vaidya
Context: Obesity is associated with poor bone mineralization and quality. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) plays an important role in calcium, phosphate, and skeletal physiology. Objective: To test the hypothesis that greater adiposity results in higher FGF23 levels among individuals with normal estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Design, Setting, Participants: Cross-sectional analyses among participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis with eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323929/human-brown-adipose-tissue-temperature-and-fat-fraction-are-related-to-its-metabolic-activity
#6
Kalle Koskensalo, Juho Raiko, Teemu Saari, Virva Saunavaara, Olli Eskola, Pirjo Nuutila, Jani Saunavaara, Riitta Parkkola, Kirsi A Virtanen
Background and aim: The metabolic activity of human brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been previously examined using positron-emission-tomography (PET). The aim of this study was to use proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H MRS) to investigate whether the temperature and the fat fraction (FF) of brown and white adipose tissue (WAT) are associated with BAT metabolic activity determined by 18F-FDG-PET. Materials and methods: Ten healthy subjects (4f/6m, 25-45 y) were studied using PET-MRI during acute cold exposure and at ambient room temperature...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323915/insulin-igf-1-and-gh-receptors-are-altered-in-an-adipose-tissue-depot-specific-manner-in-male-mice-with-modified-gh-action
#7
Rikke Hjortebjerg, Darlene E Berryman, Ross Comisford, Stuart J Frank, Edward O List, Mette Bjerre, Jan Frystyk, John J Kopchick
Growth hormone (GH) is an important determinant of glucose homeostasis and adipose tissue (AT) function. Using seven-month-old bovine GH transgenic (bGH) mice and GH receptor knockout (GHR-/-) mice, we examined whether changes in GH action affect glucose, insulin, and pyruvate tolerance and AT expression patterns of proteins involved in the interrelated signaling pathways of GH, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and insulin. Furthermore, we searched for AT depot-specific differences in control mice that may explain why GH effects depend on AT location...
February 27, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323914/menopause-is-a-determinant-of-breast-aromatase-expression-and-its-associations-with-bmi-inflammation-and-systemic-markers
#8
Kristy A Brown, Neil M Iyengar, Xi Kathy Zhou, Ayca Gucalp, Kotha Subbaramaiah, Hanhan Wang, Dilip D Giri, Monica Morrow, Domenick J Falcone, Nils K Wendel, Lisle A Winston, Michael Pollak, Anneloor Dierickx, Clifford A Hudis, Andrew J Dannenberg
CONTEXT: Most estrogen-dependent breast cancers occur after menopause despite low levels of circulating estrogens. Breast expression of the estrogen-biosynthetic enzyme, aromatase, is proposed to drive breast cancer development after menopause. However, the effects of menopause on breast aromatase expression are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of menopause on breast aromatase expression in relation to body mass index (BMI), white adipose tissue inflammation (WATi) and systemic markers of metabolic dysfunction...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322447/regulation-role-of-crtc3-in-skeletal-muscle-and-adipose-tissue
#9
REVIEW
Jiaqi Liu, Ziye Xu, Weiche Wu, Yizhen Wang, Tizhong Shan
The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) - protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway plays important role in regulating energy homeostasis. Many of the effects of the cAMP-PKA signaling is mediated through the cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) and its coactivator CREB-regulated transcription coactivators (CRTCs). CRTC3 is a member of CRTCs family proteins and plays important roles in glucose and energy metabolism. Previous studies shown that global knockout of CRTC3 enhances oxygen consumption and energy expenditure and subsequently protects the knockout animal against obesity...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318098/decreased-insulin-stimulated-brown-adipose-tissue-glucose-uptake-after-short-term-exercise-training-in-healthy-middle-aged-men
#10
Piryanka Motiani, Kirsi A Virtanen, Kumail K Motiani, Joonas J Eskelinen, Roeland J Middelbeek, Laurie J Goodyear, Anna M Savolainen, Jukka Kemppainen, Jørgen Jensen, Mueez U Din, Virva Saunavaara, Riitta Parkkola, Eliisa Löyttyniemi, Juhani Knuuti, Pirjo Nuutila, Kari K Kalliokoski, Jarna C Hannukainen
AIMS: Little is known about the effects of exercise training on brown adipose tissue (BAT) metabolism in humans. We tested the hypothesis that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) improve BAT insulin sensitivity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Healthy middle-aged men (n = 18, age 47 [CI: 49, 43] years, BMI 25.3 [CI: 24.1-26.3] kg · m(-2) , VO2peak 34.8[CI: 32.1, 37.4] ml · kg(-1)  · min(-1) ) were recruited and randomized into six HIIT or MICT sessions within two weeks...
