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Diagnostic nosology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304167/the-language-disorder-of-prion-disease-is-characteristic-of-a-dynamic-aphasia-and-is-rarely-an-isolated-clinical-feature
#1
Diana Caine, Akin Nihat, Philippa Crabb, Peter Rudge, Lisa Cipolotti, John Collinge, Simon Mead
BACKGROUND: Akinetic mutism is a key diagnostic feature of prion diseases, however, their rapidly progressive nature makes detailed investigation of the language disorder in a large cohort extremely challenging. This study aims to position prion diseases in the nosology of language disorders and improve early clinical recognition. METHODS: A systematic, prospective investigation of language disorders in a large cohort of patients diagnosed with prion diseases. 568 patients were included as a sub-study of the National Prion Monitoring Cohort...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282590/culture-and-context-in-mental-health-diagnosing-scrutinizing-the-dsm-5-revision
#2
Anna Bredström
This article examines the revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and its claim of incorporating a "greater cultural sensitivity." The analysis reveals that the manual conveys mixed messages as it explicitly addresses the critique of being ethnocentric and having a static notion of culture yet continues in a similar fashion when culture is applied in diagnostic criteria. The analysis also relates to current trends in psychiatric nosology that emphasize neurobiology and decontextualize distress and points to how the DSM-5 risks serving as an ethnic dividing line in psychiatry by making sociocultural context relevant only for some patients...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275445/issues-on-the-diagnosis-and-etiopathogenesis-of-mood-disorders-reconsidering-dsm-5
#3
REVIEW
Kazuyoshi Ogasawara, Yukako Nakamura, Hiroyuki Kimura, Branko Aleksic, Norio Ozaki
The authors present a narrative review from the diagnostic and nosologic viewpoints of mood disorders (bipolar and depressive ones) by revisiting the revision from the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Text Revision to DSM-5, including the following: the separation of the bipolar and depressive sections; the addition of increased energy and continuation of symptoms to the hypo/manic criteria; the elimination of mixed episodes; the creation of new categories and specifiers ("other specified bipolar and related disorder", "disruptive mood dysregulation disorder", "with anxious distress", "with mixed features", "with peripartum onset"); the categorization of hypo/manic episodes during antidepressant treatment into bipolar disorder; the elimination of the "bereavement exclusion"; the ambiguous separation between bipolar I and II; the insufficient distinction between "other specified bipolar and related disorders" and major depressive disorder; the differentiation regarding borderline personality disorder; agitation; premenstrual dysphoric disorder; and society and psychiatry...
December 23, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175616/difficulty-concentrating-in-generalized-anxiety-disorder-an-evaluation-of-incremental-utility-and-relationship-to-worry
#4
Lauren S Hallion, Shari A Steinman, Susan N Kusmierski
Difficulty concentrating is one of the most common diagnostic criteria across DSM-5 categories, especially within the emotional (mood- and anxiety-related) disorders. A substantial literature has characterized cognitive functioning in emotional disorders using objective (behavioral) computerized cognitive tasks. However, diagnoses are typically formed on the basis of subjective (self-reported; clinician-rated) assessments of symptoms, and little is known about difficulty concentrating as a symptom. These questions are particularly important for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), which has long been the subject of nosological debates, and for which several theoretical models that suggest a central role for cognitive impairments (including difficulty concentrating) in the maintenance of psychopathology have been proposed...
January 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171397/crossing-the-lines-between-epilepsy-syndromes-a-myoclonic-epilepsy-variant-with-prominent-eyelid-myoclonia-and-atonic-components
#5
Pinelopi Dragoumi, Jacqueline Emery, Fiona Chivers, Megan Brady, Archana Desurkar, J Helen Cross, Krishna B Das
Accurate diagnosis of a distinct epilepsy syndrome is based on well-defined electroclinical features that differentiate separate nosological entities. In clinical practice, however, syndromes may overlap and cases may present with unusual manifestations posing a diagnostic challenge. This heterogeneity has been documented in several cases presenting with eyelid myoclonia with or without absences (EMA) diagnosed either as Jeavons syndrome (JS) variants or as genetic generalised epilepsies defined by the presence of this unique clinical entity...
November 24, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165678/the-genealogy-of-dementia-praecox-i-signs-and-symptoms-of-delusional-psychoses-from-1880-to-1900
#6
Kenneth S Kendler
We can trace, with high congruence, the clinical syndromes of depression and mania as described over the 20th century in psychiatric textbooks back to 1880 and to the earliest writing of Kraepelin published in 1883. However, this is not the case for Kraepelin's 2 delusional syndromes central to his overall nosology: Dementia Paranoides (later paranoid schizophrenia) and Paranoia. A detailed examination of 28 textbook descriptions of delusional psychoses from 1880 to 1900 reveals a diverse and partially overlapping set of syndromes with an admixture of symptoms and signs that would later be considered indicative of Dementia Paranoides and Paranoia...
