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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922496/metabolic-myopathies
#1
Mark A Tarnopolsky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Metabolic myopathies are genetic disorders that impair intermediary metabolism in skeletal muscle. Impairments in glycolysis/glycogenolysis (glycogen-storage disease), fatty acid transport and oxidation (fatty acid oxidation defects), and the mitochondrial respiratory chain (mitochondrial myopathies) represent the majority of known defects. The purpose of this review is to develop a diagnostic and treatment algorithm for the metabolic myopathies. RECENT FINDINGS: The metabolic myopathies can present in the neonatal and infant period as part of more systemic involvement with hypotonia, hypoglycemia, and encephalopathy; however, most cases present in childhood or in adulthood with exercise intolerance (often with rhabdomyolysis) and weakness...
December 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922227/increasing-knowledge-and-confidence-in-behavioral-change-a-pilot-study
#2
Elizabeth P Frates, Ryan C Xiao, Kate Simeon, Tracie McCargo, Michelle Guo, Theodore A Stern
Objective: To assess whether and how effectively an interactive presentation about lifestyle medicine could impact the knowledge and attitudes of medical students to prepare them for managing chronic conditions in their patients. Chronic diseases are increasingly prevalent and problematic. Although chronic disease management involves lifestyle modification, few physicians are adequately trained in effective motivational interventions. Methods: We surveyed first- and second-year Harvard Medical School students in October 2015 before and after a presentation on lifestyle medicine and quantified changes in their knowledge, attitudes/confidence, and skills...
November 24, 2016: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922026/percutaneous-gastrostomy-device-for-the-treatment-of-class-ii-and-class-iii-obesity-results-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Christopher C Thompson, Barham K Abu Dayyeh, Robert Kushner, Shelby Sullivan, Alan B Schorr, Anastassia Amaro, Caroline M Apovian, Terrence Fullum, Amir Zarrinpar, Michael D Jensen, Adam C Stein, Steven Edmundowicz, Michel Kahaleh, Marvin Ryou, J Matthew Bohning, Gregory Ginsberg, Christopher Huang, Daniel D Tran, Joseph P Glaser, John A Martin, David L Jaffe, Francis A Farraye, Samuel B Ho, Nitin Kumar, Donna Harakal, Meredith Young, Catherine E Thomas, Alpana P Shukla, Michele B Ryan, Miki Haas, Heidi Goldsmith, Jennifer McCrea, Louis J Aronne
OBJECTIVES: The AspireAssist System (AspireAssist) is an endoscopic weight loss device that is comprised of an endoscopically placed percutaneous gastrostomy tube and an external device to facilitate drainage of about 30% of the calories consumed in a meal, in conjunction with lifestyle (diet and exercise) counseling. METHODS: In this 52-week clinical trial, 207 participants with a body-mass index (BMI) of 35.0-55.0 kg/m(2) were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to treatment with AspireAssist plus Lifestyle Counseling (n=137; mean BMI was 42...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921046/weight-management-in-primary-care
#4
REVIEW
Susanne Maurer
BACKGROUND: Obesity is one of the greatest public health challenges worldwide. It is not only a medical but also a philosophical, ecological, economic, sociocultural, and psychological problem as well as a severe consequence of our modern value definition to 'receive more and more'. Therefore, physicians are not able to treat obesity broadly and should not be used as tools to achieve certain weight goals. METHODS: This article presents an outline of conservative obesity therapy...
October 2016: Visceral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919245/one-day-workshop-based-training-improves-physical-activity-prescription-knowledge-in-latin-american-physicians-a-pre-test-post-test-study
#5
Maria C Arciniegas Calle, Felipe Lobelo, Mario A Jiménez, Diana C Páez, Sebastian Cortés, Andrés de Lima, John Duperly
BACKGROUND: The physical inactivity pandemic and related non-communicable diseases have made it imperative for medical doctors (MDs) to effectively provide lifestyle counseling as part of prevention and treatment plans for patients. A one-day certification workshop was designed to improve MDs PA prescription knowledge, as part of the Exercise is Medicine® (EIM®) global health initiative. The objective was to determine knowledge gain of MDs participating in a standardized, one-day PA prescription workshop performed throughout Latin America (LA)...
