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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677680/transcriptomic-identification-of-salt-related-genes-and-de-novo-assembly-in-common-buckwheat-f-esculentum
#1
Qi-Huan Lu, Ya-Qi Wang, Jin-Nan Song, Hong-Bing Yang
Common buckwheat (F. esculentum), annually herbaceous crop, is prevalent in people's daily life with the increasing development of economics. Compared with wheat, it is highly praised with high content of rutin and flavonoid. Common buckwheat is recognized as healthy food with good taste, and the product price of which such as noodles, flour, bread and so on are higher than wheat, and the seeds of which are bigger than that of tartary buckwheat, so if common buckwheat are planted more widely, people will spend less money on this healthy and delicious food...
April 4, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677638/gestational-glucocorticoid-exposure-disrupts-glucose-homeostasis-that-is-accompanied-by-increased-endoglin-and-dpp-4-activity-instead-of-gsk-3-in-rats
#2
Olufunto O Badmus, Olugbenga S Michael, Saheed Rabiu, Lawrence A Olatunji
Gestational glucocorticoid (GC) treatment has been associated with cardiometabolic disorder (CMD) in offspring's in later life. Elevated dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) activity, endoglin and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) has also been implicated in the development of insulin resistance (IR) and/or vascular inflammation. We aimed to investigate the impact of GC exposure on glucose metabolism and the circulating levels of inflammatory biomarkers, DPP-4 activity and GSK-3 in pregnant rats. Pregnant Wistar rats received either vehicle or dexamethasone (DEX; 0...
April 13, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677634/physiological-variations-in-reproductive-and-metabolic-features-of-white-tailed-deer-odocoileus-virginianus-bucks-throughout-the-rutting-season
#3
Jamie L Stewart, Clifford F Shipley, Robyn E Ellerbrock, Lauren Schmidt, Fabio S Lima, Igor F Canisso
White-tailed deer farming is a growing industry in the United States, yet there is still a need to improve breeding practices in captive cervids. The objective of this study was to compare reproductive and somatic characteristics of white-tailed bucks early in the breeding season (September), at peak rut (December), and late breeding season (March). We hypothesized that reproductive parameters would improve at the peak of the breeding season. Young, mature bucks (n = 7-11, ages 2-3 yr) were anesthetized via projector with tiletamine-zolazepam and xylazine...
April 12, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677628/circulating-metabolomic-profile-can-predict-dyslipidemia-in-hiv-patients-undergoing-antiretroviral-therapy
#4
Esther Rodríguez-Gallego, Josep Gómez, Pere Domingo, Sara Ferrando-Martínez, Joaquim Peraire, Consuelo Viladés, Sergi Veloso, Miguel López-Dupla, Raúl Beltrán-Debón, Verónica Alba, Montserrat Vargas, Alfonso J Castellano, Manuel Leal, Yolanda María Pacheco, Ezequiel Ruiz-Mateos, Félix Gutiérrez, Francesc Vidal, Anna Rull
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Dyslipidemia in HIV-infected patients is unique and pathophysiologically associated with host factors, HIV itself and the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). The use of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) provides additional data to conventional lipid measurements concerning the number of lipoprotein subclasses and particle sizes. METHODS: To investigate the ability of lipoprotein profile, we used a circulating metabolomic approach in a cohort of 103 ART-naive HIV-infected patients, who were initiating non-nucleoside analogue transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based ART, and we subsequently followed up these patients for 36 months...
April 9, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677618/altered-serum-levels-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-in-first-episode-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-and-chronic-medicated-schizophrenia
#5
Fei Ye, Qiongqiong Zhan, Wenhuan Xiao, Xiaowei Tang, Jin Li, Hui Dong, Weiwei Sha, Xiaobin Zhang
There is much evidence of a relationship between alterations in the brain's regional cellular energy metabolism and blood flow in schizophrenic. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a role in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric illnesses. So, we compared serum VEGF levels in drug-naïve first-episode psychotic (FEP) and chronically medicated schizophrenic to examine if a correlation existed between VEGF and psychopathological symptoms. The serum VEGF levels were assessed in 46 FEP patients, 47 chronic medicated patients and 50 healthy controls...
