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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141273/antidepressant-use-during-pregnancy-and-childhood-cancer-in-the-offspring
#1
Natalie C Momen, Trine Munk-Olsen, Jiong Li, Katja G Ingstrup, Jørn Olsen, Veerle Bergink, Xiaoqin Liu
PURPOSE: Antidepressant use during pregnancy has been increasing in recent years. We evaluated whether in utero exposure to antidepressants increased the risk of childhood cancer. METHODS: This population-based cohort study using national registers in Denmark comprised 915 128 liveborn singletons during 1998-2012. We categorised children into three mutually exclusive exposure groups according to maternal redemption of an antidepressant prescription from 2 years before pregnancy until delivery of the index child: Unexposed (N = 863 033), prior user (use before but not during pregnancy) (N = 30 607), and use during pregnancy (N = 21 488)...
November 15, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140467/genomic-prediction-in-a-nuclear-population-of-layers-using-single-step-models
#2
Yiyuan Yan, Guiqin Wu, Aiqiao Liu, Congjiao Sun, Wenpeng Han, Guangqi Li, Ning Yang
Single-step genomic prediction method has been proposed to improve the accuracy of genomic prediction by incorporating information of both genotyped and ungenotyped animals. The objective of this study is to compare the prediction performance of single-step model with a 2-step models and the pedigree-based models in a nuclear population of layers. A total of 1,344 chickens across 4 generations were genotyped by a 600 K SNP chip. Four traits were analyzed, i.e., body weight at 28 wk (BW28), egg weight at 28 wk (EW28), laying rate at 38 wk (LR38), and Haugh unit at 36 wk (HU36)...
November 11, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140440/cord-metabolic-profiles-in-obese-pregnant-women-insights-into-offspring-growth-and-body-composition
#3
Nashita Patel, Christian Hellmuth, Olaf Uhl, Keith Godfrey, Annette Briley, Paul Welsh, Dharmintra Pasupathy, Paul Seed, Berthold Koletzko, Lucilla Poston
Context: Offspring exposed in-utero to maternal obesity have an increased risk of later obesity; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Objective: To assess the effect of an antenatal lifestyle intervention in obese women on the offspring's cord blood metabolic profile, and examine associations of cord blood metabolic profile with maternal clinical characteristics and offspring anthropometry at birth and age 6 months. Design: Randomised controlled trial and cohort study...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139169/sex-differences-in-the-phagocytic-and-migratory-activity-of-microglia-and-their-impairment-by-palmitic-acid
#4
Natalia Yanguas-Casás, Andrea Crespo-Castrillo, Maria L de Ceballos, Julie A Chowen, Iñigo Azcoitia, Maria Angeles Arevalo, Luis M Garcia-Segura
Sex differences in the incidence, clinical manifestation, disease course, and prognosis of neurological diseases, such as autism spectrum disorders or Alzheimer's disease, have been reported. Obesity has been postulated as a risk factor for cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease and, during pregnancy, increases the risk of autism spectrum disorders in the offspring. Obesity is associated with increased serum and brain levels of free fatty acids, such as palmitic acid, which activate microglial cells triggering a potent inflammatory cascade...
November 15, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138598/familial-aggregation-of-myasthenia-gravis-in-affected-families-a-population-based-study
#5
Fu-Chao Liu, Chang-Fu Kuo, Lai-Chu See, Hsin-I Tsai, Huang-Ping Yu
Introduction: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is clinically heterogeneous and can be life-threatening if bulbar or respiratory muscles are involved. However, relative contributions of genetic, shared, and nonshared environmental factors to MG susceptibility remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the familial aggregation and heritability of MG and the relative risks (RRs) of other autoimmune diseases in the relatives of patients with MG. Methods: A population-based family study using the Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI) Database was conducted...
