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Weronika Bartkowska, Włodzimierz Samborski, Ewa Mojs
Background: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a disorder characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain accompanied by fatigue and cognitive difficulties. A person with FM suffers from pain diffused throughout the body, and accompanied by the feeling of exhaustion and concentration problems, which often impede even simple tasks. Many studies have shown that people with FM suffer from cognitive disorders, including memory disorders. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between fibromyalgia and cognitive functioning (direct memory, arbitrary attention, learning processes), emotional functioning (anxiety and depression), personality traits, and interpersonal relationships...
September 21, 2018: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
Friederike Raeder, Christian J Merz, Martin Tegenthoff, Oliver T Wolf, Jürgen Margraf, Armin Zlomuzica
Cortisol administration prior to treatment can promote the efficacy of exposure-based treatments in specific phobia: cortisol has been proposed to reduce fear retrieval at the beginning of exposure and to enhance the acquisition and consolidation of corrective information learned during exposure. Whether cortisol exerts a beneficial therapeutic effect when given after exposure, e.g., by targeting the consolidation of new corrective information, has not been addressed so far to date. Here, we examined whether post-exposure cortisol administration promotes fear reduction and reduces return of fear following contextual change in specific phobia...
September 13, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Katja Wingenfeld, Christian Otte
The steroid hormone cortisol is released in response to stress and exerts its effects in the brain via two different receptors: the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). This review - dedicated to Dirk Hellhammer - focusses on the role of MR on cognitive and emotional function in healthy individuals and in stress-associated disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD) or borderline personality disorder (BPD). Animal data and studies from healthy individuals converge such that MR play an important role in the appraisal of new situations and the following response selection...
September 15, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Sarah Meshberg-Cohen, Anne C Black, Jason C DeViva, Ismene L Petrakis, Marc I Rosen
INTRODUCTION: Opioid use disorder (OUD) rates are high among veterans. PTSD is also prevalent among veterans; those with comorbidity have worse outcomes than those without comorbidity. This study assessed buprenorphine retention rates in veterans initiating OUD treatment, comparing veterans without PTSD to veterans with PTSD who were receiving versus not receiving concurrent trauma treatment. METHODS: This retrospective chart review examined consecutive referrals to buprenorphine maintenance (N = 140)...
September 12, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Lauren E Poulin, Melissa L Button, Henny A Westra, Michael J Constantino, Martin M Antony
Client motivation to change is often considered a key factor in psychotherapy. To date, research on this client construct has largely relied on self-report, which is prone to response bias and ceiling effects. Moreover, self-reported motivation has been inconsistently related to treatment outcome. Early observed client in-session language may be a more valid measure of initial motivation and thus a promising predictor of outcome. The predictive ability of motivational factors has been examined in addiction treatment but has been limited in other populations...
September 21, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Bonnie Moradi, Stephanie L Budge
The clinical need for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ+) affirmative psychotherapies has been widely recognized; however, empirical research on the outcomes of such psychotherapies is limited. Moreover, key questions about whom such psychotherapies are for and what they comprise require critical consideration. We begin by offering definitions to answer these questions and delineate four key themes of LGBQ+ affirmative psychotherapies. We conceptualize LGBQ+ affirmative psychotherapies not as sexual orientation group-specific, but rather as considerations and practices that can be applied with all clients...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Stephanie L Budge, Bonnie Moradi
This study reviews the research evidence on the effectiveness of attending to clients' gender identity and gender as a system of power in psychotherapy. We begin with definitions and measures of gender identity and provide clinical examples. Next, we summarize our search for studies to conduct two meta-analyses on: (a) randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of psychotherapy conducted with transgender clients, and (b) RCTs of the outcomes of psychotherapies that attend explicitly to gender as a system of power compared with another bona-fide psychotherapy...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Kenneth N Levy, Yogev Kivity, Benjamin N Johnson, Caroline V Gooch
Bowlby's attachment theory describes characteristic patterns of relating to close others and has important implications for psychotherapy. Attachment patterns have been characterized as secure (healthy interdependence with others), anxious (overdependence on others), and avoidant (difficulty relying on others). We update a previous meta-analysis to determine the association of patient attachment with psychotherapy outcome. Meta-analysis of 36 studies (3,158 patients) suggested that patients with secure attachment pretreatment show better psychotherapy outcome than insecurely attached patients...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Megan E Block, Jenna L Sitenga, Michael Lehrer, Peter T Silberstein
Gardner-Diamond syndrome (GDS) is a rare psychodermatological condition characterized by the formation of spontaneous, painful skin lesions that develop into ecchymosis following episodes of severe physiological or psychological stress. The majority of GDS cases occur in young adult females, and although the etiology of this rare disorder is unknown, there appears to be a psychological component correlated with the coexistence of previous psychiatric diagnoses. Due to the rare nature of this disorder, there exist few guidelines for prompt clinical diagnosis and optimal treatment...
September 20, 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
Chao Wu, Chuan Shi, Wentian Dong, Bing Li, Rengang Wu
AIMS: This cross-sectional study aimed to test the path relations between alexithymia, ego-dystonicity, anxiety, depression and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and healthy individuals. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients with OCD (mean age 35.5 years) and 54 healthy participants (mean age 33.5 years) completed an assessment via a structured clinical interview. All of them completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Vancouver Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (VOCI), the Self-Consistency and Congruence Scale (SCCS), the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS)...
