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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723301/maternal-occupation-and-the-risk-of-neural-tube-defects-in-offspring
#1
Jihye Kim, Peter H Langlois, Laura E Mitchell, A J Agopian
We evaluated the association between maternal occupation and the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in offspring. Data for 491 nonsyndromic cases were obtained from the Texas Birth Defects Registry for deliveries between 1999 and 2009. We randomly selected 2,291 controls among all live births in Texas during this time. Maternal occupations were classified using automated software and manual assignment. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between maternal occupation and risk for any NTD, adjusting for maternal race/ethnicity, any diabetes, and maternal body mass index...
July 19, 2017: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722759/lifetime-reproductive-success-selection-on-lifespan-and-multiple-sexual-ornaments-in-male-european-barn-swallows
#2
Alessandra Costanzo, Roberto Ambrosini, Manuela Caprioli, Emanuele Gatti, Marco Parolini, Luca Canova, Diego Rubolini, Andrea Romano, Luca Gianfranceschi, Nicola Saino
Natural and sexual selection arise when individual fitness varies according to focal traits. Extra-pair paternities (EPPs) can affect the intensity of selection by influencing variance in fitness among individuals. Studies of selection require that individual fitness is estimated using proxies of lifetime reproductive success (LRS). However, estimating LRS is difficult in large, open populations where EPPs cause reallocation of biological paternity. Here we used extensive field sampling to estimate LRS in a population of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) to estimate selection on lifespan and ornamental traits of males...
July 19, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722565/high-iron-levels-are-associated-with-increased-malaria-risk-in-infants-during-the-first-year-of-life-in-benin
#3
Violeta Moya-Alvarez, Gilles Cottrell, Smaila Ouédraogo, Manfred Accrombessi, Achille Massougbodgi, Michel Cot
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 40% of children in low-income countries are anemic. Therefore, iron supplements are recommended by WHO in areas with high anemia rates. However, some studies have set into question the benefits of iron supplementation in malaria-endemic regions. In Benin, a west African country with high prevalence of anemia and malaria, no iron supplements are given systematically to infants so far despite the WHO recommendations. In this context, we wanted to investigate the effect of iron levels during the first year of life on malarial risk in Benin considering complementary risk factors...
June 19, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722537/attention-bias-to-threat-in-mothers-with-emotional-disorders-predicts-increased-offspring-anxiety-symptoms-a-joint-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-analysis
#4
Allison M Waters, Elise M Candy, Steven G Candy
There is convincing evidence of the transmission of anxiety and depression from parents to children; however, mechanisms by which this vulnerability is passed on are unclear. Cognitive models and a small body of cross-sectional research suggest that parental attention biases (ABs) may be one mechanism involved in transmission. Longitudinal associations of maternal and offspring ABs with offspring symptoms have been scarcely studied. Forty-three mothers-child dyads were included. All children (7-12 years old) were diagnosis-free while 24 mothers had a lifetime emotional disorder (anxiety or depression) (high risk, HR) and 19 mothers had no psychiatric diagnoses (low risk, LR)...
July 19, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721613/comparative-toxicity-of-seven-rare-earth-elements-in-sea-urchin-early-life-stages
#5
Marco Trifuoggi, Giovanni Pagano, Marco Guida, Anna Palumbo, Antonietta Siciliano, Maria Gravina, Daniel M Lyons, Petra Burić, Maja Levak, Philippe J Thomas, Antonella Giarra, Rahime Oral
The widespread use of rare earth elements (REEs) in a number of technological applications raises unanswered questions related to REE-associated adverse effects. We have previously reported on the multiple impact of some REEs on the early life stages of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. The present investigation was to evaluate REE toxicity to early life stages in two unrelated sea urchin species, Sphaerechinus granularis and Arbacia lixula. The comparative toxicities were tested of seven REEs, namely yttrium, lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, samarium, europium and gadolinium as chloride salts at concentrations ranging from 10(-7) to 10(-4) M...
