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Aviators heart

Marionne Cronin
In May 1926, U.S. newspapers were full of the story that Richard Byrd, an American aviator, had become the first person to reach the North Pole by air. The announcement triggered patriotic outpourings across the country and Byrd was widely hailed as a national hero. The young aviator's flight was part of a burgeoning interwar expeditionary practice that placed machines at the heart of new modes of exploration. This development, however, challenged preexisting notions of masculine heroism and threatened to undercut the explorer's heroic status...
April 2016: Technology and Culture
Thomas E Sather, Donald R Delorey
INTRODUCTION: Since the debut of energy beverages, the consumption of energy beverages has been immensely popular with young adults. Research regarding energy beverage consumption has included college students, European Union residents, and U.S. Army military personnel. However, energy beverage consumption among naval aviation candidates in the United States has yet to be examined. The purpose of this study was to assess energy beverage consumption patterns (frequency and volume) among naval aviation candidates, including attitudes and perceptions regarding the benefits and safety of energy beverage consumption...
June 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Heikki Mansikka, Petteri Simola, Kai Virtanen, Don Harris, Lauri Oksama
Fighter pilots' heart rate (HR), heart rate variation (HRV) and performance during instrument approaches were examined. The subjects were required to fly instrument approaches in a high-fidelity simulator under various levels of task demand. The task demand was manipulated by increasing the load on the subjects by reducing the range at which they commenced the approach. HR and the time domain components of HRV were used as measures of pilot mental workload (PMWL). The findings of this study indicate that HR and HRV are sensitive to varying task demands...
March 4, 2016: Ergonomics
Xu Wu, Xiaoru Wanyan, Damin Zhuang
BACKGROUND: Human factors involved with visual attention mechanism and fatigue are critical causes of modern aviation accidents. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the connection between attention and flight fatigue, a mathematical model of pilot's visual attention allocation was established based on information processing channels. Multi-task condition and current psychophysical state were taken into account as well. METHODS: Sixteen participants were recruited to perform a long-term dual-task in a Boeing 737-800 flight simulator...
2015: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
Russell J Lewis, Philip M Kemp, Robert D Johnson
Paroxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor commonly prescribed for the treatment of depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. While the use of paroxetine is considered relatively safe, negative side effects, including nausea, drowsiness, insomnia and dizziness, can adversely affect a pilot's ability to safely operate an aircraft. The use of paroxetine may increase suicidal behavior and suicidal ideation. When relying on postmortem specimens for toxicological evaluation, a general understanding of drug distribution throughout postmortem specimens is important...
October 2015: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Anne-Sophie Evrard, Liacine Bouaoun, Patricia Champelovier, Jacques Lambert, Bernard Laumon
The impact of aircraft noise on health is of growing concern. We investigated the relationship between this exposure and mortality from cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, and stroke. We performed an ecological study on 161 communes (commune being the smallest administrative unit in France) close to the following three major French airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Lyon Saint-Exupéry, and Toulouse-Blagnac. The mortality data were provided by the French Center on Medical Causes of Death for the period 2007-2010...
September 2015: Noise & Health
Philip M Kemp, Patrick S Cardona, Arvind K Chaturvedi, John W Soper
Little is known of the postmortem distribution of ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and its major metabolite, 11-nor-9-carboxy-∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH). Data from 55 pilots involved in fatal aviation accidents are presented in this study. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis obtained mean THC concentrations in blood from multiple sites, liver, lung, and kidney of 15.6 ng/mL, 92.4 ng/g, 766.0 ng/g, 44.1 ng/g and mean THCCOOH concentrations of 35.9 ng/mL, 322.4 ng/g, 42.6 ng/g, 138.5 ng/g, respectively...
