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Diagnostic nosology

Barbara Schildkrout
A new nosology for mental disorders is needed as a basis for effective scientific inquiry. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and International Classification of Diseases diagnoses are not natural, biological categories, and these diagnostic systems do not address mental phenomena that exist on a spectrum. Advances in neuroscience offer the hope of breakthroughs for diagnosing and treating major mental illness in the future. At present, a neuroscience-based understanding of brain/behavior relationships can reshape clinical thinking...
October 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Leonard R Derogatis, Michael Sand, Richard Balon, Raymond Rosen, Sharon J Parish
INTRODUCTION: A nomenclature is defined as a classification system for assigning names or terms in a scientific discipline. A nosology more specifically provides a scientific classification system for diseases or disorders. Historically, the nosologic system informing female sexual dysfunction (FSD) has been the system developed by the American Psychiatric Association in its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III through DSM-5). Experts have recognized limitations of its use in clinical practice, including concerns that the DSM-5 system does not adequately reflect the spectrum and presentation of FSD...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Mary Margaret Gleason, Kathryn L Humphreys
Severe hyperactivity and impulsivity are common reasons for referral to infant mental health services. Past versions of ZERO TO THREE's () diagnostic nosology, the Diagnostic Classification of Mental and Developmental Disorders in Infancy and Early Childhood (DC:0-3), did not address this clinical issue because it had been addressed in other nosologies. These general diagnostic nosologies describe attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but with little attention to developmentally specific aspects of the diagnosis in very young children...
September 2016: Infant Mental Health Journal
Chong Chen, Yi Jiang, Chenyang Xu, Xinting Liu, Lin Hu, Yanbao Xiang, Qingshuang Chen, Denghui Chen, Huanzheng Li, Xueqin Xu, Shaohua Tang
Genetic skeletal disorders (GSD) involving the skeletal system arises through disturbances in the complex processes of skeletal development, growth and homeostasis and remain a diagnostic challenge because of their clinical heterogeneity and genetic variety. Over the past decades, tremendous effort platforms have been made to explore the complex heterogeneity, and massive new genes and mutations have been identified in different GSD, but the information supplied by literature is still limited and it is hard to meet the further needs of scientists and clinicians...
2016: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
Charles H Zeanah, Alice S Carter, Julie Cohen, Helen Egger, Mary Margaret Gleason, Miri Keren, Alicia Lieberman, Kathleen Mulrooney, Cindy Oser
The Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood: Revised Edition (DC:0-5; ZERO TO THREE) is scheduled to be published in 2016. The articles in this section are selective reviews that have been undertaken as part of the process of refining and updating the nosology. They provide the rationales for new disorders, for disorders that had not been included previously in the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood: Revised Edition (DC:0-3R; ZERO TO THREE, 2005), and for changes in how certain types of disorders are conceptualized...
September 2016: Infant Mental Health Journal
Erica Meyers, Mariah DeSerisy, Amy Krain Roy
In recent years, there has been much debate regarding the most appropriate diagnostic classification of children exhibiting emotion dysregulation in the form of irritability and severe temper outbursts. Most recently, this has resulted in the addition of a new diagnosis, Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD) in the DSM 5. The impetus for including this new disorder was to reduce the number of diagnoses that these children would typically receive; however, there is concern that it has only complicated matters rather than simplifying them...
August 13, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Kenneth S Kendler, Eric J Engstrom
The nosology for major psychiatric disorders developed by Emil Kraepelin in the 1890s has substantially shaped psychiatry. His theories, however, did not arise de novo, being strongly influenced by Karl Kahlbaum and Ewald Hecker. From the 1860-1880s, they articulated a paradigm shift in the conceptualization of psychiatric diagnosis, from symptom-based syndromes, popular since the late 18th century, to proto-disease entities. This effort was influenced by parallel developments in general medicine, especially the rise of bacterial theories of disease where different syndromes had distinctive symptoms, courses, and etiologies...
