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Psychiatric nosology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756044/gender-dysphoria-in-adults-an-overview-and-primer-for-psychiatrists
#1
William Byne, Dan H Karasic, Eli Coleman, A Evan Eyler, Jeremy D Kidd, Heino F L Meyer-Bahlburg, Richard R Pleak, Jack Pula
Regardless of their area of specialization, adult psychiatrists are likely to encounter gender-variant patients; however, medical school curricula and psychiatric residency training programs devote little attention to their care. This article aims to assist adult psychiatrists who are not gender specialists in the delivery of respectful, clinically competent, and culturally attuned care to gender-variant patients, including those who identify as transgender or transsexual or meet criteria for the diagnosis of Gender Dysphoria (GD) as defined by The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edition)...
2018: Transgender Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740357/a-perspective-on-a-possible-relation-between-the-psychopathology-of-the-schizophrenia-schizoaffective-spectrum-and-unconjugated-bilirubin-a-longitudinal-protocol-study
#2
João Gama Marques, Filipe Arantes-Gonçalves
Some authors suggest a relation between Unconjugated Bilirubin (UCB) plasma high levels and schizophrenia, as schizophrenia patients have been showing higher UCB levels when compared with other psychiatric patients and general population. These higher UCB levels have been already correlated with acute psychotic states, positive symptoms, and poor outcome in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders share common symptoms but there aren't yet accepted biomarkers for their distinction...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674773/-problems-and-perspectives-in-psychiatric-diagnosis
#3
Angelo Picardi, Martina Valentini, Massimo Biondi
Diagnosis in psychiatry is a complex and difficult issue. A great many considerations have been made about the debatable ontological status of mental disorders and the difficulties in providing flawless definitions for them. While these considerations help appreciate the subtleties and difficulties of the topic, they do not imply that mental disorders do not exist or that nosological classification is unnecessary or useless. Although classifications have some inherent flaws and limitations, they can nevertheless be useful...
March 2018: Rivista di Psichiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626336/immunological-processes-in-schizophrenia-pathology-potential-biomarkers
#4
Tina Notter
Accumulating evidence suggests that the pathophysiology or schizophrenia involves alterations in immune functions, both peripherally and centrally. Immunopsychiatric research has provided a number of candidate biomarkers that could aid estimating the risk of developing schizophrenia and/or predicting its clinical course or outcomes. This chapter summarizes the findings of immune dysfunctions along the clinical course of schizophrenia and discusses their potential value as predictive, trait or state biomarkers...
April 7, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621902/all-for-one-and-one-for-all-mental-disorders-in-one-dimension
#5
Avshalom Caspi, Terrie E Moffitt
In both child and adult psychiatry, empirical evidence has now accrued to suggest that a single dimension is able to measure a person's liability to mental disorder, comorbidity among disorders, persistence of disorders over time, and severity of symptoms. This single dimension of general psychopathology has been termed "p," because it conceptually parallels a dimension already familiar to behavioral scientists and clinicians: the "g" factor of general intelligence. As the g dimension reflects low to high mental ability, the p dimension represents low to high psychopathology severity, with thought disorder at the extreme...
April 6, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588048/-communities-of-conditions-novel-methods-for-classifying-psychiatric-disorders
#6
EDITORIAL
David S Hong
In 1798, Philippe Pinel presented one of the first nosologies for psychiatric disorders, "Nosographie philosophique ou la méthode de l'analyse appliquée a la médecine."1 His emphasis on psychological and physical conditions as the basis of mental illness provided a distinct departure from prior reliance on such etiologies such as demonic possession. Establishing classification schema was a much more profound innovation than a simple academic reordering of psychiatric phenomena-under Pinel's leadership at the famed Pitié-Salpêtrière hospital, it also led to a radical reformation of clinical interventions, moving away from pseudoscientific practices toward psychologically based interventions...
April 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565629/-consensus-document-about-the-nutritional-evaluation-and-management-of-eating-disorders-bulimia-nervosa-binge-eating-disorder-and-others
#7
Carmen Gómez Candela, Samara Palma Milla, Alberto Miján-de-la-Torre, Pilar Rodríguez Ortega, Pilar Matía Martín, Viviana Loria Cohen, Rocío Campos Del Portillo, M ª Nuria Virgili Casas, Miguel Á Martínez Olmos, M ª Teresa Mories Álvarez, M ª José Castro Alija, Ángela Martín-Palmero
Bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder are unique nosological entities. Both show a large variability related to its presentation and severity which involves different therapeutic approaches and the need to individualize the treatment, thus it is indispensable a multidisciplinary approach. Patients with bulimia nervosa may suffer from malnutrition and deficiency states or even excess weight, while in binge eating disorders, it is common overweight or obesity, which determine other comorbidities. Many of the symptoms and complications are associated with compensatory behaviors...
