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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221030/control-of-grafting-density-and-distribution-in-graft-polymers-by-living-ring-opening-metathesis-copolymerization
#1
Tzu-Pin Lin, Alice B Chang, Hsiang-Yun Chen, Allegra L Liberman-Martin, Christopher M Bates, Matthew J Voegtle, Christina A Bauer, Robert H Grubbs
Control over polymer sequence and architecture is crucial to both understanding structure-property relationships and designing functional materials. In pursuit of these goals, we developed a new synthetic approach that enables facile manipulation of the density and distribution of grafts in polymers via living ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP). Discrete endo,exo-norbornenyl dialkylesters (dimethyl DME, diethyl DEE, di-n-butyl DBE) were strategically designed to copolymerize with a norbornene-functionalized polystyrene (PS), polylactide (PLA), or polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) macromonomer mediated by the 3rd generation catalyst (G3)...
February 21, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220901/distinct-signatures-of-dental-plaque-metabolic-byproducts-dictated-by-periodontal-inflammatory-status
#2
Akito Sakanaka, Masae Kuboniwa, Ei Hashino, Takeshi Bamba, Eiichiro Fukusaki, Atsuo Amano
Onset of chronic periodontitis is associated with an aberrant polymicrobial community, termed dysbiosis. Findings regarding its etiology obtained using high-throughput sequencing technique suggested that dysbiosis holds a conserved metabolic signature as an emergent property. The purpose of this study was to identify robust biomarkers for periodontal inflammation severity. Furthermore, we investigated disease-associated metabolic signatures of periodontal microbiota using a salivary metabolomics approach. Whole saliva samples were obtained from adult subjects before and after removal of supragingival plaque (debridement)...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220892/epigenetic-determinants-of-space-radiation-induced-cognitive-dysfunction
#3
Munjal M Acharya, Al Anoud D Baddour, Takumi Kawashita, Barrett D Allen, Amber R Syage, Thuan H Nguyen, Nicole Yoon, Erich Giedzinski, Liping Yu, Vipan K Parihar, Janet E Baulch
Among the dangers to astronauts engaging in deep space missions such as a Mars expedition is exposure to radiations that put them at risk for severe cognitive dysfunction. These radiation-induced cognitive impairments are accompanied by functional and structural changes including oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and degradation of neuronal architecture. The molecular mechanisms that dictate CNS function are multifaceted and it is unclear how irradiation induces persistent alterations in the brain. Among those determinants of cognitive function are neuroepigenetic mechanisms that translate radiation responses into altered gene expression and cellular phenotype...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220508/quantitative-long-term-measurements-of-burns-in-a-rat-model-using-spatial-frequency-domain-imaging-sfdi-and-laser-speckle-imaging-lsi
#4
Adrien Ponticorvo, David M Burmeister, Rebecca Rowland, Melissa Baldado, Gordon T Kennedy, Rolf Saager, Nicole Bernal, Bernard Choi, Anthony J Durkin
BACKGROUND AND OJECTIVES: The current standard for diagnosis of burn severity and subsequent wound healing is through clinical examination, which is highly subjective. Several new technologies are shifting focus to burn care in an attempt to help quantify not only burn depth but also the progress of healing. While accurate early assessment of partial thickness burns is critical for dictating the course of treatment, the ability to quantitatively monitor wound status over time is critical for understanding treatment efficacy...
February 21, 2017: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220502/variations-on-a-nucleosome-theme-the-structural-basis-of-centromere-function
#5
Olga Moreno-Moreno, Mònica Torras-Llort, Fernando Azorín
The centromere is a specialized chromosomal structure that dictates kinetochore assembly and, thus, is essential for accurate chromosome segregation. Centromere identity is determined epigenetically by the presence of a centromere-specific histone H3 variant, CENP-A, that replaces canonical H3 in centromeric chromatin. Here, we discuss recent work by Roulland et al. that identifies structural elements of the nucleosome as essential determinants of centromere function. In particular, CENP-A nucleosomes have flexible DNA ends due to the short αN helix of CENP-A...