July 2015: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Haitao Zhang, Huilan Luo, Jinjin Sun, Chaozhong Liu, Yi Tian, Hao Chen, Chao Zhang
BACKGROUND: Exposure of pilots' heart to acceleration-associated stress (+Gz stress) is an adverse effect of high-performance aviation. The occurrence of coronary heart diseases is one of the most frequent medical causes leading to cessation of flying. AIM: To assess the effects of +Gz stress on coronary artery stenosis (CAS) in a minimally invasive miniature swine model with a fast recovery. METHODS: The proximal left anterior descending branch was ligated in 20 swine using silk suture...
October 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
R M Baevskiĭ, A G Chernikova
Trends in the development of modern ideas about health as the ability to adapt require personalization and preventive orientation in evaluating and predicting individual health. It can be realized only on the basis ofprenosological approach, which is necessary in medicine and physiology of labor, in particular--in the aviation and space medicine. The article analyzes the concept of adaptation risks and its application for health, assessing on the basis of the results of space and Earth modeling studies of autonomic regulation according to the HRV (heart rate variability) analysis...
October 2014: Rossiĭskii Fiziologicheskiĭ Zhurnal Imeni I.M. Sechenova
Jeffrey R Baden, Maria Abrosimova, Lindsey M Boulet, Michael M Tymko, Jamie R Pfoh, Rachel J Skow, Trevor A Day
BACKGROUND: Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is characterized by normal fluctuations in heart rate in phase with the respiratory cycle. There are many proposed mechanisms underlying the RSA phenomenon, including respiratory-induced cardiac loading (i.e., Bainbridge reflex), arterial baroreflex activation, vagal feedback from pulmonary stretch receptors, and central neural mechanisms. It is currently unclear to what extent these mechanisms are responsible for eliciting RSA in humans, particularly in response to stressors...
December 2014: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine
Adrian J Mellor, David R Woods, John O'Hara, Mark Howley, James Watchorn, Christopher Boos
BACKGROUND: There is a widely held belief that strenuous exercise should be avoided on arrival at high altitude (HA) and during acclimatization. Data from chamber studies are contradictory and the studies are usually of short duration, therefore differing from the "real world." METHODS: We studied 48 trekkers during a 10-d ascent to 16,827 ft (5129 m) in the Cordillera Real area of Bolivia. Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) scores were recorded for the hardest perceived exertion during the day after ascents to 12,576, 14,600, and 16,827 ft (3833, 4450, and 5129 m)...
December 2014: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine
Makoto Ando, Yukihiro Takahashi, In-Sam Park, Hitonobu Tomoike
BACKGROUND: There is currently a well-established network for the allocation of donor organs for transplantation in Japan, and emergency patients are often transported by the "Doctor Helicopter". However, interhospital transfer of patients, which can require aircraft with specialized equipment, depends on arrangement by each responsible hospital. METHODS AND RESULTS: Since 2009 there were 41 interhospital aviation transfers of pediatric patients with intractable cardiac or airway diseases seeking surgical treatment at Sakakibara Heart Institute...
2015: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
Stephanie M Davis, Eddie D Davenport, Jared T Haynes, Rosa L Alvarado
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence, progression rates, and outcomes affecting aviator valvular heart disease have not been extensively studied. METHODS: The U.S. Air Force (USAF) School of Aerospace Medicine's Clinical Sciences Database was used to determine prevalence and progression rates for regurgitant valvular disease. A subset of the initial population was further evaluated for risk factors that increased the likelihood of progression. Descriptive statistical analysis, analysis of variance, and t-test calculations were completed...
October 2014: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine
Danilo Cialoni, Massimo Pieri, Costantino Balestra, Alessandro Marroni
INTRODUCTION: Flying after diving may increase decompression sickness risk (DCS), but strong evidence indicating minimum preflight surface intervals (PFSI) is missing. METHODS: On return flights after a diving week on a live-aboard, 32 divers were examined by in-flight echocardiography with the following protocol: 1) outgoing flight, no previous dive; 2) during the diving week; 3) before the return flight after a 24-h PFSI; and 4) during the return flight. RESULTS: All divers completed similar multiple repetitive dives during the diving week...
