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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906789/new-and-noteworthy-in-tuberculosis-diagnostics-and-treatment
#1
Susan Swindells
People with HIV infection with latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) are at a 10-fold greater risk of developing active disease. Interferon gamma release assays and tuberculin skin testing have approximately 65% to 70% specificity for diagnosing LTBI in HIV-infected patients. LTBI can be successfully treated with isoniazid preventive therapy and early antiretroviral therapy (ART). Rapid molecular diagnostics have approximately 88% sensitivity and 98% specificity for identifying active TB. ART should be started early in patients with TB...
June 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906678/simultaneous-measurement-of-folate-cycle-intermediates-in-different-biological-matrices-using-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#2
Jatin Nandania, Meri Kokkonen, Liliya Euro, Vidya Velagapudi
The folate cycle is an essential metabolic pathway in the cell, involved in nucleotide synthesis, maintenance of the redox balance in the cell, methionine metabolism and re-methylation reactions. Standardised methods for the measurement of folate cycle intermediates in different biological matrices are in great demand. Here we describe a rapid, sensitive, precise and accurate liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method with a wide calibration curve range and a short run time for the simultaneous determination of folate cycle metabolites, including tetrahydrofolic acid (THF), 5‑methyl THF, 5‑formyl THF, 5,10‑methenyl THF, 5,10‑methylene THF, dihydrofolic acid (DHF) and folic acid in different biological matrices...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906601/sofosbuvir-in-combination-with-daclatasvir-or-simeprevir-for-12-weeks-in-non-cirrhotic-subjects-chronically-infected-with-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-1-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#3
Henrique Pott Junior, Guilherme Bricks, Giuliano Grandi, Jorge Figueiredo Senise, Adauto Castelo Filho
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir plus daclatasvir (SOF+DCV) or simeprevir (SOF+SMV) in a randomized, open-label, non-inferiority trial of patients infected with hepatitis c virus (HCV) genotype 1, who were previously unresponsive to pegylated interferon and ribavirin or were treatment-naïve. METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned to receive SOF (400 mg once daily) plus DCV (60 mg once daily) or SMV (150 mg once daily) for 12 weeks...
June 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906591/toxicity-of-nifurtimox-as-second-line-treatment-after-benznidazole-intolerance-in-patients-with-chronic-chagas-disease-when-available-options-fail
#4
Clara Crespillo-Andújar, Sandra Chamorro-Tojeiro, Francesca Norman, Begoña Monge-Maillo, Rogelio López-Velez, José A Pérez-Molina
OBJECTIVE: To describe the tolerability and rate of nifurtimox discontinuation when administered as a second-line treatment to patients with previous treatment interruptions due to adverse reactions with benznidazole. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of adult patients with chronic Chagas disease in a referral centre in Spain; study period July 2007 to July 2017. We analysed the tolerability profile and treatment interruption rate due to adverse reactions to nifurtimox in patients previously incompletely treated (less than 30 days) with benznidazole due to adverse reactions (ARs)...
June 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906430/five-year-postoperative-outcomes-of-bilateral-aphakia-and-pseudophakia-in-children-upto-2-years-of-age-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#5
Abhay R Vasavada, Vaishali Vasavada, Sajani K Shah, M R Praveen, Viraj A Vasavada, Rupal H Trivedi, Farida Rawat, Archana Koul
PURPOSE: Comparative evaluation of complications and visual outcomes following bilateral congenital cataract surgery in children upto 2 years of age with and without primary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation at 5 years follow-up DESIGN: Randomized, controlled, clinical trial METHODS: 60 children (120 eyes) upto 2 years of age undergoing bilateral congenital cataract surgery randomized to: group 1, primary aphakia (n=30) or group 2,primary IOL implantation (n=30). Single surgeon performed surgeries with identical surgical technique...
June 12, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905765/pleural-mesothelioma-is-the-surgeon-still-there
#6
I Opitz, W Weder
MPM is a rare malignancy with some unique characteristics. Tumor biology is aggressive and prognosis is poor. Despite more knowledge on histology, tumor biology and staging, there is still a relevant discrepancy between clinical and pathologic staging resulting in difficult prediction of prognosis and treatment outcome, making treatment allocation more challenging than in most other malignancies.After years of nihilism in the late eighties, a period of activism started evaluating different treatment protocols combined with research driven mainly by academic centers; at the time, selection was based on histology and stage only...
June 14, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905155/a-case-of-perioral-myoclonia-with-absences-and-its-evolution-in-adulthood
#7
Reyhan Surmelı, Hatice Kurucu, Ayse Destina Yalcın, Seher Naz Yenı
The rare syndrome of perioral myoclonia with absences (POMA) is described as a specific type of idiopathic generalized epilepsy in which absence seizures are accompanied by prominent perioral myoclonus as a consistent symptom. We present a 52-year-old man who was referred to our department due to treatment-resistant epilepsy. Typical seizures were described as rhythmic twitching of the lips which started at six years old, and his first convulsive seizure occurred at around 20 years old. Based on video-EEG recordings, we present two distinct EEG patterns accompanied by slight differences in clinical manifestations, which appear to be atypical of POMA...