December 5, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917414/receptivity-and-preferences-for-lifestyle-programs-to-reduce-cancer-risk-among-lung-cancer-family-members
#6
Lisa A Howell, Tabetha A Brockman, Pamela S Sinicrope, Christi A Patten, Paul A Decker, Allan Busta, Shawn Stoddard, Sheila R McNallan, Ping Yang
BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors and genetic information has been found to contribute to the occurrence of lung cancer. This study assessed receptivity to participating in lifestyle programs to reduce cancer risk among unaffected lung cancer family members. We also explored demographic, medical, and psychosocial correlates of willingness to participate in lifestyle programs. METHODS: Family members who are part of a lung Cancer Family Registry were asked to fill out a survey assessing their receptivity to cancer risk reduction programs including preferences for an individual or family-based program...
September 2016: Adv Cancer Prev
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916647/ppars-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#7
REVIEW
Kim H H Liss, Brian N Finck
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a range of liver pathology ranging from simple steatosis to varying degrees of inflammation, hepatocyte injury and fibrosis. Without intervention it can progress to end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. Given its close association with obesity, the prevalence of NAFLD has increased dramatically worldwide. Currently, there are no FDA-approved medications for the treatment of NAFLD and although lifestyle modifications with appropriate diet and exercise have been shown to be beneficial, this has been difficult to achieve and sustain for the majority of patients...
December 1, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916427/tea-cocoa-coffee-and-affective-disorders-vicious-or-virtuous-cycle
#8
REVIEW
Tatiana García-Blanco, Alberto Dávalos, Francesco Visioli
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of psychiatric disorders is increasing worldwide, which underscores the importance of increasing research in this field, in terms of better detection, prevention based on improvement of lifestyle and diet, and effectiveness of treatment. Increasing evidence suggest that diet and exercise can affect proper neuronal development and physiology and protect the brain from neurological illnesses or injuries. Of note, cocoa, tea, and coffee are being actively investigated because they are rich in (poly)phenolic compounds that can modulate mental health, namely brain plasticity, behavior, mood, depression, and cognition...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913809/a-minimal-contact-diet-and-physical-activity-intervention-for-white-collar-workers
#9
Kimberlee A Gretebeck, Tatiana Bailey, Randall J Gretebeck
Minimal contact lifestyle interventions with multiple components coupled with health screening have the potential to improve worker health. The purpose of this study was to test a minimal contact multiple component lifestyle diet and exercise intervention. The multiple components that were included in this project included a worksite health screening, brief counseling session, emailed newsletter, and a pedometer. In response to the intervention, participants reported an increase in green salad, fruit, and vegetable consumption as well as an increase in self-efficacy for consuming three servings of fruits and vegetables a day...
December 2, 2016: Workplace Health & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913448/targeting-inflammation-in-cancer-prevention-and-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Jelena Todoric, Laura Antonucci, Michael Karin
Inflammation is associated with the development and malignant progression of most cancers. As most of the cell types involved in cancer-associated inflammation are genetically stable and thus are not subjected to rapid emergence of drug resistance, the targeting of inflammation represents an attractive strategy both for cancer prevention and for cancer therapy. Tumor-extrinsic inflammation is caused by many factors, including bacterial and viral infections, autoimmune diseases, obesity, tobacco smoking, asbestos exposure, and excessive alcohol consumption, all of which increase cancer risk and stimulate malignant progression...
