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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324583/revisiting-cdk-inhibitors-for-treatment-of-glioblastoma-multiforme
#1
REVIEW
Dorota Lubanska, Lisa Porter
Despite extensive efforts and continual progress in research and medicine, outcomes for patients with high-grade glioma remain exceptionally poor. Over the past decade, research has revealed a great deal about the complex biology behind glioma development, and has brought to light some of the major barriers preventing successful treatment. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) (stage 4 astrocytoma) is a highly dynamic tumour and one of the most extreme examples of intratumoural heterogeneity, making targeting with specific therapeutics an inefficient and highly unpredictable goal...
March 21, 2017: Drugs in R&D
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319730/deconstructing-the-germinal-center-one-cell-at-a-time
#2
REVIEW
Chad R Dufaud, Louise J McHeyzer-Williams, Michael G McHeyzer-Williams
Successful vaccination relies on driving the immune response towards high specificity, affinity and longevity. Germinal centers facilitate the evolution of antigen-specific B cells by iterative rounds of diversification, selection, and differentiation to memory and plasma cells. Experimental evidence points to B cell receptor affinity and amount of antigen presented to follicular helper T cells as main drivers of clonal evolution. Concurrent studies suggest that modifiers of cognate contact, temporal mechanisms, and stochastic factors can also shape diversity and influence differentiation to memory and plasma cells, but molecular pathways driving these selection decisions are unresolved...
March 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319464/the-dr-jekyll-and-mr-hyde-complexity-of-the-macrophage-response-in-disease
#3
Danielle Y F Twum, Lauren Burkard-Mandel, Scott I Abrams
Macrophages comprise a highly diverse cell population expressing a continuum of biologic activities dictated by exposure to a plethora of inflammatory cues. Moreover, in contrast to most other hematopoietic populations, macrophages can arise from multiple sites-namely, the bone marrow or yolk sac, adding to the complexity of macrophage biology during health and disease. Nonetheless, it is this very type of diversity that is indispensable for macrophages to respond effectively to pathologic insults. Most of the interest in macrophage biology has been devoted to bone marrow-derived populations, but it is now becoming clearer that tissue-resident populations, which arise from distinct hematopoietic compartments, serve critical roles in host defense, including protection against neoplastic disease...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319360/vertical-vs-lateral-macrophase-separation-in-thin-films-of-block-copolymer-mixtures-computer-simulations-and-gisaxs-experiments
#4
Anatoly V Berezkin, Florian Jung, Dorthe Posselt, Detlef M Smilgies, Christine M Papadakis
Mixtures of two diblock copolymers of very different lengths may feature both macro- and microphase separation; however, not much is known about the mechanisms of separation in diblock copolymer thin films. In the present work, we study thin films of mixtures of two compositionally symmetric block copolymers, both in the one-phase and in the two-phase state, combining coarse-grained molecular simulations (dissipative particle dynamics, DPD) with scattering experiments (grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering, GISAXS)...
March 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318980/cell-specific-%C3%AE-tubulin-isotype-regulates-ciliary-microtubule-ultrastructure-intraflagellar-transport-and-extracellular-vesicle-biology
#5
Malan Silva, Natalia Morsci, Ken C Q Nguyen, Anza Rizvi, Christopher Rongo, David H Hall, Maureen M Barr
Cilia are found on most non-dividing cells in the human body and, when faulty, cause a wide range of pathologies called ciliopathies. Ciliary specialization in form and function is observed throughout the animal kingdom, yet mechanisms generating ciliary diversity are poorly understood. The "tubulin code"-a combination of tubulin isotypes and tubulin post-translational modifications-can generate microtubule diversity. Using C. elegans, we show that α-tubulin isotype TBA-6 sculpts 18 A- and B-tubule singlets from nine ciliary A-B doublet microtubules in cephalic male (CEM) neurons...
March 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318261/expanded-rosarin-a-versatile-fullerene-c60-receptor
#6
Xian-Sheng Ke, Taeyeon Kim, James T Brewster, Vincent M Lynch, Dongho Kim, Jonathan L Sessler
An expanded rosarian (P3P6) with a bowl-like conformation has been prepared and characterized. It is prepared in a one pot procedure that involves condensing a bispyrrole pyridine precursor (P1P2) with benzaldehyde, followed by oxidation. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals a bowl-like conformation in the solid state with an upper rim diameter defined by the meso-phenyl substituents of ca. 13.5 Å and a depth of roughly 6.3 Å. P3P6 forms both 1:1 and 2:1 complexes with C60 in the solid state...
March 20, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317333/contemporary-imaging-for-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-traumatic-dental-injuries-a-review
#7
Nestor Cohenca, Adrian Silberman
Traumatic dental injuries (TDI) have an array of presentations. Diagnostic challenges are common and clinicians' ability to correctly identify specific injuries dictates the optimal course of treatment(s). The aim of this review is to outline and assess all dental imaging techniques and their applications to traumatic dental injuries. A particular interest is given to the advancement of 3-D imaging techniques and their role in diagnosis and treatment planning. The benefits of achieving a more accurate diagnosis are paramount to perfecting clinical judgments and outcomes...
