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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437854/is-there-sufficient-evidence-for-a-causal-association-between-antiretroviral-therapy-and-diabetes-in-hiv-infected-patients-a-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Chidozie U Nduka, Saverio Stranges, Peter K Kimani, Ahmed M Sarki, Olalekan A Uthman
BACKGROUND: The association of antiretroviral therapy (ART) with diabetes is inconsistent and varies widely across primary epidemiological studies. A comprehensive and more precise estimate of this association is fundamental to establishing a plausible causal link between ART and diabetes. METHODS: We identified epidemiological studies that compared mean fasting plasma glucose (FPG) concentrations and proportions of diabetes and metabolic syndrome between HIV-infected patients naïve and exposed to ART...
April 24, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437843/a-bayesian-belief-network-model-assessing-the-risk-to-wastewater-workers-of-contracting-ebola-virus-disease-during-an-outbreak
#2
Joseph W Zabinski, Kelsey J Pieper, Jacqueline MacDonald Gibson
During an outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD), hospitals' connections to municipal wastewater systems may provide a path for patient waste bearing infectious viral particles to pass from the hospital into the wastewater treatment system, potentially posing risks to sewer and wastewater workers. To quantify these risks, we developed a Bayesian belief network model incorporating data on virus behavior and survival along with structural characteristics of hospitals and wastewater treatment systems. We applied the model to assess risks under several different scenarios of workers' exposure to wastewater for a wastewater system typical of a mid-sized U...
April 24, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437794/hepatitis-b-virus-reactivation-associated-with-direct-acting-antiviral-therapy-for-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-a-review-of-cases-reported-to-the-u-s-food-and-drug-administration-adverse-event-reporting-system
#3
Susan J Bersoff-Matcha, Kelly Cao, Mihaela Jason, Adebola Ajao, S Christopher Jones, Tamra Meyer, Allen Brinker
Background: Direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) are used increasingly to treat hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Reports were published recently on hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation (HBV-R) in patients with HBV-HCV co-infection. Hepatitis B virus reactivation, defined as an abrupt increase in HBV replication in patients with inactive or resolved HBV infection, may result in clinically significant hepatitis. Objective: To assess whether HBV-R is a safety concern in patients receiving HCV DAAs...
April 25, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437773/are-hospital-emergency-department-visits-due-to-dog-bites-associated-with-ambient-temperature-a-time-series-study-in-beijing-china
#4
Yongming Zhang, Qi Zhao, Wenyi Zhang, Shanshan Li, Gongbo Chen, Zhihai Han, Yuming Guo
BACKGROUND: It is well documented that suboptimal ambient temperature is associated with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. However, no study has examined the relation between temperature and dog bites. OBJECTIVES: To study the association between ambient temperature and daily hospital emergency department visits due to dog bites (EDVDBs) in Beijing, China; and to explore whether the temperature-EDVDB association varies by sex and age. METHODS: Daily EDVDBs were collected from a hospital appointed for dog bites in Beijing during 2012-2014...
April 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437734/idf-diabetes-atlas-global-estimates-for-the-prevalence-of-diabetes-for-2015-and-2040
#5
K Ogurtsova, J D da Rocha Fernandes, Y Huang, U Linnenkamp, L Guariguata, N H Cho, D Cavan, J E Shaw, L E Makaroff
AIM: To produce current estimates of the national, regional and global impact of diabetes for 2015 and 2040. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted to identify data sources on the prevalence of diabetes from studies conducted in the period from 1990 to 2015. An analytic hierarchy process was used to select the most appropriate studies for each country, and estimates for countries without data were modelled using extrapolation from similar countries that had available data...
March 31, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437730/the-practice-of-prosecuting-child-maltreatment-results-of-an-online-survey-of-prosecutors
#6
Theodore P Cross, Debra Whitcomb
Despite efforts by advocates, practitioners, and legislators to alleviate the burden on child maltreatment victims in the criminal justice system, many challenges remain for prosecutors as they seek to hold offenders accountable while minimizing the emotional impact on children. More than 200 state and local prosecutors in 37 states responded to an online survey to share their perspectives on current challenges, procedures to support children in the adjudication process, and the impact of the U.S. Supreme Court opinion in Crawford v...
April 21, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437648/assessing-soil-air-partitioning-of-pahs-and-pcbs-with-a-new-fugacity-passive-sampler
#7
Carey E Donald, Kim A Anderson
Soil-air fluxes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined using a novel application of passive samplers to measure air and soil air, which is air in close proximity and in equilibrium with soil. Existing methods to measure flux of semi-volatile compounds between soil and air require collecting samples from the top soil layer. Yet, the top soil layer is hard to define and oversampling may misrepresent the exchangeable fraction. Alternatively, modified active samplers can measure soil air in situ, but require electricity while deployed...
