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Justin M Curley, Coleen Crouch, Joshua E Wilk
Introduction: Medical readiness for deployment is arguably the most important component of personnel readiness in the U.S. Army. Administrative documents called profiles provide individualized medical recommendations to the commander regarding how to best provide for a soldier's health and welfare, and contribute to an aggregated enumeration of a unit's overall readiness to deploy. Profiles that convey behavioral health (BH) limitations thus reflect what can be called the "behavioral health readiness" of the force...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
J Michael Dickson, Xu Wang, Alexander E St John, Esther B Lim, Susan A Stern, Nathan J White
Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS) are the leading causes of traumatic death worldwide and particularly on the battlefield. They are especially challenging when present simultaneously (polytrauma), and clear blood pressure end points during fluid resuscitation are not well described for this situation. The goal of this study is to evaluate for any benefit of increasing blood pressure using a vasopressor on brain blood flow during initial fluid resuscitation in a swine polytrauma model...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Krystin A Engelhardt, Elizabeth Hisle-Gorman, Gregory H Gorman, Nicole R Dobson
Background: The Military Health System (MHS) provides universal access to medical care to active duty service members, retirees, and their dependents. Observational data from small studies suggest lower preterm birth rates in the MHS compared with U.S. national averages. The objectives of this study are to determine the rate of preterm birth in the MHS from 2006 to 2012 compared with national rates and to analyze the impact of demographic factors on preterm birth in a universal access health care system...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Eric B Elbogen, H Ryan Wagner, Mira Brancu, Nathan A Kimbrel, Jennifer C Naylor, Cindy M Swinkels, John A Fairbank
Introduction: In response to a strong focus on suicide prevention for all veterans, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) recently revised policy to provide emergency mental healthcare for veterans who received Other Than Honorable (OTH) discharges from the military. This current study takes a preliminary step toward identifying demographic, historic, military, clinical, and social characteristics of veterans with OTH discharges. Materials and Methods: N = 1,172 Iraq/Afghanistan-era veterans were evaluated between 2005 and 2016 in the multi-site VA Mid-Atlantic Mental Illness, Research, Education and Clinical Center (MIRECC) Study of Post-Deployment Mental Health (PDMH Study)...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Brian R Johnson, Gerald T McGinty, Jonathan C Jackson, Thea M Ramsey, Marcus Hjalber, C C Taylor E Hill, Christopher J D'Lauro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Laura Miller, Gerardo J Pacheco, Jud C Janak, Rose C Grimm, Nicole A Dierschke, Janice Baker, Jean A Orman
Background: Military working dogs (MWDs) are a major asset in the theater of operations. Their unique abilities make them ideal for tasks such as tracking, patrol, and scent detection. MWDs deployed to a war zone are exposed to harsh environments and battlefield dangers that increase their risk of disease, injuries, and death. Although canines have been used extensively in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), no published studies have reported detailed causes of death among MWDs deployed to these conflicts...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Bríd M Ryan
Compared with all other racial and ethnic groups in the U.S., African Americans are disproportionally affected by lung cancer, both in terms of incidence and survival. It is likely that smoking, as the main etiological factor associated with lung cancer, contributes to these disparities, but the precise mechanism is still unclear. This paper seeks to explore the history of lung cancer disparities and review to the literature regarding the various factors that contribute to them.
March 14, 2018: Carcinogenesis
Uzochukwu C Ugochukwu, Alfred Ochonogor, Chika M Jidere, Chizoba Agu, Frida Nkoloagu, John Ewoh, Virginia U Okwu-Delunzu
In this study, the human and livestock (cattle) health risks of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a wetland of Obuaku, Abia State Nigeria contaminated by hydrocarbon spill due to incidents of hydrocarbon theft and pipeline vandalization were assessed. Gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were employed in analyzing the TPH and PAHs respectively. The contaminated soil was delineated into sub-locations AOC-1, AOC-2, AOC-3, AOC-4, AOC-5 and AOC-6 to reflect the discrete patches (areas) of the contaminated site and for effective planning of remedial actions...
March 13, 2018: Environment International
Gregory D Bowden, Kirkwood M Land, Roberta M O'Connor, Heather M Fritz
The apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis neurona is the primary etiologic agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), a serious neurologic disease of horses. Many horses in the U.S. are at risk of developing EPM; approximately 50% of all horses in the U.S. have been exposed to S. neurona and treatments for EPM are 60-70% effective. Advancement of treatment requires new technology to identify new drugs for EPM. To address this critical need, we developed, validated, and implemented a high-throughput screen to test 725 FDA-approved compounds from the NIH clinical collections library for anti-S...
February 16, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Sacha Klein, Brittany Mihalec-Adkins, Stephanie Benson, Sei-Young Lee
Increasing access to early care and education (ECE) for children in the child welfare system (CWS) remains a critical issue in the United States, as the numbers of young children entering this system steadily increases. Mounting evidence suggests that participation in at least some types of ECE can mitigate the need for child welfare supervision. Moreover, ECE participation has been linked to positive developmental and school readiness outcomes, lower rates of foster placement, and greater placement stability for children in the CWS...
March 13, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Priti Sengupta, Aniruddha Ganguly, Adity Bose
The crucial role of chemosensor for the immediate recognition of environment pollutant motivates the researchers to develop variety of sensing protocols. Of various chemosensory protocols, the colour change observed by the naked eye is considered to be a conceivable and on-site way to indicate the presence of an analyte. We herein report a colourimetric and commercially available absorption probe, sinapic acid (SA) that is completely ready to use for "on-site" visual determination of copper ions. The molecule, SA is well-known phenolic acid, often utilized for its antibacterial activity...
