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Psychiatric nosology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317742/psychiatric-genetics-and-the-structure-of-psychopathology
#1
REVIEW
Jordan W Smoller, Ole A Andreassen, Howard J Edenberg, Stephen V Faraone, Stephen J Glatt, Kenneth S Kendler
For over a century, psychiatric disorders have been defined by expert opinion and clinical observation. The modern DSM has relied on a consensus of experts to define categorical syndromes based on clusters of symptoms and signs, and, to some extent, external validators, such as longitudinal course and response to treatment. In the absence of an established etiology, psychiatry has struggled to validate these descriptive syndromes, and to define the boundaries between disorders and between normal and pathologic variation...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282590/culture-and-context-in-mental-health-diagnosing-scrutinizing-the-dsm-5-revision
#2
Anna Bredström
This article examines the revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and its claim of incorporating a "greater cultural sensitivity." The analysis reveals that the manual conveys mixed messages as it explicitly addresses the critique of being ethnocentric and having a static notion of culture yet continues in a similar fashion when culture is applied in diagnostic criteria. The analysis also relates to current trends in psychiatric nosology that emphasize neurobiology and decontextualize distress and points to how the DSM-5 risks serving as an ethnic dividing line in psychiatry by making sociocultural context relevant only for some patients...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248900/karl-jaspers-the-icon-of-modern-psychiatry
#3
Michael A Schwartz, Marcin Moskalewicz, Osborne P Wiggins
December 2015 and March 2016 issues of the American Journal of Psychiatry contain a debate focusing on the legacy of Emil Kraepelin, widely considered one of the founders if not the iconic founder of modern scientific psychiatry. The authors, Eric J. Engstrom and Kenneth S. Kendler, challenge the so-called neo-Kraepelinian view of Kraepelin and argue that the true, historical Kraepelin was far more inclined towards scientific psychology, less reductionist and brain-centric, and more skeptical nosologically than his later followers apparently believe...
2017: Israel Journal of Psychiatry and related Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241358/criticisms-of-kraepelin-s-psychiatric-nosology-1896-1927
#4
Kenneth S Kendler, Eric J Engstrom
Emil Kraepelin's psychiatric nosology, proposed in the 5th and 6th editions of his textbook published in 1896 and 1899, did not quickly gain worldwide acceptance, but was instead met with substantial and sustained criticism. The authors review critiques of Kraepelin's work published in his lifetime by Adolf Meyer, Friedrich Jolly, Eugenio Tanzi, Alfred Hoche, Karl Jaspers, and Willy Hellpach. These critics made six major points. First, Kraepelin's new categories of dementia praecox and manic-depressive insanity were too broad and too heterogeneous...
December 15, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165678/the-genealogy-of-dementia-praecox-i-signs-and-symptoms-of-delusional-psychoses-from-1880-to-1900
#5
Kenneth S Kendler
We can trace, with high congruence, the clinical syndromes of depression and mania as described over the 20th century in psychiatric textbooks back to 1880 and to the earliest writing of Kraepelin published in 1883. However, this is not the case for Kraepelin's 2 delusional syndromes central to his overall nosology: Dementia Paranoides (later paranoid schizophrenia) and Paranoia. A detailed examination of 28 textbook descriptions of delusional psychoses from 1880 to 1900 reveals a diverse and partially overlapping set of syndromes with an admixture of symptoms and signs that would later be considered indicative of Dementia Paranoides and Paranoia...
November 19, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130695/a-test-of-the-empirical-profile-and-coherence-of-the-dsm-5-psychopathy-specifier
#6
Joshua D Miller, Joanna Lamkin, Jessica L Maples-Keller, Chelsea E Sleep, Donald R Lynam
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5th edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) introduced a psychopathy specifier (DSM-5 PS) as part of the Section III diagnostic model of antisocial personality disorder. Designed to capture the construct of fearless dominance/boldness, the DSM-5 PS is assessed on the basis of the presence of low scores on traits of withdrawal and anxiousness, and high scores on attention seeking. These constructs have garnered attention in the past decade but are the subject of substantial debate as to their role in the conceptualization and assessment of psychopathy, given their limited relations to the maladaptive outcomes typically associated with this personality disorder...
November 13, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119914/obsessive-compulsive-disorder-with-comorbid-bipolar-disorders-clinical-features-and-treatment-implications
#7
Federico Mucci, Cristina Toni, Ettore Favaretto, Giulia Vannucchi, Donatella Marazziti, Giulio Perugi
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms within the context of a bipolar disorder (BD) have been described since the 19th century. Interestingly, the existence of a relevant overlap between the aforementioned psychiatric syndromes has been confirmed by a number of recent epidemiological and family studies. AIMS: The aim of the present paper is to review the clinical features and the therapeutic implications of the OCD-BD comorbidity. DISCUSSION: In the last two decades, the frequent association between OCD and BD has been earning a growing interest given its relevant nosological and therapeutic implications...
