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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454160/spectral-selectivity-in-optical-fiber-capillary-dye-lasers
#1
Esmaeil Mobini, Behnam Abaie, Mostafa Peysokhan, Arash Mafi
We explore the spectral properties of a capillary dye laser in the highly multimode regime. Our experiments indicate that the spectral behavior of the laser does not conform to a simple Fabry-Perot (FP) analysis; rather, it is strongly dictated by a Vernier resonant mechanism involving multiple modes, which propagate with different group velocities. The laser operates over a very broad spectral range and the Vernier effect gives rise to a free spectral range, which is orders of magnitude larger than that expected from a simple FP mechanism...
May 1, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448506/the-dynamics-of-behavior-in-modified-dictator-games
#2
Jeannette Brosig-Koch, Thomas Riechmann, Joachim Weimann
We investigate the dynamics of individual pro-social behavior over time. The dynamics are tested by running the same experiment with the same subjects at several points in time. To exclude learning and reputation building, we employ non-strategic decision tasks and a sequential prisoners-dilemma as a control treatment. In the first wave, pro-social concerns explain a high share of individual decisions. Pro-social decisions decrease over time, however. In the final wave, most decisions can be accounted for by assuming pure selfishness...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447994/scaling-of-engineered-vascular-grafts-using-3d-printed-guides-and-the-ring-stacking-method
#3
Cameron B Pinnock, Zhengfan Xu, Mai T Lam
Coronary artery disease remains a leading cause of death, affecting millions of Americans. With the lack of autologous vascular grafts available, engineered grafts offer great potential for patient treatment. However, engineered vascular grafts are generally not easily scalable, requiring manufacture of custom molds or polymer tubes in order to customize to different sizes, constituting a time-consuming and costly practice. Human arteries range in lumen diameter from about 2.0-38 mm and in wall thickness from about 0...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446926/are-we-ready-for-the-eras-protocol-in-colorectal-surgery
#4
Michał Kisielewski, Mateusz Rubinkiewicz, Michał Pędziwiatr, Magdalena Pisarska, Marcin Migaczewski, Marcin Dembiński, Piotr Major, Kazimierz Rembiasz, Andrzej Budzyński
INTRODUCTION: Modern perioperative care principles in elective colorectal surgery have already been established by international surgical authorities. Nevertheless, barriers to the introduction of routine evidence-based clinical care and changing dogmas still exist. One of the factors is the surgeon. AIM: To assess perioperative care trends in elective colorectal surgery among general surgery consultants in surgical departments in Malopolska Voivodeship, Poland...
2017: Wideochirurgia i Inne Techniki Mało Inwazyjne, Videosurgery and Other Miniinvasive Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446888/money-food-and-daily-life-objects-are-similarly-shared-in-the-dictator-game-a-study-among-poles-and-tsimane
#5
Piotr Sorokowski, Anna Oleszkiewicz, Agnieszka Niemczyk, Michalina Marczak, Tomas Huanca, Esther C Velasco, Agnieszka Sorokowska
The dictator game (DG) is one of the most popular methods for measuring sharing behaviors. However, the matter of goods used in the game has rarely been examined and discussed. We conducted a study in which all participants played standard version of DG in one of the three versions - "money," "food," or "daily life objects" sharing. Further, we wanted to expand the generalizability of our findings by investigating whether patterns in sharing various goods are independent of culture and the level of market integration...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446341/decarboxylative-alkynylation-and-cyanation-of-carboxylic-acids-using-photoredox-catalysis-and-hypervalent-iodine-reagents
#6
Franck Le Vaillant, Jérôme Waser
Alkynes and nitriles are important functional groups that serve as versatile building blocks in organic synthesis and find applications in material and medicinal sciences. A convenient and straightforward access to both classes of compounds under mild conditions is, therefore, highly desirable. Herein, we disclose the decarboxylative alkynylation and cyanation of broadly available carboxylic acids using photoredox catalysis and hypervalent iodine reagents. Choices of both catalysts and reagents were crucial...