July 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720851/microneedle-patch-delivery-of-influenza-vaccine-during-pregnancy-enhances-maternal-immune-responses-promoting-survival-and-long-lasting-passive-immunity-to-offspring
#6
E Stein Esser, Joanna A Pulit-Penaloza, Haripriya Kalluri, Devin McAllister, Elena V Vassilieva, Elizabeth Q Littauer, Nadia Lelutiu, Mark R Prausnitz, Richard W Compans, Ioanna Skountzou
Influenza virus causes life-threatening infections in pregnant women and their newborns. Immunization during pregnancy is the most effective means of preventing maternal and infant mortality/morbidity; however, influenza vaccination rates of pregnant women remain under 50%. Furthermore, the availability of vaccines in low-resource populations is limited. Skin immunization with microneedle patches (MN) is a novel and safe vaccination platform featuring thermostable vaccine formulations. Cold-chain independence and the potential for self-administration can expand influenza vaccination coverage in developing countries...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720837/morphological-and-functional-maturity-of-the-oral-jaws-covary-with-offspring-size-in-trinidadian-guppies
#7
T R Dial, L P Hernandez, E L Brainerd
Large size of individual offspring is routinely selected for in highly competitive environments, such as in low-predation populations of the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Large guppy offspring outcompete their smaller conspecifics, but the functional mechanisms underlying this advantage are unknown. We measured jaw kinematics during benthic feeding and cranial musculoskeletal morphologies in neonates and juveniles from five populations of Trinidadian guppy and found that both kinematics and morphologies vary substantially with neonatal size...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720490/first-record-of-natural-vertical-transmission-of-dengue-virus-in-aedes-aegypti-from-cuba
#8
Gladys Gutiérrez-Bugallo, Rosmari Rodriguez-Roche, Gisell Díaz, Antonio A Vázquez, Mayling Alvarez, Magdalena Rodríguez, Juan A Bisset, Maria G Guzman
While horizontal transmission (human-mosquito-human) of dengue viruses largely determines the epidemiology of the disease, vertical transmission (infected female mosquito- infected offspring) has been suggested as a mechanism that ensures maintenance of the virus during adverse conditions for horizontal transmission to occur. The purpose of this study was to analyze the natural infection of larval stages of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) with the dengue virus (DENV) in Cuba. Here, we report vertical transmission of DENV-3 genotype III in natural populations of Ae...
July 15, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720162/maternal-pregnancy-c-reactive-protein-predicts-offspring-birth-size-and-body-composition-in-metropolitan-cebu-philippines
#9
C W Kuzawa, R L Fried, J B Borja, T W McDade
The gestational milieu is an important influence on fetal development and long-term disease risk. Here we assess relationships between maternal pregnancy inflammation, indicated by C-reactive protein (CRP), and offspring anthropometric outcomes measured soon after birth. Data come from female participants (n=327, age 24.4-30.2 years) in a longitudinal study located in Metropolitan Cebu, Philippines. Between 2009 and 2014, pregnancy interviews (n=429) were conducted during which questionnaire and anthropometric data were obtained along with dried blood spot cards for CRP measurement...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719883/sublethal-insecticide-exposure-affects-reproduction-chemical-phenotype-as-well-as-offspring-development-and-antennae-symmetry-of-a-leaf-beetle
#10
Thorben Müller, Alexander Prosche, Caroline Müller
The area of agriculturally used land and following to that the use of pesticides are steadily increasing. Insecticides do not only reduce pest organisms on crops but can also affect non-target organisms when present in sublethal concentrations in the environment. We investigated the effects of an exposure to sublethal pyrethroid (lambda-cyhalothrin) concentrations, at doses 20 and 60 times lower than the LC50, respectively, on reproductive traits and adult cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles of a leaf beetle (Phaedon cochleariae Fabricius)...