December 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911292/physical-exercise-moderates-the%C3%A2-relationship-of-apolipoprotein-e-apoe-%C3%A2-genotype-and-dementia-risk-a%C3%A2-population-based-study
#11
Barbara Fenesi, Hanna Fang, Ana Kovacevic, Mark Oremus, Parminder Raina, Jennifer J Heisz
Genetics and lifestyle independently determine dementia risk, but the interaction is unclear. We assessed the interactive relationship of apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype and physical exercise on dementia risk over a 5-year period in 1,646 older adults from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging who were dementia-free at baseline. Physical exercise moderated the relationship between genotype and dementia (p < 0.01). Specifically, for APOE ɛ4 non-carriers, the odds of developing dementia were higher in non-exercisers than exercisers (OR = 1...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909546/reducing-the-risk-of-breast-cancer-recurrence-an-evaluation-of-the-effects-and-mechanisms-of-diet-and-exercise
#12
REVIEW
Christina M Dieli-Conwright, Kyuwan Lee, Jacqueline L Kiwata
With recent medical advances in diagnosis and treatment, the increasing numbers of long-term survivors of breast cancer is considerable and has resulted in the expansion of scientific research to include examination of lifestyle modifications as means of prevention of recurrence, new breast cancer events, and mortality. The objective of this report is to review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) including diet and/or exercise interventions on breast cancer recurrence in women with a history of breast cancer as well as pertinent recent epidemiologic evidence...
2016: Current Breast Cancer Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908782/adaptive-responses-of-neuronal-mitochondria-to-bioenergetic-challenges-roles-in-neuroplasticity-and-disease-resistance
#13
REVIEW
Sophia M Raefsky, Mark P Mattson
An important concept in neurobiology is "neurons that fire together, wire together" which means that the formation and maintenance of synapses is promoted by activation of those synapses. Very similar to the effects of the stress of exercise on muscle cells, emerging findings suggest that neurons respond to activity by activating signaling pathways (e.g., Ca(2+), CREB, PGC-1α, NF-κB) that stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis and cellular stress resistance. These pathways are also activated by aerobic exercise and food deprivation, two bioenergetic challenges of fundamental importance in the evolution of the brains of all mammals, including humans...
November 29, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908565/determinants-of-hyperhomocysteinemia-in-healthy-and-hypertensive-subjects-a-population-based-study-and-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Liyuan Han, Yanfen Liu, Changyi Wang, Linlin Tang, Xiaoqi Feng, Thomas Astell-Burt, Qi Wen, Donghui Duan, Nanjia Lu, Guodong Xu, Kaiyue Wang, Lu Zhang, Kaibo Gu, Sihan Chen, Jianping Ma, Tao Zhang, Dingyun You, Shiwei Duan
AIMS: Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is known to increase the risk of many diseases. Factors influencing HHcy in healthy and hypertensive subjects remain under-researched. METHODS: A large population-based study was conducted in 60 communities from Shenzhen, China. Responses to standardized questions on lifestyle factors and blood samples were collected from all participants after a 12-h overnight fast. Multiple linear and multivariate logistic regressions were used to explore risk factors for HHcy...
