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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545153/polyphenols-and-iugr-pregnancies-maternal-hydroxytyrosol-supplementation-improves-prenatal-and-early-postnatal-growth-and-metabolism-of-the-offspring
#1
Marta Vazquez-Gomez, Consolación Garcia-Contreras, Laura Torres-Rovira, José Luis Pesantez, Pedro Gonzalez-Añover, Ernesto Gomez-Fidalgo, Raúl Sanchez-Sanchez, Cristina Ovilo, Beatriz Isabel, Susana Astiz, Antonio Gonzalez-Bulnes
Hydroxytyrosol is a polyphenol with antioxidant, metabolism-regulatory, anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory properties. The present study aimed to determine whether supplementing the maternal diet with hydroxytyrosol during pregnancy can improve pre- and early post-natal developmental patterns and metabolic traits of the offspring. Experiment was performed in Iberian sows fed a restricted diet in order to increase the risk of IUGR. Ten sows were treated daily with 1.5 mg of hydroxytyrosol per kg of feed between Day 35 of pregnancy (30% of total gestational period) until delivery whilst 10 animals were left untreated as controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545092/are-thermal-barriers-higher-in-deep-sea-turtle-nests
#2
Pilar Santidrián Tomillo, Luis Fonseca, Frank V Paladino, James R Spotila, Daniel Oro
Thermal tolerances are affected by the range of temperatures that species encounter in their habitat. Daniel Janzen hypothesized in his "Why mountain passes are higher in the tropics" that temperature gradients were effective barriers to animal movements where climatic uniformity was high. Sea turtles bury their eggs providing some thermal stability that varies with depth. We assessed the relationship between thermal uniformity and thermal tolerance in nests of three species of sea turtles. We considered that barriers were "high" when small thermal changes had comparatively large effects and "low" when the effects were small...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544995/intrauterine-exposure-to-tobacco-and-executive-functioning-in-high-school
#3
Ruth Rose-Jacobs, Mark A Richardson, Kathryn Buchanan-Howland, Clara A Chen, Howard Cabral, Timothy C Heeren, Jane Liebschutz, Leah Forman, Deborah A Frank
BACKGROUND: Executive functioning (EF), an umbrella construct encompassing gradual maturation of cognitive organization/management processes, is important to success in multiple settings including high school. Intrauterine tobacco exposure (IUTE) correlates with negative cognitive/behavioral outcomes, but little is known about its association with adolescent EF and information from real-life contexts is sparse. We evaluated the impact of IUTE on teacher-reported observations of EF in urban high school students controlling for covariates including other intrauterine and adolescent substance exposures...
May 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543867/an-age-dependent-fitness-cost-of-migration-old-trans-saharan-migrating-spoonbills-breed-later-than-those-staying-in-europe-and-late-breeders-have-lower-recruitment
#4
Tamar Lok, Linde Veldhoen, Otto Overdijk, Joost M Tinbergen, Theunis Piersma
Migration is a widespread phenomenon in the animal kingdom. On the basis of the considerable variation that exists between and within species, and even within populations, we may be able to infer the (age- and sex-specific) ecological trade-offs and constraints moulding migration systems from assessments of fitness associated with migration and wintering in different areas. During three consecutive breeding seasons, we compared the reproductive performance (timing of breeding, breeding success, chick body condition and post-fledging survival) of Eurasian spoonbills Platalea leucorodia that breed at a single breeding site in The Netherlands, but migrate different distances (ca...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543723/neuromuscular-junctions-nmjs-ultrastructural-analysis-and-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-nachr-subunit-mrna-expression-in-offspring-subjected-to-protein-restriction-throughout-pregnancy
#5
Paula Aiello Tomé de Souza Castro, Ludimila Canuto Faccioni, Patrícia Aline Boer, Robson Francisco Carvalho, Selma Maria Michelin Matheus, Maeli Dal-Pai-Silva
Protein restriction during gestation can alter the skeletal muscle phenotype of offspring; however, little is known with regard to whether this also affects the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), as muscle phenotype maintenance depends upon NMJ functional integrity. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a low protein (6%) intake by dams throughout gestation on male offspring NMJ morphology and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) α1, γ and ε subunit expression in the soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles...
May 25, 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543436/prenatal-environmental-tobacco-smoke-exposure-increases-allergic-asthma-risk-with-methylation-changes-in-mice
#6
Sonja Christensen, Zeina Jaffar, Elizabeth Cole, Virginia Porter, Maria Ferrini, Britten Postma, Kent E Pinkerton, Mihi Yang, Yang Jee Kim, Luke Montrose, Kevan Roberts, Andrij Holian, Yoon Hee Cho
Allergic asthma remains an inadequately understood disease. In utero exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been identified as an environmental exposure that can increase an individual's asthma risk. To improve our understanding of asthma onset and development, we examined the effect of in utero ETS exposure on allergic disease susceptibility in an asthmatic phenotype using a house dust mite (HDM) allergen-induced murine model. Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed to either filtered air or ETS during gestation, and their offspring were further exposed to HDM at 6-7 weeks old to induce allergic inflammation...
