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Nicola Petrocchi, Francesco Dentale, Paul Gilbert
OBJECTIVES: Several studies suggest that self-criticism and self-reassurance operate through different mechanisms and might interact with each other. This study examined the hypothesis that self-reassurance serves as a buffer between self-criticism and depressive symptoms in a way that self-esteem, which is rooted in a different motivational system, may not. DESIGN: We hypothesized that self-criticism would be correlated with high levels of depressive symptoms, but that this association would be weaker at higher levels of self-reassurance abilities...
June 15, 2018: Psychology and Psychotherapy
Abdallah Rothman, Adrian Coyle
A uniquely Islamic theoretical framework for an Islamic psychology has yet to be established. To do so requires that we understand how human beings are conceptualized within the cosmology that characterizes the Islamic tradition. This paper presents a model of the soul from within an Islamic paradigm, generated through a grounded theory analysis of interviews with 18 key informants with relevant academic or religious expertise. The model elaborates aspects of a mechanism for the development of the soul that constitutes a potential foundation for an Islamic theory of human psychology and has particular relevance for Islamic approaches to psychotherapy...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
Julia König, Regina Karl, Rita Rosner, Willi Butollo
Studies of psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) typically encompass short follow-up periods, leading to a dearth of information on the long-term course of symptoms after treatment. We summarize existing long-term follow-up studies and highlight the issues making such research difficult. In this context, we report on a 2-year follow-up on a randomized treatment study comparing dialogical exposure therapy and cognitive processing therapy for adults with PTSD after type I trauma. Many of the problems connected to long-term follow-up also pertained to this study...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
I Hanlon, C Hewitt, K Bell, A Phillips, A Mikocka-Walus
BACKGROUND: Online psychotherapy has been successfully used as supportive treatment in many chronic illnesses. However, there is a lack of evidence on its role in the management of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. AIMS: To examine whether online psychological interventions improve mental and physical outcomes in gastrointestinal diseases. METHODS: We searched CINAHL Plus, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Health Management Information Consortium, PsycINFO, British Nursing Index, Cochrane Library, a specialised register of the IBD/FBD Cochrane Group, MEDLINE (PubMed) WHO International Clinical Trial Registry, ClinicalTrials...
June 14, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Theodore T Bartholomew, Allison J Lockard
OBJECTIVE: Mixed methods can foster depth and breadth in psychological research. However, its use remains in development in psychotherapy research. Our purpose was to review the use of mixed methods in psychotherapy research. METHOD: Thirty-one studies were identified via the PRISMA systematic review method. Using Creswell & Plano Clark's typologies to identify design characteristics, we assessed each study for rigor and how each used mixed methods. RESULTS: Key features of mixed methods designs and these common patterns were identified: (a) integration of clients' perceptions via mixing; (b) understanding group psychotherapy; (c) integrating methods with cases and small samples; (d) analyzing clinical data as qualitative data; and (e) exploring cultural identities in psychotherapy through mixed methods...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Sanne J E Bruijniks, Gerdien Franx, Marcus J H Huibers
BACKGROUND: Although psychotherapy is an effective treatment for depression, a large number of patients still do not receive care according to the protocols that are used in clinical trials. Instead, patients often receive a modified version of the original intervention. It is not clear how and when treatment protocols are used or modified in the Dutch specialized mental health care and whether these changes lead to suboptimal adherence to treatment protocols. METHODS: In the context of an ongoing multicenter trial that investigates whether twice-weekly sessions of protocolized interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression lead to better treatment outcomes compared to once-weekly sessions, two focus groups using semi-structured interviews were organized...
June 14, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Bernhard A Sabel, Jiaqi Wang, Lizbeth Cárdenas-Morales, Muneeb Faiq, Christine Heim
The loss of vision after damage to the retina, optic nerve, or brain has often grave consequences in everyday life such as problems with recognizing faces, reading, or mobility. Because vision loss is considered to be irreversible and often progressive, patients experience continuous mental stress due to worries, anxiety, or fear with secondary consequences such as depression and social isolation. While prolonged mental stress is clearly a consequence of vision loss, it may also aggravate the situation. In fact, continuous stress and elevated cortisol levels negatively impact the eye and brain due to autonomous nervous system (sympathetic) imbalance and vascular dysregulation; hence stress may also be one of the major causes of visual system diseases such as glaucoma and optic neuropathy...
