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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346935/dysbiosis-in-the-neonatal-period-role-of-cesarean-section
#1
Josef Neu
From epidemiological studies and studies done evaluating microbiomes in infants, there is a strong signal that the infants born by elective cesarean section (C-section) develop microbiota that differs from those babies born by vaginal delivery. Epidemiological studies show increased odds ratios for the development of immunological disorders such as type 1 diabetes, celiac disease, asthma, allergic diseases as well as metabolic diseases such as obesity in babies born by C-section. These are interesting associations, and if supported by additional studies that rigorously control for confounding factors, they will have major public health implications...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346931/compositional-analysis-and-metabolism-of-human-milk-oligosaccharides-in-infants
#2
Clemens Kunz, Silvia Rudloff
It is a great success that biotechnological means are available today to produce amounts of single human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) in a purity which allows performing metabolic and functional studies even in humans. As recent data indicate that there is a link between the Lewis blood group and the secretor status of an individual and certain inflammatory diseases, this review will also focus on the metabolic fate of secretor- and Lewis blood group-specific components. We conclude that there is no simple urinary or fecal excretion pattern of HMOs, although the pattern in urine often reflects the mother's secretor/nonsecretor status...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346928/diet-and-gut-microbiota-in-health-and-disease
#3
Ting-Chin David Shen
Gut microbiota plays an important role in host health maintenance and disease pathogenesis. The development of a stable and diverse gut microbiota is essential to various host physiologic functions such as immunoregulation, pathogen prevention, energy harvest, and metabolism. At the same time, a dysbiotic gut microbiota associated with disease is altered in structure and function, and often characterized by a decrease in species richness and proliferation of pathogenic bacterial taxa. As a shared substrate between the host and the gut microbiota, diet significantly impacts the health and disease states of the host both directly and through gut microbial metabolite production...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346926/microbiota-and-obesity
#4
Erika Isolauri
Obesity is globally the most prevalent nutritional disorder. Multifaceted therapeutic approaches are called for to halt the cascade from neonatal adiposity/high birth weight to childhood excessive weight gain/adult obesity with comorbidities. Recent experimental and clinical data provide one new target for interventions aiming to close this vicious circle: the microbiota. An aberrant gut microbiota, dysbiosis, induces immune and metabolic disturbances both locally and, consequent upon impaired gut barrier function, also systemic low-grade inflammation, which is causally linked to insulin resistance...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346924/early-life-antibiotic-exposure-gut-microbiota-development-and-predisposition-to-obesity
#5
Meghan B Azad, Shirin Moossavi, Arthur Owora, Shadi Sepehri
Antibiotics are often prescribed inappropriately to infants and young children, with potentially adverse effects on the developing gut microbiota and related metabolic processes. We review evidence from 17 epidemiologic studies suggesting that antibiotic exposure during critical periods of early development may influence weight gain and the development of obesity. Complementary research in both humans and rodents indicates that gut microbiota play a key role in this process, although further research is needed to confirm and characterize the causal mechanisms involved...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346920/microbial-composition-of-the-initial-colonization-of-newborns
#6
Samuli Rautava
Early-life interaction with indigenous intestinal microbes is a prerequisite for healthy immune and metabolic maturation. Human infants acquire their gut microbiota predominantly from the mother. A considerable inoculum of microbes is received by the neonate during vaginal delivery. Recent observations suggest that human gut colonization may be initiated prenatally by microbes in amniotic fluid, but the significance of this phenomenon remains unknown. After birth, neonatal gut colonization is guided by human milk factors, which selectively promote the growth of specific microbes, as well as by live microbes present in human milk...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346919/the-pregnancy-microbiome
#7
Hadar Neuman, Omry Koren
In recent years, microbiome research has revealed multiple essential roles of the microorganisms residing within the human body in host metabolism, immunity, and overall health. Numerous physiological and pathological states, including obesity and the metabolic syndrome, have been correlated with microbial changes, termed dysbiosis. Our microbiomes change in response to our environment, diet, weight, hormones, and other factors. It is, therefore, not surprising that there are also significant changes in the microbiome during pregnancy when dramatic weight gain and metabolic and immunological changes occur...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346913/selected-food-consumption-mediates-the-association-between-education-level-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-korean-adults
#8
Oh Yoen Kim, So-Young Kwak, Boeun Kim, Young-Sun Kim, Hye Young Kim, Min-Jeong Shin
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Low socioeconomic status (SES) is linked to higher incidence/mortality of cardiovascular disease, but emerging evidence inconsistently reported that education level, a proxy for SES, is related to cardiovascular risk and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Koreans. Furthermore, limited information is available on whether dietary components would mediate the relationship between education level and cardiovascular risk. We hypothesized that selected food consumption mediates the association between education level and MetS prevalence...