March 20, 2017: Dental Traumatology: Official Publication of International Association for Dental Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314740/dual-recognition-of-chromatin-and-microtubules-by-incenp-is-important-for-mitotic-progression
#8
Michael S Wheelock, David J Wynne, Boo Shan Tseng, Hironori Funabiki
The chromosomal passenger complex (CPC), composed of inner centromere protein (INCENP), Survivin, Borealin, and the kinase Aurora B, contributes to the activation of the mitotic checkpoint. The regulation of CPC function remains unclear. Here, we reveal that in addition to Survivin and Borealin, the single α-helix (SAH) domain of INCENP supports CPC localization to chromatin and the mitotic checkpoint. The INCENP SAH domain also mediates INCENP's microtubule binding, which is negatively regulated by Cyclin-dependent kinase-mediated phosphorylation of segments flanking the SAH domain...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304034/crystalline-magnesium-chloride-electron-donor-complexes-new-support-materials-for-ziegler-natta-catalysts
#9
V H Nissinen, I O Koshevoy, T T Pakkanen
In this study, crystalline magnesium chloride-electron donor complexes were prepared by recrystallization of δ-MgCl2 in the presence of chelating electron donors, including two diethers (1,2-dimethoxyethane; DME and 1,3-dimethoxypropane; DMP) and one diamine (N,N'-diethylethylenediamine; DEEDA). The syntheses and crystal structures of such magnesium chloride complexes with chelating ligands have been rarely reported, even though they can provide important information for the selection of electron donors for stereoselective MgCl2-supported Ziegler-Natta catalysts...
March 17, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303295/sugarcane-biorefinery
#10
Sílvio Vaz
Concepts such as biorefinery and green chemistry focus on the usage of biomass, as with the oil value chain. However, it can cause less negative impact on the environment. A biorefinery based on sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) as feedstock is an example, because it can integrate into the same physical space, of processes for obtaining biofuels (ethanol), chemicals (from sugars or ethanol), electricity, and heat.The use of sugarcane as feedstock for biorefineries is dictated by its potential to supply sugars, ethanol, natural polymers or macromolecules, organic matter, and other compounds and materials...
March 17, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300778/phage-biodiversity-in-artisanal-cheese-wheys-reflects-the-complexity-of-the-fermentation-process
#11
Jennifer Mahony, Angelo Moscarelli, Philip Kelleher, Gabriele A Lugli, Marco Ventura, Luca Settanni, Douwe van Sinderen
Dairy fermentations constitute a perfect "breeding ground" for bacteriophages infecting starter cultures, particularly strains of Lactococcus lactis. In modern fermentations, these phages typically belong to one of three groups, i.e., the 936, P335, and c2 phage groups. Traditional production methods present fewer chemical and physical barriers to phage proliferation compared to modern production systems, while the starter cultures used are typically complex, variable, and undefined. In the current study, a variety of cheese whey, animal-derived rennet, and vat swab samples from artisanal cheeses produced in Sicily were analysed for the presence of lactococcal phages to assess phage diversity in such environments...
March 16, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300473/cells-on-the-move-modulation-of-guidance-cues-during-germ-cell-migration
#12
Girish Deshpande, Justinn Barr, Offer Gerlitz, Lyubov Lebedeva, Yulii Shidlovskii, Paul Schedl
In Drosophila melanogaster the progenitors of the germ-line stem cells, the primordial germ cells (PGCs) are formed on the outside surface of the early embryo, while the somatic gonadal precursor cells (SGPs) are specified during mid-embryogenesis. To form the primitive embryonic gonad, the PGCs travel from outside of the embryo, across the mid-gut and then migrate through the mesoderm to the SGPs. The migratory path of PGCs is dictated by a series of attractive and repulsive cues. Studies in our lab have shown that one of the key chemoattractants is the Hedgehog (Hh) ligand...
March 16, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299519/insights-into-the-effects-of-glycosylation-and-the-monosaccharide-binding-activity-of-the-plant-lectin-cratabl
#13
Laercio Pol-Fachin
CrataBL is a glycoprotein isolated from Crataeva tapia bark, containing two N-glycosylation sites. It has been identified to present lectin activity with some specificity for binding glucose over galactose. However, to date, no information on the effects of glycosylation or CrataBL monosaccharide-binding sites and monosaccharide specificity has been obtained. Thus, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations were employed to characterize the glycosylated CrataBL conformation and dynamics in aqueous solutions, as well as the molecular basis for its binding specificity...