April 26, 2017: Chimia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445940/suppression-of-allograft-rejection-by-cd8-cd122-pd-1-tregs-is-dictated-by-their-fas-ligand-initiated-killing-of-effector-t-cells-versus-fas-mediated-own-apoptosis
#7
Huazhen Liu, Yeshu Wang, Qiaohuang Zeng, Yu-Qun Zeng, Chun-Ling Liang, Feifei Qiu, Hong Nie, Zhenhua Dai
Mounting evidence has shown that naturally occurring CD8+CD122+ T cells are regulatory T cells (Tregs) that suppress both autoimmunity and alloimmunity. We have previously shown that CD8+CD122+PD-1+ Tregs not only suppress allograft rejection, but also are more potent in suppression than conventional CD4+CD25+ Tregs. However, the mechanisms underlying their suppression of alloimmunity are not well understood. In an adoptive T-cell transfer model of mice lacking lymphocytes, we found that suppression of skin allograft rejection by CD8+CD122+PD-1+ Tregs was mostly dependent on their expression of Fas ligand as either lacking Fas ligand or blocking it with antibodies largely abolished their suppression of allograft rejection mediated by transferred T cells...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445751/curcumin-dictates-divergent-fates-for-the-central-salt-bridges-in-amyloid-%C3%AE-40-and-amyloid-%C3%AE-42
#8
Bappaditya Chandra, Venus Singh Mithu, Debanjan Bhowmik, Anand Kant Das, Bankanidhi Sahoo, Sudipta Maiti, Perunthiruthy K Madhu
There are three specific regions in the Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide sequence where variations cause enhanced toxicity in Alzheimer's disease: the N-terminus, the central salt bridge, and the C-terminus. Here, we investigate if there is a close conformational connection between these three regions, which may suggest a concerted mechanism of toxicity. We measure the effects of Zn(2+) and curcumin on Aβ40, and compare these with their previously reported effects on Aβ42. Aβ42 and Aβ40 differ only near the C-terminus, where curcumin interacts, while Zn(2+) interacts near the N-terminus...
April 25, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445649/high-serum-stability-of-collagen-hybridizing-peptides-and-their-fluorophore-conjugates
#9
Lucas L Bennink, Daniel J Smith, Catherine A Foss, Martin G Pomper, Yang Li, S Michael Yu
Collagen hybridizing peptides (CHPs) have a great potential for use in targeted drug delivery, diagnostics, and regenerative medicine due to their ability to specifically bind to denatured collagens associated with many pathologic conditions. Since peptides generally suffer from poor enzymatic stability resulting in rapid degradation and elimination in vivo, CHP's serum stability is a critical parameter that may dictate its pharmacokinetic behavior. Here, we report the serum stability of a series of monomeric CHP derivatives and establish how peptide length, amino acid composition, terminal modification, and linker chemistry influence their availability in serum...
April 26, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445163/annealing-of-au-ag-and-au-ag-alloy-nanoparticle-arrays-on-gaas-100-and-111-b
#10
Alexander M Whiticar, Erik K Mårtensson, Jesper Nygård, Kimberly A Dick, Jessica Bolinsson
Metal nanoparticles (NPs), in particular gold NPs, are often used in the fabrication process of semiconductor nanowires. Besides being able to induce the 1D crystallization of new material, it is highly beneficial if the NPs can be used to dictate the position and diameter of the final nanowire structure. To achieve well-defined NP arrays of varying diameter and pitch distances for nanowire growth, it is necessary to understand and control the effect that a pre-growth annealing process may have on the pre-defined NP arrays...
