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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645543/mechanosensing-in-the-drosophila-nervous-system
#1
REVIEW
Katerina Karkali, Enrique Martin-Blanco
Neurons allocated to sense organs respond rapidly to mechanical signals dictating behavioral responses at the organism level. The receptors that transduce these signals, and underlie these senses, are mechanically gated channels. Research on mechanosensation over the past decade, employing in many cases Drosophila as a model, has focused in typifying these receptors and in exploring the different ways, depending on context, in which these mechanosensors are modulated. In this review, we discuss first what we have learned from Drosophila on these mechanisms and we describe the different mechanosensory organs present in the Drosophila larvae and adult...
June 20, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643837/density-dependence-of-orientational-order-in-one-patch-particles
#2
Yasutaka Iwashita, Yasuyuki Kimura
Closely packed spherical patchy particles exhibit a range of orientationally ordered equilibrium structures depending on patch size and particle arrangement due to the existence of a sticky inter-patch interaction and rotational degrees of freedom. We experimentally study the packing density dependence of such ordering in particles with a thin deposited patch which imparts a shape anisotropy of a few percent in aspect ratio. These are confined between flat substrates with a chamber thickness of up to two particle layers...
June 23, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643273/chronic-constipation-in-rome-iv-era-the-indian-perspective
#3
REVIEW
Uday C Ghoshal
Chronic constipation (CC) is a common problem in the community and in gastroenterology practice all over the world including India. After release of Rome IV guidelines in April 2016, there is increasing interest among gastroenterologists and physicians in India to look into special issues on CC in the Indian perspective. There are important differences in the bowel habit, definition, epidemiology, and pathophysiology including dietary factors and management of CC in India as compared to the West. As severity and frequency of abdominal pain, a symptom essential to diagnose constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) rather than functional constipation (FC), is less common among Indian patients, FC is commoner than IBS-C in India...
June 23, 2017: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643192/on-the-kinetics-of-body-versus-end-evaporation-and-addition-of-supramolecular-polymers
#4
Nitin S Tiwari, Paul van der Schoot
The kinetics of the self-assembly of supramolecular polymers is dictated by how monomers, dimers, trimers etc., attach to and detach from each other. It is for this reasons that researchers have proposed a plethora of pathways to explain the kinetics of various self-assembling supramolecules, including sulfur, linear micelles, living polymers and protein fibrils. Recent observations hint at the importance of a hitherto ignored molecular aggregation pathway that we refer to as "body evaporation and addition"...
June 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642433/quantum-correlations-from-a-room-temperature-optomechanical-cavity
#5
T P Purdy, K E Grutter, K Srinivasan, J M Taylor
The act of position measurement alters the motion of an object being measured. This quantum measurement backaction is typically much smaller than the thermal motion of a room-temperature object and thus difficult to observe. By shining laser light through a nanomechanical beam, we measure the beam's thermally driven vibrations and perturb its motion with optical force fluctuations at a level dictated by the Heisenberg measurement-disturbance uncertainty relation. We demonstrate a cross-correlation technique to distinguish optically driven motion from thermally driven motion, observing this quantum backaction signature up to room temperature...
June 23, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642125/safety-and-efficacy-of-dual-lead-thalamic-deep-brain-stimulation-for-patients-with-treatment-refractory-multiple-sclerosis-tremor-a-single-centre-randomised-single-blind-pilot-trial
#6
Seth F Oliveria, Ramon L Rodriguez, Dawn Bowers, Daniel Kantor, Justin D Hilliard, Erin H Monari, Bonnie M Scott, Michael S Okun, Kelly D Foote
BACKGROUND: Efficacy in previous studies of surgical treatments of refractory multiple sclerosis tremor using lesioning or deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been variable. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of dual-lead thalamic DBS (one targeting the ventralis intermedius-ventralis oralis posterior nucleus border [the VIM lead] and one targeting the ventralis oralis anterior-ventralis oralis posterior border [the VO lead]) for the treatment of multiple sclerosis tremor...
June 19, 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641929/initiation-and-engagement-with-methadone-treatment-among-pregnant-and-postpartum-women
#7
Kristin M Mattocks, Robin Clark, Linda Weinreb
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions of experiences and challenges with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) and obstetrical care among pregnant and postpartum women enrolled in a methadone maintenance program. RESEARCH DESIGN: The study featured a grounded theory approach including two focus groups with pregnant and postpartum methadone users at a methadone maintenance clinic in Worcester, Massachusetts. Two research team members conducted and recorded focus groups, which took approximately 45 minutes to 1 hour...