March 15, 2017: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298707/outcome-of-primary-rhegmatogenous-retinal-detachment-surgery-in-a-tertiary-referral-centre-in-northern-ireland-a-regional-study
#14
Michael A Mikhail, George Mangioris, Giuseepe Casalino, Stuart McGimpsey, James Sharkey, Richard Best, Wing C Chan
PURPOSE: To report the primary and final success, functional outcome and complication rates of patients with primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) who underwent retinal detachment surgery in a tertiary referral centre in Northern Ireland. VENUE: Vitreoretinal service, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast, Northern Ireland. METHODS: This is a retrospective case series of all patients who underwent primary RRD repair between 1st of January 2013 and 31st of December 2013...
January 2017: Ulster Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297958/extensivity-and-additivity-of-the-kolmogorov-sinai-entropy-for-simple-fluids
#15
Moupriya Das, Anthony B Costa, Jason R Green
According to the van der Waals picture, attractive and repulsive forces play distinct roles in the structure of simple fluids. Here, we examine their roles in dynamics; specifically, in the degree of deterministic chaos using the Kolmogorov-Sinai (KS) entropy rate and the spectra of Lyapunov exponents. With computer simulations of three-dimensional Lennard-Jones and Weeks-Chandler-Andersen fluids, we find repulsive forces dictate these dynamical properties, with attractive forces reducing the KS entropy at a given thermodynamic state...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295960/interactions-of-renal-clearable-gold-nanoparticles-with-tumor-microenvironments-vasculature-and-acidity-effects
#16
Mengxiao Yu, Chen Zhou, Li Liu, Shanrong Zhang, Shasha Sun, Julia D Hankins, Xiankai Sun, Jie Zheng
The success of nanomedicines in the clinic depends on our comprehensive understanding of nano-bio interactions in tumor microenvironments, which are characterized by dense leaky microvasculature and acidic extracellular pH (pHe ) values. Herein, we investigated the accumulation of ultrasmall renal-clearable gold NPs (AuNPs) with and without acidity targeting in xenograft mouse models of two prostate cancer types, PC-3 and LNCaP, with distinct microenvironments. Our results show that both sets of AuNPs could easily penetrate into the tumors but their uptake and retention were mainly dictated by the tumor microvasculature and the enhanced permeability and retention effect over the entire targeting process...
March 13, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295256/visualization-of-stimulus-specific-heterogeneous-activation-of-individual-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-in-aortic-tissues
#17
Satoshi Komatsu, Toshio Kitazawa, Mitsuo Ikebe
Intercellular communication among autonomic nerves, endothelial cells (ECs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays a central role in an uninterrupted regulation of blood flow through vascular contractile machinery. Impairment of this communication is linked to development of vascular diseases such as hypertension, cerebral/coronary vasospasms, aortic aneurism, and erectile dysfunction. Although the basic concept of the communication as a whole has been studied, the spatiotemporal correlation of ECs/VSMCs in tissues at the cellular level is unknown...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294454/concise-review-msc-derived-exosomes-for-cell-free-therapy
#18
Donald G Phinney, Mark F Pittenger
Mesenchymal stem cell transplantation is undergoing extensive evaluation as a cellular therapy in human clinical trials. Because MSCs are easily isolated and amenable to culture expansion in vitro there is a natural desire to test MSCs in many diverse clinical indications. This is exemplified by the rapidly expanding literature base that includes many in vivo animal models. More recently, MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs), which include exosomes and microvesicles (MV), are being examined for their role in MSC-based cellular therapy...
March 10, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294114/dynamics-and-universal-scaling-law-in-geometrically-controlled-sessile-drop-evaporation
#19
P J Sáenz, A W Wray, Z Che, O K Matar, P Valluri, J Kim, K Sefiane
The evaporation of a liquid drop on a solid substrate is a remarkably common phenomenon. Yet, the complexity of the underlying mechanisms has constrained previous studies to spherically symmetric configurations. Here we investigate well-defined, non-spherical evaporating drops of pure liquids and binary mixtures. We deduce a universal scaling law for the evaporation rate valid for any shape and demonstrate that more curved regions lead to preferential localized depositions in particle-laden drops. Furthermore, geometry induces well-defined flow structures within the drop that change according to the driving mechanism...
March 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291460/validation-of-laboratory-animal-and-surrogate-human-models-in-primary-blast-injury-studies
#20
Namas Chandra, Aravind Sundaramurthy, Raj K Gupta
Blast-induced neurotrauma has affected more than 300,000 service members. It is important to understand the effect of single and repeated shock-blast wave exposures on the neuropsychological behavior of soldiers, to offer them better protection, diagnostics, and treatment. Preclinical animal models and helmet design studies on human surrogate models have relied on the use of compression gas-driven shock tubes. Traditional shock tubes are so simple that if not carefully designed and operated, the test results can easily introduce detrimental artifacts clouding the conclusions...
March 2017: Military Medicine
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