June 2018: EPMA Journal
Simone Salzer, Annette Stefini, Klaus-Thomas Kronmüller, Eric Leibing, Falk Leichsenring, Peter Henningsen, Hamid Peseschkian, Günter Reich, Rita Rosner, Uwe Ruhl, Yvonne Schopf, Christiane Steinert, Eva Vonderlin, Regina Steil
BACKGROUND: Although social anxiety disorder (SAD) has an early onset and is frequently found in adolescence, evidence for psychotherapeutic treatments of SAD in adolescents is rather scarce. Within the Social Phobia Psychotherapy Research Network (SOPHO-NET), we examined the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral (CBT) and psychodynamic therapy (PDT) compared to a waiting list (WL) in these patients. METHODS: In a multicenter randomized controlled superiority trial, 107 patients, aged 14-20 years, were randomized to CBT (n = 34), PDT (n = 34), or WL (n = 39)...
June 12, 2018: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
Wendy Scott, Alexa McArthur, Catalin Tufanaru
The objective of this review is to identify, evaluate and synthesize relevant research on the effectiveness of psychotherapies that engage Voice Hearers with their voices in order to change the person's quality of life, recovery, coping and distress. More specifically, the objective is to ascertain the effectiveness of this type of intervention with or without any other co-intervention, either pharmacological or non-pharmacological, compared to treatment as usual, for people from a Western or European culture aged 18-65 years who hear voices, regardless of ethnicity...
June 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Tina Gupta, Nicholas J Kelley, Andrea Pelletier-Baldelli, Vijay A Mittal
Schizophrenia is a chronic, debilitating condition that affects approximately 1% of the population. Individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia typically exhibit positive (e.g., hallucinations) and negative symptoms (e.g., anhedonia) and impairments in cognitive function. Given the limitations of antipsychotic medication and psychotherapy in fully treating psychosis symptomatology, there has been increasing interest in other interventions such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). tDCS is a non-invasive neuromodulation technique, that is safe, cost-effective, and widely accessible...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Shervin Assari, Maryam Moghani Lankarani
Background. Poor self-esteem is a core element of depression. According to recent research, some racial groups may vary in the magnitude of the link between depression and poor self-esteem. Using a national sample, we compared Black and White older Americans for the effect of baseline depressive symptoms on decline in self-esteem over time. Methods. This longitudinal study used data from the Religion, Aging, and Health Survey, 2001⁻2004. The study followed 1493 older adults (734 Black and 759 White) 65 years or older for three years...
June 11, 2018: Brain Sciences
Miriam Hadj-Moussa, Dana A Ohl, William M Kuzon
BACKGROUND: Gender dysphoria is the experience of marked distress due to incongruence between genetically determined gender and experienced gender. Treatment of gender dysphoria should be individualized and multidisciplinary, involving a combination of psychotherapy, social gender transition, cross-sex hormone therapy, gender-affirming surgery, and/or ancillary procedures and services. The goal of all treatment modalities is to alleviate distress and affirm the patient's experienced gender identity...
June 8, 2018: Sexual Medicine Reviews
Inês Rothes, Margarida Henriques
Clinical work with suicidal people is a demanding area. Little is known about health professionals’ practices when faced with suicidal patients. The aims of this study were to: (1) describe the practices most likely to be adopted by professionals facing a suicidal patient and (2) analyze the differences according to professional characteristics (group, specific training on suicide, and experience with suicidal patients). A self-report questionnaire that was developed for this study was filled out by 239 participants...