March 28, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346859/circulating-zbed3-levels-in-subjects-with-and-without-metabolic-syndrome
#9
Wenjing Hu, Bo Tian, Xiaoqiang Li, Ling Li, Lin Zhang, Hua Liu, Gangyi Yang, Yongsheng Liu, Xiaoyun Fan
BACKGROUND: Zinc-finger BED domain-containing 3 (Zbed3) is a member of the zinc-finger domain protein superfamily. Recent studies have shown that Zbed3 is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, no report has demonstrated the association of Zbed3 with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in humans. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between Zbed3 and MetS in a cross-sectional study. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of a Chinese population, including 167 non-MetS subjects and 144 newly diagnosed MetS (nMetS) patients...
March 27, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346858/circulating-soluble-il-6-receptor-concentration-and-visceral-adipocyte-size-are-related-to-insulin-resistance-in-taiwanese-adults-with-morbid-obesity
#10
Feng-Chih Kuo, Ya-Hsien Huang, Fu-Huang Lin, Yi-Jen Hung, Chang-Hsun Hsieh, Chieh-Hua Lu, Sheng-Chiang Su, Chia-Luen Huang, Chien-Hsing Lee, Nain-Feng Chu
BACKGROUND: Morbid obesity is related to chronic inflammation and many metabolic complications. Interleukin (IL)-6 plays a pivotal pathophysiological role in obesity, and IL-6 trans-signaling through the soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) has a major proinflammatory effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between sIL-6R, adipocyte size, and insulin resistance in morbidly obese individuals. METHODS: We measured concentrations of sIL-6R, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and lipid parameters and estimated homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) before the patients underwent bariatric surgery...
March 27, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346857/the-influence-of-epicardial-fat-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-on-heart-rate-recovery-in-metabolic-syndrome
#11
Kyoung Im Cho, Eun Ah Jo, Sang Hoon Cho, Bo Hyun Kim
BACKGROUND: Epicardial adipose tissues reflecting visceral fat accumulations of the heart are associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and can be a predictor of other cardiometabolic diseases. It can adversely influence autonomic nervous system (ANS) of heart. Heart rate recovery (HRR) is an easy method for measuring ANS dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to determine whether epicardial fat thickness (EFT) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are related to HRR in patients with MetS...
March 27, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346853/high-prevalence-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-and-correlation-of-serum-vitamin-d-with-cardiovascular-risk-in-patients-with-metabolic-syndrome
#12
Mohammad J Alkhatatbeh, Khalid K Abdul-Razzak, Lubna Q Khasawneh, Nesreen A Saadeh
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) identifies subjects with increased risk of cardiovascular disease when they have a combination of insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension, hyperglycemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and elevated triglycerides (TGs). Increasing evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency could be associated with diabetes and MetS. The aim is to assess if 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) is correlated with cardiovascular risk components of MetS. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involved 124 diabetic patients with MetS according to International Diabetes Federation definition...
March 27, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346848/cardiovascular-protective-effects-and-clinical-applications-of-resveratrol
#13
Sanghyun Cho, Kyung Namkoong, Minji Shin, Jueun Park, Eunyeong Yang, Jinsoo Ihm, Vu Thi Thu, Hyoung Kyu Kim, Jin Han
Resveratrol is a naturally occurring phenol that is generated by plant species following injury or attack by bacterial and fungal pathogens. This compound was first described as the French Paradox in 1992. Later in 2003, resveratrol was reported to activate sirtuins in yeast cells. Recent experimental studies have found that resveratrol offers a variety of benefits that include both anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory effects in addition to the ability to reverse obesity, attenuate hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, protect heart and endothelial function, and increase the life span...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346847/does-acute-normobaric-hypoxia-induce-anapyrexia-in-adult-humans
#14
Yongsuk Seo, Hayden D Gerhart, Jeremiah Vaughan, Jung-Hyun Kim, Ellen L Glickman
Seo, Yongsuk, Hayden D. Gerhart, Jeremiah Vaughan, Jung-Hyun Kim, and Ellen L. Glickman. Does acute normobaric hypoxia induce anapyrexia in adult humans? High Alt Med Biol 00:000-000, 2017.-Exposure to hypoxia is known to induce a reduction in core body temperature as a protective mechanism, which has been shown in both animals and humans. The purpose of this study was to test if acute exposure to normobaric hypoxia (NH) induces anapyrexia in adult humans in association with decreased peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2)...