April 11, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677587/effects-of-chronic-exposure-to-cadmium-and-temperature-alone-or-combined-on-the-threespine-stickleback-gasterosteus-aculeatus-interest-of-digestive-enzymes-as-biomarkers
#6
Younes Mohamed Ismail Hani, Cyril Turies, Olivier Palluel, Laurence Delahaut, Véronique Gaillet, Anne Bado-Nilles, Jean-Marc Porcher, Alain Geffard, Odile Dedourge-Geffard
The development of predictive, sensitive and reliable biomarkers is of crucial importance for aquatic biomonitoring to assess the effects of chemical substances on aquatic organisms, especially when it comes to combined effects with other stressors (e.g. temperature). The first purpose of the present study was to evaluate the single and combined effects of 90 days of exposure to an environmental cadmium concentration (0.5 μg L-1 ) and two water temperatures (16 and 21 °C) on different parameters. These parameters are involved in (i) the antioxidant system (superoxide dismutase activity -SOD- and total glutathione levels -GSH-), (ii) the energy metabolism, i...
April 12, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677567/methods-for-assessing-mitochondrial-quality-control-mechanisms-and-cellular-consequences-in-cell-culture
#7
Matthew Redmann, Gloria A Benavides, Willayat Yousuf Wani, Taylor F Berryhill, Xiaosen Ouyang, Michelle S Johnson, Saranya Ravi, Kasturi Mitra, Stephen Barnes, Victor M Darley-Usmar, Jianhua Zhang
Mitochondrial quality is under surveillance by autophagy, the cell recycling process which degrades and removes damaged mitochondria. Inadequate autophagy results in deterioration in mitochondrial quality, bioenergetic dysfunction, and metabolic stress. Here we describe in an integrated work-flow to assess parameters of mitochondrial morphology, function, mtDNA and protein damage, metabolism and autophagy regulation to provide the framework for a practical assessment of mitochondrial quality. This protocol has been tested with cell cultures, is highly reproducible, and is adaptable to studies when cell numbers are limited, and thus will be of interest to researchers studying diverse physiological and pathological phenomena in which decreased mitochondrial quality is a contributory factor...
April 10, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677540/ameliorating-effect-of-berbamine-on-hepatic-key-enzymes-of-carbohydrate-metabolism-in-high-fat-diet-and-streptozotocin-induced-type-2-diabetic-rats
#8
Sankaranarayanan Chandrasekaran, Nishanthi Ramajayam, Pugalendi Pachaiappan
BACKGROUND: Aberrations in the activities of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism is well documented in diabetes mellitus. Previous studies have shown that active ingredients in the extracts of Berberis aristata exhibits diverse pharmacological activities in animal models. OBJECTIVE: The present study was undertaken to investigate whether berbamine (BBM), an alkaloid from the roots of Berberis aristata can ameliorate the altered activities of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in high fat diet (HFD)/streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats...
April 17, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677509/beyond-host-defense-emerging-functions-of-the-immune-system-in-regulating-complex-tissue-physiology
#9
REVIEW
Lucille C Rankin, David Artis
The essential roles played by the immune system in the discrimination between self- versus non/altered-self and its integral role in promoting host defense against invading microbes and tumors have been extensively studied for many years. In these contexts, significant advances have been made in defining the molecular and cellular networks that orchestrate cell-cell communication to mediate host defense and pathogen expulsion. Notably, recent studies indicate that in addition to these classical immune functions, cells of the innate and adaptive immune system also sense complex tissue- and environment-derived signals, including those from the nervous system and the diet...