May 25, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543191/methadone-buprenorphine-and-naltrexone-for-the-treatment-of-opioid-use-disorder-in-pregnant-women
#7
Tran H Tran, Brooke L Griffin, Rebecca H Stone, Kathleen M Vest, Timothy J Todd
Pregnant women with opioid use disorder can be treated with methadone, buprenorphine, or naltrexone to reduce opioid use and improve retention to treatment. In this review, we compare the pregnancy outcomes of methadone, buprenorphine, and naltrexone in clinical trials and discuss the potential behavioral and developmental effects of these agents seen in offspring in animal studies. Important clinical considerations in the management of opioid use disorder in pregnant women and their infants are also discussed...
May 24, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543051/multilevel-and-sex-specific-selection-on-competitive-traits-in-north-american-red-squirrels
#8
David N Fisher, Stan Boutin, Ben Dantzer, Murray M Humphries, Jeffrey E Lane, Andrew G McAdam
Individuals often interact more closely with some members of the population (e.g. offspring, siblings or group members) than they do with other individuals. This structuring of interactions can lead to multilevel natural selection, where traits expressed at the group-level influence fitness alongside individual-level traits. Such multilevel selection can alter evolutionary trajectories, yet is rarely quantified in the wild, especially for species that do not interact in clearly demarcated groups. We quantified multilevel natural selection on two traits, postnatal growth rate and birth date, in a population of North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus)...
May 23, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542780/baseline-dimensional-psychopathology-and-future-mood-disorder-onset-findings-from-the-dutch-bipolar-offspring-study
#9
E Mesman, W A Nolen, L Keijsers, M H J Hillegers
OBJECTIVE: To identify the early signs of mood disorder development, specifically bipolar disorder (BD), in a population at familial risk for BD. METHOD: The sample included 107 Dutch adolescent bipolar offspring (age 12-21) followed into adulthood (age 22-32). Lifetime DSM-IV axis I diagnoses were examined at baseline, 1-, 5-, and 12- year follow-up. Symptoms were assessed at baseline on a 3-point Likert scale at baseline with the K-SADS-PL and were analyzed using symptom and sum scores...
May 20, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542653/-folate-and-pregnancy-current-concepts-it-is-required-folic-acid-supplementation
#10
Erika Castaño, Raúl Piñuñuri, Sandra Hirsch, Ana María Ronco
Folate intake during pregnancy is essential for an adequate fetal and placental development and for the long time health of the individual. Its deficiency may induce fetal pathologies, including neural tube disease (NTD). Therefore, several countries implemented public policies to fortify foods with folic acid (FA). Chile started the fortification of wheat flour with FA in the year 2000, decreasing a 43% the prevalence of NTD. However, despite the high consumption of bread (the main fortified food with FA) by our population, a high number of pregnant women consume FA supplements, thus, over passing the maximal recommended FA intake...
April 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542635/frap-analysis-of-chromatin-looseness-in-mouse-zygotes-that-allows-full-term-development
#11
Masatoshi Ooga, Teruhiko Wakayama
Chromatin looseness, which can be analyzed by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) using eGFP-tagged core histone proteins, is an important index of the differentiation potential of blastomere cells and embryonic stem cells. Whether chromatin looseness is a reliable index of the developmental potential of embryos during ontogenesis is not known. As a necessary first step toward answering this question, we investigated whether FRAP-analyzed embryos are capable of normal preimplantation and full-term development...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542561/impaired-functional-capacity-of-fetal-endothelial-cells-in-preeclampsia
#12
Lars Brodowski, Jennifer Burlakov, Sarah Hass, Constantin von Kaisenberg, Frauke von Versen-Höynck
OBJECTIVES: Preeclampsia is one of the main contributers to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality during pregnancy. A history of preeclampsia puts mother and offspring at an increased cardiovascular risk in later life. We hypothesized that at the time of birth functional impairments of fetal endothelial cells can be detected in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia and that a therapeutic intervention using 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D3 can reverse the adverse effects of preeclampsia on cell function...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542485/a-link-between-thrifty-phenotype-and-maternal-care-across-two-generations-of-intercrossed-mice
#13
Bruno Sauce, Carolina P Goes, Isabela Forti, Bruno Gabriel O do Monte, Isabela M Watanabe, Joao Cunha, Andrea C Peripato
Maternal effects are causal influences from mother to offspring beyond genetic information, and have lifelong consequences for multiple traits. Previously, we reported that mice whose mothers did not nurse properly had low birth weight followed by rapid fat accumulation and disturbed development of some organs. That pattern resembles metabolic syndromes known collectively as the thrifty phenotype, which is believed to be an adaptation to a stressful environment which prepares offspring for reduced nutrient supply...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542348/does-internet-voting-make-elections-less-social-group-voting-patterns-in-estonian-e-voting-log-files-2013-2015
#14
Taavi Unt, Mihkel Solvak, Kristjan Vassil
Remote Internet voting places the control and secrecy of the immediate voting environment on the shoulder of the individual voter but it also turns voting into yet another on-line activity thus endangering the well-known social nature of voting and possibly reducing the crucial sense of civic duty that is important for a healthy democracy. There is however a complete lack of evidence to what degree this actually materializes once electronic voting is introduced. This paper uses individual level log data on Internet voting in Estonian elections between 2013-2015 to inspect if Internet voting retains the social nature of the voting act...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541814/encounters-with-offspring-help-terminally-ill-adult-patients-cope-with-death-anxiety
#15
Erez Yaakobi
This overview of recent work drawing on the theories of Terror Management and Symbolic Immortality suggests practical ways of helping the terminally ill to cope with death anxiety and its potential effects. The literature review shows that parenthood can act as an anxiety buffer mechanism against the fear of death but that individual differences, including attachment avoidance, moderate this association. Encounters with adult patients' offspring may help minimize fear of death, improve coping, and increase quality of life and emotional well-being...
