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Rodrigo B Mansur, Roger S McIntyre, Bo Cao, Yena Lee, Letícia Japiassú, Kun Chen, Rui Lu, Weicong Lu, Xiaodong Chen, Ting Li, Guiyun Xu, Kangguang Lin
OBJECTIVES: To compare frontal-striatal brain volumes between offspring of individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) and healthy controls; to investigate the associations of body mass index (BMI) and age with brain volumes; and to assess the moderating effects of BMI and age on the relationship between risk status and structural brain differences. METHODS: We cross-sectionally assessed structural regional and global brain volumes using magnetic resonance imaging and BMI among 53 BD offspring subjects, stratified by risk status, and 23 non-BD offspring controls (aged 8-28 years)...
September 25, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
Iris Leppers, Henning Tiemeier, Sonja A Swanson, Frank C Verhulst, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Oscar H Franco, Pauline W Jansen
OBJECTIVE: Extensive evidence suggests that children and adolescents often inaccurately perceive their body size. However, the extent of this misperception is unclear. This paper describes the agreement between children's actual weight and the perception of body size (self-reported and maternally reported) and the association of actual weight with self-reported body satisfaction. METHODS: In a population-based cohort study of 3,408 children aged 9 to 10 years, we assessed the children's self-perception and ideal perception of their body size with the Children's Body Image Scale...
September 25, 2017: Obesity
Lisa Campo-Engelstein, Diane Chen, Arlene B Baratz, Emilie K Johnson, Courtney Finlayson
Differences (disorders) of sex development are diverse conditions with variations in chromosomal, gonadal, and/or genital development. Fertility potential in this population is variable. Recent investigations into fertility potential in those previously thought to be infertile suggest that the majority may have fertility potential through experimental protocols. Fertility preservation may be more successful if pursued in childhood. As fertility research and techniques advance, it is important to carefully consider pediatric ethical issues specific to this population, including gonadectomy, consent/assent, experimental treatment and false hope, cost and insurance coverage, genetic transmission to offspring, and gender dysphoria...
June 1, 2017: J Endocr Soc
Sergio Castrezana, Brant C Faircloth, William C Bridges, Patricia Adair Gowaty
A prominent hypothesis for polyandry says that male-male competitive drivers induce males to coerce already-mated females to copulate, suggesting that females are more likely to be harassed in the presence of multiple males. This early sociobiological idea of male competitive drive seemed to explain why sperm-storing females mate multiply. Here, we describe an experiment eliminating all opportunities for male-male behavioral competition, while varying females' opportunities to mate or not with the same male many times, or with many other males only one time each...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Arvind Nishtala, Ryan J Piers, Jayandra J Himali, Alexa S Beiser, Kendra L Davis-Plourde, Jane S Saczynski, David D McManus, Emelia J Enjamin, Rhoda Au
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of longitudinal research investigating the relations between AF and domain-specific cognitive performance. OBJECTIVE: Our study investigated the association between AF and cognitive performance cross-sectionally and longitudinally. METHODS: Eligible participants were dementia- and stroke-free at the time of baseline neuropsychological (NP) assessment, and underwent at least one additional NP assessment with a one year or greater inter-test interval...
September 21, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Jerica Lenberg, Qian Qian, Zehua Sun, Rafeul Alam, Magdalena M Gorska
Using a mouse model we provided evidence that pre-pregnancy exposure to diesel exhaust predisposes offspring to asthma. We identified immunological mechanisms of this predisposition to facilitate future development of asthma prevention strategies.
September 21, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Andrés Averbuj, Daniel Fernández, Pablo E Penchaszadeh, Gregorio Bigatti
The edible neogastropod Buccinanops cochlidium from Patagonia, Argentina, reproduces by means of egg capsules attached by the female to its own shell. Gravid females lay an outstanding mean of 500,000 eggs that nurse around 800 embryos, which hatch as crawling juveniles (4mm in shell length) after four months of intracapsular development. This reproductive investment could be expressed as the energy content (EC) estimated for the production of a complete egg mass (33.94±12.85 KJ), representing a conservative estimation of the total EC needed for an adult female to spawn, which is in average ∼12% of the total EC in gravid females...
