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Craig M Lind, Fatima Ramis, Donna-Jael G Paredes, Ignacio T Moore, Ben J Vernasco, Terence M Farrell
The level of parental investment in free-living offspring varies greatly within and among vertebrate taxa, and the mechanisms that mediate investment are likely targets of selection in the evolution of reproductive strategies. In mammalian and avian systems, individual investment is adjusted according to parental energetic status, and regulatory mechanisms have been described. Parental care is also a component of the life history of several groups of squamates and archosaurs, but little to nothing is known regarding the mechanisms that underlie individual variation in parental investment in these groups...
August 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Leah J E Pryor, Joseph M Casto
Developmental stress can alter resource allocation in early life, and in altricial birds with rapid developmental trajectories and high resource demands, nestlings may adjust early resource partitioning to cope with challenging environments. We experimentally manipulated ectoparasite levels in nests and assessed whether ectoparasites affected somatic and physiological development in European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) nestlings. We hypothesized that mites act as developmental stressors in nestlings and predicted that nestlings from infested nests would exhibit either reduced somatic growth, or reduced physiological development, including impaired innate immunity, and would have elevated corticosterone concentrations...
June 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Daniel A Warner, Timothy S Mitchell, Brooke L Bodensteiner, Fredric J Janzen
Exogenous application of steroids and related substances to eggs affects offspring sex ratios in species with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Laboratory studies demonstrate that this effect is most pronounced near the constant temperature that produces 1:1 sex ratios (i.e., pivotal temperature). However, the impact of such chemicals on sex determination under natural nest temperatures (which fluctuate daily) is unknown, but could provide insight into the relative contributions of these two factors under natural conditions...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Janice M Kan, Rick Richardson
A rodent model was used to explore whether mothers that experienced a postnatal stressor in the past (i.e., daily separations from her previous litter) exhibited altered maternal behavior during a typical, subsequent rearing experience. Stress-naïve female rats were bred and then separated from their pups (maternal separation) or remained with their pups (standard-rearing). After those pups were weaned, mothers were bred again with all pups from the subsequent litter being standard-reared. In the first week of life, various maternal behaviors directed towards these subsequent offspring were observed, including levels of nursing and pup retrieval...
January 22, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Agnieszka Żelaźniewicz, Bogusław Pawłowski
OBJECTIVES: Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) is hypothesized to reflect the level of an individual's developmental instability, and therefore genetic quality. As a potential signal of biological condition, female body (including breast) symmetry was shown to be perceived as more attractive in mate choice context. If symmetry reflects a woman's genetic quality, it is possible that FA, similarly to other maternal anthropometric cues of biological condition (e.g., body height or waist-to-hip ratio), may be also related to her offspring condition...
January 22, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
David J O ' Driscoll, Valeria D Felice, Louise C Kenny, Geraldine B Boylan, Gerard W O'Keeffe
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) resulting from intrauterine or perinatal hypoxic-ischemia (HI) is a leading cause of long-term neonatal neurodisability. While most studies of long-term outcome have focused on moderate and severe HIE in term infants, recent work has shown that those with mild HIE may have subtle neurological impairments. However, the impact of mild HI on pre-term infants is much less clear given that pre-term birth is itself a risk factor for neurodisability. Here we show that mild HI insult alters behaviour, inflammation and the corticosterone stress response in a rat model of pre-term HIE...