November 19, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906996/reach-the-person-behind-the-dementia-physical-therapists-reflections-and-strategies-when-composing-physical-training
#15
Anncristine Fjellman-Wiklund, Ellinor Nordin, Dawn A Skelton, Lillemor Lundin-Olsson
Dementia is a disease characterized by cognitive impairment and physical decline that worsens over time. Exercise is one lifestyle factor that has been identified as a potential means of reducing or delaying progression of the symptoms of dementia, maximizing function and independence. The purpose of this study was to explore physical therapists' (PTs) experiences and reflections on facilitating high-intensity functional exercise with older people living with dementia, in residential care home settings. The study used a qualitative design based on interviews, individually or in small groups, with seven PTs engaged as leaders in the training of older people with dementia...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905293/long-term-exercise-in-mice-has-sex-dependent-benefits-on-body-composition-and-metabolism-during-aging
#16
Rachel C McMullan, Scott A Kelly, Kunjie Hua, Brian K Buckley, James E Faber, Fernando Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Daniel Pomp
Aging is associated with declining exercise and unhealthy changes in body composition. Exercise ameliorates certain adverse age-related physiological changes and protects against many chronic diseases. Despite these benefits, willingness to exercise and physiological responses to exercise vary widely, and long-term exercise and its benefits are difficult and costly to measure in humans. Furthermore, physiological effects of aging in humans are confounded with changes in lifestyle and environment. We used C57BL/6J mice to examine long-term patterns of exercise during aging and its physiological effects in a well-controlled environment...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903842/a-comprehensive-lifestyle-randomized-clinical-trial-design-and-initial-patient-experience
#17
Banu Arun, Taylor Austin, Gildy V Babiera, Karen Basen-Engquist, Cindy L Carmack, Alejandro Chaoul, Lorenzo Cohen, Lisa Connelly, Robin Haddad, Carol Harrison, Yisheng Li, Smitha Mallaiah, Raghuram Nagarathna, Patricia A Parker, George H Perkins, James M Reuben, Ya-Chen Tina Shih, Amy Spelman, Anil Sood, Peiying Yang, Sai-Ching J Yeung
BACKGROUND: Although epidemiological research demonstrates that there is an association between lifestyle factors and risk of breast cancer recurrence, progression of disease, and mortality, no comprehensive lifestyle change clinical trials have been conducted to determine if changing multiple risk factors leads to changes in biobehavioral processes and clinical outcomes in women with breast cancer. This article describes the design, feasibility, adherence to the intervention and data collection, and patient experience of a comprehensive lifestyle change clinical trial (CompLife)...
November 30, 2016: Integrative Cancer Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900549/understanding-factors-influencing-physical-activity-and-exercise-in-lung-cancer-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Catherine L Granger, Bronwen Connolly, Linda Denehy, Nicholas Hart, Phillip Antippa, Kuan-Yin Lin, Selina M Parry
PURPOSE: Despite evidence and clinical practice guidelines supporting physical activity (PA) for people with lung cancer, this evidence has not translated into clinical practice. This review aims to identify, evaluate and synthesise studies examining the barriers and enablers for patients with lung cancer to participate in PA from the perspective of patients, carers and health care providers (HCPs). METHODS: Systematic review of articles using electronic databases: MEDLINE (1950-2016), CINAHL (1982-2016), EMBASE (1980-2016), Scopus (2004-2016) and Cochrane (2016)...
November 29, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900447/controversies-about-sugars-results-from-systematic-reviews-and-meta-analyses-on-obesity-cardiometabolic-disease-and-diabetes
#19
REVIEW
Tauseef A Khan, John L Sievenpiper
Fructose-containing sugars are a focus of attention as a public health target for their putative role in obesity and cardiometabolic disease including diabetes. The fructose moiety is singled out to be the primary driver for the harms of sugars due to its unique endocrine signal and pathophysiological role. However, this is only supported by ecological studies, animal models of overfeeding and select human intervention studies with supraphysiological doses or lack of control for energy. The highest level of evidence from systematic reviews and meta-analyses of controlled trials has not shown that fructose-containing sugars behave any differently from other forms of digestible carbohydrates...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895592/effects-of-six-months-training-on-physical-capacity-and-metaboreflex-activity-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#20
Sara Magnani, Sergio Olla, Massimiliano Pau, Girolamo Palazzolo, Filippo Tocco, Azzurra Doneddu, Maura Marcelli, Andrea Loi, Federica Corona, Francesco Corona, Giancarlo Coghe, Maria G Marrosu, Alberto Concu, Eleonora Cocco, Elisabetta Marongiu, Antonio Crisafulli
Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have an increased systemic vascular resistance (SVR) response during the metaboreflex. It has been hypothesized that this is the consequence of a sedentary lifestyle secondary to MS. The purpose of this study was to discover whether a 6-month training program could reverse this hemodynamic dysregulation. Patients were randomly assigned to one of the following two groups: the intervention group (MSIT, n = 11), who followed an adapted training program; and the control group (MSCTL, n = 10), who continued with their sedentary lifestyle...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
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