November 8, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043155/catatonia-as-a-putative-nosological-entity-a-historical-sketch
#8
REVIEW
Gábor Gazdag, Rozalia Takács, Gabor S Ungvari
Kahlbaum was the first to propose catatonia as a separate disease following the example of general paresis of the insane, which served as a model for establishing a nosological entity. However, Kahlbaum was uncertain about the nosological position of catatonia and considered it a syndrome, or "a temporary stage or a part of a complex picture of various disease forms". Until recently, the issue of catatonia as a separate diagnostic category was not entertained, mainly due to a misinterpretation of Kraepelin's influential views on catatonia as a subtype of schizophrenia...
September 22, 2017: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036668/neurobiological-commonalities-and-distinctions-among-three-major-psychiatric-diagnostic-categories-a-structural-mri-study
#9
Miao Chang, Fay Y Womer, E Kale Edmiston, Chuan Bai, Qian Zhou, Xiaowei Jiang, Shengnan Wei, Yange Wei, Yuting Ye, Haiyan Huang, Yong He, Ke Xu, Yanqing Tang, Fei Wang
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder (MDD) are distinct diagnostic categories in current psychiatric nosology, yet there is increasing evidence for shared clinical and biological features in these disorders. No previous studies have examined brain structural features concurrently in these 3 disorders. The aim of this study was to identify the extent of shared and distinct brain alterations in SZ, BD, and MDD. We examined gray matter (GM) volume and white matter (WM) integrity in a total of 485 individuals (135 with SZ, 86 with BD, 108 with MDD, and 156 healthy controls [HC]) who underwent high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at a single site...
June 13, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031920/kraepelin-s-crumbling-twin-pillars-using-biology-to-reconstruct-psychiatric-nosology-from-the-bottom-up
#10
Joao P De Aquino, David A Ross
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017626/case-series-of-mild-behavioral-impairment-toward-an-understanding-of-the-early-stages-of-neurodegenerative-diseases-affecting-behavior-and-cognition
#11
Alicja Cieslak, Eric E Smith, John Lysack, Zahinoor Ismail
Mild behavioral impairment (MBI) is characterized by later life acquired, sustained, and impactful neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) of any severity that cannot be better accounted for by other formal medical and psychiatric nosology. MBI is an "at risk" state for incident cognitive decline and dementia, and for some, MBI is the index manifestation of neurodegeneration, observed in advance of cognitive impairment. Initially described in Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD), MBI evolved to describe a preclinical stage of all cause dementia, and has been operationalized in the International Society to Advance Alzheimer's Research and Treatment-Alzheimer's Association (ISTAART-AA) proposed research diagnostic criteria...
October 11, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980614/-neuropsychiatric-disorders-in-dementia-mechanisms-and-treatment-approach
#12
E E Vasenina, O A Gan'kina
Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia can manifest at various stages during the disease. Prominence and rate of progression may depend on nosological form of dementia as well as environmental factors, concomitant diseases et al. Each psychiatric symptom is based on the specific neurotransmitter imbalance and differentiated involvement of various parts of the Central Nervous System in the pathological process. Treatment in each case should be chosen individually taking into account the balance of benefits and risks of prescribed drugs...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966601/the-lacanian-concept-of-paranoia-an-historical-perspective
#13
Thomas Lepoutre, Manoel L Madeira, Nicolas Guerin
This article seeks to reopen a major question raised by the Lacanian nosology of the psychoses, by looking closely at Lacan's formulations of what he never ceased referring to as "paranoia". While almost all classification systems of modern psychiatry, such as the ICD-10 and the DSM-5, have abandoned the specific category of paranoia, Lacan always viewed paranoia as a major category of "functional psychosis". He held that paranoia was a qualitatively different disorder than schizophrenia, and considered it to be the principal or exemplary form of psychosis...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937340/research-domain-criteria-as-psychiatric-nosology
#14
Faisal Akram, James Giordano
Diagnostic classification systems in psychiatry have continued to rely on clinical phenomenology, despite limitations inherent in that approach. In view of these limitations and recent progress in neuroscience, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) has initiated the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project to develop a more neuroscientifically based system of characterizing and classifying psychiatric disorders. The RDoC initiative aims to transform psychiatry into an integrative science of psychopathology in which mental illnesses will be defined as involving putative dysfunctions in neural nodes and networks...