2017: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138256/low-neonatal-plasma-n-6-n-3-pufa-ratios-regulate-offspring-adipogenic-potential-and-condition-adult-obesity-resistance
#6
Michael C Rudolph, Matthew R Jackman, David M Presby, Julie A Houck, Patricia G Webb, Ginger C Johnson, Taylor K Soderborg, Becky A de la Houssaye, Ivana V Yang, Jacob E Friedman, Paul S MacLean
Adipose tissue expansion (ATE) progresses rapidly during postnatal life, influenced by both prenatal maternal factors and postnatal developmental cues. The ratio of n-6 relative to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is thought to regulate perinatal adipogenesis, but the cellular mechanisms and long-term effects are not well understood. We lowered the fetal and postnatal n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio exposure in wildtype offspring, under standard maternal dietary fat amounts, to test effects of low n-6/n-3 ratios on offspring adipogenesis and adipogenic potential...
November 14, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138254/estimating-realized-heritability-in-panmictic-populations
#7
Milan Lstibůrek, Václav Bittner, Gary R Hodge, Jan Picek, Trudy F C Mackay
Narrow sense heritability (h(2) ) is a key concept in quantitative genetics, as it expresses the proportion of the observed phenotypic variation that is transmissible from parents to offspring. h(2) determines the resemblance among relatives and the rate of response to artificial and natural selection. Classical methods for estimating h(2) use random samples of individuals with known relatedness, as well as response to artificial selection, when it is called realized heritability. Here, we present a method for estimating realized h(2) based on a simple assessment of a random-mating population with no artificial manipulation of the population structure, and derive standard errors of the estimates...
November 14, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138200/assessing-the-consequences-of-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-on-offspring-s-cardiovascular-health-mysweetheart-cohort-study-protocol-switzerland
#8
Stefano Di Bernardo, Yvan Mivelaz, Adina Mihaela Epure, Yvan Vial, Umberto Simeoni, Pascal Bovet, Sandrine Estoppey Younes, Arnaud Chiolero, Nicole Sekarski
INTRODUCTION: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a state of glucose intolerance with onset during pregnancy. GDM carries prenatal and perinatal risks as well as long-term risks for the mother and her child. GDM may be involved in the foetal programming of long-term cardiovascular health. However, evidence is sparse and the effect of GDM on cardiovascular health is unknown. To address these issues, we will conduct MySweetHeart Cohort study. The objectives are to assess the effect of GDM on offspring's cardiovascular health early in life by using surrogate markers of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis...
November 14, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138179/association-between-leukocyte-telomere-length-and-the-risk-of-incident-atrial-fibrillation-the-framingham-heart-study
#9
Laila Staerk, Biqi Wang, Kathryn L Lunetta, Robert H Helm, Darae Ko, Jason A Sherer, Patrick T Ellinor, Steven A Lubitz, David D McManus, Ramachandran S Vasan, Emelia J Benjamin, Ludovic Trinquart
BACKGROUND: Advancing age is a prominent risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF). Shorter telomere length is a biomarker of biological aging, but the link between shorter telomere length and increased risk of AF remains unclear. We examined the association between shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and incident AF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included AF-free participants from the observational Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort from 1995 to 1998, who had LTL measurements...
November 14, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138037/genetic-predisposition-to-preeclampsia-is-conferred-by-fetal-dna-variants-near-flt1-a-gene-involved-in-the-regulation-of-angiogenesis
#10
Kathryn J Gray, Richa Saxena, S Ananth Karumanchi
Preeclampsia risk is influenced by both the mother's genetic background, as well as the genetics of her fetus; however, the specific genes responsible for conferring preeclampsia risk have largely remained elusive. Evidence that preeclampsia has a genetic predisposition was first detailed in the early 1960's, and overall preeclampsia heritability is estimated at ∼55%. Many traditional gene discovery approaches have been employed to investigate the specific genes that contribute to preeclampsia risk, but these have largely not been successful or reproducible...
