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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924872/-alzheimer-s-disease-from-auguste-deter-to-the-present-progress-disappointments-and-open-questions
#1
REVIEW
Johannes Pantel
AIM: The present article aims to provide a short overview of the discovery history, conceptual development, as well as on current neurobiological and pharmacological research questions in the field of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In view of the long hoped for but so far unachieved therapeutic breakthrough, this also includes a critical reflection of current research paradigms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Starting from the first case report described by Alois Alzheimer in 1906, the historical impact of his seminal discovery is reconstructed...
September 18, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918972/-mycological-and-parasitological-examinations-in-the-management-of-lung-infections
#2
REVIEW
L Lachaud, J P Gangneux
Pulmonary parasitic diseases are rare whereas pulmonary fungal infections are increasing. The diversity of clinical presentations requires laboratory tests to confirm the diagnosis. Direct examination of lung samples and antibody detection are the basis of parasitological diagnosis. With regard to mycoses, the range of biological tests is broader. The conventional mycological examination allows identification of any type of fungus except Pneumocystis jirovecii. Its specificity is excellent but it lacks sensitivity...
September 14, 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901970/the-2016-who-classification-of-central-nervous-system-tumors-what-neurologists-need-to-know
#3
John C DeWitt, Andreas Mock, David N Louis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The 2016 WHO classification of tumors of the central nervous system (2016 CNS WHO) features many changes that are relevant to neurologists treating patients with brain tumors as well as neurologists involved in basic, clinical, and epidemiological research. This review summarizes what neurologists need to know and will need to know in the next years. RECENT FINDINGS: The 2016 CNS WHO introduces diagnostic terms that 'integrate' histological and molecular information and suggests presenting diagnoses in a four-layered reporting format...
September 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867937/epidemiology-of-anxiety-disorders-from-surveys-to-nosology-and-back
#4
Dan J Stein, Kate M Scott, Peter de Jonge, Ronald C Kessler
On the basis of epidemiological survey findings, anxiety disorders are the most prevalent mental disorders around the world and are associated with significant comorbidity and morbidity. Such surveys rely on advances in psychiatric nosology and may also contribute usefully to revisions of the nosology. There are a number of questions at the intersection of psychiatric epidemiology and nosology. This review addresses the following: What is the prevalence of anxiety disorders and how do we best explain cross-national differences in prevalence estimates? What are the optimal diagnostic criteria for anxiety disorders, and how can epidemiological data shed light on this question? What are the comorbidities of anxiety disorders, and how do we best understand the high comorbidities seen in these conditions? What is the current treatment gap for anxiety disorders, and what are the implications of current understandings of psychiatric epidemiology and nosology for policy-making relevant to anxiety disorders? Here, we emphasize that anxiety disorders are the most prevalent of the psychiatric conditions, and that rather than merely contrasting cross-national prevalence in anxiety disorders, it is more productive to delineate cross-national themes that emerge about the epidemiology of these conditions...
June 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862604/-high-resolution-respirometry-in-diagnostic-of-mitochondrial-disorders-caused-by-mitochondrial-complex-i-deficiency
#5
T D Krylova, P G Tsygankova, Yu S Itkis, N L Sheremet, T A Nevinitsyna, S V Mikhaylova, E Yu Zakharova
Complex I (CI) deficiency is one of the most common defects in the OXPHOS system; it represents more than 30% cases of mitochondrial diseases. The group is characterized by clinical and genetic heterogeneity and comprise several nosological forms. The most prevalent phenotypes for CI are LHON and Leigh syndrome. In this study we have analyzed skin fibroblasts from 11 patients with mutations in mtDNA, which cause LHON or Leigh-like phenotypes: m.11778 G>A (n=3), m.3460 A>G (n=2), m.3635 G>A (n=1), m...
July 2017: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833984/psychosis-in-bipolar-disorder-does-it-represent-a-more-severe-illness
#6
Cynthia Z Burton, Kelly A Ryan, Masoud Kamali, David F Marshall, Gloria Harrington, Melvin G McInnis, Ivy F Tso
OBJECTIVES: Although there is a common clinical assumption that bipolar disorder with psychotic features reflects greater severity than bipolar disorder without psychosis, the existing empirical literature is mixed. This study investigated the phenomenology of psychosis as well as demographic, clinical, functional, and neuropsychological features in a large, cross-sectional sample of participants with bipolar disorder divided by history of psychosis. METHODS: In a large single study, 168 affective-only bipolar disorder (BP-A) participants and 213 bipolar disorder with a history of psychosis (BP-P) participants completed a comprehensive clinical diagnostic interview and neuropsychological testing...