July 15, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719543/the-association-between-maternal-chronic-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-long-term-health-outcomes-in-children-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#11
Line R Jølving, Jan Nielsen, Signe S Beck-Nielsen, Rasmus G Nielsen, Sonia Friedman, Ulrik S Kesmodel, Bente M Nørgård
BACKGROUND: Very little is known about the long-term impact of maternal inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) on the offspring's future health. We aimed to examine whether children born to mothers with IBD had an increased risk of long-term morbidities. METHODS: In this nationwide register-based cohort study, including all children born alive in Denmark between 1989 and 2013, we investigated the association between maternal IBD and 15 selected disease categories of physical and mental conditions in the offspring...
August 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718885/virulence-determines-beneficial-trade-offs-in-the-response-of-virus-infected-plants-to-drought-via-induction-of-salicylic-acid
#12
Emmanuel Aguilar, Carmen Cutrona, Francisco J Del Toro, José G Vallarino, Sonia Osorio, María Luisa Pérez-Bueno, Matilde Barón, Bong-Nam Chung, Tomás Canto, Francisco Tenllado
It has been hypothesized that plants can get beneficial trade-offs from viral infections when grown under drought conditions. However, experimental support for a positive correlation between virus-induced drought tolerance and increased host fitness is scarce. We investigated whether increased virulence exhibited by the synergistic interaction involving Potato virus X (PVX) and Plum pox virus (PPV) improves tolerance to drought and host fitness in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis thaliana. Infection by the pair PPV/PVX and by PPV expressing the virulence protein P25 of PVX conferred an enhanced drought-tolerant phenotype compared to single infections with either PPV or PVX...
July 18, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718218/impact-of-prenatal-immune-challenge-on-the-demyelination-injury-during-adulthood
#13
Abdeslam Mouihate, Hessah Al-Hashash, Sarah Rakhshani-Moghadam, Samah Kalakh
AIM: Brain inflammation is associated with several brain diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), a disease characterized by demyelination. Whether prenatal immune challenge affects demyelination-induced inflammation in the white matter during adulthood is unclear. In the present study, we used a well-established experimental model of focal demyelination to assess whether prenatal immune challenge affects demyelination-induced inflammation. METHODS: Pregnant rats were injected with either lipopolysaccharide (100 μg/kg, ip) or pyrogen-free saline...
July 17, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717388/heritability-of-behavioural-tolerance-to-high-co2-in-a-coral-reef-fish-is-masked-by-nonadaptive-phenotypic-plasticity
#14
Megan J Welch, Philip L Munday
Previous studies have demonstrated limited potential for acclimation of adversely affected olfactory behaviours in reef fishes under elevated CO 2, indicating that genetic adaptation will be required to maintain behavioural performance in the future. Adaptation depends on the presence of heritable phenotypic variation in the trait, which may differ between populations and environments. We used parent-offspring regressions to estimate the heritability (h(2)) of variation in behavioural tolerance to high CO 2 (754 μatm) in both field-collected and laboratory-reared families of Acanthochromis polyacanthus...
August 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717387/human-mediated-evolution-in-a-threatened-species-juvenile-life-history-changes-in-snake-river-salmon
#15
Robin S Waples, Anna Elz, Billy D Arnsberg, James R Faulkner, Jeffrey J Hard, Emma Timmins-Schiffman, Linda K Park
Evaluations of human impacts on Earth's ecosystems often ignore evolutionary changes in response to altered selective regimes. Freshwater habitats for Snake River fall Chinook salmon (SRFCS), a threatened species in the US, have been dramatically changed by hydropower development and other watershed modifications. Associated biological changes include a shift in juvenile life history: Historically essentially 100% of juveniles migrated to sea as subyearlings, but a substantial fraction have migrated as yearlings in recent years...