November 11, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137315/protective-effects-of-sulforaphane-on-di-n-butylphthalate-induced-testicular-oxidative-stress-injury-in-male-mice-offsprings-via-activating-nrf2-are-pathway
#11
Zhiqiang Qin, Jingyuan Tang, Peng Han, Xuping Jiang, Chengdi Yang, Ran Li, Min Tang, Baixin Shen, Wei Wang, Chao Qin, Wei Zhang
Di-N-butylphthalate (DBP) is one of the most common endocrine-disrupting chemicals which can disrupt human endocrine system, especially in the male reproductive system. Here, this study was aimed to determine whether sulforaphane (SFN) could protect against testicular oxidative stress injury induced by DBP in male mice offsprings. Wild-type (Nrf2(+/+)) and Nrf2-deficient (Nrf2(-/-)) timed-pregnant mice were given DBP orally from embryonic day (E)14.5 to E19.5. Subsequently, the oxidative stress markers were evaluated...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137191/maternal-iodine-intake-and-offspring-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-results-from-a-large-prospective-cohort-study
#12
Marianne Hope Abel, Eivind Ystrom, Ida Henriette Caspersen, Helle Margrete Meltzer, Heidi Aase, Liv Elin Torheim, Ragna Bugge Askeland, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, Anne Lise Brantsæter
Current knowledge about the relationship between mild to moderately inadequate maternal iodine intake and/or supplemental iodine on child neurodevelopment is sparse. Using information from 77,164 mother-child pairs in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, this study explored associations between maternal iodine intake and child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis, registered in the Norwegian Patient Registry and maternally-reported child ADHD symptoms at eight years of age. Pregnant women reported food and supplement intakes by questionnaire in gestational week 22...
November 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136677/thymus-growth-and-fetal-immune-responses-in-diabetic-pregnancies
#13
Katharina Warncke, Ramona Lickert, Stephanie Eitel, Karl-Philipp Gloning, Ezio Bonifacio, Eva-Maria Sedlmeier, Petra Becker, Jan Knoop, Andreas Beyerlein, Anette-Gabriele Ziegler
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) during pregnancy possibly affects the development of the thymus and the maturation of the immune system in the offspring. The aim of the ImmunDiabRisk study was to investigate thymus growth and maternal and fetal immune responses in pregnancies with and without T1D. The thymus circumferences of the fetuses of pregnant women with T1D (n=49) and without diabetes (n=59) were measured using ultrasound around the 29th gestational week and standardized for gestational age. Simultaneously, the frequencies and total numbers of cell markers were analyzed by flow cytometry in maternal peripheral blood, and at birth in umbilical cord blood...
November 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136648/imprinting-alterations-in-sperm-may-not-significantly-influence-art-outcomes-and-imprinting-patterns-in-the-cord-blood-of-offspring
#14
Li Tang, Zichao Liu, Ruopeng Zhang, Cunmei Su, Wenjuan Yang, Youlin Yao, Shuhua Zhao
An increase in imprinting disorders in children conceived though assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) has been the subject of several reports. The transmission of imprinting errors from the sperm of infertile fathers is believed to be a possible reason for the increased occurrence of these disorders. However, whether the imprinting alterations in sperm affect ART outcomes and the imprinting of offspring is unclear. In the current study, we analyzed the methylation of H19, SNRPN and KCNQ1OT1 by pyrosequencing sperm samples from 97 infertile patients and 31 proven fertile males as well as cord blood samples from 13 infantswho were conceived by infertile parents through intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and 30 healthy newborns who were conceived naturally...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136400/changes-in-bone-turnover-and-calcium-homeostasis-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-in-mammals-a-meta-analysis
#15
Diego A Torres, Mariella B Freitas, Reggiani V Gonçalves
Large amounts of calcium are required during pregnancy and lactation to support fetal and neonatal bone growth and calcification. An inadequate supply of calcium during these stages can lead to unsuccessful reproduction or impaired offspring fitness. During reproduction, female mammals undergo numerous physiological changes, including adaptations to allow an adequate supply of calcium. The lack of quantitative studies analysing these physiological changes from a comparative perspective limits our ability to explain and understand these adaptations...