August 23, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813310/redefining-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-for-dsm-5
#7
REVIEW
Frank W Weathers
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was substantially redefined for DSM-5, with significant changes in nosology, definition of a traumatic stressor, and number and nature of symptom criteria. These updates, motivated by decades of empirical findings and clinical observation, provide better coverage of the full range of trauma-related clinical presentations while maintaining backward compatibility with previous versions of PTSD. Nonetheless, they have been criticized as being unwarranted, creating excessively complex criteria, and generating unacceptable levels of diagnostic discordance...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800416/the-enigma-of-male-eating-disorders-a-critical-review-and-synthesis
#8
REVIEW
Stuart B Murray, Jason M Nagata, Scott Griffiths, Jerel P Calzo, Tiffany A Brown, Deborah Mitchison, Aaron J Blashill, Jonathan M Mond
Historically, male presentations of eating disorders (EDs) have been perceived as rare and atypical - a perception that has resulted in the systematic underrepresentation of males in ED research. This underrepresentation has profoundly impacted clinical practice with male patients, in which i) stigmatization and treatment non-engagement are more likely, ii) a distinct array of medical complexities are faced, and iii) symptom presentations differ markedly from female presentations. Further, the marginalization of males from ED research has hindered the assessment and clinical management of these presentations...
August 2, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755757/understanding-eating-disorders-within-internalizing-psychopathology-a-novel-transdiagnostic-hierarchical-dimensional-model
#9
Kelsie T Forbush, Kelsey E Hagan, Benjamin A Kite, Danielle A N Chapa, Brittany K Bohrer, Sara R Gould
BACKGROUND: Several problems with the classification and diagnosis of eating disorders (EDs) have been identified, including proliferation of 'other specified' diagnoses, within-disorder heterogeneity, and frequent diagnostic migration over time. Beyond problems within EDs, past research suggested that EDs fit better in a spectrum of internalizing psychopathology (characterized by mood and anxiety disorders) than in a separate diagnostic class. PURPOSE: To develop a transdiagnostic, hierarchical-dimensional model relevant to ED psychopathology that: 1) reduces diagnostic heterogeneity, 2) includes important dimensions of internalizing psychopathology that are often excluded from ED diagnostic models, and 3) predicts clinical impairment...
June 28, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729090/the-overlap-between-essential-tremor-and-parkinson-disease
#10
Musleh Algarni, Alfonso Fasano
INTRODUCTION: Essential tremor (ET) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are common disorders especially in the aging population and can have overlapping features that can make it difficult to differentiate between the two. In addition, a possible overlap from a pathophysiological standpoint has been often advocated in the past. METHODS: In this review article, we gather the recent evidence in favor or against a possible relationship between ET and PD. This exercise follows the new advances in the field of tremor from both a pathophysiological and nosological perspective...
July 12, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704701/-developing-culturally-sensitive-affect-scales-for-global-mental-health-research-and-practice-emotional-balance-not-named-syndromes-in-indian-adivasi-subjective-well-being
#11
Jeffrey G Snodgrass, Michael G Lacy, Chakrapani Upadhyay
We present a perspective to analyze mental health without either a) imposing Western illness categories or b) adopting local or "native" categories of mental distress. Our approach takes as axiomatic only that locals within any culture share a cognitive and verbal lexicon of salient positive and negative emotional experiences, which an appropriate and repeatable set of ethnographic procedures can elicit. Our approach is provisionally agnostic with respect to either Western or native nosological categories, and instead focuses on persons' relative frequency of experiencing emotions...
June 27, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643811/-from-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-dementia-what-is-the-role-of-public-health
#12
Nicola Vanacore, Alessandra Di Pucchio, Eleonora Lacorte, Ilaria Bacigalupo, Flavia Mayer, Giulia Grande, Matteo Cesari, Marco Canevelli
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a nosological entity proposed by Petersen in 1999 with the objective of identifying an early stage of dementia. The new diagnostic criteria for dementia, both those promoted by the International Working Group (IWG) and those defined by the National Institute of Aging (NIA), subsequently introduced a new model that starts with a preclinical phase, then proceeds with a prodromal phase, and ends with a phase of dementia. The condition known as subjective cognitive disorder (SCD) is included between the preclinic and the prodromal phases...
May 2017: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631692/-multidisciplinary-problems-of-rheumatology-and-pulmonology
#13
EDITORIAL
L P Ananyeva
Damage to the respiratory system worsens prognosis and increases mortality in all systemic immunoinflammatory rheumatic diseases (SIRDs). Leading pulmonary manifestations in each disease are different, so the typical picture of each nosological entity is very peculiar. In all SIRDs, the disease starts with lung involvement in 10-20% of cases, preceding the expanded clinical presentation of a systemic disease. At a certain stage, lung damage may be the only manifestation of the disease or predominate in its clinical picture, determining the severity of a condition...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628009/-immunorehabilitology-a-look-from-the-sources-to-the-future-from-immunotherapy-to-personalized-targeted-immunorehablitation
#14
R Sepiashvili
Development and introduction of modern clinical diagnostic tests (that allow to evaluate the functional system of immune homeostasis) into medical practice, a huge body of evidence on the leading role of the immune system in pathogenesis most acute and chronic diseases and even identification of specific nosological forms of immune-mediated diseases forced the scientists to search and develop new tools and techniques that have therapeutic effects on the impaired immune homeostasis and restore it to the normal state...