August 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717267/semen-culture-and-the-assessment-of-genitourinary-tract-infections
#16
REVIEW
Michael Solomon, Ralf Henkel
The male factor contributes approximately 50% to infertility-related cases in couples with an estimated 12%-35% of these cases attributable to male genital tract infections. Depending on the nature of the infection, testicular sperm production, sperm transport, and sperm function can be compromised. Yet, infections are potentially treatable causes of infertility. Male genital tract infections are increasingly difficult to detect. Moreover, they often remain asymptomatic ("silent") with the result that they are then passed on to the relevant sexual partner leading to fertilization and pregnancy failure as well as illness of the offspring...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Urology: IJU: Journal of the Urological Society of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717143/fish-oil-supplementation-to-rats-fed-high-fat-diet-during-pregnancy-prevents-development-of-impaired-insulin-sensitivity-in-male-adult-offspring
#17
Benjamin B Albert, Mark H Vickers, Clint Gray, Clare M Reynolds, Stephanie A Segovia, José G B Derraik, Manohar L Garg, David Cameron-Smith, Paul L Hofman, Wayne S Cutfield
We examined whether maternal fish oil supplementation during pregnancy could prevent development of insulin resistance in adult male offspring of rat dams fed a high-fat diet. Time-mated Sprague-Dawley rat dams were randomised into four treatment groups: Con-Con, dams fed a control diet (fat: 15% kcal) and administered water by gavage; Con-FO, control diet with unoxidised fish oil by gavage; HF-Con, high-fat diet (fat: 45% kcal) and water by gavage; and HF-FO, high-fat diet and unoxidised fish oil by gavage...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717099/differential-neurotoxic-effects-of-in-utero-and-lactational-exposure-to-hydroxylated-polychlorinated-biphenyl-oh-pcb-106-on-spontaneous-locomotor-activity-and-motor-coordination-in-young-adult-male-mice
#18
Asahi Haijima, Ronny Lesmana, Noriaki Shimokawa, Izuki Amano, Yusuke Takatsuru, Noriyuki Koibuchi
We investigated whether in utero or lactational exposure to 4-hydroxy-2',3,3',4',5'-pentachlorobiphenyl (OH-PCB 106) affects spontaneous locomotor activity and motor coordination in young adult male mice. For in utero exposure, pregnant C57BL/6J mice received 0.05 or 0.5 mg/kg body weight of OH-PCB 106 or corn oil vehicle via gavage every second day from gestational day 10 to 18. For lactational exposure, the different groups of dams received 0.05 or 0.5 mg/kg body weight of OH-PCB 106 or corn oil vehicle via gavage every second day from postpartum day 3 to 13...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717049/regulation-of-small-mitochondrial-dna-replicative-advantage-by-ribonucleotide-reductase-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#19
Elliot Bradshaw, Minoru Yoshida, Feng Ling
Small mitochondrial genomes can behave as selfish elements by displacing wild-type genomes regardless of their detriment to the host organism. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, small hypersuppressive mtDNA transiently co-exist with wild-type in a state of heteroplasmy, wherein the replicative advantage of the small mtDNA outcompetes wild-type and produces offspring without respiratory capacity in >95% of colonies. The cytosolic enzyme ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in dNTP synthesis and its inhibition has been correlated with increased petite colony formation, reflecting loss of respiratory function...
July 17, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716942/maternal-photoperiod-programs-hypothalamic-thyroid-status-via-the-fetal-pituitary-gland
#20
Cristina Sáenz de Miera, Béatrice Bothorel, Catherine Jaeger, Valérie Simonneaux, David Hazlerigg
In wild mammals, offspring development must anticipate forthcoming metabolic demands and opportunities. Within species, different developmental strategies may be used, dependent on when in the year conception takes place. This phenotypic flexibility is initiated before birth and is linked to the pattern of day length (photoperiod) exposure experienced by the mother during pregnancy. This programming depends on transplacental communication via the pineal hormone melatonin. Here, we show that, in the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus), the programming effect of melatonin is mediated by the pars tuberalis (PT) of the fetal pituitary gland, before the fetal circadian system and autonomous melatonin production is established...
July 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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