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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342145/the-gram-negative-bacterial-periplasm-size-matters
#1
Samuel I Miller, Nina R Salama
Gram-negative bacteria are surrounded by two membrane bilayers separated by a space termed the periplasm. The periplasm is a multipurpose compartment separate from the cytoplasm whose distinct reducing environment allows more efficient and diverse mechanisms of protein oxidation, folding, and quality control. The periplasm also contains structural elements and important environmental sensing modules, and it allows complex nanomachines to span the cell envelope. Recent work indicates that the size or intermembrane distance of the periplasm is controlled by periplasmic lipoproteins that anchor the outer membrane to the periplasmic peptidoglycan polymer...
January 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341429/trans-acting-translational-regulatory-rna-binding-proteins
#2
REVIEW
Robert F Harvey, Tom S Smith, Thomas Mulroney, Rayner M L Queiroz, Mariavittoria Pizzinga, Veronica Dezi, Eneko Villenueva, Manasa Ramakrishna, Kathryn S Lilley, Anne E Willis
The canonical molecular machinery required for global mRNA translation and its control has been well defined, with distinct sets of proteins involved in the processes of translation initiation, elongation and termination. Additionally, noncanonical, trans-acting regulatory RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are necessary to provide mRNA-specific translation, and these interact with 5' and 3' untranslated regions and coding regions of mRNA to regulate ribosome recruitment and transit. Recently it has also been demonstrated that trans-acting ribosomal proteins direct the translation of specific mRNAs...
January 17, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340409/dynamics-of-3d-carcinoma-cell-invasion-into-aligned-collagen
#3
Arja Ray, Rachel K Morford, Nima Ghaderi, David J Odde, Paolo P Provenzano
Carcinoma cells frequently expand and invade from a confined lesion, or multicellular clusters, into and through the stroma on the path to metastasis, often with an efficiency dictated by the architecture and composition of the microenvironment. Specifically, in desmoplastic carcinomas such as those of the breast, aligned collagen tracks provide contact guidance cues for directed cancer cell invasion. Yet, the evolving dynamics of this process of invasion remains poorly understood, in part due to difficulties in continuously capturing both spatial and temporal heterogeneity and progression to invasion in experimental systems...
January 17, 2018: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339524/communication-in-context-interpreting-promises-in-an-experiment-on-competition-and-trust
#4
Alessandra Casella, Navin Kartik, Luis Sanchez, Sébastien Turban
How much do people lie, and how much do people trust communication when lying is possible? An important step toward answering these questions is understanding how communication is interpreted. This paper establishes in a canonical experiment that competition can alter the shared communication code: the commonly understood meaning of messages. We study a sender-receiver game in which the sender dictates how to share $10 with the receiver, if the receiver participates. The receiver has an outside option and decides whether to participate after receiving a nonbinding offer from the sender...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339515/mers-cov-and-h5n1-influenza-virus-antagonize-antigen-presentation-by-altering-the-epigenetic-landscape
#5
Vineet D Menachery, Alexandra Schäfer, Kristin E Burnum-Johnson, Hugh D Mitchell, Amie J Eisfeld, Kevin B Walters, Carrie D Nicora, Samuel O Purvine, Cameron P Casey, Matthew E Monroe, Karl K Weitz, Kelly G Stratton, Bobbie-Jo M Webb-Robertson, Lisa E Gralinski, Thomas O Metz, Richard D Smith, Katrina M Waters, Amy C Sims, Yoshihiro Kawaoka, Ralph S Baric
Convergent evolution dictates that diverse groups of viruses will target both similar and distinct host pathways to manipulate the immune response and improve infection. In this study, we sought to leverage this uneven viral antagonism to identify critical host factors that govern disease outcome. Utilizing a systems-based approach, we examined differential regulation of IFN-γ-dependent genes following infection with robust respiratory viruses including influenza viruses [A/influenza/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1-VN1203) and A/influenza/California/04/2009 (H1N1-CA04)] and coronaviruses [severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV)]...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339475/electron-mean-free-path-filtering-in-dirac-material-for-improved-thermoelectric-performance
#6
Te-Huan Liu, Jiawei Zhou, Mingda Li, Zhiwei Ding, Qichen Song, Bolin Liao, Liang Fu, Gang Chen
Recent advancements in thermoelectric materials have largely benefited from various approaches, including band engineering and defect optimization, among which the nanostructuring technique presents a promising way to improve the thermoelectric figure of merit (zT) by means of reducing the characteristic length of the nanostructure, which relies on the belief that phonons' mean free paths (MFPs) are typically much longer than electrons'. Pushing the nanostructure sizes down to the length scale dictated by electron MFPs, however, has hitherto been overlooked as it inevitably sacrifices electrical conduction...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338234/role-of-reaction-conditions-in-the-global-and-local-two-parabolas-charge-transfer-model
#7
Ulises Orozco-Valencia, José L Gázquez, Alberto Vela
The local and global charge transfer approach based on the two parabolas model is applied to several problems aiming to show the importance of incorporating the reaction conditions to evaluate the global and local chemical descriptors. It is shown that by preparing the reactants the chemical potentials of the reacting species determined by the two parabolas model satisfy the condition for the transfer of electrons in the direction dictated by the chemical potential difference. The model is applied to the hydration of alkenes, showing that it recovers Markovnikov's rule, to aromatic nitration, and to the interaction of nitrobenzenes with 1,3-diethylurea, an electrochemically controlled hydrogen-bonding problem...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338096/controlling-selectivity-in-aliphatic-c-h-oxidation-via-supramolecular-recognition
#8
Diego Vidal, Giorgio Olivo, Miquel Costas
Aliphatic C-H oxidation is the most attractive approach to functionalize hydrocarbon skeletons. The main challenge of this reaction is the control of regioselectivity since organic molecules contain multiple C-H bonds. This control is perfectly achieved in natural enzymes by means of a web of interactions that orient the substrate in a specific geometry and override intrinsic reactivity patterns. Replication of this control by combination of molecular catalysts and supramolecular recognition is highly desirable in this regard...