November 15, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136227/developmental-outcome-of-9-year-old-children-born-after-pgs-follow-up-of-a-randomized-trial
#16
Derk Kuiper, Anne Bennema, Sacha la Bastide-van Gemert, Jorien Seggers, Pamela Schendelaar, Sebastiaan Mastenbroek, Annemieke Hoek, Maas Jan Heineman, Tessa J Roseboom, Joke H Kok, Mijna Hadders-Algra
STUDY QUESTION: Does Day-3 cleavage-stage PGS affect neurodevelopment of 9-year-old IVF offspring? SUMMARY ANSWER: We did not find evidence of adverse consequences of Day-3 cleavage-stage PGS on neurodevelopment of 9-year-old IVF offspring, although children born after IVF with or without PGS often had a non-optimal neurological condition. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Knowledge on long-term sequelae for development and health of children born following PGS is lacking...
November 10, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136159/associations-between-maternal-lifestyle-factors-and-neonatal-body-composition-in-the-screening-for-pregnancy-endpoints-cork-cohort-study
#17
Darren L Dahly, Xia Li, Hazel A Smith, Ali S Khashan, Deirdre M Murray, Mairead E Kiely, Jonathan O'B Hourihane, Fergus P McCarthy, Louise C Kenny, Patricia M Kearney
Background: Neonatal body composition likely mediates fetal influences on life long chronic disease risk. A better understanding of how maternal lifestyle is related to newborn body composition could thus inform intervention efforts. Methods: Using Cork participant data (n = 1754) from the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) cohort study [ECM5(10)05/02/08], we estimated how pre-pregnancy body size, gestational weight gain, exercise, alcohol, smoking and diet were related to neonatal fat and fat-free mass, as well as length and gestational age at birth, using quantile regression...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136097/nonrandom-contribution-of-left-and-right-testes-to-germline-transmission-from-mouse-spermatogonial-stem-cells
#18
Mito Kanastu-Shinohara, Honda Naoki, Takashi Shinohara
Vast amounts of sperm are produced from spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), which continuously undergo self-renewal. We examined the possible effect of laterality in male germline transmission efficiency of SSCs using a spermatogonial transplantation technique. We transplanted the same number of wild-type and Egfp transgenic SSCs in the same or different testes of individual recipient mice and compared the fertility of each type of recipient by natural mating. Transgenic mice were born within 3 months after transplantation regardless of the transplantation pattern...
November 9, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135487/update-on-endocrine-aspects-of-childhood-obesity
#19
Charumathi Baskaran, Nurgun Kandemir
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although childhood obesity has leveled off in the last decade, 'severe obesity' continues to be on the rise. Various genetic, environmental and hormonal factors contribute to obesity. This article reviews the most current understanding of obesity's multifactorial origin and recent recommendations for its management in childhood and adolescence. RECENT FINDINGS: Epigenetics plays a key role in transmitting obesity risk to offspring. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms at genetic loci for adipokines and their receptors are associated with obesity...
November 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135455/transcriptome-wide-association-study-of-inflammatory-biologic-age
#20
Honghuang Lin, Kathryn L Lunetta, Qiang Zhao, Jian Rong, Emelia J Benjamin, Michael M Mendelson, Roby Joehanes, Daniel Levy, Martin G Larson, Joanne M Murabito
Chronic low grade inflammation is a fundamental mechanism of aging. We estimated biologic age using nine biomarkers from diverse inflammatory pathways and we hypothesized that genes associated with inflammatory biological age would provide insights into human aging. In Framingham Offspring Study participants at examination 8 (2005 to 2008), we used the Klemera-Doubal method to estimate inflammatory biologic age and we computed the difference (∆Age) between biologic age and chronologic age. Gene expression in whole blood was measured using the Affymetrix Human Exon 1...
November 11, 2017: Aging
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