March 3, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Lisa M Jones, Kimberly J Mitchell, Heather A Turner, Michele L Ybarra
Using a national sample of youth from the U.S., this paper examines incidents of bias-based harassment by peers that include language about victims' perceived sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, religion, weight or height, or intelligence. Telephone interviews were conducted with youth who were 10-20 years old (n = 791). One in six youth (17%) reported at least one experience with bias-based harassment in the past year. Bias language was a part of over half (52%) of all harassment incidents experienced by youth...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Adolescence
Paula A Aduen, Michael J Kofler, Dustin E Sarver, Erica L Wells, Elia F Soto, Daniel J Cox
ADHD is associated with automobile crashes, traffic fatalities, and serious road trauma, but it is unclear whether this risk is (a) driven by ADHD symptoms specifically, and (b) unique to ADHD or transdiagnostic across psychiatric disabilities, such as depression, that also have concentration problems as core symptoms. The current study provides the first prospective, continuously-monitored evaluation of crash risk related to ADHD symptoms, including the first on-road comparison of ADHD with another high-prevalence psychiatric disability (depression)...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Yang Zou, Jiang-Yan Zhou, Jiu-Bai Guo, Li-Qun Wang, Yong Luo, Zi-Yu Zhang, Fa-Ying Liu, Jun Tan, Feng Wang, Ou-Ping Huang
Endometriosis is a potential premalignant disorder. The underlying molecular aberrations, however, are not fully understood. A recent exome sequencing study found that 25% (10/39) of deep infiltrating endometriosis harbored cancer driver gene mutations. However, it is unclear whether these mutations also exist in ovarian endometriosis. Here, a total of 101 ovarian endometriosis samples were analyzed for the presence of these gene mutations, including KRAS, PPP2R1A, PIK3CA and ARID1A. In addition, 6 other cancer-associated genes (BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, ERK1, ERK2 and PTEN) were also analyzed...
March 9, 2018: Mutation Research
Arthur M Lee, Rebecca J Scharf, Mark D DeBoer
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine if food insecurity is an independent risk factor for obesity in U.S. children. METHODS: We analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of children participating in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort 2011. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate longitudinal associations between food security and body mass index (BMI) z-score. All regression models included race/ethnicity, household income, and parental education...
February 5, 2018: Nutrition
Curtis Harris, Kelli McCarthy, E Liang Liu, Kelly Klein, Raymond Swienton, Parker Prins, Tawny Waltz
2017 was a record year for disasters and disaster response in the U.S. Redefining and differentiating key response roles like "immediate responders" and "first responders" is critical. Traditional first responders are not and cannot remain the only cadre of expected lifesavers following a mass casualty event. The authors argue that the U.S. needs to expand its understanding of response roles to include that of the immediate responders, or those individuals who find themselves at the incident scene and are able to assist others...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Alisa L Gallant, Walt Sadinski, Jesslyn F Brown, Gabriel B Senay, Mark F Roth
Assessing climate-related ecological changes across spatiotemporal scales meaningful to resource managers is challenging because no one method reliably produces essential data at both fine and broad scales. We recently confronted such challenges while integrating data from ground- and satellite-based sensors for an assessment of four wetland-rich study areas in the U.S. Midwest. We examined relations between temperature and precipitation and a set of variables measured on the ground at individual wetlands and another set measured via satellite sensors within surrounding 4 km² landscape blocks...
March 16, 2018: Sensors
Barbara Miller Williams, Cindy Wright, Katherine H Leigh, Brittney Armstrong, Sabrina Kelley
Tattoos have become increasingly popular in the U.S. among the general population. Furthermore, the popularity of body art, primarily tattoos, among nursing students generates issues about professionalism in academics and in clinical settings. Nursing faculty are faced with conflicting views on cultural awareness, professionalism, and self-expression. With nursing viewed as one of the most trusted professions, the policy of covering tattoos should be discussed, and more research is necessary.
March 15, 2018: Journal of Christian Nursing: a Quarterly Publication of Nurses Christian Fellowship
Rogério M Pinto, Susan S Witte, Prema L Filippone, C Jean Choi, Melanie Wall
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Diffusion of Effective Behavioral Interventions project has disseminated HIV behavioral interventions (EBIs) across the United States since the 1990s. In 2011, the CDC launched the High-Impact HIV Prevention (HIP) project, providing EBIs plus high-impact services (HIV testing, primary care, and support services). Providers (nurses, social workers, educators) are unable to consistently make linkages; thus, numerous at-risk individuals are not benefitting from HIP...
March 1, 2018: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
J-F Rupprecht, A Singh Vishen, G V Shivashankar, M Rao, J Prost
We investigate the effect of stress fluctuations on the stochastic dynamics of an inclusion embedded in a viscous gel. We show that, in nonequilibrium systems, stress fluctuations give rise to an effective attraction towards the boundaries of the confining domain, which is reminiscent of an active Casimir effect. We apply this generic result to the dynamics of deformations of the cell nucleus, and we demonstrate the appearance of a fluctuation maximum at a critical level of activity, in agreement with recent experiments [E...
March 2, 2018: Physical Review Letters
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