September 20, 2018: Psychopathology
Jone Bjornestad, Marius Veseth, Larry Davidson, Inge Joa, Jan Olav Johannessen, Tor Ketil Larsen, Ingrid Melle, Wenche Ten Velden Hegelstad
Background: Despite the evidence of the importance of including service users' views on psychotherapy after psychosis, there is a paucity of research investigating impact on full recovery. Objectives: To explore what fully recovered service users found to be the working ingredients of psychotherapy in the recovery process after psychosis. Materials and Methods: The study was designed as a phenomenological investigation with thematic analysis as the practical tool for analysis. Twenty fully recovered service users were interviewed...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Mario Miniati, Antonio Callari, Alessandra Maglio, Simona Calugi
Background: Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) is a time-limited and affect-, life-event-, and present-focused psychotherapy originally conceptualized for unipolar depression, and then adapted to the treatment of other disorders, including eating disorders (EDs). The purpose of this paper is to conduct a systematic review of studies on IPT for EDs. Methods: The authors performed literature searches, study selection, method, and quality evaluation independently. Data were summarized using a narrative approach...
2018: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Sailesh Lodha, Liza Das, Ghanshyam das Ramchandani, Anil Bhansali
Wolfram syndrome is a rare monogenic cause of juvenile onset diabetes mellitus. It is a non-autoimmune, insulin-deficient state with concurrent or consequent optic atrophy. Here we depict the case of a 16-year-old young girl afflicted with this condition, who presented with parasuicide on a background of depressive disorder. The aetiology of this presentation was attributable to multiple physical ailments and a genetic predisposition conferred by the disease-causing mutation for which she tested positive. She was managed with intensive insulin therapy and specific psychotherapy...
September 18, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Rebecca Grist, Abigail Croker, Megan Denne, Paul Stallard
Depression and anxiety are common during adolescence. Whilst effective interventions are available treatment services are limited resulting in many adolescents being unable to access effective help. Delivering mental health interventions via technology, such as computers or the internet, offers one potential way to increase access to psychological treatment. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to update previous work and investigate the current evidence for the effect of technology delivered interventions for children and adolescents (aged up to 18 years) with depression and anxiety...
September 18, 2018: Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review
Alexandra Carter, Alyssa Denton, Lady D Ladino, Islam Hassan, Tyson Sawchuk, Thomas Snyder, Mirna Vrbancic, Markus Reuber, Richard Huntsman, Jose F Tellez-Zenteno
PURPOSE: Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are one of the most common differential diagnoses of epilepsy. Our objective is to describe current medical care in Canada and identify patterns of practice and service gaps. METHODS: In 2015, a 36-question survey was sent via email to the 131 members of the Canadian League Against Epilepsy. The questions were designed after literature review and discussion with the ILAE PNES Task Force. Questions were separated into 5 sections: 1) the role of the respondent and their exposure to PNES, 2) diagnostic methods, 3) management of PNES, 4) etiological factors, and 5) problems accessing health care...
September 2, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Owrang Eilami, Moslem Moslemirad, Ebrahim Naimi, Amin Babuei, Karim Rezaei
The religious aspect is the most important aspect of the human nature that helps the human achieve the meaning and purpose of life as well as playing a very important role in the health of patients. This study aimed to determine the effect of religious psychotherapy emphasizing the importance of prayers on mental health and pain in cancer patients. This study is a clinical trial that was conducted in 2017 in Yasuj, Iran. According to the purpose of the study, the patients were randomly assigned into two experimental and control groups...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
M Tracie Shea, Jennifer Lambert, Madhavi K Reddy, Candice Presseau, Elizabeth Sevin, Robert L Stout
Background: Problems with anger and aggression are highly prevalent in Veterans of multiple war eras, including the most recent conflicts in Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom; OEF) and Iraq (Operation Iraqi Freedom; OIF). The consequences of these problems, such as increased rates of divorce, domestic violence, occupational instability, arrests and incarceration, are often devastating. Despite the seriousness of these problems, relatively little is known about effective treatments for anger in Veterans...
December 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
Sabrina Mörkl, Jolana Wagner-Skacel, Theresa Lahousen, Sonja Lackner, Sandra Johanna Holasek, Susanne Astrid Bengesser, Annamaria Painold, Anna Katharina Holl, Eva Reininghaus
INTRODUCTION: Individuals suffering from psychiatric disorders experience high levels of illness burden and a significantly reduced quality of life. Despite targeted psychopharmacological strategies and complementary psychotherapeutic procedures only moderate effects are obtained, and the risk of relapse is high in many patients. Worldwide, psychiatric diseases such as depression are continuously increasing, challenging the personal life of the affected as well as their families, but also whole societies by increasing disability, early retirement and hospitalization...
September 17, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
Marvin R Goldfried
Although the field of psychotherapy has been in existence for well over a century, it nonetheless continues to be preparadigmatic, lacking a consensus or scientific core. Instead, it is characterized by a large and increasing number of different schools of thought. In addition to the varying ways in which psychotherapy has been conceptualized, there also exists a long-standing gap between psychotherapy research and how it is conducted in actual clinical practice. Finally, there also exists a tendency to place great emphasis on what is new, often rediscovering or reinventing past contributions...
September 17, 2018: American Psychologist
Laura E Captari, Joshua N Hook, William Hoyt, Don E Davis, Stacey E McElroy-Heltzel, Everett L Worthington
Some religious or spiritual (R/S) clients seek psychotherapy that integrates R/S values, while others may be reticent to disclose R/S-related aspects of struggles in a presumably secular setting. We meta-analyzed 97 outcome studies (N = 7,181) examining the efficacy of tailoring treatment to patients' R/S beliefs and values. We compared the effectiveness of R/S-tailored psychotherapy with no-treatment controls, alternate secular treatments, and additive secular treatments. R/S-adapted psychotherapy resulted in greater improvement in clients' psychological (g = 0...
September 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
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