May 19, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445131/therapeutic-benefit-of-salmonella-attributed-to-lps-and-tnf-%C3%AE-is-exhaustible-and-dictated-by-tumor-susceptibility
#11
Dino Kocijancic, Sara Leschner, Sebastian Felgner, Ronja-Melinda Komoll, Michael Frahm, Vinay Pawar, Siegfried Weiss
The potential of bacteria-mediated tumor therapy (BMTT) is highlighted by more than a century of investigation. Attenuated Salmonella has prevailed as promising therapeutic agents. For BMTT - categorized as an immune therapy - the exact contribution of particular immune reactions to the therapeutic effect remains ambiguous. In addition, one could argue for or against the requirement of bacterial viability and tumor targeting. Herein we evaluate the isolated therapeutic efficacy of purified LPS and TNF-α, which together account for a dominant immunogenic pathway of gram negative bacteria like Salmonella...
April 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444892/catalytic-mechanism-of-salicylate-dioxygenase-qm-mm-simulations-reveal-the-origin-of-unexpected-regiospecificity-of-the-ring-cleavage
#12
Subhendu Roy, Johannes Kästner
Salicylate 1,2-Dioxygenase (SDO) is the first enzyme discovered, in the family of iron dioxygenases, to catalyze the ring cleavage of a monohydroxylated aromatic compound, salicylate, without a proton donor. Salicylate is not electron-rich like the familiar dihydroxy or aromatic substrates with an electron donating group that are utilized in the well-known dioxygenases. We investigated the full catalytic mechanism of SDO by a combination of Quantum Mechanics and Molecular Mechanics (QM/MM) calculations. We unravel the basis for the unexpected 'intra' cleavage regioselectivity in SDO...
April 26, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444346/resistant-starch-as-a-novel-dietary-strategy-to-maintain-kidney-health-in-diabetes-mellitus
#13
Gar Yee Koh, Matthew J Rowling
The worldwide prevalence of diabetes mellitus is expected to reach 439 million by 2030. Diabetes increases the risk for developing secondary complications such as nephropathy and cardiovascular disease, critical factors that dictate the survival rate of diabetes patients. Compelling evidence has indicated that the positive impact of fermentable carbohydrates in obesity-related diabetes is mediated by the production of short-chain fatty acids and the modulation of colonic microbiota. This review summarizes the potential implications of dietary resistant starch, a class of fermentable fiber, in glucose homeostasis and kidney health in obesity-associated diabetes and examines the mechanisms underlying the protective effect of resistant starch...
April 22, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442386/arginine-deiminase-pathway-provides-atp-and-boosts-growth-of-the-gas-fermenting-acetogen-clostridium-autoethanogenum
#14
Kaspar Valgepea, Kim Q Loi, James B Behrendorff, Renato de S P Lemgruber, Manuel Plan, Mark P Hodson, Michael Köpke, Lars K Nielsen, Esteban Marcellin
Acetogens are attractive organisms for the production of chemicals and fuels from inexpensive and non-food feedstocks such as syngas (CO, CO2 and H2). Expanding their product spectrum beyond native compounds is dictated by energetics, particularly ATP availability. Acetogens have evolved sophisticated strategies to conserve energy from reduction potential differences between major redox couples, however, this coupling is sensitive to small changes in thermodynamic equilibria. To accelerate the development of strains for energy-intensive products from gases, we used a genome-scale metabolic model (GEM) to explore alternative ATP-generating pathways in the gas-fermenting acetogen Clostridium autoethanogenum...
April 22, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442367/d-arcy-thompson-s-on-growth-and-form-from-soap-bubbles-to-tissue-self-organization
#15
REVIEW
Carl-Philipp Heisenberg
Tissues are thought to behave like fluids with a given surface tension. Differences in tissue surface tension (TST) have been proposed to trigger cell sorting and tissue envelopment. D'Arcy Thompson in his seminal book 'On Growth and Form' has introduced this concept of differential TST as a key physical mechanism dictating tissue formation and organization within the developing organism. Over the past century, many studies have picked up the concept of differential TST and analyzed the role and cell biological basis of TST in development, underlining the importance and influence of this concept in developmental biology...