April 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437543/association-of-donor-age-and-sex-with-survival-of-patients-receiving-transfusions
#8
Gustaf Edgren, Henrik Ullum, Klaus Rostgaard, Christian Erikstrup, Ulrik Sartipy, Martin J Holzmann, Olof Nyrén, Henrik Hjalgrim
Importance: Following animal model data indicating the possible rejuvenating effects of blood from young donors, there have been at least 2 observational studies conducted with humans that have investigated whether donor age affects patient outcomes. Results, however, have been conflicting. Objective: To study the association of donor age and sex with survival of patients receiving transfusions. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study based on the Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions database, with nationwide data, was conducted for all patients from Sweden and Denmark who received at least 1 red blood cell transfusion of autologous blood or blood from unknown donors between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2012...
April 24, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437509/thermal-perception-as-a-key-factor-for-assessing-effects-of-trigeminal-nerve-injury
#9
Hye-Kyoung Kim, Ki-Suk Kim, Mee-Eun Kim
AIMS: To conduct a functional examination using multimodal exploration of a sample of patients with iatrogenic trigeminal nerve injury to understand the underlying mechanisms of neuropathic pain following trigeminal nerve injury. METHODS: Subjective and objective symptoms and responses to thermal and electrical quantitative sensory testing (QST) were evaluated in 85 patients with unilateral trigeminal nerve injury. Objective symptoms were measured by seven clinical sensory tests...
April 2017: Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437242/anthropometric-reference-data-for-children-and-adults-united-states-2011-2014
#10
C D Fryar, Q Gu, C L Ogden, K M Flegal
Anthropometry or human body measurements provide important indicators of nutritional status in children and adults (1). In children, measurements reflect general health status, dietary adequacy, and growth and development over time. In adults, body measurements are used to evaluate health and dietary status, disease risk, and body composition. This report presents anthropometric reference data for 2011-2014 for U.S. children and adults.
August 2016: Vital & Health Statistics. Series 3, Analytical and Epidemiological Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437164/factors-affecting-the-levels-of-heavy-metals-in-juices-processed-with-filter-aids
#11
Zhengfang Wang, Lauren S Jackson, Joseph E Jablonski
This study investigated factors that may contribute to the presence of arsenic and other heavy metals in apple and grape juices processed with filter aids. Different types and grades of filter aids were analyzed for arsenic, lead, and cadmium with inductively coupled plasma-tandem mass spectrometry. Potential factors affecting the transfer of heavy metals to juices during filtration treatments were evaluated. Effects of washing treatments on removal of heavy metals from filter aids were also determined. Results showed that diatomaceous earth (DE) generally contained a higher level of arsenic than perlite, whereas perlite had a higher lead content than DE...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437139/protection-against-common-bean-rust-conferred-by-a-gene-silencing-method
#12
Bret Cooper, Kimberly B Campbell
Rust disease of the dry bean plant, Phaseolus vulgaris, is caused by the fungus Uromyces appendiculatus. The fungus acquires its nutrients and energy from bean leaves using a specialized cell structure, the haustorium, through which it secretes effector proteins that contribute to pathogenicity by defeating the plant immune system. Candidate effectors have been identified by DNA sequencing and motif analysis, and some candidates have been observed in infected leaves by mass spectrometry. To assess their roles in pathogenicity, we have inserted small fragments of genes for five candidates into bean pod mottle virus...
April 24, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437125/when-and-why-is-religious-attendance-associated-with-antigay-bias-and-gay-rights-opposition-a-justification-suppression-model-approach
#13
Mark Romeo Hoffarth, Gordon Hodson, Danielle S Molnar
Even in relatively tolerant countries, antigay bias remains socially divisive, despite being widely viewed as violating social norms of tolerance. From a Justification-Suppression Model (JSM) framework, social norms may generally suppress antigay bias in tolerant countries, yet be "released" by religious justifications among those who resist gay rights progress. Across large, nationally representative US samples (Study 1) and international samples (Study 2, representing a total of 97 different countries), over 215,000 participants, and various indicators of antigay bias (e...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437124/marijuana-and-tobacco-cigarettes-estimating-their-behavioral-economic-relationship-using-purchasing-tasks
#14
Erica N Peters, Zachary R Rosenberry, Gillian L Schauer, Kevin E O'Grady, Patrick S Johnson
Although marijuana and tobacco are commonly coused, the nature of their relationship has not been fully elucidated. Behavioral economics has characterized the relationship between concurrently available commodities but has not been applied to marijuana and tobacco couse. U.S. adults ≥18 years who coused marijuana and tobacco cigarettes were recruited via Mechanical Turk, a crowdsourcing service by Amazon. Participants (N = 82) completed online purchasing tasks assessing hypothetical marijuana or tobacco cigarette puff consumption across a range of per-puff prices; 2 single-commodity tasks assessed these when only 1 commodity was available, and 2 cross-commodity tasks assessed these in the presence of a concurrently available fixed-price commodity...
