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Psychiatric nosology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837521/bipolar-disorder-in-children-and-adolescents-diagnostic-inpatient-rates-from-2000-to-2013-in-germany
#1
Pradeep Rao, Julie K Moore, Richard Stewart, Kevin Runions, Natasha Bear, Janice W Y Wong, Martin Holtmann, Florian D Zepf
BACKGROUND: Despite growing consensus on nosology and epidemiology of bipolar disorder (BD) in minors, differences remain. We contribute to this discussion by measuring long-term trends in the inpatient discharge rates of BD in minors. METHODS: Nationwide German inpatient discharge diagnoses of BD and other related psychiatric disorders were mapped between 2008 and 2013 using registry data from the German Federal Health Monitoring System. This was compared with previously published data, 2000-2007, to assess long-term trends in diagnosis of BD at discharge...
December 2016: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834101/outcome-of-first-episode-acute-and-transient-psychotic-disorder-in-hong-kong-chinese-a-20-year-retrospective-follow-up-study
#2
Johannes Yin Kwong Poon, Chi Ming Leung
BACKGROUND: 'Acute and transient psychotic disorder' (ATPD) is a category in ICD-10 marked by psychosis with acute onset and early remission. It remains relatively under-researched, despite controversies over its nosological status in the current classification system. AIMS: (1) To assess the changes in diagnosis over time in patients initially diagnosed as ATPD. (2) To identify factors predicting changes in diagnosis, and compare the long-term outcomes of various patterns of diagnostic shift...
November 11, 2016: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826070/research-domain-criteria-versus-dsm-v-how-does-this-debate-affect-attempts-to-model-corticostriatal-dysfunction-in-animals
#3
REVIEW
Jared W Young, Catharine A Winstanley, Anne Marie Brady, Frank Scott Hall
For decades, the nosology of mental illness has been based largely upon the descriptions in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association (DSM). A recent challenge to the DSM approach to psychiatric nosology from the National Institute on Mental Health (USA) defines Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) as an alternative. For RDoC, psychiatric illnesses are not defined as discrete categories, but instead as specific behavioral dysfunctions irrespective of DSM diagnostic categories...
November 5, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819464/toward-validation-of-a-structural-approach-to-conceptualizing-psychopathology-a-special-section-of-the-journal-of-abnormal-psychology
#4
Robert F Krueger, Jennifer L Tackett, Angus MacDonald
Traditionally, psychopathology has been conceptualized in terms of polythetic categories derived from committee deliberations and enshrined in authoritative psychiatric nosologies-most notably the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013). As the limitations of this form of classification have become evident, empirical data have been increasingly relied upon to investigate the structure of psychopathology. These efforts have borne fruit in terms of an increasingly consistent set of psychopathological constructs closely connected with similar personality constructs...
November 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788673/immuno-psychiatry-an-agenda-for-clinical-practice-and-innovative-research
#5
EDITORIAL
Marion Leboyer, Michael Berk, Robert H Yolken, Ryad Tamouza, David Kupfer, Laurent Groc
BACKGROUND: The diagnostic scheme for psychiatric disorders is currently based purely on descriptive nomenclature given that biomarkers subtypes and clearly defined causal mechanisms are lacking for the vast majority of disorders. The emerging field of "immuno-psychiatry" has the potential to widen the exploration of a mechanism-based nosology, possibly leading to the discovery of more effective personalised treatment strategies. DISCUSSION: Disturbances in immuno-inflammatory and related systems have been implicated in the aetiology, pathophysiology, phenomenology and comorbidity of several psychiatric disorders, including major mood disorders and schizophrenia...
October 28, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743749/toward-a-more-evidence-based-nosology-and-nomenclature-for-female-sexual-dysfunctions-part-i
#6
Leonard R Derogatis, Michael Sand, Richard Balon, Raymond Rosen, Sharon J Parish
INTRODUCTION: A nomenclature is defined as a classification system for assigning names or terms in a scientific discipline. A nosology more specifically provides a scientific classification system for diseases or disorders. Historically, the nosologic system informing female sexual dysfunction (FSD) has been the system developed by the American Psychiatric Association in its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III through DSM-5). Experts have recognized limitations of its use in clinical practice, including concerns that the DSM-5 system does not adequately reflect the spectrum and presentation of FSD...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717543/-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-as-seen-by-those-who-are-confronted-with-it-a-survey-of-patients-relatives-and-clinicians
#7
M Morgiève, K N'Diaye, S Fernandez-Vidal, A-H Clair, L Mallet
INTRODUCTION: Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is one of the most disabling mental health disorders due to its negative impact on the patient's quality of life as well on that of her living caregivers. This disorder generates an additional burden for relatives, which may in turn affect the family dynamics and impair the evolution of the disease. Along with medications, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) represents a well-validated first line of treatment for OCD. However, therapeutic responses across patients are uneven with often residual symptoms and limited quality of life improvements...