April 19, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677474/unraveling-the-complex-interplay-between-t-cell-metabolism-and-function
#10
Ramon I Klein Geltink, Ryan L Kyle, Erika L Pearce
Metabolism drives function, on both an organismal and a cellular level. In T cell biology, metabolic remodeling is intrinsically linked to cellular development, activation, function, differentiation, and survival. After naive T cells are activated, increased demands for metabolic currency in the form of ATP, as well as biomass for cell growth, proliferation, and the production of effector molecules, are met by rewiring cellular metabolism. Consequently, pharmacological strategies are being developed to perturb or enhance selective metabolic processes that are skewed in immune-related pathologies...
April 26, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677473/signaling-and-function-of-interleukin-2-in-t-lymphocytes
#11
Sarah H Ross, Doreen A Cantrell
The discovery of interleukin-2 (IL-2) changed the molecular understanding of how the immune system is controlled. IL-2 is a pleiotropic cytokine, and dissecting the signaling pathways that allow IL-2 to control the differentiation and homeostasis of both pro- and anti-inflammatory T cells is fundamental to determining the molecular details of immune regulation. The IL-2 receptor couples to JAK tyrosine kinases and activates the STAT5 transcription factors. However, IL-2 does much more than control transcriptional programs; it is a key regulator of T cell metabolic programs...
April 26, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677470/complement-and-the-regulation-of-t-cell-responses
#12
Erin E West, Martin Kolev, Claudia Kemper
The complement system is an evolutionarily ancient key component of innate immunity required for the detection and removal of invading pathogens. It was discovered more than 100 years ago and was originally defined as a liver-derived, blood-circulating sentinel system that classically mediates the opsonization and lytic killing of dangerous microbes and the initiation of the general inflammatory reaction. More recently, complement has also emerged as a critical player in adaptive immunity via its ability to instruct both B and T cell responses...
April 26, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677363/the-effect-of-denatured-lysozyme-on-human-corneal-epithelial-cells
#13
David J McCanna, Sarah Oh, Junghee Seo, Chantal Coles-Brennan, Zohra Fadli, Lakshman N Subbaraman, Lyndon W Jones
Purpose: During contact lens wear, the amount of lysozyme deposited on contact lenses varies depending on the lens material. The binding of lysozyme to some contact lens materials may result in a conformational change that denatures the protein to an inactive form. This investigation evaluated the effect that denatured lysozyme has on human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) by measuring cell viability and the release of inflammatory cytokines. Methods: HCECs were exposed to lysozyme that was denatured to various activity levels...
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677351/retinal-oxygen-delivery-and-metabolism-in-healthy-and-sickle-cell-retinopathy-subjects
#14
Mahnaz Shahidi, Anthony E Felder, Ou Tan, Norman P Blair, David Huang
Purpose: Reduction in inner retinal oxygen delivery (DO2) can cause retinal hypoxia and impair inner retinal oxygen metabolism (MO2), leading to vision loss. The purpose of the current study was to establish measurements of DO2 and MO2 in healthy subjects and test the hypothesis that DO2 and MO2 are reduced in sickle cell retinopathy (SCR) subjects. Methods: Dual wavelength retinal oximetry and Doppler optical coherence tomography were performed in 12 healthy control and 12 SCR subjects...
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677309/vitamin-d-calcium-or-combined-supplementation-for-the-primary-prevention-of-fractures-in-community-dwelling-adults-us-preventive-services-task-force-recommendation-statement
#15
David C Grossman, Susan J Curry, Douglas K Owens, Michael J Barry, Aaron B Caughey, Karina W Davidson, Chyke A Doubeni, John W Epling, Alex R Kemper, Alex H Krist, Martha Kubik, Seth Landefeld, Carol M Mangione, Michael Silverstein, Melissa A Simon, Chien-Wen Tseng
Importance: Because of the aging population, osteoporotic fractures are an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Approximately 2 million osteoporotic fractures occurred in the United States in 2005, and annual incidence is projected to increase to more than 3 million fractures by 2025. Within 1 year of experiencing a hip fracture, many patients are unable to walk independently, more than half require assistance with activities of daily living, and 20% to 30% of patients will die...