January 16, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337434/light-and-darkness
#9
EDITORIAL
Pontus B Persson, Anja B Persson
Life on earth follows cyclic processes, of which the diurnal cycle of the sun rising and setting is one of the most evident. The rotation of the earth dictates the waking and resting cycles of numerous life forms on earth. While we can safely assume that our earliest human ancestors will have recognized, sometimes feared or even worshipped the cyclic nature of Life on Earth, the knowledge that almost "all multicellular organisms, including humans, utilize a similar mechanism to control circadian rhythms" [1], has only very recently warranted a Nobel Prize in Physiology/Medicine...
January 16, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336292/use-of-intraoperative-negative-margins-reduces-inverted-papilloma-recurrence
#10
Amar Miglani, Joseph M Hoxworth, Matthew A Zarka, Devyani Lal
BACKGROUND: Recurrence of inverted papilloma (IP) is a problem in 12-17% of tumors. Controversy exists regarding benefits of intraoperative frozen section histopathology (IFSH) for IP resection; however, to our knowledge, no study has specifically investigated this. IFSH for IP resection is the standard of care in our practice. We, therefore, reviewed our outcomes of using IFSH for IP resection. A secondary goal was to assess the reliability of IFSH. METHODS: Patients with IP who underwent surgical resection (2010-2016) with minimum 9-month follow-up were included...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335437/deubiquitinase-usp13-dictates-mcl1-stability-and-sensitivity-to-bh3-mimetic-inhibitors
#11
Shengzhe Zhang, Meiying Zhang, Ying Jing, Xia Yin, Pengfei Ma, Zhenfeng Zhang, Xiaojie Wang, Wen Di, Guanglei Zhuang
MCL1 is a pivot member of the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family proteins. While a distinctive feature of MCL1 resides in its efficient ubiquitination and destruction, the deubiquitinase USP9X has been implicated in the preservation of MCL1 expression by removing the polyubiquitin chains. Here we perform an unbiased siRNA screen and identify that the second deubiquitinase, USP13, regulates MCL1 stability in lung and ovarian cancer cells. Mechanistically, USP13 interacts with and stabilizes MCL1 via deubiquitination...
January 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334106/large-scale-preparation-of-a-3d-patchy-surface-with-dissimilar-dendritic-amphiphiles
#12
Yanyan Feng, Yujia Wan, Ming Jin, Decheng Wan
We show here the first example of the large-scale surface decoration of a macroscopic and porous monolith with dissimilar micropatches. Branched polyethylenimine (PEI) is alkylated with poly(propylene glycol) (PPG), leading to a reverse-micelle-like dendritic amphiphile of PEI@PPG. Peralkylation and partial quaternization of the residual amino groups of PEI@PPG produces a cationic dendritic amphiphile of PEI-N+@PPG. The two dendritic amphiphiles jointly stabilize a water-in-oil high-internal-phase emulsion to prepare open-cellular monoliths of macroscopic size, with the monolith pore surface dictated by the cationic and neutral dendritic amphiphiles...
January 15, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333547/diverse-bimetallic-mechanisms-emerging-from-transition-metal-lewis-acid-base-pairs-development-of-co-catalysis-with-metal-carbenes-and-metal-carbonyl-anions
#13
Neal P Mankad
The rational development of catalytic reactions involving cooperative behavior between two catalytic reactive sites represents a frontier area of research from which novel reactivity and selectivity patterns emerge. Within this context, this Feature highlights the development of a cooperative system involving transition metal Lewis acid/base pairs. Bimetallic systems consisting of copper carbene Lewis acids and metal carbonyl anion Lewis bases, (NHC)Cu-[MCO], are easily synthesized from readily available organometallic building blocks (NHC = N-heterocyclic carbene; [MCO]- = metal carbonyl anion, e...