April 24, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437120/mindfulness-oriented-recovery-enhancement-for-internet-gaming-disorder-in-u-s-adults-a-stage-i-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Wen Li, Eric L Garland, Patricia McGovern, Jennifer E O'Brien, Christine Tronnier, Matthew O Howard
Empirical studies have identified increasing rates of Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and associated adverse consequences. However, very few evidence-based interventions have been evaluated for IGD or problematic video gaming behaviors. This study evaluated Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE) as a treatment for IGD. Thirty adults (Mage = 25.0, SD = 5.4) with IGD or problematic video gaming behaviors were randomized to 8 weeks of group-based MORE or 8 weeks of a support group (SG) control condition...
April 24, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436893/a-parallel-multiclassification-algorithm-for-big-data-using-an-extreme-learning-machine
#16
Mingxing Duan, Kenli Li, Xiangke Liao, Keqin Li
As data sets become larger and more complicated, an extreme learning machine (ELM) that runs in a traditional serial environment cannot realize its ability to be fast and effective. Although a parallel ELM (PELM) based on MapReduce to process large-scale data shows more efficient learning speed than identical ELM algorithms in a serial environment, some operations, such as intermediate results stored on disks and multiple copies for each task, are indispensable, and these operations create a large amount of extra overhead and degrade the learning speed and efficiency of the PELMs...
April 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436678/nanotoxicity-modelling-and-removal-efficiencies-of-znonp-with-consortium
#17
Şeyda Fikirdeşici Ergen, Esra Üçüncü Tunca
In this paper the aim is to model the toxic effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP) and is to analyze the removal of ZnONP in aqueous medium by the consortium consisted of Daphnia magna and Lemna minor. Three separate test groups are formed: L. minor (L), D. magna (D) and L.minor+D.magna (L+D) and all these test groups are exposed to three different nanoparticle concentrations (0.3;3.0 and 30.0 mg L(-)(1)). Time-dependent, concentration-dependent and group-dependent removal efficiencies are statistically compared by non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test and statistically significant differences are observed...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436538/longitudinal-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-a-new-combined-score-for-clinical-trials
#18
Günter U Höglinger, Jakob Schöpe, Maria Stamelou, Jan Kassubek, Teodoro Del Ser, Adam L Boxer, Stefan Wagenpfeil, Hans-Jürgen Huppertz
BACKGROUND: Two recent, randomized, placebo-controlled phase II/III trials (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01110720, NCT01049399) of davunetide and tideglusib in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) generated prospective, 1-year longitudinal datasets of high-resolution T1-weighted three-dimensional MRI. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop a quantitative MRI disease progression measurement for clinical trials. METHODS: The authors performed a fully automated quantitative MRI analysis employing atlas-based volumetry and provide sample size calculations based on data collected in 99 PSP patients assigned to placebo in these trials...
April 24, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436385/structural-and-magnetic-properties-of-spin-1-2-dimer-compound-cu-_2-ipa-_2-dmf-h-_2-o-with-a-large-spin-gap
#19
S Thamban, Arjun U, M Padmanabhan, Ramesh Chandra Nath
We present the synthesis and a detailed investigation of structural and magnetic properties of metal-organic compound Cu$_2$(IPA)$_2$(DMF)(H$_2$O) by means of x-ray diffraction, magnetization, and heat capacity measurements. Single crystals of the title compound were synthesized by judicious selection of organic ligand and employing a selective hydrothermal reaction route. It crystallizes in an orthorhombic structure with space group $Cmca$. The structural analysis revealed that two Cu$^{2+}$ ions are held together by the organic component (-O-C-O-) in a square paddle-wheel to form spin dimers which are aligned perpendicular to each other and are further coupled through organic ligands (isophthalic acid) forming two-dimensional layers...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436384/dynamical-electrical-conductivity-of-graphene
#20
Luxmi Rani, Navinder Singh
For graphene (a Dirac material) it has been theoretically predicted and experimentally observed that DC resistivity is proportional to $ T^4$ when the temperature is much less than Bloch-Gr\"{u}neisen temperature ($\Theta_{BG}$) and T-linear in opposite case ($T\gg\Theta_{BG}$). Going beyond this case, we investigate the dynamical electrical conductivity in graphene using the powerful methods the memory function formalism. In the zero frequency regime, we obtain the above mentioned behavior which was previously obtained using the Bloch-Boltzmann kinetic equation...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
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