June 15, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905039/-review-of-the-regeneration-mechanism-of-complete-spinal-cord-injury
#8
Jiayin Li, Xing Li, Zhifeng Xiao, Jianwu Dai
Spinal cord injury (SCI), especially the complete SCI, usually results in complete paralysis below the level of the injury and seriously affects the patient's quality of life. SCI repair is still a worldwide medical problem. In the last twenty years, Professor DAI Jianwu and his team pioneered complete SCI model by removing spinal tissue with varied lengths in rodents, canine, and non-human primates to verify therapeutic effect of different repair strategies. Moreover, they also started the first clinical study of functional collagen scaffold on patients with acute complete SCI on January 16th, 2015...
June 1, 2018: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905023/neoadjuvant-endocrine-therapy-with-exemestane-followed-by-response-guided-combination-therapy-with-low-dose-cyclophosphamide-in-postmenopausal-patients-with-estrogen-receptor-positive-breast-cancer-a-multicenter-open-label-phase-ii-study
#9
Nobuaki Sato, Norikazu Masuda, Takashi Morimoto, Takayuki Ueno, Chizuko Kanbayashi, Koji Kaneko, Hiroyuki Yasojima, Shigehira Saji, Hironobu Sasano, Satoshi Morita, Shinji Ohno, Masakazu Toi
Patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer are less likely to achieve a pathological complete response (pCR) with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Neoadjuvant endocrine therapy may be more appropriate than neoadjuvant chemotherapy in these hormone-sensitive patients. Most patients with ER-positive breast cancer are postmenopausal, and therefore, generally older and less able to tolerate chemotherapy. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of tailored neoadjuvant endocrine and chemoendocrine therapy for postmenopausal breast cancer patients...
June 14, 2018: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904727/retreatment-of-symptomatic-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-3-associated-mixed-cryoglobulinemia-with-sofosbuvir-and-ribavirin-a-case-report
#10
Dorota Zarębska-Michaluk, Piotr M Stępień, Katarzyna Paluch, Paweł Pabjan
A 52-year-old woman with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 3 infection developed clinically symptomatic mixed cryoglobulinemia. She started pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy and in week 12 became negative for HCV RNA with resolution of clinical signs of cryoglobulinemia. The dual treatment was discontinued due to interferon-related bilateral retinopathy. After therapy cessation, relapse of HCV RNA and recurrence of symptomatic cryoglobulinemia were observed. While waiting for the antiviral retreatment option she developed glomerulonephritis with renal impairment...
June 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904693/data-on-various-allergen-specific-iges-and-prospective-treatments-on-food-dependent-exercise-induced-anaphylaxis
#11
Norihide Murayama, Kikuno Murayama
Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIAn) is an anaphylactic reaction induced by physical exercise after ingestion of certain meals. FDEIAn is not very frequent, but recent case reports associated with various meals indicate an upward trend. Here, we report the data of various food specific IgEs and the clinical course of an experience with a patient who exhibited a unique FDEIAn reaction. Various food specific IgEs including staple food were positive with high levels. We could not find out the cause food of FDEIAn...
June 2018: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904615/acute-pericarditis-as-a-presentation-of-adrenal-insufficiency
#12
Sukesh Manthri, Sindhura Bandaru, Abdisamad Ibrahim, Chaitanya K Mamillapalli
Acute pericarditis as a presenting sign of adrenal insufficiency is rarely reported. We present a rare case that highlights pericarditis as a clinical presentation of secondary adrenal insufficiency later complicated by cardiac tamponade. A 44-year-old lady who presented to the hospital with a one-day history of pleuritic chest pain and shortness of breath. In the emergency room, she had a blood pressure of 70/35 mmHg. Laboratory evaluation revealed white blood cell count of 16.08 k/cumm with neutrophilia, normal renal function and elevated troponin (0...
April 13, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904593/case-report-pulmonary-and-liver-sarcoidosis-suspected-of-metastasis
#13
Behnam Jafari, Gholamabas Sabz, Elahe Masnavi, Roghaye Panahi, Saeid Jokar, Amrollah Roozbehi, Sajad Hasanzadeh
Introduction : Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease with unknown cause that can vary from an asymptomatic condition. Almost half of the patients with sarcoidosis have no symptoms. In this article, we describe a sarcoidosis patient with lung and liver engagement; it may be confused with metastasis. Case report : A 39-year-old man, known as hypothyroidism who had come to the emergency ward with dyspnea and coughing after exposure to detergents in a closed environment A 39-year-old man, known as hypothyroidism who had come to the emergency ward with dyspnea and coughing after exposure to detergents in a closed environment...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904529/comscicon-triangle-regional-science-communication-training-for-graduate-students
#14
Kayleigh O'Keeffe, Reggie Bain
The ability of scientists to effectively communicate their research, and scientific ideas in general, with a variety of audiences is critical in both academic and non-academic careers. There is currently a dearth of formal and informal science communication training opportunities for graduate students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. This curriculum paper introduces ComSciCon-Triangle, a graduate student-organized science communication workshop for graduate students in STEM at research universities in the Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina, region...