January 15, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332774/an-analysis-of-intoxicated-patients-transported-by-a-doctor-helicopter
#14
Ikuto Takeuchi, Kazuhiko Omori, Hiroki Nagasawa, Kei Jitsuiki, Takashi Iso, Akihiko Kondo, Kouhei Ishikawa, Hiromichi Ohsaka, Youichi Yanagawa
OBJECTIVE: We retrospectively investigated all of the intoxicated patients who were transported by a doctor helicopter (DH) in eastern Shizuoka between April 2004 and December 2015 to determine when air medical transport was used in cases of toxic exposure. METHODS: Subjects were divided into 2 groups: an outpatient group of subjects who went home after receiving a medical evaluation and treatment and an admission group. RESULTS: The outpatient and admission groups included 17 and 31 subjects, respectively...
January 2018: Air Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332231/stage-specific-therapeutic-strategies-of-medication-related-osteonecrosis-of-the-jaws-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-drug-suspension-protocol
#15
REVIEW
Luca Ramaglia, Agostino Guida, Vincenzo Iorio-Siciliano, Alessandro Cuozzo, Andrea Blasi, Anton Sculean
OBJECTIVE: The most debated topic about medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ) is its therapy, as there are no definitive guidelines. The aims of this systematic review were (a) to outline the best therapeutic approach according to the stage at diagnosis and (b) to perform a meta-analysis to assess whether the drug-holiday protocol may be or not an effective method in the management of MRONJ patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The systematic review was performed following the PRISMA principles...
January 13, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331038/modeling-strategic-sperm-allocation-tailoring-the-predictions-to-the-species
#16
Biz R Turnell, Kerry L Shaw, H Kern Reeve
Two major challenges exist when empirically testing the predictions of sperm allocation theory. First, the study species must adhere to the assumptions of the model being tested. Unfortunately, the common assumption of sperm allocation models that females mate a maximum of once or twice does not hold for many, if not most, multiply and sequentially mating animals. Second, a model's parameters, which dictate its predictions, must be measured in the study species. Common examples of such parameters, female mating frequency and sperm precedence patterns, are unknown for many species used in empirical tests...
January 13, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330959/non-destructive-determination-of-muscle-architectural-variables-through-the-use-of-dicect
#17
Edwin Dickinson, Heiko Stark, Kornelius Kupczik
The fascicular architecture of skeletal muscle dictates functional parameters such as force production and contractile velocity. Muscle microarchitecture is typically determined by means of manual dissection, a technique that is inherently destructive to specimens. Furthermore, fascicle lengths and pennation angles are commonly assessed at only a limited number of sampling sites per muscle. We present the results of a digital technique to non-destructively assess muscle architectural variables for three jaw-adductor muscles within a specimen of the cercopithecine primate Macaca fascicularis (crab-eating macaque)...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329891/medical-use-of-cannabis-and-cannabinoids-containing-products-regulations-in-europe-and-north-america
#18
REVIEW
Ran Abuhasira, Liat Shbiro, Yuval Landschaft
In 1937, the United States of America criminalized the use of cannabis and as a result its use decreased rapidly. In recent decades, there is a growing interest in the wide range of medical uses of cannabis and its constituents; however, the laws and regulations are substantially different between countries. Laws differentiate between raw herbal cannabis, cannabis extracts, and cannabinoid-based medicines. Both the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) do not approve the use of herbal cannabis or its extracts...
January 10, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329500/c-o-isothiouronium-interaction-dictates-enantiodiscrimination-in-acylative-kinetic-resolution-of-tertiary-heterocyclic-alcohols
#19
Mark Greenhalgh, Samuel Smith, Daniel Walden, James Taylor, Zamira Brice, Emily Robinson, Charlene Fallan, David Cordes, Alexandra Slawin, Hannah Camille Richardson, Markas Grove, Paul Cheong, Andrew David Smith
A combination of experimental and computational studies have identified a C=O***isothiouronium interaction as key to efficient enantiodiscrimination in the kinetic resolution of tertiary heterocyclic alcohols bearing up to three potential recognition motifs at the stereogenic tertiary carbinol center. This discrimination was exploited in the isothiourea-catalyzed acylative kinetic resolution of tertiary heterocyclic alcohols (38 examples, s up to > 200). The reaction proceeds at low catalyst loadings (generally 1 mol%) using either isobutyric or acetic anhydride as the acylating agent under mild conditions...
January 12, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328973/feeding-inhibition-in-corbicula-fluminea-o-f-muller-1774-as-an-effect-criterion-to-pollutant-exposure-perspectives-for-ecotoxicity-screening-and-refinement-of-chemical-control
#20
Bruno Branco Castro, Carlos Silva, Inês Patrunilho Efe Macário, Bruno Oliveira, Fernando Gonçalves, Joana Luísa Pereira
Bivalves are commonly used in biomonitoring programs to track pollutants. Several features, including its filter-feeding abilities, cumulatively argue in favour of the use of the Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea) as a biosentinel and an ecotoxicological model. Filtration in bivalves is very sensitive to external stimuli and its control is dictated by regulation of the opening/closure of the valves, which may be used as an avoidance defence against contaminants. Here, we investigate the filter-feeding behaviour of the Asian clam as an endpoint for assessing exposure to pollutants, driven by two complementary goals: (i) to generate relevant and sensitive toxicological information based on the ability of C...
January 4, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
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