March 20, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317858/near-infrared-photoluminescent-carbon-nanotubes-for-imaging-of-brown-fat
#11
Masako Yudasaka, Yohei Yomogida, Minfang Zhang, Takeshi Tanaka, Masako Nakahara, Norihiko Kobayashi, Yuko Okamatsu-Ogura, Ken Machida, Kazuhiko Ishihara, Kumiko Saeki, Hiromichi Kataura
Near-infrared photoluminescent single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are expected to provide effectual bio-imaging tools, although, as yet, only limited applications have been reported. Here, we report that CNTs coated with an amphiphilic and biocompatible polymer, poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine-co-n-butyl methacrylate; PMB), generate high-quality images of brown fat. Brown fat is a heat-productive adipose tissue, which is attracting increasing attention as a new therapeutic target for obesity-associated metabolic disorders...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316560/lysopc-acyl-c16-0-is-associated-with-brown-adipose-tissue-activity-in-men
#12
Mariëtte R Boon, Leontine E H Bakker, Cornelia Prehn, Jerzy Adamski, Maarten J Vosselman, Ingrid M Jazet, Lenka M Pereira Arias-Bouda, Wouter D Marken van Lichtenbelt, Ko Willems van Dijk, Patrick C N Rensen, Dennis O Mook-Kanamori
INTRODUCTION: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) recently emerged as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of obesity and associated disorders due to its fat-burning capacity. The current gold standard in assessing BAT activity is [(18)F]FDG PET-CT scan, which has severe limitations including radiation exposure, being expensive, and being labor-intensive. Therefore, indirect markers are needed of human BAT activity and volume. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify metabolites in serum that are associated with BAT volume and activity in men...
2017: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315350/irisin-acts-as-a-regulator-of-macrophages-host-defense
#13
Agnieszka Irena Mazur-Bialy
AIM: Irisin, the adipomyokine, released mainly by exercised muscles, participate in the browning of adipose tissue and contribute to the restriction of insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus 2 development. Because of the limited reports describing the effect of irisin on inflammation and immunocompetent cells activation, the present study attempted to assess the influence of various irisin concentrations on basic macrophage activity. MAIN METHODS: Studies were carried out on murine RAW 264...
March 14, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314964/increased-intake-of-energy-dense-diet-and-negative-energy-balance-in-a-mouse-model-of-chronic-psychosocial-defeat
#14
Roberto Coccurello, Adele Romano, Giacomo Giacovazzo, Bianca Tempesta, Marco Fiore, Anna Maria Giudetti, Ilaria Marrocco, Fabio Altieri, Anna Moles, Silvana Gaetani
PURPOSE: Chronic exposure to stress may represent a risk factor for developing metabolic and eating disorders, mostly driven by the overconsumption of easily accessible energy-dense palatable food, although the mechanisms involved remain still unclear. In this study, we used an ethologically oriented murine model of chronic stress caused by chronic psychosocial defeat (CPD) to investigate the effects of unrestricted access to a palatable high fat diet (HFD) on food intake, body weight, energy homeostasis, and expression of different brain neuropeptides...