October 4, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709990/current-trends-in-bpd-research-as-indicative-of-a-broader-sea-change-in-psychiatric-nosology
#8
Carla Sharp
The aim of the Special Section that this paper contributes to is to review current trends in borderline personality disorder (BPD) research. Three major trends were identified. First, there has been a marked increase in studies that attempt to locate BPD in the dimensional latent structure of psychopathology. Second, identifying the endophenotypic markers associated with BPD has become a focus of interest. Here, we focus on one endophenotype in the form of impaired self-other processing. Third, there has been an explosion of research into the developmental aspects of BPD specifically focused on uncovering complex Biology × Environment interactions in the development of BPD...
October 2016: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692699/empirically-derived-patterns-of-psychiatric-symptoms-in-youth-a-latent-profile-analysis
#9
Katharina Kircanski, Susan Zhang, Argyris Stringaris, Jillian Lee Wiggins, Kenneth E Towbin, Daniel S Pine, Ellen Leibenluft, Melissa A Brotman
BACKGROUND: By conceptualizing domains of behavior transdiagnostically, the National Institute of Mental Health Research Domain Criteria (NIMH RDoC) initiative facilitates new ways of studying psychiatric symptoms. In this study, latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to empirically derive classes or patterns of psychiatric symptoms in youth that transect traditional nosologic boundaries. METHODS: Data were drawn from 509 children and adolescents (ages 7-18 years; mean age =12...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583809/operationalizing-nimh-research-domain-criteria-rdoc-in-naturalistic-clinical-settings
#10
Carla Sharp, J Christopher Fowler, Ramiro Salas, David Nielsen, Jon Allen, John Oldham, Thomas Kosten, Sanjay Mathew, Alok Madan, B Christopher Frueh, Peter Fonagy
Recently, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) introduced the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative to address two major challenges facing the field of psychiatry: (1) the lack of new effective personalized treatments for psychiatric disorders, and (2) the limitations associated with categorically defined psychiatric disorders. Although the potential of RDoC to revolutionize personalized psychiatric medicine and psychiatric nosology has been acknowledged, it is unclear how to implement RDoC in naturalistic clinical settings as part of routine outcomes research...
2016: Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536165/muscle-dysmorphia-current-insights
#11
REVIEW
David Tod, Christian Edwards, Ieuan Cranswick
Since 1997, there has been increasing research focusing on muscle dysmorphia, a condition underpinned by people's beliefs that they have insufficient muscularity, in both the Western and non-Western medical and scientific communities. Much of this empirical interest has surveyed nonclinical samples, and there is limited understanding of people with the condition beyond knowledge about their characteristics. Much of the existing knowledge about people with the condition is unsurprising and inherent in the definition of the disorder, such as dissatisfaction with muscularity and adherence to muscle-building activities...
2016: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27523503/kahlbaum-hecker-and-kraepelin-and-the-transition-from-psychiatric-symptom-complexes-to-empirical-disease-forms
#12
Kenneth S Kendler, Eric J Engstrom
The nosology for major psychiatric disorders developed by Emil Kraepelin in the 1890s has substantially shaped psychiatry. His theories, however, did not arise de novo, being strongly influenced by Karl Kahlbaum and Ewald Hecker. From the 1860-1880s, they articulated a paradigm shift in the conceptualization of psychiatric diagnosis, from symptom-based syndromes, popular since the late 18th century, to proto-disease entities. This effort was influenced by parallel developments in general medicine, especially the rise of bacterial theories of disease where different syndromes had distinctive symptoms, courses, and etiologies...
August 13, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517087/computational-phenotyping-in-psychiatry-a-worked-example
#13
Philipp Schwartenbeck, Karl Friston
Computational psychiatry is a rapidly emerging field that uses model-based quantities to infer the behavioral and neuronal abnormalities that underlie psychopathology. If successful, this approach promises key insights into (pathological) brain function as well as a more mechanistic and quantitative approach to psychiatric nosology-structuring therapeutic interventions and predicting response and relapse. The basic procedure in computational psychiatry is to build a computational model that formalizes a behavioral or neuronal process...