March 27, 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346814/nicotinamide-riboside-a-form-of-vitamin-b3-and-nad-precursor-relieves-the-nociceptive-and-aversive-dimensions-of-paclitaxel-induced-peripheral-neuropathy-in-female-rats
#15
Marta V Hamity, Stephanie R White, Roxanne Y Walder, Mark S Schmidt, Charles Brenner, Donna L Hammond
Injury to sensory afferents may contribute to the peripheral neuropathies that develop after administration of chemotherapeutic agents. Manipulations that increase levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) can protect against neuronal injury. This study examined whether nicotinamide riboside (NR), a third form of vitamin B3 and precursor of NAD, diminishes tactile hypersensitivity and place escape-avoidance behaviors in a rodent model of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy. Female Sprague-Dawley rats received 3 intravenous injections of 6...
January 30, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346810/an-automated-multiplexed-hepatotoxicity-and-cyp-induction-assay-using-heparg-cells-in-2d-and-3d
#16
Lindsey M Ott, Karthik Ramachandran, Lisa Stehno-Bittel
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are concerns when developing safe and efficacious compounds. We have developed an automated multiplex assay to detect hepatotoxicity (i.e., ATP depletion) and metabolism (i.e., cytochrome P450 1A [CYP1A] and cytochrome P450 3A4 [CYP3A4] enzyme activity) in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures. HepaRG cells were cultured in our proprietary micromold plates and produced spheroids. HepaRG cells, in 2D or 3D, expressed liver-specific proteins throughout the culture period, although 3D cultures consistently exhibited higher albumin secretion and CYP1A/CYP3A4 enzyme activity than 2D cultures...
March 1, 2017: SLAS Discov
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346802/metabolome-profiling-of-partial-and-fully-reprogrammed-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#17
Soon-Jung Park, Sang A Lee, Nutan Prasain, Daekyeong Bae, Hyunsu Kang, Taewon Ha, Jong Soo Kim, Ki-Sung Hong, Charlie Mantel, Sung-Hwan Moon, Hal E Broxmeyer, Man Ryul Lee
Acquisition of proper metabolomic fate is required to convert somatic cells toward fully reprogrammed pluripotent stem cells. The majority of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are partially reprogrammed and have a transcriptome different from that of the pluripotent stem cells. The metabolomic profile and mitochondrial metabolic functions required to achieve full reprogramming of somatic cells to iPSC status have not yet been elucidated. Clarification of the metabolites underlying reprogramming mechanisms should enable further optimization to enhance the efficiency of obtaining fully reprogrammed iPSCs...
March 27, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346781/metabolism-of-ibuprofen-by-phragmites-australis-uptake-and-phytodegradation
#18
Yujie He, Alette A M Langenhoff, Nora B Sutton, Huub H M Rijnaarts, Marco H Blokland, Feiran Chen, Christian Huber, Peter Schröder
This study explores ibuprofen (IBP) uptake and transformation in the wetland plant species Phragmites australis and the underlying mechanisms. We grew P. australis in perlite under greenhouse conditions and treated plants with 60 µg/l of IBP. Roots and rhizomes (RR), stems and leaves (SL), and liquid samples were collected during 21 days of exposure. Results show that P. australis can take up, translocate, and degrade IBP. IBP was completely removed from the liquid medium after 21 days with a half-life of 2...
March 27, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346704/the-chloroplast-rna-helicase-ise2-is-required-for-multiple-chloroplast-rna-processing-steps-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#19
Krzysztof Bobik, Tyra N McCray, Ben Ernest, Jessica C Fernandez, Katharine A Howell, Thomas Lane, Margaret Staton, Tessa M Burch-Smith
INCREASED SIZE EXCLUSION LIMIT2 (ISE2) is a chloroplast-localized RNA helicase that is indispensable for proper plant development. Chloroplasts in leaves with reduced ISE2 expression have previously been shown to exhibit reduced thylakoid contents and increased stromal volume, indicative of defective development. It has recently been reported that ISE2 is required for the splicing of group II introns from chloroplast transcripts. The current study extends these findings, and presents evidence for ISE2's role in multiple aspects of chloroplast RNA processing beyond group II intron splicing...
March 27, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346700/vitamin-d-status-in-wild-toque-macaques-macaca-sinica-in-sri-lanka
#20
Michael L Power, Wolfgang P J Dittus
The vitamin D receptor is found on most cells, including active immune cells, implying that vitamin D has important biological functions beyond calcium metabolism and bone health. Although captive primates should be given a dietary source of vitamin D, under free-living conditions vitamin D is not a required nutrient, but rather is produced in skin when exposed to UV-B light. The circulating level of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) considered adequate for humans is a topic of current controversy. Levels of circulating 25-OH-D sufficient for good health for macaques and other Old World anthropoids are assumed to be the same as human values, but data from free-living animals are scant...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
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