April 17, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677222/understanding-the-impact-of-the-cofactor-swapping-of-isocitrate-dehydrogenase-over-the-growth-phenotype-of-escherichia-coli-on-acetate-by-using-constraint-based-modeling
#16
Erick Armingol, Eduardo Tobar, Ricardo Cabrera
It has been proposed that NADP+-specificity of isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) evolved as an adaptation of microorganisms to grow on acetate as the sole source of carbon and energy. In Escherichia coli, changing the cofactor specificity of ICDH from NADP+ to NAD+ (cofactor swapping) decreases the growth rate on acetate. However, the metabolic basis of this phenotype has not been analyzed. In this work, we used constraint-based modeling to investigate the effect of the cofactor swapping of ICDH in terms of energy production, response of alternative sources of NADPH, and partitioning of fluxes between ICDH and isocitrate lyase (ICL) -a crucial bifurcation when the bacterium grows on acetate-...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677205/anemia-in-tuberculosis-cases-and-household-controls-from-tanzania-contribution-of-disease-coinfections-and-the-role-of-hepcidin
#17
Jerry Hella, Colin I Cercamondi, Francis Mhimbira, Mohamed Sasamalo, Nicole Stoffel, Marcel Zwahlen, Thomas Bodmer, Sebastien Gagneux, Klaus Reither, Michael B Zimmermann, Lorenz Risch, Lukas Fenner
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) induces a systemic inflammatory state affecting iron homeostasis. Patients with TB often have additional comorbidities such as anemia which can result in poorer treat outcomes. We studied the contribution of anemia and the role of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin among TB patients and household contacts. METHODS: We analyzed serum samples from 102 TB cases and 98 controls without TB, matched by age/sex, for hepcidin, iron, and inflammation parameters...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677196/catechol-o-methyltransferase-moderates-effect-of-stress-mindset-on-affect-and-cognition
#18
Alia J Crum, Modupe Akinola, Bradley P Turnwald, Ted J Kaptchuk, Kathryn T Hall
There is evidence that altering stress mindset-the belief that stress is enhancing vs. debilitating-can change cognitive, affective and physiological responses to stress. However individual differences in responsiveness to stress mindset manipulations have not been explored. Given the previously established role of catecholamines in both placebo effects and stress, we hypothesized that genetic variation in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), an enzyme that metabolizes catecholamines, would moderate responses to an intervention intended to alter participants' mindsets about stress...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677194/combined-intervention-of-swimming-plus-metformin-ameliorates-the-insulin-resistance-and-impaired-lipid-metabolism-in-murine-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#19
Liping Huang, Pingping Yue, Xuefei Wu, Ting Yu, Yang Wang, Ji Zhou, Derun Kong, Keyang Chen
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has short- and long- term influence on pregnant women and fetus. Swimming, as an aerobic exercise, can effectively improve the blood glucose level in GDM, but the effect of mild swimming alone was not very substantial. Metformin, as an oral antidiabetic drug, has obvious hypoglycemic effect, and is economic also, but the long-term effect on pregnant women and fetus has not been completely clear. We hypothesize that combined intervention of mild swimming and low dose of metformin, may effectively reduce blood glucose, improve the pregnancy outcomes in GDM dams, but simultaneously avoiding the adverse effects caused by overdose of drug and impotence of mild swimming...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677189/progress-in-the-pharmacological-treatment-of-human-cystic-and-alveolar-echinococcosis-compounds-and-therapeutic-targets
#20
Mar Siles-Lucas, Adriano Casulli, Roberto Cirilli, David Carmena
Human cystic and alveolar echinococcosis are helmintic zoonotic diseases caused by infections with the larval stages of the cestode parasites Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis, respectively. Both diseases are progressive and chronic, and often fatal if left unattended for E. multilocularis. As a treatment approach, chemotherapy against these orphan and neglected diseases has been available for more than 40 years. However, drug options were limited to the benzimidazoles albendazole and mebendazole, the only chemical compounds currently licensed for treatment in humans...
April 20, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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