October 2014: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine
Cengiz Ozturk, Mustafa Aparci, Tolga Cakmak, Suleyman Metin, Sevket Balta, Ahmet Sen
INTRODUCTION: Syncope may be the initial clinical presentation of atrial fibrillation (AF) and has a great potential for incapacitation during flight. Herein is presented the case of a jet pilot who had paroxysmal palpitations accompanied with presyncope which progressed to syncope and was found to be associated with AF. CASE REPORT: A 23-yr-old male jet pilot had a sudden syncope at the fifth minute of his presentation during the daily flight briefing. After he regained consciousness, he was transferred to the intensive care unit of the military hospital...
September 2014: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine
Angelica Godinez, Dorion B Liston, Ruthie Ayzenberg, William B Toscano, Patricia A Cowings, Leland S Stone
BACKGROUND: Operational environments expose pilots and astronauts to sustained acceleration (G loading) and whole-body vibration, alone and in combination. Separately, the physiological effects of G loading and vibration have been well studied; both have effects similar to mild exercise. The few studies of combined G loading and vibration have not reported an interaction between these factors on physiological responses. METHODS: We tested the effects of G loading (+1 and +3...
September 2014: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine
Nicole E Moyen, Toby Mündel, Andrea M Du Bois, Anthony B Ciccone, R Hugh Morton, Daniel A Judelson
INTRODUCTION: Women increasingly occupy manual labor jobs. However, research examining women working under hot-humid conditions is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to assess how increasing relative humidity (RH) affects women's thermoregulation during low-intensity exercise characteristic of 8 h self-paced manual labor. METHODS: There were 10 women (age: 23 ± 2 yr; body-surface area: 1.68 ± 0.13 m²; Vo2max: 46 ± 6 ml · kg⁻¹ · min⁻¹) who walked 90 min at 35% Vo2max in 35°C at 55% RH (55RH), 70% RH (70RH), and 85% RH (85RH)...
September 2014: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine
A V Nagovitsyn, V N Ardashev, Yu I Voronkov
Structure and prevalence of various forms of noncoronary heart diseases (NCHD) and cardiac rhythm disorders (CRD) in state aviation pilots, as well as rates of ensuing grounding were studied. The total of 220 NCHD and 100 essentially healthy pilots were examined. Cardiovascular clinical and functional investigations consisted of physical examination, ECG, dispersion mapping (DM ECG), provocative tests and other techniques used for pilots' certification. Effectiveness of the clinical and instrumental methods of diagnosing arrhythmias was evaluated...
May 2013: Aviakosmicheskaia i Ekologicheskaia Meditsina, Aerospace and Environmental Medicine
Alon Grossman, Alex Prokupetz, Barak Gordon, Nira Morag-Koren, Ehud Grossman
The prevalence and magnitude of inter-arm BP difference (IAD) in young healthy patients is not well characterized. Flight academy applicants and designated aviators undergo annual evaluation that includes blood pressure (BP) measurement on both arms. All BP measurements performed from January 1, 2012, to April 30, 2012, were recorded and IAD was calculated. Results were compared between patients in whom BP was initially measured in the right arm (group 1), those in whom BP was initially measured in the left arm (group 2), and those in whom the arm in which BP was initially measured was not recorded (group 3)...
August 2013: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
K B Solov'eva, I V Dolbin, E B Koroleva
The purpose was to study in-flight blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in polar transport aviation pilots afflicted with essential hypertension. A total of 30 pilots were distributed into 2 groups: hypertensive pilots and those who, though generally healthy were, because of some conditions and lifestyle, predisposed to the cardiovascular risk (CVR). The examination included establishment of personal CVR factors, electrocardiography, bicycle ergometry, echocardiography, off-duty 24-hour BP and HR monitoring, and in-flight BP and HR monitoring...
March 2013: Aviakosmicheskaia i Ekologicheskaia Meditsina, Aerospace and Environmental Medicine
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