February 21, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220317/role-of-narrative-based-medicine-in-proper-patient-assessment
#6
Giovanni Rosti
Improving patient-physician communication is an area of medicine that deserves greater attention. Narrative medicine can be considered as one tool that can aid in fostering better communication. Current medical practice is dominated by evidence-based medicine, and dictates what therapies the clinician will offer in a given circumstance, ideally supported by (evidence-based) guidelines. However, when taken alone it tends to decentralize the patient. There are many different approaches that can be used to understand the patient and what he or she is experiencing as a result of their illness...
February 21, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219806/structural-characterization-and-viscoelastic-constitutive-modeling-of-skin
#7
Vincent R Sherman, Yizhe Tang, Shiteng Zhao, Wen Yang, Marc A Meyers
: A fascinating material, skin has a tensile response which exhibits an extended toe region of minimal stress up to nominal strains that, in some species, exceed 1, followed by significant stiffening until a roughly linear region. The large toe region has been attributed to its unique structure, consisting of a network of curved collagen fibers. Investigation of the structure of rabbit skin reveals that it consists of layers of wavy fibers, each one with a characteristic orientation. Additionally, the existence of two preferred layer orientations is suggested based on the results of small angle x-ray scattering...
February 17, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219347/aquaculture-genomics-genetics-and-breeding-in-the-united-states-current-status-challenges-and-priorities-for-future-research
#8
EDITORIAL
Hisham Abdelrahman, Mohamed ElHady, Acacia Alcivar-Warren, Standish Allen, Rafet Al-Tobasei, Lisui Bao, Ben Beck, Harvey Blackburn, Brian Bosworth, John Buchanan, Jesse Chappell, William Daniels, Sheng Dong, Rex Dunham, Evan Durland, Ahmed Elaswad, Marta Gomez-Chiarri, Kamal Gosh, Ximing Guo, Perry Hackett, Terry Hanson, Dennis Hedgecock, Tiffany Howard, Leigh Holland, Molly Jackson, Yulin Jin, Karim Kahlil, Thomas Kocher, Tim Leeds, Ning Li, Lauren Lindsey, Shikai Liu, Zhanjiang Liu, Kyle Martin, Romi Novriadi, Ramjie Odin, Yniv Palti, Eric Peatman, Dina Proestou, Guyu Qin, Benjamin Reading, Caird Rexroad, Steven Roberts, Mohamed Salem, Andrew Severin, Huitong Shi, Craig Shoemaker, Sheila Stiles, Suxu Tan, Kathy F J Tang, Wilawan Thongda, Terrence Tiersch, Joseph Tomasso, Wendy Tri Prabowo, Roger Vallejo, Hein van der Steen, Khoi Vo, Geoff Waldbieser, Hanping Wang, Xiaozhu Wang, Jianhai Xiang, Yujia Yang, Roger Yant, Zihao Yuan, Qifan Zeng, Tao Zhou
Advancing the production efficiency and profitability of aquaculture is dependent upon the ability to utilize a diverse array of genetic resources. The ultimate goals of aquaculture genomics, genetics and breeding research are to enhance aquaculture production efficiency, sustainability, product quality, and profitability in support of the commercial sector and for the benefit of consumers. In order to achieve these goals, it is important to understand the genomic structure and organization of aquaculture species, and their genomic and phenomic variations, as well as the genetic basis of traits and their interrelationships...
February 20, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218679/mcm10-a-dynamic-scaffold-at-eukaryotic-replication-forks
#9
REVIEW
Ryan M Baxley, Anja-Katrin Bielinsky
To complete the duplication of large genomes efficiently, mechanisms have evolved that coordinate DNA unwinding with DNA synthesis and provide quality control measures prior to cell division. Minichromosome maintenance protein 10 (Mcm10) is a conserved component of the eukaryotic replisome that contributes to this process in multiple ways. Mcm10 promotes the initiation of DNA replication through direct interactions with the cell division cycle 45 (Cdc45)-minichromosome maintenance complex proteins 2-7 (Mcm2-7)-go-ichi-ni-san GINS complex proteins, as well as single- and double-stranded DNA...