November 19, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130695/a-test-of-the-empirical-profile-and-coherence-of-the-dsm-5-psychopathy-specifier
#7
Joshua D Miller, Joanna Lamkin, Jessica L Maples-Keller, Chelsea E Sleep, Donald R Lynam
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5th edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) introduced a psychopathy specifier (DSM-5 PS) as part of the Section III diagnostic model of antisocial personality disorder. Designed to capture the construct of fearless dominance/boldness, the DSM-5 PS is assessed on the basis of the presence of low scores on traits of withdrawal and anxiousness, and high scores on attention seeking. These constructs have garnered attention in the past decade but are the subject of substantial debate as to their role in the conceptualization and assessment of psychopathy, given their limited relations to the maladaptive outcomes typically associated with this personality disorder...
November 13, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043155/catatonia-as-a-putative-nosological-entity-a-historical-sketch
#8
REVIEW
Gábor Gazdag, Rozalia Takács, Gabor S Ungvari
Kahlbaum was the first to propose catatonia as a separate disease following the example of general paresis of the insane, which served as a model for establishing a nosological entity. However, Kahlbaum was uncertain about the nosological position of catatonia and considered it a syndrome, or "a temporary stage or a part of a complex picture of various disease forms". Until recently, the issue of catatonia as a separate diagnostic category was not entertained, mainly due to a misinterpretation of Kraepelin's influential views on catatonia as a subtype of schizophrenia...
September 22, 2017: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036668/neurobiological-commonalities-and-distinctions-among-three-major-psychiatric-diagnostic-categories-a-structural-mri-study
#9
Miao Chang, Fay Y Womer, E Kale Edmiston, Chuan Bai, Qian Zhou, Xiaowei Jiang, Shengnan Wei, Yange Wei, Yuting Ye, Haiyan Huang, Yong He, Ke Xu, Yanqing Tang, Fei Wang
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder (MDD) are distinct diagnostic categories in current psychiatric nosology, yet there is increasing evidence for shared clinical and biological features in these disorders. No previous studies have examined brain structural features concurrently in these 3 disorders. The aim of this study was to identify the extent of shared and distinct brain alterations in SZ, BD, and MDD. We examined gray matter (GM) volume and white matter (WM) integrity in a total of 485 individuals (135 with SZ, 86 with BD, 108 with MDD, and 156 healthy controls [HC]) who underwent high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at a single site...
June 13, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017626/case-series-of-mild-behavioral-impairment-toward-an-understanding-of-the-early-stages-of-neurodegenerative-diseases-affecting-behavior-and-cognition
#10
Alicja Cieslak, Eric E Smith, John Lysack, Zahinoor Ismail
Mild behavioral impairment (MBI) is characterized by later life acquired, sustained, and impactful neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) of any severity that cannot be better accounted for by other formal medical and psychiatric nosology. MBI is an "at risk" state for incident cognitive decline and dementia, and for some, MBI is the index manifestation of neurodegeneration, observed in advance of cognitive impairment. Initially described in Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD), MBI evolved to describe a preclinical stage of all cause dementia, and has been operationalized in the International Society to Advance Alzheimer's Research and Treatment-Alzheimer's Association (ISTAART-AA) proposed research diagnostic criteria...
October 11, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990742/autoimmune-endocrine-diseases
#11
Rosaria M Ruggeri, Giuseppe Giuffrida, Alfredo Campennì
The endocrine system is interested by several autoimmune diseases, characterized by different impact and severity, according to the organs involved. Autoimmune thyroid disorders (i.e. Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease) and type 1 diabetes mellitus are the most common autoimmune endocrine disorders, while hypophysitis, adrenalitis (90% of cases of primary hypocortisolism or Addison's disease), premature ovarian failure and hypoparathyroidism represent quite rare conditions. Autoimmune endocrine diseases can also coexist in the same individuals and cluster in families...
October 9, 2017: Minerva Endocrinologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980603/-cervical-vertigo-from-the-perspective-of-an-otorhinolaryngologist
#12
M V Tardov, N L Kunel'skaya, E V Baybakova, M A Chugunova, E S Yanushkina, Ya Yu Nikitkina, A V Klyasov, Z O Zaoeva
At present, the skeptical attitude toward the term 'cervical vertigo' (CV) predominates in the ENT-community. Such point of view is attributable to the absence of specific CV symptoms and well-defined diagnostic criteria. The present literature review was designed to consider the results of the clinical observations and experimental investigations obtained during the past 150 years that give evidence of the possibility to regard cervical vertigo as a separate nosological entity. The characteristic signs of this condition are analyzed and systematized...