August 13, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
Balázs Odler, Veronika Müller
Obstructive lung diseases represent a major health problem worldwide due to their high prevalence associated with elevated socioeconomic costs. Bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are chronic obstructive ventilatory disorders with airway inflammation, however they are separate nosological entities based on thedifferent development, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, and prognostic features. However, these diseases may coexist and can be defined as the coexistence of increased variability of airflow in a patient with incompletely reversible airway obstruction...
August 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
A A Baranov, L S Namazova-Baranova, I V Smirnov, D A Devyatkin, A O Shelmanov, E A Vishneva, E V Antonova, V I Smirnov
UNLABELLED: The paper presents the system for intelligent analysis of clinical information. Authors describe methods implemented in the system for clinical information retrieval, intelligent diagnostics of chronic diseases, patient's features importance and for detection of hidden dependencies between features. Results of the experimental evaluation of these methods are also presented. BACKGROUND: Healthcare facilities generate a large flow of both structured and unstructured data which contain important information about patients...
2016: Vestnik Rossiĭskoĭ Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk
R B Amansakhedov, I V Limarova, A V Perfiliev, R Yu Abdullaev, A T Sigaev, A E Ergeshov
OBJECTIVE: to improve the differential diagnosis of disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis (DPT) and exogenous allergic alveolitis (EAA) via comparative investigation of their computed tomography (CT) semiotics and identification of the most informative diagnostic criteria. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 70 patients, including 40 patients with DPT in a phase of infiltration and 30 patients with acute EAA, were studied using a Somatom Emotion 16 multi-slice spiral CT scanner (Siemens)...
March 2016: Vestnik Rentgenologii i Radiologii
Mario Masarone, Valerio Rosato, Marcello Dallio, Ludovico Abenavoli, Alessandro Federico, Carmela Loguercio, Marcello Persico
Alcohol represents the oldest substance of abuse known, existed at least as early as the Neolithic period. In the present era, almost half of the world's population consumes alcohol and it represents the third largest risk factor for disease and disability and the most prevalent cause of advanced liver disease worldwide. In fact, when alcohol consumption reaches "unsafe quantities" an Alcoholic Liver Disease (ALD) is very likely. ALD comprises a large spectrum of diseases, ranging from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis with fibrosis and cirrhosis...
2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Sarah Wente, Simone Schröder, Johannes Buckard, Hans-Martin Büttel, Florian von Deimling, Wilfried Diener, Martin Häussler, Susanne Hübschle, Silvia Kinder, Gerhard Kurlemann, Christoph Kretzschmar, Michael Lingen, Wiebke Maroske, Dirk Mundt, Iciar Sánchez-Albisua, Jürgen Seeger, Sandra P Toelle, Eugen Boltshauser, Knut Brockmann
BACKGROUND: The nosological assignment of congenital ocular motor apraxia type Cogan (COMA) is still controversial. While regarded as a distinct entity by some authorities including the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man catalog of genetic disorders, others consider COMA merely a clinical symptom. METHODS: We performed a retrospective multicenter data collection study with re-evaluation of clinical and neuroimaging data of 21 previously unreported patients (8 female, 13 male, ages ranging from 2 to 24 years) diagnosed as having COMA...
2016: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Hanno Santelmann, Jeremy Franklin, Jana Bußhoff, Christopher Baethge
Schizoaffective disorder is a common diagnosis in clinical practice but its nosological status has been subject to debate ever since it was conceptualized. Although it is key that diagnostic reliability is sufficient, schizoaffective disorder has been reported to have low interrater reliability. Evidence based on systematic review and meta-analysis methods, however, is lacking. Using a highly sensitive literature search in Medline, Embase, and PsycInfo we identified studies measuring the interrater reliability of schizoaffective disorder in comparison to schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and unipolar disorder...