February 17, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218432/becn2-interacts-with-atg14-through-a-metastable-coiled-coil-to-mediate-autophagy
#10
Minfei Su, Yue Li, Shane Wyborny, David Neau, Srinivas Chakravarthy, Beth Levine, Christopher L Colbert, Sangita C Sinha
ATG14 binding to BECN/Beclin homologs is essential for autophagy, a critical catabolic homeostasis pathway. Here we show that the α-helical, coiled-coil domain (CCD) of BECN2, a recently identified mammalian BECN1 paralog, forms an anti-parallel, curved homodimer with seven pairs of non-ideal packing interactions, while the BECN2 CCD and ATG14 CCD form a parallel, curved heterodimer stabilized by multiple, conserved polar interactions. Compared to BECN1, the BECN2 CCD forms a weaker homodimer, but binds more tightly to the ATG14 CCD...
February 20, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217791/alkynyl-protected-gold-and-gold-silver-nanoclusters
#11
Zhen Lei, Xian-Kai Wan, Shang-Fu Yuan, Jia-Qi Wang, Quan-Ming Wang
Ligand-protected metal nanoclusters as unique nanomaterials have attracted great attention. The protecting ligands that directly bind on the cluster surfaces are crucial in dictating the structures and properties of the clusters. In contrast to the extensively studied thiolates, alkynyl ligands have been found recently to be important ligands for passivating gold/silver cluster surfaces. In this Frontier article, recent advances in alkynyl-protected metal nanoclusters are overviewed, and the structures, luminescence and catalytic activities are also discussed...
February 20, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216226/nbs1-phosphorylation-status-dictates-repair-choice-of-dysfunctional-telomeres
#12
Rekha Rai, Chunyi Hu, Cayla Broton, Yong Chen, Ming Lei, Sandy Chang
Telomeres employ TRF2 to protect chromosome ends from activating the DNA damage sensor MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN), thereby repressing ATM-dependent DNA damage checkpoint responses. How TRF2 prevents MRN activation at dysfunctional telomeres is unclear. Here, we show that the phosphorylation status of NBS1 determines the repair pathway choice of dysfunctional telomeres. The crystal structure of the TRF2-NBS1 complex at 3.0 Å resolution shows that the NBS1 429YQLSP433 motif interacts specifically with the TRF2(TRFH) domain...
February 8, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215151/iron-chelators-dictate-immune-cells-inflammatory-ability-potential-adjuvant-therapy-for-ibd
#13
Marcello Chieppa, Vanessa Galleggiante, Grazia Serino, Monica Massaro, Angelo Santino
BACKGROUND: The importance of hemoproteins for life lies largely in their iron-mediated chemical properties. In the human body, there are about 4 g of iron, a precious resource preserved by sophisticated recycling mechanisms. Iron is also important for pathogen growth, so it is not surprising that immune cells developed mechanisms to reduce iron availability in cases of inflammation. In healthy conditions, macrophages degrade hemoproteins and export iron, while if inflammation develops, they retain cytoplasmic iron to reduce extracellular iron concentrations...
February 15, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215042/platelet-mediated-modulation-of-fibrinolysis
#14
Claire S Whyte, Joanne L Mitchell, Nicola J Mutch
Platelets are crucial to the hemostatic response. Their role in coagulation is well documented and they have been considered for some time to promote resistance of thrombi to fibrinolysis. Platelets confer resistance to lysis by promoting clot retraction of the immediate fibrin network and through release of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 from their α-granules. However, recent developments in the field indicate that the role of platelets in fibrinolysis is much more diverse. Indeed, novel studies suggest that platelets form different subpopulations upon activation that play varied roles in regulating hemostasis...
February 19, 2017: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214679/estradiol-is-a-critical-regulator-of-food-reward-behavior
#15
Jennifer E Richard, Lorena López-Ferreras, Rozita H Anderberg, Kajsa Olandersson, Karolina P Skibicka
Food intake is reduced by estrogenic hormones, levels of which vary throughout life and fluctuate throughout the ovarian cycle in females. However, estrogens have also been shown to increase reward derived from drugs of abuse, where motivational properties of drugs and progression to addiction are potentiated by estrogens. Whether reward derived from food, and specifically motivational properties of food, are altered by estrogens remains unknown. Here we investigated the effect of the estrous cycle on food reward behavior and show estrous cycle dictated variability in food motivation, measured by progressive ratio operant conditioning, in female rats...