July 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27449856/does-one-size-fit-all-nosological-clinical-and-scientific-implications-of-variations-in-ptsd-criterion-a
#14
Jacob Y Stein, Dayna V Wilmot, Zahava Solomon
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric pathology wherein the precipitating traumatic event is essential for diagnostic eligibility (Criterion A). This link is substantiated throughout PTSD's development as a diagnosis. However, while traumatic events may vary considerably, this variation currently bears nearly no implications for psychiatric nosology. Consequently, PTSD remains a semi-unified diagnostic construct, consisting of no Criterion-A-determined subtypes of adult PTSD. The question addressed by the current paper is then does one size truly fit all? Making an argument for the negative, the paper briefly reviews complex PTSD (CPTSD), ongoing traumatic stress response (OTSR), and cumulative traumas, all of which are exemplars wherein Criterion A specification is crucial for understanding the emerging symptomatology and for devising appropriate interventions...
October 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418071/locomotor-profiling-from-rodents-to-the-clinic-and-back-again
#15
Jared W Young, Arpi Minassian, Mark A Geyer
The quantification of unconditioned motoric activity is one of the oldest and most commonly utilized tools in behavioral studies. Although typically measured in reference to psychiatric disorders, e.g., amphetamine-induced hyperactivity used as a model of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder (BD), and Tourette's syndrome, the motoric behavior of psychiatric patients had not been quantified similarly to rodents until recently. The rodent behavioral pattern monitor (BPM) was reverse-translated for use in humans, providing the quantification of not only motoric activity but also the locomotor exploratory profile of various psychiatric populations...
2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412648/engaging-research-domain-criteria-rdoc-neurocircuitry-in-search-of-meaning
#16
Greg I Elmer, P Leon Brown, Paul D Shepard
The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative was implemented to reorient the approach to mental health research from one focused on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) nosology to one oriented to psychological constructs constrained by neurocircuitry and molecular entities. The initiative has generated significant discussion and valuable reflection on the moorings of psychiatric research. The purpose of this article is to illustrate how a basic or clinical investigator can engage RDoC to explore the neurobiological underpinnings of psychopathology and how a research question can be formulated in RDoC's framework...
September 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27401060/obsessive-compulsive-and-related-disorders-comparing-dsm-5-and-icd-11
#17
Anna Marras, Naomi Fineberg, Stefano Pallanti
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been recognized as mainly characterized by compulsivity rather than anxiety and, therefore, was removed from the anxiety disorders chapter and given its own in both the American Psychiatric Association (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and the Beta Draft Version of the 11th revision of the World Health Organization (WHO) International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). This revised clustering is based on increasing evidence of common affected neurocircuits between disorders, differently from previous classification systems based on interrater agreement...
August 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27357713/behavioural-addictions-a-challenge-for-psychopathology-and-psychiatric-nosology
#18
Vladan Starcevic
Disorders characterised by repetitive and problematic behaviours and poor impulse control have been increasingly conceptualised as behavioural addictions. This article examines the concept of behavioural addiction and argues that the addiction framework is only one approach to these behavioural disturbances. It cautions against a tendency to regard many activities that are performed with an extraordinary intensity or frequency and that have some negative consequences as behavioural addiction. There is a need for more research to better understand the links between repetitive and problematic behaviours and other psychopathology, as well as the function of these behaviours and factors that maintain them...
August 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27344902/-not-available
#19
Johanne Collin, David Hughes
In The Mind of Modernism, Mark Micale demonstrates the ubiquity of the concept of hysteria in the French imagination at the turn of the century. Taking this approach as our starting point, our study attempts to determine if the notion of degeneration played a similar role in the interactions of psychiatry, culture and politics in Quebec. Our analysis of a variety of historical sources demonstrates that the concept of degeneration did indeed penetrate aspects of psychiatric nosology, medical literature, news media, fiction, and political discourse in Quebec...
2016: Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, Bulletin Canadien D'histoire de la Médecine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27216366/is-high-hypnotizability-a-necessary-diathesis-for-pathological-dissociation
#20
Paul F Dell
During the nineteenth century, high hypnotizability was considered to be a form of psychopathology that was inseparable from hysteria. Today, hypnotizability is considered to be a normal trait that has no meaningful relationship with psychopathology. Psychiatric patients generally manifest medium-to-low hypnotizability. Nevertheless, several psychiatric diagnoses are marked by an unexpectedly large proportion of patients with high hypnotizability. This is especially true of the diagnostic categories that were subsumed by the nineteenth-century concept of hysteria: Dissociative identity disorder, somatization disorder, and complex conversion disorders...
May 23, 2016: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
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