September 18, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
R F Slykerman, F Hood, K Wickens, J M D Thompson, C Barthow, R Murphy, J Kang, J Rowden, P Stone, J Crane, T Stanley, P Abels, G Purdie, R Maude, E A Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Probiotics may help to prevent symptoms of anxiety and depression through several putative mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (HN001) given in pregnancy and postpartum on symptoms of maternal depression and anxiety in the postpartum period. This was a secondary outcome, the primary outcome being eczema in the offspring at 12months of age. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the effect of HN001 on postnatal mood was conducted in 423 women in Auckland and Wellington, New Zealand...
September 14, 2017: EBioMedicine
James Pickup, Joseph Edward Ironside
Within populations of the amphipod crustaceans Orchestia gammarellus and Orchestia aestuarensis, a proportion of females produce thelygenic (female-only) broods, which often contain intersexual individuals. This phenomenon is associated with the presence of two putative feminizing parasites, the paramyxid Paramarteilia orchestiae and the microsporidian Dictyocoela cavimanum, which frequently co-infect the same host. In order to determine which of the parasites causes feminization, Orchestia were resampled from the type locality of P...
September 25, 2017: Parasitology
David M Lee, Carrie M Thomas, Fuhua Xu, Richard R Yeoman, Jing Xu, Richard L Stouffer, Don P Wolf, Mary B Zelinski
PURPOSE: The main purposes of the study were to investigate the endocrine function of ovarian tissue transplanted to heterotopic subcutaneous sites and the reproductive competence and telomere length of a nonhuman primate originating from transplanted tissue. METHODS: Ovarian cortex pieces were transplanted into the original rhesus macaques in the arm subcutaneously, in the abdomen next to muscles, or in the kidney. Serum estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) concentrations were measured weekly for up to 8 years following tissue transplantation...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Ritsuko Kawaharada, Haruna Masuda, Zhenyi Chen, Eric Blough, Tomoko Kohama, Akio Nakamura
PURPOSE: Gestational diabetes is associated with increased risk to the health of the mother and her offspring. In particular, the infants of diabetic mothers (IDMs) exhibit elevated levels of preterm birth, macrosomia, hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, and cardiomyopathy. We have previously reported that IDMs showed abnormalities in cardiac Akt-related insulin signalling, and that these deficiencies in Akt-related signalling were attenuated by supplementing the maternal diet with fish-oil. Herein, we investigated whether the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) found in fish oil can be used to attenuate diabetes associated impairments in cardiomyocyte signalling...
September 23, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
Masaomi Hamasaki, Yutaka Takeuchi, Ryosuke Yazawa, Souta Yoshikawa, Kazushi Kadomura, Toshiyuki Yamada, Kadoo Miyaki, Kiyoshi Kikuchi, Goro Yoshizaki
The tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes is one of the most popular aquacultural fish; however, there are two major obstacles to selective breeding. First, they have a long generation time of 2 or 3 years until maturation. Second, the parental tiger puffer has a body size (2-5 kg) much larger than average market size (0.6-1.0 kg). The grass puffer Takifugu niphobles is closely related to the tiger puffer and matures in half the time. Furthermore, grass puffer can be reared in small areas since their maturation weight is about 1/150 that of mature tiger puffer...
September 23, 2017: Marine Biotechnology
Yi-Mei Zhou, Han Luo, Ju-Xiang Gou, Wan-Jun Zhao, Wen-Yu Dai, Jingqiang Zhu, Zhi-Hui Li
Whether the second generation of parent/offspring type familial nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma (FNMTC) is more aggressive and has worse prognosis than their first generation counterpart is controversial. To evaluate the clinicopathologic features and prognosis of the second generation via a comparison between the two groups, We searched three databases (PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane library) to review studies published before November 25, 2016. All original studies comparing the clinicopathologic features and prognosis in the first generation of parent/offspring type FNMTC with its second generation counterpart were included...