April 22, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441384/hopefully-devoted-to-q-targeting-glutamine-addiction-in-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Emma R Still, Mariia O Yuneva
Altered cell metabolism enables tumours to sustain their increased energetic and biosynthetic needs. Although tumour metabolism has long been considered a promising discipline in the development of cancer therapeutics, the majority of work has focused on changes in glucose metabolism. However, the complexity of cellular metabolism means that very rarely is an individual metabolite required for a single purpose, and thus understanding the overall metabolic requirements of tumours is vital. Over the past 30 years, increasing evidence has shown that many tumours require glutamine as well as glucose for their proliferation and survival...
April 25, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439901/biomimetic-strategies-to-recapitulate-organ-specific-microenvironments-for-studying-breast-cancer-metastasis
#17
REVIEW
Akshay A Narkhede, Lalita A Shevde, Shreyas S Rao
The progression of breast cancer from the primary tumor setting to the metastatic setting is the critical event defining stage IV disease, no longer considered curable. The microenvironment at specific organ sites is known to play a key role in influencing the ultimate fate of metastatic cells; yet microenvironmental mediated-molecular mechanisms underlying organ specific metastasis in breast cancer are not well understood. This review discusses biomimetic strategies employed to recapitulate metastatic organ microenvironments, particularly, bone, liver, lung and brain to elucidate the mechanisms dictating metastatic breast cancer cell homing and colonization...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438898/cytotoxic-t-cell-functions-accumulate-when-cd4-is-downregulated-by-cd4-t-cells-in-african-green-monkeys
#18
Carol L Vinton, Alexandra M Ortiz, Nina Calantone, Joseph C Mudd, Claire Deleage, David R Morcock, Sonya Whitted, Jacob D Estes, Vanessa M Hirsch, Jason M Brenchley
African green monkeys (AGMs) are a natural host of SIV that do not develop simian AIDS. Adult AGMs naturally have low numbers of CD4(+) T cells and a large population of MHC class II-restricted CD8αα T cells that are generated through CD4 downregulation in CD4(+) T cells. In this article, we study the functional profiles and SIV infection status in vivo of CD4(+) T cells, CD8αα T cells, and CD8αβ T cells in lymph nodes, peripheral blood, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of AGMs and rhesus macaques (in which CD4 downregulation is not observed)...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437863/sirt3-acts-as-a-negative-regulator-of-autophagy-dictating-hepatocyte-susceptibility-to-lipotoxicity
#19
Songtao Li, Xiaobing Dou, Hua Ning, Qing Song, Wei Wei, Ximei Zhang, Chen Shen, Jiaxin Li, Changhao Sun, Zhenyuan Song
Lipotoxicity induced by saturated fatty acids (SFAs) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, the exact mechanism(s) remain to be fully elucidated. SIRT3 is an NAD(+) -dependent deacetylase primarily located inside mitochondria. In this study, we demonstrated that a SFAs-rich high-fat diet (HFD) was more detrimental to the liver than an isocaloric unsaturated FAs-rich HFD. Unexpectedly, SIRT3 expression/activity were significantly elevated in the livers of mice exposed to the SFAs-rich HFD...
April 24, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437073/inter-motif-communication-induces-hierarchical-ca2-filling-of-caldendrin
#20
Uday Kiran, Phanindranath Regur, Michael R Kreutz, Yogendra Sharma, Asima Chakraborty
A crucial event in calcium signalling is the transition of a calcium sensor from the apo (Ca2+ free) to the holo (Ca2+ saturated) state. Caldendrin (CDD) is a neuronal Ca2+-binding protein with two functional (EF3 and EF4) and two atypical (EF1 and EF2), non-Ca2+-binding EF-hand motifs. During the transition from the apo to the holo state, guided by the step-wise filling of Ca2+, the protein passes through distinct states and acquires a stable conformational state when only EF3 is occupied by Ca2+. This state is characterized by a Ca2+-derived structural gain in EF3 with destabilization of the EF4 motif...
April 24, 2017: Biochemistry
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