May 25, 2017: Death Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540504/can-but-don-t-olfactory-discrimination-between-own-and-alien-offspring-in-the-domestic-cat
#16
Oxána Bánszegi, Elisa Jacinto, Andrea Urrutia, Péter Szenczi, Robyn Hudson
Mammalian maternal care usually comes at a large energetic cost. To maximize their fitness, mothers should preferentially care for their own offspring. However, the majority of studies of mother-offspring recognition have focused on herd- or colony-living species and there is little information on maternal discrimination in more solitary-living species. Olfaction has been found to play a major role in mother-offspring recognition across various taxa. Therefore, our aim was to study this in a species evolved from a solitary-living ancestor, the domestic cat...
May 24, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539446/infectious-prions-in-the-pregnancy-microenvironment-of-cwd-infected-reeves-muntjac-deer
#17
Amy V Nalls, Erin McNulty, Clare E Hoover, Laura A Pulscher, Edward A Hoover, Candace K Mathiason
Ample evidence exists for the presence of infectious agents at the maternal-fetal interface, often with grave outcomes to the developing fetus (i.e. zika virus, brucella, cytomegalovirus, toxoplasma). While less studied, pregnancy-related transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) have been implicated in several species, including humans. Our previous work has shown that prions can be transferred from mother-to-offspring resulting in the development of clinical TSE disease in offspring born to CWD-infected muntjac dams (64)...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539412/maternal-dietary-patterns-during-pregnancy-are-associated-with-newborn-body-composition
#18
Anne P Starling, Katherine A Sauder, Jill L Kaar, Allison Lb Shapiro, Anna Maria Siega-Riz, Dana Dabelea
Background: Maternal dietary intake during pregnancy may influence offspring growth and adiposity. Specific dietary patterns associated with newborn adiposity have not been identified.Objective: We aimed to identify patterns of maternal dietary intake associated with gestational weight gain (GWG) and fasting glucose during pregnancy and to evaluate whether adherence to these patterns is associated with newborn adiposity.Methods: In the Healthy Start prospective cohort, dietary intake during pregnancy was assessed via 24-h recalls...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539376/longitudinal-associations-of-away-from-home-eating-snacking-screen-time-and-physical-activity-behaviors-with-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-among-chinese-children-and-their-parents
#19
Fei Dong, Annie Green Howard, Amy H Herring, Amanda L Thompson, Linda S Adair, Barry M Popkin, Allison E Aiello, Bing Zhang, Penny Gordon-Larsen
Background: Little is known about intergenerational differences in associations of urbanization-related lifestyle behaviors with cardiometabolic risk factors in children and their parents in rapidly urbanizing China.Objective: We tested the intergenerational differences in longitudinal associations of away-from-home eating, snacking, screen time, and leisure-time sports with high waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), elevated blood pressure (BP), elevated glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) among Chinese children and their parents...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538662/maternal-factors-that-induce-epigenetic-changes-contribute-to-neurological-disorders-in-offspring
#20
REVIEW
Avijit Banik, Deepika Kandilya, Seshadri Ramya, Walter Stünkel, Yap Seng Chong, S Thameem Dheen
It is well established that the regulation of epigenetic factors, including chromatic reorganization, histone modifications, DNA methylation, and miRNA regulation, is critical for the normal development and functioning of the human brain. There are a number of maternal factors influencing epigenetic pathways such as lifestyle, including diet, alcohol consumption, and smoking, as well as age and infections (viral or bacterial). Genetic and metabolic alterations such as obesity, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and thyroidism alter epigenetic mechanisms, thereby contributing to neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs) such as embryonic neural tube defects (NTDs), autism, Down's syndrome, Rett syndrome, and later onset of neuropsychological deficits...
May 24, 2017: Genes
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