March 17, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314100/attenuated-mtor-signaling-and-enhanced-glucose-homeostasis-by-dietary-supplementation-with-lotus-seedpod-oligomeric-procyanidins-in-streptozotocin-stz-induced-diabetic-mice
#15
Xiaopeng Li, Yong Sui, Qian Wu, Bijun Xie, Zhida Sun
This study investigated the protective role of lotus seedpod oligomeric procyanidins (LSOPC) and synbiotics (Bifidobacterium Bb-12 and xylo-oligosaccharide) against high fat and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Administration of LSOPC or synbiotics have no effect on blood glucose in normal mice. Treatments with LSOPC for 12 weeks markedly reduced blood glucose, FFA, endotoxin, GHbA1c and improved glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism and insulin level. In addition, administration of LSOPC significantly reversed the increase of mTOR and p66Shc in liver, skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue (WAT)...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302705/brown-and-beige-adipose-tissues-phenotype-and-metabolic-potential-in-mice-and-men
#16
Kanta Chechi, Wouter David van Marken Lichtenbelt, Denis Richard
With the recent re-discovery of brown fat in adult humans, our outlook on adipose tissue biology has undergone a paradigm shift. While we attempt to identify, recruit and activate classic brown fat stores in humans, identification of beige/brite adipocytes has also raised the possibility of browning our white fat stores. Whether such transformation of human white fat depots can be achieved in order to enhance the whole-body oxidative potential remains to be seen. Evidence to-date, however, largely points towards a major oxidative role only for classic brown fat depots in rodents and in humans (e...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301844/the-placenta-maternal-diet-and-adipose-tissue-development-in-the-newborn
#17
Michael E Symonds, Ian Bloor, Shalini Ojha, Helen Budge
BACKGROUND: A majority of adipose tissue present in the newborn possess the unique mitochondrial protein, uncoupling protein (UCP1). It is thus highly metabolically active and capable of producing 300 times more heat per unit mass than any other organ in the body. The extent to which maternal obesity and/or an obesogenic diet impacts on placental function thereby resetting the relative distribution of different types of fat in the fetus is unknown. SUMMARY: Developmentally the majority (if not all) fat in the fetus can be considered as classical brown fat, in which UCP1 is highly abundant...
March 17, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299842/electroacupuncture-promotes-cns-dependent-release-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#18
Tatiana E Salazar, Matthew R Richardson, Eleni Beli, Matthew S Ripsch, John George, Youngsook Kim, Yaqian Duan, Leni Moldovan, Yuanqing Yan, Ashay Bhatwadekar, Vaishnavi Jadhav, Jared A Smith, Susan McGorray, Alicia L Bertone, Dmitri O Traktuev, Keith L March, Luis M Colon-Perez, Keith Avin, Emily Sims, Julie A Mund, Jamie Case, Shaolin Deng, Min Su Kim, Bruce McDavitt, Michael E Boulton, Jeffrey Thinschmidt, Sergio Li Calzi, Stephanie D Fitz, Robyn K Fuchs, Stuart J Warden, Todd McKinley, Anantha Shekhar, Marcelo Febo, Phillip L Johnson, Lung Ji Chang, Zhanguo Gao, Mikhail G Kolonin, Song Lai, Jinfeng Ma, Xinzhong Dong, Fletcher A White, Huisheng Xie, Mervin C Yoder, Maria B Grant
Electro-acupuncture (EA) performed in rats and humans using front-limb acupuncture sites, LI-4 and LI-11, and Du-14 and Du-20 increased functional connectivity between the anterior hypothalamus and the amygdala and mobilized mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) into the systemic circulation. In human subjects, the source of the MSC was found to be primarily adipose tissue whereas in rodents the tissue sources were considered more heterogeneous. Pharmacological disinhibition of rat hypothalamus enhanced sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation and similarly resulted in a release of MSC into the circulation...
March 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295407/alcoholic-liver-disease-on-the-rise-interorgan-cross-talk-driving-liver-injury
#19
Srinivasan Dasarathy, J Mark Brown
Advanced alcoholic liver disease (ALD) represents a substantial public health burden, threatening the lives of more than ten million people in the United States. Although the direct harmful effects of alcohol in the liver are nearly universally recognized, emerging evidence suggests alcohol also adversely affects other organs such as the intestine, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and likely many other tissues. In fact, the extrahepatic effects of alcohol clearly converge to impact the morbidity and mortality associated with chronic alcohol abuse...
March 10, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291835/adipocyte-arrestin-domain-containing-3-protein-arrdc3-regulates-uncoupling-protein-1-ucp1-expression-in-white-adipose-independently-of-canonical-changes-in-%C3%AE-adrenergic-receptor-signaling
#20
Shannon H Carroll, Ellen Zhang, Bing F Wang, Katherine B LeClair, Arifeen Rahman, David E Cohen, Jorge Plutzky, Parth Patwari, Richard T Lee
Adaptive thermogenesis and cold-induced activation of uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) in brown adipose tissue in rodents is well-described and attributed to sympathetic activation of β-adrenergic signaling. The arrestin domain containing protein Arrdc3 is a regulator of obesity in mice and also appears linked to obesity in humans. We generated a mouse with conditional deletion of Arrdc3, and here we present evidence that genetic ablation of Arrdc3 specifically in adipocytes results in increased Ucp1 expression in subcutaneous and parametrial adipose tissue...
2017: PloS One
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