2017: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966601/the-lacanian-concept-of-paranoia-an-historical-perspective
#13
Thomas Lepoutre, Manoel L Madeira, Nicolas Guerin
This article seeks to reopen a major question raised by the Lacanian nosology of the psychoses, by looking closely at Lacan's formulations of what he never ceased referring to as "paranoia". While almost all classification systems of modern psychiatry, such as the ICD-10 and the DSM-5, have abandoned the specific category of paranoia, Lacan always viewed paranoia as a major category of "functional psychosis". He held that paranoia was a qualitatively different disorder than schizophrenia, and considered it to be the principal or exemplary form of psychosis...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958593/opinion-paper-on-the-diagnosis-classification-of-sexual-arousal-concerns-in-women
#14
Stanley E Althof, Cindy M Meston, Michael A Perelman, Ariel B Handy, Chelsea D Kilimnik, Amelia M Stanton
BACKGROUND: In the professional literature and among our professional societies, female sexual dysfunction nomenclature and diagnostic criterion sets have been the source of considerable controversy. Recently, a consensus group, supported by the International Society for Women's Sexual Health, published its recommendations for nosology and nomenclature, which included only one type of arousal dysfunction, female genital arousal disorder, in its classification system. Subjective arousal was considered an aspect of sexual desire and not part of the arousal phase...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937340/research-domain-criteria-as-psychiatric-nosology
#15
Faisal Akram, James Giordano
Diagnostic classification systems in psychiatry have continued to rely on clinical phenomenology, despite limitations inherent in that approach. In view of these limitations and recent progress in neuroscience, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) has initiated the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project to develop a more neuroscientifically based system of characterizing and classifying psychiatric disorders. The RDoC initiative aims to transform psychiatry into an integrative science of psychopathology in which mental illnesses will be defined as involving putative dysfunctions in neural nodes and networks...
October 2017: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936941/-diagnostics-in-memory-loss-for-whom-what-and-when
#16
E Richard, E P Moll van Charante
With the advancement of diagnostic tests, the call for an ever-earlier diagnosis of people with memory problems is becoming louder. Diagnostic tests for people with mild cognitive impairment are in fact prognostic tests, complicating the application and interpretation of test results. There is currently insufficient evidence on the incremental diagnostic (or prognostic) value of specific diagnostic tests including MRI, CSF and PET scanning in representative memory clinic populations. Labelling large groups of people who may never develop dementia as having prodromal Alzheimer's disease may be more harmful than a postponed nosological diagnosis in those with mild cognitive impairment...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924872/-alzheimer-s-disease-from-auguste-deter-to-the-present-progress-disappointments-and-open-questions
#17
REVIEW
Johannes Pantel
AIM: The present article aims to provide a short overview of the discovery history, conceptual development, as well as on current neurobiological and pharmacological research questions in the field of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In view of the long hoped for but so far unachieved therapeutic breakthrough, this also includes a critical reflection of current research paradigms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Starting from the first case report described by Alois Alzheimer in 1906, the historical impact of his seminal discovery is reconstructed...
September 18, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918972/-mycological-and-parasitological-examinations-in-the-management-of-lung-infections
#18
REVIEW
L Lachaud, J P Gangneux
Pulmonary parasitic diseases are rare whereas pulmonary fungal infections are increasing. The diversity of clinical presentations requires laboratory tests to confirm the diagnosis. Direct examination of lung samples and antibody detection are the basis of parasitological diagnosis. With regard to mycoses, the range of biological tests is broader. The conventional mycological examination allows identification of any type of fungus except Pneumocystis jirovecii. Its specificity is excellent but it lacks sensitivity...
September 14, 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901970/the-2016-who-classification-of-central-nervous-system-tumors-what-neurologists-need-to-know
#19
John C DeWitt, Andreas Mock, David N Louis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The 2016 WHO classification of tumors of the central nervous system (2016 CNS WHO) features many changes that are relevant to neurologists treating patients with brain tumors as well as neurologists involved in basic, clinical, and epidemiological research. This review summarizes what neurologists need to know and will need to know in the next years. RECENT FINDINGS: The 2016 CNS WHO introduces diagnostic terms that 'integrate' histological and molecular information and suggests presenting diagnoses in a four-layered reporting format...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867937/epidemiology-of-anxiety-disorders-from-surveys-to-nosology-and-back
#20
Dan J Stein, Kate M Scott, Peter de Jonge, Ronald C Kessler
On the basis of epidemiological survey findings, anxiety disorders are the most prevalent mental disorders around the world and are associated with significant comorbidity and morbidity. Such surveys rely on advances in psychiatric nosology and may also contribute usefully to revisions of the nosology. There are a number of questions at the intersection of psychiatric epidemiology and nosology. This review addresses the following: What is the prevalence of anxiety disorders and how do we best explain cross-national differences in prevalence estimates? What are the optimal diagnostic criteria for anxiety disorders, and how can epidemiological data shed light on this question? What are the comorbidities of anxiety disorders, and how do we best understand the high comorbidities seen in these conditions? What is the current treatment gap for anxiety disorders, and what are the implications of current understandings of psychiatric epidemiology and nosology for policy-making relevant to anxiety disorders? Here, we emphasize that anxiety disorders are the most prevalent of the psychiatric conditions, and that rather than merely contrasting cross-national prevalence in anxiety disorders, it is more productive to delineate cross-national themes that emerge about the epidemiology of these conditions...
June 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
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