October 2017: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922592/determining-if-borderline-personality-disorder-and-bipolar-disorder-are-alternative-expressions-of-the-same-disorder-results-from-the-national-epidemiologic-survey-on-alcohol-and-related-conditions
#15
Iris de la Rosa, María A Oquendo, Gemma García, Barbara Stanley, Ana González-Pinto, Shang-Min Liu, Carlos Blanco
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder represent 2 different disorders or alternative manifestations of the same disorder. METHODS: The data were collected between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2005. The analyses were conducted between December 21 and December 27, 2010. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were performed on 25 symptoms assessing depression, mania, and borderline personality disorder from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large nationally representative sample of the US adult population (N = 34,653)...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899446/affective-and-emotional-dysregulation-as-pre-dementia-risk-markers-exploring-the-mild-behavioral-impairment-symptoms-of-depression-anxiety-irritability-and-euphoria
#16
Zahinoor Ismail, Jennifer Gatchel, Daniel R Bateman, Ricardo Barcelos-Ferreira, Marc Chantillon, Judith Jaeger, Nancy J Donovan, Moyra E Mortby
BACKGROUND: Affective and emotional symptoms such as depression, anxiety, euphoria, and irritability are common neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in pre-dementia and cognitively normal older adults. They comprise a domain of Mild Behavioral Impairment (MBI), which describes their emergence in later life as an at-risk state for cognitive decline and dementia, and as a potential manifestation of prodromal dementia. This selective scoping review explores the epidemiology and neurobiological links between affective and emotional symptoms, and incident cognitive decline, focusing on recent literature in this expanding field of research...
September 13, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875851/urotensin-ii-molecular-mechanisms-of-biological-activity
#17
Andrey A Svistunov, Vadim V Tarasov, Svetlana A Shakhmardanova, Susanna S Sologova, Ekaterina T Bagaturija, Vladimir N Chubarev, Pavel A Galenko-Yaroshevsky, George E Barreto, Gjumrakch Aliev
Urotensin II (UT II) is an important factor of cellular homeostasis. This regulatory peptide is involved in the pathophysiology of many disorders. For example, it plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic diseases, stressful and adaptive reactions of the body, in the development of cardiovascular pathologies, metabolic syndrome, inflammation, liver cirrhosis, renal failure, diabetic nephropathy, reproductive dysfunction, progression of psychosomatic, psychoendocrinal and psychiatric disorders...
August 29, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867937/epidemiology-of-anxiety-disorders-from-surveys-to-nosology-and-back
#18
Dan J Stein, Kate M Scott, Peter de Jonge, Ronald C Kessler
On the basis of epidemiological survey findings, anxiety disorders are the most prevalent mental disorders around the world and are associated with significant comorbidity and morbidity. Such surveys rely on advances in psychiatric nosology and may also contribute usefully to revisions of the nosology. There are a number of questions at the intersection of psychiatric epidemiology and nosology. This review addresses the following: What is the prevalence of anxiety disorders and how do we best explain cross-national differences in prevalence estimates? What are the optimal diagnostic criteria for anxiety disorders, and how can epidemiological data shed light on this question? What are the comorbidities of anxiety disorders, and how do we best understand the high comorbidities seen in these conditions? What is the current treatment gap for anxiety disorders, and what are the implications of current understandings of psychiatric epidemiology and nosology for policy-making relevant to anxiety disorders? Here, we emphasize that anxiety disorders are the most prevalent of the psychiatric conditions, and that rather than merely contrasting cross-national prevalence in anxiety disorders, it is more productive to delineate cross-national themes that emerge about the epidemiology of these conditions...
June 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782970/review-of-cold-war-freud-psychiatry-in-communist-europe-and-psiquiatr%C3%A3-a-psico%C3%A3-nalisis-y-cultura-comunista-batallas-ideol%C3%A3-gicas-en-la-guerra-fria-psychiatry-psychoanalysis-and-communist-culture-ideological-battles-in-the-cold-war
#19
Marco Innamorati
Reviews the books, Cold War Freud by D. Herzog (2016), Psychiatry in Communist Europe edited by M. Savelli and S. Marks (2015), and Psiquiatría, Psicoánalisis y Cultura Comunista: Batallas Ideológicas en la Guerra Fria [Psychiatry, psychoanalysis and communist culture: Ideological battles in the Cold War] by H. Vezzetti. On the whole, the three books show how the Cold War influenced, in various ways, psychiatric and psychotherapeutic cultures. Beyond the Iron Curtain, as one can perceive from the book edited by Savelli and Marks (2015), politics explicitly set the agenda for the psychological sciences, using them even to invent ad hoc nosologies, useful for purposes related to power...
August 2017: History of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753076/the-burden-of-psychosocial-morbidity-related-to-cancer-patient-and-family-issues
#20
Rosangela Caruso, Mara Giulia Nanni, Michelle B Riba, Silvana Sabato, Luigi Grassi
With cancer incidence increasing over time, attention to the burden of related psychiatric and psychosocial consequences of the disease and treatment is a major topic for both cancer patients and their caregivers. Among cancer patients, psychiatric (e.g. adjustment, anxiety, depressive disorders) and neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g. cognitive disorders secondary to treatment, delirium) have been shown to affect an average of 30-35% patients, with differences according to stage and type of cancer. Also other psychosocial syndromes (e...
July 28, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
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