June 8, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Dana Tzur Bitan, Aryeh Lazar, Ben Siton
Despite accumulating theoretical and empirical knowledge in the field of process research in psychotherapy, not much is known about individuals' expectations of the mechanisms that produce change in psychotherapy. In this article we present the Expectations of Active Processes in Psychotherapy Scale (EAPPS), aimed to assess and quantify psychotherapy process expectations derived from current process constructs. Two studies with a total of 381 participants were conducted in order to assess the scale factor structure, reliability, and validity...
May 21, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Chia-Ying Chou, Roberto La Marca, Andrew Steptoe, Chris R Brewin
Voluntary recall of trauma is a key element in exposure-based psychotherapies and can trigger spontaneous dissociative responses such as flashbacks, depersonalisation, and derealisation. In order to examine the associations between cardiovascular and psychological responses to voluntary recollection of trauma, individuals with PTSD recalled a traumatic memory. Heart rate and heart rate variability were recorded continuously and the episodes when different forms of dissociation were experienced during the recall were identified...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Yann Auxéméry
BACKGROUND: People who witness a horrific event are at risk of suffering from acute psychological disorders, potentially leading to chronic post-traumatic symptoms and severe medico-psycho-social complications. Traumatised individuals suffer from psychological damage that is initially indescribable: they are often unable to ask for care in the immediate aftermath of an event. Afterwards, traumatic events and their post-traumatic consequences are still often hidden or minimised by patients for reasons linked to the disorder itself (inexpressibility, shame, depressive thoughts, fear of stigmatisation, etc...
June 7, 2018: L'Encéphale
Saira Sanjida, Steven M McPhail, Joanne Shaw, Jeremy Couper, David Kissane, Melanie A Price, Monika Janda
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this meta-analysis was to estimate the overall effect size (ES) of psychological interventions on anxiety in patients with cancer; and extract sample and intervention characteristics that influence effectiveness. METHODS: PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, Embase, Medline and CINAHL were searched using Medical Subject Heading keywords- 'cancer' AND 'anxiety' AND 'psychological intervention' AND 'counselling' AND 'psycho*' AND 'psychotherapy' AND 'psychosocial' AND 'therapy' between January 1993- June 2017...
June 9, 2018: Psycho-oncology
Angelo Barbato, Barbara D'Avanzo, Alberto Parabiaghi
BACKGROUND: Couple therapy for depression has the twofold aim of modifying negative interaction patterns and increasing mutually supportive aspects of intimate relationships, changing the interpersonal context of depression. Couple therapy is included in several guidelines among the suggested treatments for depression. OBJECTIVES: 1. The main objective was to examine the effects of couple therapy compared to individual psychotherapy for depression.2. Secondary objectives were to examine the effects of couple therapy compared to drug therapy and no/minimal treatment for depression...
June 8, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Shannon Myers Virtue, Sharon L Manne, Kevin Criswell, David Kissane, Carolyn J Heckman, David Rotter
OBJECTIVE: Emotional awareness is the ability to recognize, describe, and attend to emotions. A known correlate is emotional processing, the ability to orient to and use inner experiences for information. The goal was to examine emotional awareness during therapy among gynecologic cancer patients, identify baseline predictors, and explore the relationship between in-session emotional awareness and processing. METHOD: Psychotherapy and baseline data from a randomized controlled trial comparing a supportive counseling (SC) intervention and a cognitive-behavioral coping and communication (CCI) intervention were used...
June 8, 2018: Palliative & Supportive Care
Rodney D Vanderploeg, Douglas B Cooper, Glenn Curtiss, Jan E Kennedy, David F Tate, Amy O Bowles
OBJECTIVE: Determine factors that affect responsiveness to cognitive rehabilitation (CR) interventions in service members (SMs) who sustained mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). METHOD: 126 SMs with a history of mTBI 3 to 24 months postinjury participated in a randomized clinical trial of one of four, 6-week treatment arms: (a) psychoeducation, (b) computer-based CR, (c) therapist-directed manualized CR, and (d) therapist-directed CR integrated with cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy...
May 2018: Rehabilitation Psychology
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