January 16, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Gabriella Koning, Ellinor Lyngfelt, Pernilla Svedin, Anna-Lena Leverin, Masako Jinnai, Pierre Gressens, Claire Thornton, Xiaoyang Wang, Carina Mallard, Henrik Hagberg
BACKGROUND: Brain injury in preterm infants represents a substantial clinical problem associated with development of motor impairment, cognitive deficits and psychiatric problems. According to clinical studies, magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) given to women in preterm labor reduces the risk of cerebral palsy in the offspring but the mechanisms behind its neuroprotective effects are still unclear. Our aim was to explore whether MgSO4 induces tolerance (preconditioning) in the preterm rodent brain...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Ghorbangol Ashabi, Mitra-Sadat Sadat-Shirazi, Ardeshir Akbarabadi, Nasim Vousooghi, Zahra Kheiri, Heidar Toolee, Solmaz Khalifeh, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
To investigate the effect of parental drug abuse on children, nociception, electrophysiological alteration, mRNA expression of opioid receptors, and expression of certain intracellular proteins in offspring of morphine-abstinent rats were studied. Adult male and female animals received water soluble morphine for 21 days. Ten days after the last morphine administration, animals were placed for mating in four groups as follows: healthy (drug naïve) female and male, morphine-abstinent female and healthy male, morphine-abstinent male and healthy female, morphine-abstinent male and morphine-abstinent female...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Marissa Sobolewski, Katherine Conrad, Elena Marvin, Joshua L Allen, Deborah A Cory-Slechta
Metals, including lead (Pb), methylmercury (MeHg) and arsenic (As), are long-known developmental neurotoxicants. More recently, environmental context has been recognized to modulate metals toxicity, including nutritional state and stress exposure. Modulation of metal toxicity by stress exposure can occur through shared targeting of endocrine systems, such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). Our previous rodent research has identified that prenatal stress (PS) modulates neurotoxicity of two endocrine active metals (EAMs), Pb and MeHg, by altering HPA and CNS systems disrupting behavior...
January 17, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
A Holubová, M Ševčíková, E Macúchová, I Hrebíčková, M Pometlová, R Šlamberová
Methamphetamine (MA) is an addictive psychostimulant with significant potential for abuse. Previous rat studies have demonstrated that MA use during pregnancy impairs maternal behavior and induced delayed development of affected pups. The offspring of drug-addictive mothers were often neglected and exposed to neonatal stressors. The present study therefore examines the effect of perinatal stressors combined with exposure to prenatal MA on the development of pups and maternal behavior. Dams were divided into three groups according to drug treatment during pregnancy: controls (C); saline (SA, s...
December 30, 2017: Physiological Research
R Šlamberová, J Rudá-Kučerová, Z Babinská, M Ševčíková
Olfactory bulbectomy in rodents is considered a putative model of depression. Depression is often associated with drug addiction. Our previous studies demonstrated that methamphetamine (MA) administration to rat mothers affects both, mothers and their pups. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of bulbectomy, as a model of depression, and MA administration on behavior of rat mothers and postnatal development of their pups. Adult female Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: bulbectomized (OBX) and sham-operated (SH)...
December 30, 2017: Physiological Research
E Macúchová, R Šlamberová
Behavioral sensitization is defined as augmented psychomotor activity, which can be observed after drug re-administration following withdrawal of repeated drug exposure. It has been shown that abuse of one drug can lead to increased sensitivity to certain other drugs. This effect of developed general drug sensitivity is called cross-sensitization and has been reported between drugs with similar as well as different mechanisms of action. There is growing evidence that exposure to drugs in utero not only causes birth defects and delays in infant development, but also impairs the neural reward pathways, in the brains of developing offspring, in such a way that it can increase the tendency for drug addiction later in life...
December 30, 2017: Physiological Research
Marcia Eugenia Amaral Carvalho, Fernando Angelo Piotto, Marina Lima Nogueira, Francisco Guilhien Gomes-Junior, Helena Maria Carmignani Pescarin Chamma, Daniel Pizzaia, Ricardo Antunes Azevedo
Although negative effects on the offspring fitness can be triggered by the mother-plant exposure to environmental stresses, some plants are able to "remember" past incidents and enhance the progeny tolerance. Here, the mineral profile, cytogenetic modifications, and physiological potential of seeds from two tomato cultivars, with contrasting tolerance degrees to cadmium (Cd) toxicity, were evaluated after plant exposure to this metal. Both cultivars exhibited high Cd translocation to the seeds; however, the tolerant tomato accumulated more Cd than did the sensitive one...