June 19, 2017: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640851/ligand-mediated-and-tertiary-interactions-cooperatively-stabilize-the-p1-region-in-the-guanine-sensing-riboswitch
#8
Christian A Hanke, Holger Gohlke
Riboswitches are genetic regulatory elements that control gene expression depending on ligand binding. The guanine-sensing riboswitch (Gsw) binds ligands at a three-way junction formed by paired regions P1, P2, and P3. Loops L2 and L3 cap the P2 and P3 helices and form tertiary interactions. Part of P1 belongs to the switching sequence dictating the fate of the mRNA. Previous studies revealed an intricate relationship between ligand binding and presence of the tertiary interactions, and between ligand binding and influence on the P1 region...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640195/pharmacogenomic-variants-may-influence-the-urinary-excretion-of-novel-kidney-injury-biomarkers-in-patients-receiving-cisplatin
#9
Cara Chang, Yichun Hu, Susan L Hogan, Nickie Mercke, Madeleine Gomez, Cindy O'Bryant, Daniel W Bowles, Blessy George, Xia Wen, Lauren M Aleksunes, Melanie S Joy
Nephrotoxicity is a dose limiting side effect associated with the use of cisplatin in the treatment of solid tumors. The degree of nephrotoxicity is dictated by the selective accumulation of cisplatin in renal tubule cells due to: (1) uptake by organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) and copper transporter 1 (CTR1); (2) metabolism by glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and γ-glutamyltransferase 1 (GGT1); and (3) efflux by multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) and multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 (MATE1)...
June 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639727/switching-futile-para-quinone-to-efficient-ros-generator-ubiquitin-specific-protease-2-inhibition-electrocatalysis-and-quantification
#10
Ashraf Brik, Pushparathinam Gopinath, Atif Mahammed, Tal Eilon-Shaffer, Mickal Nawatha, Shimrit Ohayon, Doron Shabat, Zeev Gross
Understanding the correlation between structural features of small molecule drugs to its mode of action is a fascinating topic and crucial for the drug discovery process. However, in many cases the exact parameters that dictate the mode of action is still lacking. Following a large screening for USP2 inhibition identified effective para-quinone based inhibitor with unclear mode of action. For gaining a deep knowledge on its mechanism of inhibition, a set of para-quinones was prepared and studied for USP2 inhibition, electrocatalysis and ROS quantification...
June 22, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639153/genomics-of-lithium-action-and-response
#11
REVIEW
Benjamin S Pickard
Lithium is the most successful mood stabilizer treatment for bipolar disorder. However, unlike conventional drugs that are designed to interact with a specific molecular target, the actions of lithium are distributed across many biological processes and pathways. Treatment response is subject to genetic variation between individuals and similar genetic variation may dictate susceptibility to side effects. Transcriptomic, genomic, and cell-model research strategies have all been deployed in the search for the genetic factors and biological systems that mediate the interaction between genetics and the therapeutic actions of lithium...
June 21, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639137/the-frank-starling-law-a-jigsaw-of-titin-proportions
#12
REVIEW
Vasco Sequeira, Jolanda van der Velden
The Frank-Starling Law dictates that the heart is able to match ejection to the dynamic changes occurring during cardiac filling, hence efficiently regulating isovolumetric contraction and shortening. In the last four decades, efforts have been made to identify a common fundamental basis for the Frank-Starling heart that can explain the direct relationship between muscle lengthening and its increased sensitization to Ca(2+). The term 'myofilament length-dependent activation' describes the length-dependent properties of the myofilaments, but what is(are) the underlying molecular mechanism(s) is a matter of ongoing debate...