January 28, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214431/simulation-in-undergraduate-paediatric-nursing-curriculum-evaluation-of-a-complex-ward-for-a-day-education-program
#16
Andree S Gamble
Simulation in health education has been shown to increase confidence, psychomotor and professional skills, and thus positively impact on student preparedness for clinical placement. It is recognised as a valuable tool to expose and engage students in realistic patient care encounters without the potential to cause patient harm. Although inherent challenges exist in the development and implementation of simulation, variability in clinical placement time, availability and quality dictates the need to provide students with learning opportunities they may otherwise not experience...
February 4, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211871/expression-level-is-a-key-determinant-of-e2f1-mediated-cell-fate
#17
Igor Shats, Michael Deng, Adam Davidovich, Carolyn Zhang, Jungeun S Kwon, Dinesh Manandhar, Raluca Gordân, Guang Yao, Lingchong You
The Rb/E2F network has a critical role in regulating cell cycle progression and cell fate decisions. It is dysfunctional in virtually all human cancers, because of genetic lesions that cause overexpression of activators, inactivation of repressors, or both. Paradoxically, the downstream target of this network, E2F1, is rarely strongly overexpressed in cancer. E2F1 can induce both proliferation and apoptosis but the factors governing these critical cell fate decisions remain unclear. Previous studies have focused on qualitative mechanisms such as differential cofactors, posttranslational modification or state of other signaling pathways as modifiers of the cell fate decisions downstream of E2F1 activation...
February 17, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210510/single-operator-peroral-cholangioscopy-for-extraction-of-cystic-duct-stones-in-postcholecystectomy-mirizzi-syndrome
#18
Jason Deforest Jones, Rishi Pawa
Mirizzi syndrome is an exceptionally rare diagnosis with an annual incidence of less than 1% in developed countries. In this disease process, stone burden in the cystic duct or gallbladder neck leads to common hepatic duct obstruction, either by mechanical compression or secondary inflammation. Mirizzi syndrome is classified into one of four types based on the presence and severity of cholecystobiliary fistulization. Treatment is primarily surgical in nature and largely dictated by the type of Mirizzi syndrome encountered...
2017: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209775/evidence-for-environmental-and-ecological-selection-in-a-microbe-with-no-geographic-limits-to-gene-flow
#19
Kerry A Whittaker, Tatiana A Rynearson
The ability for organisms to disperse throughout their environment is thought to strongly influence population structure and thus evolution of diversity within species. A decades-long debate surrounds processes that generate and support high microbial diversity, particularly in the ocean. The debate concerns whether diversification occurs primarily through geographic partitioning (where distance limits gene flow) or through environmental selection, and remains unresolved due to lack of empirical data. Here we show that gene flow in a diatom, an ecologically important eukaryotic microbe, is not limited by global-scale geographic distance...
February 16, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207748/nucleotide-pools-dictate-the-identity-and-frequency-of-ribonucleotide-incorporation-in-mitochondrial-dna
#20
Anna-Karin Berglund, Clara Navarrete, Martin K M Engqvist, Emily Hoberg, Zsolt Szilagyi, Robert W Taylor, Claes M Gustafsson, Maria Falkenberg, Anders R Clausen
Previous work has demonstrated the presence of ribonucleotides in human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and in the present study we use a genome-wide approach to precisely map the location of these. We find that ribonucleotides are distributed evenly between the heavy- and light-strand of mtDNA. The relative levels of incorporated ribonucleotides reflect that DNA polymerase γ discriminates the four ribonucleotides differentially during DNA synthesis. The observed pattern is also dependent on the mitochondrial deoxyribonucleotide (dNTP) pools and disease-causing mutations that change these pools alter both the absolute and relative levels of incorporated ribonucleotides...
February 16, 2017: PLoS Genetics
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