January 21, 2018: Protoplasma
Mériam Ben Romdhane, Leila Riahi, Rahma Jardak, Abdelwahed Ghorbel, Nejia Zoghlami
Hybridity and the genuineness of hybrids are prominent characteristics for quality control of seeds and thereby for varietal improvement. In the current study, the cross between two local barley genotypes (Ardhaoui: female; Testour: male) previously identified as susceptible/tolerant to salt stress in Tunisia was achieved. The hybrid genetic purity of the generated F1 putative hybrids and the fingerprinting of the parents along with their offspring were assessed using a set of 17 nuclear SSR markers. Among the analyzed loci, 11 nSSR were shown polymorphic among the parents and their offspring...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
Maxcy P Nolan, Keith S Delaplane
Parasite dispersal theory draws heavily upon epidemiological SIR models in which host status (susceptible (S), infected (I), or recovered (R)) is used to study parasite dispersal evolution. In contrast to these extrinsically host-centric drivers, in this study we focus on an intrinsic driver, the parasite's reproductive value (predicted future offspring) as a regulator of the extent to which the individual will engage in risky dispersal behaviour. As a model system we use the honeybee Apis mellifera and its ectoparasite, the mite Varroa destructor...
October 2017: Animal Behaviour
Mélanie Cavalier, Azza Ben Sedrine, Lea Thevenet, Nadine Crouzin, Janique Guiramand, Marie-Céleste de Jésus Ferreira, Catherine Cohen-Solal, Gérard Barbanel, Michel Vignes
Maternal immune challenge has proved to induce moderate to severe behavioral disabilities in the offspring. Cognitive/behavioral deficits are supported by changes in synaptic plasticity in different brain areas. We have reported previously that prenatal exposure to bacterial LPS could induce inhibition of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 area of the juvenile/adult male offspring associated with spatial learning inabilities. Nevertheless, deficits in plasticity could be observed at earlier stages as shown by the early loss of long-term depression (LTD) in immature animals...
January 20, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Chong Zhao, Lisheng Zhang, Dongtao Shi, Jingyun Ding, Donghong Yin, Jiangnan Sun, Baojing Zhang, Lingling Zhang, Yaqing Chang
Transgenerational effects, which involve both selection and plasticity, are important for the evolutionary adaptation of echinoderms in the changing ocean. Here, we investigated the effects of breeding design and water temperature for offspring on fertilization, hatchability, larval survival, size, abnormality and metamorphosis of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius, whose dams and sires were exposed to long-term (~15 months) elevated temperature (~3°C above ambient) or ambient temperature. There was no transgenerational effect on fertilization and metamorphosis of S...
January 17, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Amanda Nancy Sferruzzi-Perri
During pregnancy, the fetus requires nutrients supplied by the mother to grow and develop. However, the mother also requires sufficient resources to support the pregnancy, as well as, to maintain her health. Failure to regulate resource allocation between the mother and fetus can lead to pregnancy complications with immediate and life-long consequences for maternal and offspring health. This review explores the role of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-2 in regulating materno-fetal resource allocation, particularly via its regulation of placental development and function...
January 11, 2018: Placenta
J E Tipton, R E Ricks, C T LeMaster, N M Long
This study's objective was to determine if nutrient restriction during late gestation affected beef heifer feed intake, body weight (BW) gain and endocrine regulation during a 10-week feeding trial. During the last 100 days of gestation, control (CON) dams were fed to increase body condition score (BCS). Whereas, nutrient-restricted dams (NR) and NR dams protein supplemented 3 days/week (NRS) were fed to decrease BCS by 1.2. After parturition, all cow-calf pairs were moved to a common pasture and fed in excess of requirements until weaning...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
A Bhattacharyya, S Majumdar, S K Bhanja, A B Mandal, B B Dash
Two hundred turkey breeder hens and 24 viable toms of 30-35 weeks age of small white variety were distributed into two treatment groups having four replicates of 25 hens and three toms in each treatment. First four replicates were offered a turkey breeder diet (Diet A) (Nutrient requirements of poultry, 1994, National Academic Press, Washington, DC) and the rest four replicates were maintained on a higher plane of nutrition (Diet B) for 8-week duration. After 6 weeks of experimental feeding, two replicates from each treatment groups were vaccinated with ND (R2 B) vaccine...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
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