March 7, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522624/-argentine-psychiatric-nosologies-and-nosographies
#8
Juan C Stagnaro
Since the late 19th century, Argentinean psychiatrists have been developing classifcations of psychiatric disorders. Their work has had local originality and fruitful exchange with international controversies on the subject. The thinking of some Argentinean psychiatrists transcended the borders of the country and was adopted in the South American region, as was the case with the classifcation proposed by José T. Borda. There were also historical anticipations of concepts that were not known in other latitudes: "oligotimia", a category created by Enrique Pichon-Rivière, preceded the characterization of early childhood autism by Leo Kanner...
May 2017: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509179/does-late-onset-anorexia-nervosa-exist-findings-from-a-comparative-study-in-singapore
#9
Shian Ming Tan, Kah Foo Victor Kwok, Kelly A Zainal, Huei Yen Lee
OBJECTIVE: The incidence of cases of older onset anorexia nervosa (AN) has increased in recent years. However, the literature on late-onset AN has been inconclusive. The goal of this study was to compare late-onset with early-onset cases of AN. METHODS: Cases of AN presenting to an eating disorders treatment service were identified and the associated medical records were studied retrospectively. RESULTS: Of the 577 cases of AN that were studied, 7...
March 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487335/gender-bias-in-clinicians-pathologization-of-atypical-sexuality-a-randomized-controlled-trial-with-mental-health-professionals
#10
Johannes Fuss, Peer Briken, Verena Klein
The psychiatric classification of "normal" versus disordered sexual behavior has been a subject of some dispute. Although atypical sexual interests have been viewed traditionally as typically male, epidemiological data indicate its presence in both genders. We examined how gender and sexual orientation influence whether or not atypical sexual behavior is classified as a mental disorder. Mental health professionals (N = 546) were presented with five case vignettes where subjects exhibit paraphilic behaviors; one case with psychotic symptoms served as the control condition...
February 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480060/-a-more-perfect-arrangement-of-plants-the-botanical-model-in-psychiatric-nosology-1676-to-the-present-day
#11
Daniel Mason, Honor Hsin
Psychiatric classification remains a complex endeavour; since the Enlightenment, nosologists have made use of various models and metaphors to describe their systems. Here we present the most common model, botanical taxonomy, and trace its history from the nosologies of Sydenham, Sauvages and Linnaeus; to evolutionary models; to the later contributions of Hughlings-Jackson, Kraepelin and Jaspers. Over time, there has been a shift from explicit attempts to pattern disease classification on botanical systems, to a more metaphorical use...
February 1, 2018: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469662/a-recurrent-question-what-is-borderline
#12
Maja Zandersen, Mads Gram Henriksen, Josef Parnas
The status of borderline personality disorder (BPD) as a diagnostic category is a matter of continuing controversy. In the United States, BPD is one of the most frequent diagnoses of psychiatric inpatients, and a similar tendency emerges in Europe. Nearly all theoretical aspects of BPD have been questioned, including its very position as a personality disorder. In this article, we trace the evolution of the borderline concept from the beginning of the 20th century to the current psychometric research. We argue that the status of BPD is fraught with conceptual difficulties, including an unrecognized semantic drift of major phenomenological terms (e...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428123/innovations-reviews-and-proposals-on-the-dsm-5-the-case-of-sexual-dysfunctions-gender-dysphoria-and-paraphilic-disorders
#13
Adalberto Campo-Arias, Edwin Herazo
Human behaviours have different meanings according to the historical moment and context. In this article sexual behaviours are taken as a category in order to analyse how psychiatric nosology is structured, as manifested in texts such as the DSM-5. The development of these diagnostic manuals are tools that are far from being free of subjectivities and interference of elements of power, expressed in the way health, illness, mental health, and mental disorders, are assumed; in short, the normal and pathological...
January 2018: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414382/interictal-dysphoric-disorder-further-doubts-about-its-epilepsy-specificity-and-its-independency-from-common-psychiatric-disorders
#14
Kirsten Labudda, Dominik Illies, Christian G Bien, Frank Neuner
PURPOSE: The interictal dysphoric disorder (IDD) is a proposed epilepsy-specific psychiatric condition characterized by a conglomerate of symptoms such as depression, irritability, euphoria, and anxiety. However, there are doubts about IDD as an independent entity and about its presumed epilepsy-specific nature. METHODS: Here, we investigated the association between psychiatric disorders and IDD in 120 patients with epilepsy, also analyzing potential associations between IDD symptoms and epilepsy-related variables...