2018: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904480/peripheral-primitive-neuroendocrine-tumor-of-the-chest-wall-a-case-report-with-pathological-correlation
#15
Jidi Gao, Erika Chow, Aishatu Aloma, Payal Gupta
Primitive neuroectodermal tumor is a high-grade malignant tumor originating from the neural crest and neuroectoderm, which can be subdivided into central and peripheral categories. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor is thought to be identical to Ewing's sarcoma, and falls under a broader category of Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors. Very rarely, it may present without osseous involvement, known as extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma. Here we present a case of a 38-year-old woman, who presented with several-month history of a slow-growing chest wall mass, initially thought to be a breast mass...
April 2018: Radiology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904226/oral-cholera-vaccine-in-cholera-prevention-and-control-malawi
#16
Maurice M'bangombe, Lorenzo Pezzoli, Bruce Reeder, Storn Kabuluzi, Kelias Msyamboza, Humphreys Masuku, Bagrey Ngwira, Philippe Cavailler, Francesco Grandesso, Adriana Palomares, Namseon Beck, Allison Shaffer, Emily MacDonald, Mesfin Senbete, Justin Lessler, Sean M Moore, Andrew S Azman
Problem: With limited global supplies of oral cholera vaccine, countries need to identify priority areas for vaccination while longer-term solutions, such as water and sanitation infrastructure, are being developed. Approach: In 2017, Malawi integrated oral cholera vaccine into its national cholera control plan. The process started with a desk review and analysis of previous surveillance and risk factor data. At a consultative meeting, researchers, national health and water officials and representatives from nongovernmental and international organizations reviewed the data and local epidemiological knowledge to determine priority districts for oral cholera vaccination...
June 1, 2018: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903850/long-term-survival-in-recurrent-adrenocortical-cancer
#17
Md Shuayb, Arunangshu Das, Mirza Nazim Uddin
Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) comprises approximately 0.02% of all malignant tumours, which are a very small fraction of a group of cancers that affect in 0.7 to 2 in 1 000 000 people per year. Recurrence is very common even after complete resection and prognosis is poor. We report a case of a sporadic form of ACC found in a 41-year-old Asian Bangladeshi man. His tumour was surgically excised completely with negative margins and he did not receive any adjuvant therapy. Four years later, adrenal adenoma was developed at his opposite side which was also excised...
June 13, 2018: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903801/protection-of-pregnant-women-at-work-in-switzerland-practices-obstacles-and-resources-a-mixed-methods-study-protocol
#18
Peggy Krief, Alessia Zellweger, Maria-Pia Politis Mercier, Brigitta Danuser, Pascal Wild, Michela Zenoni, Isabelle Probst
INTRODUCTION: Like most industrialised countries, Switzerland has introduced legislation to protect the health of pregnant workers and their unborn children from workplace exposure. This legislation provides for a risk assessment, adaptations to workplaces and, if the danger is not eliminated, preventive leave (prescribed by a gynaecologist). This study's first objective is to analyse the degree to which companies, gynaecologists and midwives implement the law. Its second objective is to understand the obstacles and resources of this implementation, with a focus on how relevant stakeholders perceive protective measures and their involvement with them...
June 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903798/eu-funded-initiatives-for-real-world-evidence-descriptive-analysis-of-their-characteristics-and-relevance-for-regulatory-decision-making
#19
Kelly Plueschke, Patricia McGettigan, Alexandra Pacurariu, Xavier Kurz, Alison Cave
INTRODUCTION: A review of European Union (EU)-funded initiatives linked to 'Real World Evidence' (RWE) was performed to determine whether their outputs could be used for the generation of real-world data able to support the European Medicines Agency (EMA)'s regulatory decision-making on medicines. METHOD: The initiatives were identified from publicly available websites. Their topics were categorised into five areas: 'Data source', 'Methodology', 'Governance model', 'Analytical model' and 'Infrastructure'...
June 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903016/development-of-the-kisiizi-hospital-health-insurance-scheme-lessons-learned-and-implications-for-universal-health-coverage
#20
Sebastian Olikira Baine, Alex Kakama, Moses Mugume
BACKGROUND: Kisiizi Hospital Health Insurance scheme started in 1996 to; improve access to health services, and provide a stable source of funding and reduce bad debts to Kisiizi hospital. Objectives of this study were; to describe Kisiizi Hospital Health Insurance scheme and to document lessons learned and implications for universal health coverage. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Data from different sources were triangulated and thematically analysed...
June 15, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
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