October 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Worawan Penpattharakul, Manop Pithukpakorn
BACKGROUND: Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder with major features in cardiovascular ocular and skeletal systems. Due to its genetic heterogeneity and variable expressivity, Ghent nosology was established for clinical diagnosis of MFS. In 2010, Ghent diagnostic criteria were revised to better diagnose MS and categorize its related disorders. There is no previous clinical comparison between the original and revised Ghent criteria for diagnosis of MFS in Thai patients...
January 2016: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Chotmaihet Thangphaet
L A Starodubtseva, L V Vasilieva
The osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis are considered as the most prevalent diseases in the structure of diseases of musculoskeletal system. The higher social significance of these nosologies dictates necessity of searching reliable cartilage biomarkers having diagnostic validity both in discerning degenerative alterations at early stage of disease of joints and in monitoring of treatment effectiveness. The content of oligomeric matrix protein of cartilage using ELISA was evaluated in blood serum ofpatients with secondary osteoarthritis under rheumatoid arthritis (n=248)...
February 2016: Klinicheskaia Laboratornaia Diagnostika
Jacob Y Stein, Dayna V Wilmot, Zahava Solomon
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric pathology wherein the precipitating traumatic event is essential for diagnostic eligibility (Criterion A). This link is substantiated throughout PTSD's development as a diagnosis. However, while traumatic events may vary considerably, this variation currently bears nearly no implications for psychiatric nosology. Consequently, PTSD remains a semi-unified diagnostic construct, consisting of no Criterion-A-determined subtypes of adult PTSD. The question addressed by the current paper is then does one size truly fit all? Making an argument for the negative, the paper briefly reviews complex PTSD (CPTSD), ongoing traumatic stress response (OTSR), and cumulative traumas, all of which are exemplars wherein Criterion A specification is crucial for understanding the emerging symptomatology and for devising appropriate interventions...
October 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Jared W Young, Arpi Minassian, Mark A Geyer
The quantification of unconditioned motoric activity is one of the oldest and most commonly utilized tools in behavioral studies. Although typically measured in reference to psychiatric disorders, e.g., amphetamine-induced hyperactivity used as a model of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder (BD), and Tourette's syndrome, the motoric behavior of psychiatric patients had not been quantified similarly to rodents until recently. The rodent behavioral pattern monitor (BPM) was reverse-translated for use in humans, providing the quantification of not only motoric activity but also the locomotor exploratory profile of various psychiatric populations...
2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Greg I Elmer, P Leon Brown, Paul D Shepard
The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative was implemented to reorient the approach to mental health research from one focused on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) nosology to one oriented to psychological constructs constrained by neurocircuitry and molecular entities. The initiative has generated significant discussion and valuable reflection on the moorings of psychiatric research. The purpose of this article is to illustrate how a basic or clinical investigator can engage RDoC to explore the neurobiological underpinnings of psychopathology and how a research question can be formulated in RDoC's framework...
September 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Anna Marras, Naomi Fineberg, Stefano Pallanti
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been recognized as mainly characterized by compulsivity rather than anxiety and, therefore, was removed from the anxiety disorders chapter and given its own in both the American Psychiatric Association (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and the Beta Draft Version of the 11th revision of the World Health Organization (WHO) International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). This revised clustering is based on increasing evidence of common affected neurocircuits between disorders, differently from previous classification systems based on interrater agreement...
August 2016: CNS Spectrums
A Agrusa, G Romano, M Galia, G Cucinella, V Sorce, G Di Buono, F Agnello, G Amato, G Gulotta
INTRODUCTION: Appendiceal mucocele is a relatively rare condition characterized by progressive dilation of the appendix caused by intraluminal accumulation of mucoid substance. Its incidence is 0.07 - 0,63% of all appendectomies performed. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 70-year-old man who came to our observation with gravative pain in right lower abdominal region. A computed tomography abdominal scan revealed a cystic/tubular structure like an appendicular mass with wall enhancement but without calcifications suggestive of a mucocele...
March 2016: Il Giornale di Chirurgia
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