June 21, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639057/factors-controlling-the-reactivity-of-divalent-metal-ions-towards-pheophytin-a
#13
Ł Orzeł, J Waś, A Kania, A Susz, D Rutkowska-Zbik, J Staroń, M Witko, G Stochel, L Fiedor
In this study, we evaluate the factors which determine the reactivity of divalent metal ions in the spontaneous formation of metallochlorophylls, using experimental and computational approaches. Kinetic studies were carried out using pheophytin a in reactions with various divalent metal ions combined with non- or weakly-coordinative counter ions in a series of organic solvents. To obtain detailed insights into the solvent effect, the metalations with the whole set of cations were investigated in three solvents and with Zn(2+) in seven solvents...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638484/surface-de-pegylation-controls-nanoparticle-mediated-sirna-delivery-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#14
Xi Zhu, Wei Tao, Danny Liu, Jun Wu, Zilei Guo, Xiaoyuan Ji, Zameer Bharwani, Lili Zhao, Xiaoping Zhao, Omid C Farokhzad, Jinjun Shi
The present work proposes a unique de-PEGylation strategy for controllable delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) using a robust lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticle (NP) platform. The self-assembled hybrid NPs are composed of a lipid-poly(ethylene glycol) (lipid-PEG) shell and a polymer/cationic lipid solid core, wherein the lipid-PEG molecules can gradually dissociate from NP surface in the presence of serum albumin. The de-PEGylation kinetics of a series of different lipid-PEGs is measured with their respective NPs, and the NP performance is comprehensively investigated in vitro and in vivo...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637538/chief-resident-dictation-of-operative-cases-and-its-relationship-to-american-board-of-surgery-examination-performance
#15
David N Blitzer, Louis F Chai, Erin M Scott, Gregory L Peck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636952/human-leukocyte-antigen-f-presents-peptides-and-regulates-immunity-through-interactions-with-nk-cell-receptors
#16
Charles L Dulberger, Curtis P McMurtrey, Angelique Hölzemer, Karlynn E Neu, Victor Liu, Adriana M Steinbach, Wilfredo F Garcia-Beltran, Michael Sulak, Bana Jabri, Vincent J Lynch, Marcus Altfeld, William H Hildebrand, Erin J Adams
Evidence is mounting that the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule HLA-F (human leukocyte antigen F) regulates the immune system in pregnancy, infection, and autoimmunity by signaling through NK cell receptors (NKRs). We present structural, biochemical, and evolutionary analyses demonstrating that HLA-F presents peptides of unconventional length dictated by a newly arisen mutation (R62W) that has produced an open-ended groove accommodating particularly long peptides. Compared to empty HLA-F open conformers (OCs), HLA-F tetramers bound with human-derived peptides differentially stained leukocytes, suggesting peptide-dependent engagement...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636603/trans-kingdom-mimicry-underlies-ribosome-customization-by-a-poxvirus-kinase
#17
Sujata Jha, Madeline G Rollins, Gabriele Fuchs, Dean J Procter, Elizabeth A Hall, Kira Cozzolino, Peter Sarnow, Jeffrey N Savas, Derek Walsh
Ribosomes have the capacity to selectively control translation through changes in their composition that enable recognition of specific RNA elements. However, beyond differential subunit expression during development, evidence for regulated ribosome specification within individual cells has remained elusive. Here we report that a poxvirus kinase phosphorylates serine/threonine residues in the human small ribosomal subunit protein, receptor for activated C kinase (RACK1), that are not phosphorylated in uninfected cells or cells infected by other viruses...
June 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635979/response-to-patient-inspired-research-a-better-way-to-go
#18
Suzanne M Mahon
I would like to thank Anne Katz for her thoughtful editorial on the importance of patient opinion in defining research questions. Nurse researchers choose to study specific topics for a variety of reasons. These reasons often relate to research funding priorities. It costs a lot of money to do research; topics may be chosen not because they are necessarily the passion of the researcher, but because that is where the funding dictates.
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May 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635290/bare-and-effective-charge-of-mesoporous-silica-particles
#19
Sabrina Valetti, Adam Feiler, Martin Trulsson
We develop and combine a novel numerical model, within the Poisson-Boltzmann frame- work, with classical experimental titration techniques for mesoporous silica particles to study the charging behavior as both pH and the amount of monovalent salt are varied. One key finding is that these particles can be considered to have an effectively or apparent electroneutral inner core with an effectively charged rim. As a consequence, the total apparent charge of the particle is several orders of magnitude smaller than that of the bare silica charge, which accounts only for the charged silanol groups of the mesoporous silica particles and which has its major contribution from the interior...
June 21, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634816/critical-biological-parameters-modulate-affinity-as-a-determinant-of-function-in-t-cell-receptor-gene-modified-t-cells
#20
Timothy T Spear, Yuan Wang, Kendra C Foley, David C Murray, Gina M Scurti, Patricia E Simms, Elizabeth Garrett-Mayer, Lance M Hellman, Brian M Baker, Michael I Nishimura
T-cell receptor (TCR)-pMHC affinity has been generally accepted to be the most important factor dictating antigen recognition in gene-modified T-cells. As such, there is great interest in optimizing TCR-based immunotherapies by enhancing TCR affinity to augment the therapeutic benefit of TCR gene-modified T-cells in cancer patients. However, recent clinical trials using affinity-enhanced TCRs in adoptive cell transfer (ACT) have observed unintended and serious adverse events, including death, attributed to unpredicted off-tumor or off-target cross-reactivity...
June 20, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
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