May 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595759/what-is-healing-reflections-on-diagnostic-criteria-nosology-and-etiology
#15
Jeff Levin
This article examines the conceptual history and contemporary usages of the term "healing." In response to longstanding definitional ambiguity, reflections are offered on what are termed the diagnostic criteria, nosology, and etiology of healing. First, a summary is provided of how healing has been defined within medicine. Second, the dimensionality of healing is discussed. Third, healing's putative determinants are outlined. For biomedicine, healing mainly concerns repair of wounds or lesions and is unidimensional...
July 2017: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580656/prepartum-psychosis-and-neonaticide-rare-case-study-and-forensic-psychiatric-synthesis-of-literature
#16
Maria-Valeria Karakasi, Maria Markopoulou, Ioannis K Tentes, Panagiotis N Tsikouras, Epameinondas Vasilikos, Pavlos Pavlidis
Peripartum psychosis is a rare but serious psychiatric disorder characterized by the presence of a mood episode with psychotic features. Although controversy surrounds the nosological status of peripartum mental disorders, these conditions continue to be of exceptional interest to the medical and forensic mental health communities. The aim of this study was to report a rare case of prepartum psychosis which escalated to the endpoint of neonaticide and summarize literature on peripartum mental disorders and infanticide...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514359/-the-mathematical-approaches-to-differential-diagnostics-of-acute-pharyngeal-diseases
#17
A P Yastremsky, A I Izvin
The objective of the present study was to elaborate the program for differential diagnostics of acute pharyngeal diseases based on the 'ENT-Neuro' artificial neuronal network. The study group was formed by means of sampling patients with acute pharyngeal diseases from a set of case histories of the subjects presenting with acute inflammatory diseases. The data thus obtained were employed to develop the expert system to support the decision making process with the use of the 'ENT-Neuro' artificial neuronal network that allows to carry out diagnostics of various inflammatory diseases of the pharynx including the following nosological entities: paratonsillitis, parapharyngitis, acute tonsillitis, and acute pharyngitis, with the minimal probability of erroneous diagnosis (4%)...
2017: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495012/what-do-clinicians-treat-diagnoses-or-symptoms-the-incremental-validity-of-a-symptom-based-dimensional-characterization-of-emotional-disorders-in-predicting-medication-prescription-patterns
#18
Monika A Waszczuk, Mark Zimmerman, Camilo Ruggero, Kaiqiao Li, Annmarie MacNamara, Anna Weinberg, Greg Hajcak, David Watson, Roman Kotov
BACKGROUND: Although practice guidelines are based on disorders specified in diagnostic manuals, such as the DSM, practitioners appear to follow symptoms when making treatment decisions. Psychiatric medication is generally prescribed in a transdiagnostic manner, further highlighting how symptoms, not diagnoses, often guide clinical practice. A quantitative approach to nosology promises to provide better guidance as it describes psychopathology dimensionally and its organization reflects patterns of covariation among symptoms...
April 18, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485813/spectrum-of-mucocutaneous-ocular-and-facial-features-and-delineation-of-novel-presentations-in-62-classical-ehlers-danlos-syndrome-patients
#19
Marina Colombi, Chiara Dordoni, Marina Venturini, Claudia Ciaccio, Silvia Morlino, Nicola Chiarelli, Arianna Zanca, Piergiacomo Calzavara-Pinton, Nicoletta Zoppi, Marco Castori, Marco Ritelli
Classical Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (cEDS) is characterized by marked cutaneous involvement that is defined by many criteria of the Villefranche nosology and the 2017 revision. However, the diagnostic flow-chart that prompts molecular testing is still based on experts' opinion rather than systematic published data. Here we report on 62 molecularly characterized cEDS patients with focus on skin, mucosae, face, and joint hypermobility. The major and minor Villefranche criteria, additional 11 mucocutaneous signs and 15 facial dysmorphic traits were ascertained and feature rates compared by sex and age...
May 9, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476049/corneal-k-values-as-a-diagnostic-screening-tool-for-marfan-syndrome
#20
Jan Luebke, Daniel Boehringer, Philipp Eberwein, Thomas Reinhard
PURPOSE: Marfan syndrome (MFS) is diagnosed based on Ghent nosology, including major and minor criteria such as increased axial length (AXL) and flattened corneal curvature (higher K-values) or myopia of more than -3 diopters (D) in its latest revision. Because corneal flattening may, in part, be caused by AXL increase, it may be helpful to consider K-values separately. We present statistical evaluation of using corneal K-values for identifying MFS. METHODS: A retrospective study of K-values of 74 right eyes of 74 patients with MFS, who were compared with an age- and AXL-matched group of 74 right eyes of 74 patients without MFS...
June 2017: Cornea
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