March 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317742/psychiatric-genetics-and-the-structure-of-psychopathology
#15
REVIEW
Jordan W Smoller, Ole A Andreassen, Howard J Edenberg, Stephen V Faraone, Stephen J Glatt, Kenneth S Kendler
For over a century, psychiatric disorders have been defined by expert opinion and clinical observation. The modern DSM has relied on a consensus of experts to define categorical syndromes based on clusters of symptoms and signs, and, to some extent, external validators, such as longitudinal course and response to treatment. In the absence of an established etiology, psychiatry has struggled to validate these descriptive syndromes, and to define the boundaries between disorders and between normal and pathologic variation...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282590/culture-and-context-in-mental-health-diagnosing-scrutinizing-the-dsm-5-revision
#16
Anna Bredström
This article examines the revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and its claim of incorporating a "greater cultural sensitivity." The analysis reveals that the manual conveys mixed messages as it explicitly addresses the critique of being ethnocentric and having a static notion of culture yet continues in a similar fashion when culture is applied in diagnostic criteria. The analysis also relates to current trends in psychiatric nosology that emphasize neurobiology and decontextualize distress and points to how the DSM-5 risks serving as an ethnic dividing line in psychiatry by making sociocultural context relevant only for some patients...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248900/karl-jaspers-the-icon-of-modern-psychiatry
#17
Michael A Schwartz, Marcin Moskalewicz, Osborne P Wiggins
December 2015 and March 2016 issues of the American Journal of Psychiatry contain a debate focusing on the legacy of Emil Kraepelin, widely considered one of the founders if not the iconic founder of modern scientific psychiatry. The authors, Eric J. Engstrom and Kenneth S. Kendler, challenge the so-called neo-Kraepelinian view of Kraepelin and argue that the true, historical Kraepelin was far more inclined towards scientific psychology, less reductionist and brain-centric, and more skeptical nosologically than his later followers apparently believe...
2017: Israel Journal of Psychiatry and related Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241358/criticisms-of-kraepelin-s-psychiatric-nosology-1896-1927
#18
Kenneth S Kendler, Eric J Engstrom
Emil Kraepelin's psychiatric nosology, proposed in the 5th and 6th editions of his textbook published in 1896 and 1899, did not quickly gain worldwide acceptance, but was instead met with substantial and sustained criticism. The authors review critiques of Kraepelin's work published in his lifetime by Adolf Meyer, Friedrich Jolly, Eugenio Tanzi, Alfred Hoche, Karl Jaspers, and Willy Hellpach. These critics made six major points. First, Kraepelin's new categories of dementia praecox and manic-depressive insanity were too broad and too heterogeneous...
April 1, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165678/the-genealogy-of-dementia-praecox-i-signs-and-symptoms-of-delusional-psychoses-from-1880-to-1900
#19
Kenneth S Kendler
We can trace, with high congruence, the clinical syndromes of depression and mania as described over the 20th century in psychiatric textbooks back to 1880 and to the earliest writing of Kraepelin published in 1883. However, this is not the case for Kraepelin's 2 delusional syndromes central to his overall nosology: Dementia Paranoides (later paranoid schizophrenia) and Paranoia. A detailed examination of 28 textbook descriptions of delusional psychoses from 1880 to 1900 reveals a diverse and partially overlapping set of syndromes with an admixture of symptoms and signs that would later be considered indicative of Dementia Paranoides and Paranoia...
November 19, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130695/a-test-of-the-empirical-profile-and-coherence-of-the-dsm-5-psychopathy-specifier
#20
Joshua D Miller, Joanna Lamkin, Jessica L Maples-Keller, Chelsea E Sleep, Donald R Lynam
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5th edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) introduced a psychopathy specifier (DSM-5 PS) as part of the Section III diagnostic model of antisocial personality disorder. Designed to capture the construct of fearless dominance/boldness, the DSM-5 PS is assessed on the basis of the presence of low scores on traits of withdrawal and anxiousness, and high scores on attention seeking. These constructs have garnered attention in the past decade but are the subject of substantial debate as to their role in the conceptualization and assessment of psychopathy, given their limited relations to the maladaptive outcomes typically associated with this personality disorder...
November 13, 2017: Psychological Assessment
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