September 12, 2017: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
Phoebe Lau, David J Hawes, Caroline Hunt, Andrew Frankland, Gloria Roberts, Adam Wright, Daniel S J Costa, Philip B Mitchell
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between family environment (cohesion and parental bonding), high-risk status, and psychopathology (internalizing and externalizing problems) among offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BD), from the perspective of both offspring and their parents. We further tested if family environment mediated the relationship between bipolar risk status and internalizing and externalizing problems. METHOD: High-risk (n = 90) BD offspring and control (n = 56) offspring aged 12-21 years old, and their parents, completed questionnaires on family cohesion and offspring internalizing and externalizing problems...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
Kristian F Lynch, Hye-Seung Lee, Carina Törn, Kendra Vehik, Jeffrey P Krischer, Helena Elding Larsson, Michael J Haller, William A Hagopian, Marian J Rewers, Jin-Xiong She, Olli G Simell, Jorma Toppari, Anette-G Ziegler, Beena Akolkar, Heikki Hyöty, Ezio Bonifacio, Åke Lernmark
β-cell autoantibodies against insulin (IAA), GAD65 (GADA) and IA-2 (IA-2A) precede onset of childhood type 1 diabetes (T1D). Incidence of the first appearing β-cell autoantibodies peaks at a young age and is patterned by T1D-associated genes, suggesting an early environmental influence. Here, we tested if gestational infections and interactions with child's human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and non-HLA genes affected the appearance of the first β-cell autoantibody. Singletons of mothers without diabetes (n = 7472) with T1D-associated HLA-DR-DQ genotypes were prospectively followed quarterly through the first 4 years of life, then semiannually until age 6 years, using standardized autoantibody analyses...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
N A Dowling, E Oldenhof, K Shandley, G J Youssef, S Vasiliadis, S A Thomas, E Frydenberg, A C Jackson
INTRODUCTION: The risk for developing a gambling problem is greater among offspring who have a problem gambling parent, yet little research has directly examined the mechanisms by which this transmission of problem gambling occurs. For this reason, the present study sought to examine the degree to which children's expectancies and motives relating to gambling explain, at least in part, the intergenerational transmission of problem gambling. METHODS: Participants (N=524; 56...
September 11, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
Elisabete A Dos Santos, Christian S A Silva-Torres, Paulo R R Barbosa, Jorge B Torres, Maria C B Moraes
The ladybird beetle Tenuisvalvae notata is an important predator of mealybugs (Pseudococcidae); however, little is known about its reproductive behavior. Thus, in order to improve methods of its rearing, this work studied several aspects regarding the sexual behavior of T. notata. We investigated its sexual activity period, age of the first copulation, mating frequency over 24hours, and oviposition during a 30-day interval. Sexual activity of T. notata is diurnal with peak between 1100h and 1500h. Males need about 4days to first copulation, whereas females can mate at emergence...
September 20, 2017: Behavioural Processes
D A Blank, K Ruckstuhl, W Yang
In many ungulate species, social organization of adults is based on a linear dominance hierarchy, which in turn often positively correlates with age, body mass, and horn/antler size. In contrast to the social behavior of adults and specific mother-offspring interactions, the process of ungulate socialization in juveniles through contacts with other conspecifics is poorly understood, especially for hider species during their initial hiding period. Therefore, we investigated this process in goitered gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa), which is a typical hiding species, and analyzed all contacts between fawns and other conspecifics, omitting mother-young interactions, which are different by nature from other contacts and demands separate consideration...
September 20, 2017: Behavioural Processes
April Gile Thomas, Nina Ozbardakci, Adam Fine, Laurence Steinberg, Paul J Frick, Elizabeth Cauffman
This study examines whether (1) mothers vary in the way they express hostility toward their delinquent adolescent offspring, (2) different types of maternal hostility differentially affect adolescents' depression and recidivism, and (3) adolescent depression serves as a mechanism through which maternal hostility predicts later reoffending. The sample consists of 1,216 male first-time offenders, aged 13-17 years (M = 15.80, SD = 1.29). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the premise that maternal hostility could be distinguished into two subtypes: emotional and physical hostility...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
Jay V Gedir, Peter R Law, Pierre du Preez, Wayne L Linklater
Success of animal translocations depends on improving post-release demographic rates toward establishment and subsequent growth of released populations. Short-term metrics for evaluating translocation success and its drivers, like post-release survival and fecundity, are unlikely to represent longer-term outcomes. We used information theory to investigate 25 years of black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) translocations using the offspring recruitment rate (ORR) of translocated females - a metric integrating survival, fecundity and offspring recruitment at sexual maturity - to detect determinants of success...
September 22, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
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