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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641388/recognition-of-the-component-odors-in-mixtures
#1
Marion E Frank, Dane B Fletcher, Thomas P Hettinger
Natural olfactory stimuli are volatile-chemical mixtures in which relative perceptual saliencies determine which odor-components are identified. Odor identification also depends on rapid selective adaptation, as shown for 4 odor stimuli in an earlier experimental simulation of natural conditions. Adapt-test pairs of mixtures of water-soluble, distinct odor stimuli with chemical features in common were studied. Identification decreased for adapted components but increased for unadapted mixture-suppressed components, showing compound identities were retained, not degraded to individual molecular features...
June 21, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641372/comparison-of-sociodemographic-and-health-related-characteristics-of-uk-biobank-participants-with-the-general-population
#2
Anna Fry, Thomas J Littlejohns, Cathie Sudlow, Nicola Doherty, Ligia Adamska, Tim Sprosen, Rory Collins, Naomi E Allen
UK Biobank is a population-based cohort of 500,000 participants recruited between 2006 and 2010. Approximately 9.2 million individuals aged 40-69 years who lived within 25 miles of the 22 assessment centres in England, Wales and Scotland were invited, and 5.4% participated in the baseline assessment. The representativeness of the UK Biobank cohort was investigated by comparing demographic characteristics between non-responders and responders. Sociodemographic, physical, lifestyle and health-related characteristics of the cohort were compared with nationally representative data sources...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641369/markers-of-inflammation-and-incident-breast-cancer-risk-in-the-women-s-health-study
#3
Deirdre K Tobias, Akintunde O Akinkuolie, Paulette D Chandler, Patrick R Lawler, JoAnn E Manson, Julie E Buring, Paul M Ridker, Lu Wang, I-Min Lee, Samia Mora
Chronic inflammation may be a risk factor for breast cancer development and progression, yet which inflammatory biomarkers and pathways are relevant is unknown. The study included 27,071 Women's Health Study participants (mean, 54.5 years old) free of cancer and cardiovascular disease at enrollment (1992 to 1995) with baseline measures of four inflammatory biomarkers: high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, N-acetyl side-chains of acute phase proteins (GlycA), and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1)...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641366/human-papillomavirus-vaccine-dose-effectiveness-against-incident-genital-warts-in-a-cohort-of-insured-us-females
#4
Susan Hariri, Megan S Schuler, Allison L Naleway, Matthew F Daley, Sheila Weinmann, Bradley Crane, Sophia R Newcomer, Dennis Tolsma, Lauri E Markowitz
We examined effectiveness of HPV vaccination by dose number and interval against incident genital warts in a cohort of 64,517 females in the United States during 8/2006-9/2012. Eligible females were classified into 0, 1-dose, 2-dose < 6 months apart, 2-dose ≥6 months apart, and 3-dose groups and followed until genital wart diagnosis, loss to follow-up, or end of study. Propensity score weights were used to balance baseline differences across groups. To account for latent genital warts before vaccination, 6-month and 12-month buffer periods from last and first vaccine dose, respectively, were applied...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641360/-strategies-on-the-treatment-of-nerve-injuries-accompanied-by-severe-soft-tissue-damage-consensus-statement-of-the-german-speaking-society-for-microsurgery-of-peripheral-nerves-and-vessels
#5
Leila Harhaus, Christoph Hirche, Riccardo E Giunta, Oskar Aszmann, Frank Siemers, U Kneser, Marcus Lehnhardt
Nerve injuries with severe soft tissue damage are rare and demand a complex and individualized treatment approach, in order to limit medical and socioeconomic consequences. Since uniform systematic evidence so far is lacking, inconsistent therapy standards are implemented depending on individual experiences and background of respective microsurgeons.In order to provide best conditions for further healing, basic expert consensus statements were developed in a workshop on the 38th Annual Meeting of the German-speaking Community for Microsurgery of the Peripheral Nerves and Vessels (DAM)...
June 22, 2017: Handchirurgie, Mikrochirurgie, Plastische Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641357/-the-german-thorax-registry-implementation-of-an-established-tool-of-perioperative-health-care-research
#6
Jérôme Defosse, Mark Schieren, Torsten Loop, Cerstin Arndt, Rainer Röhrig, Erich Stoelben, Corinna Ludwig, Alexander Schleppers, Frank Wappler, Mark Gerbershagen, Alberto Lopez-Pastorini
The collection of clinical treatment data in registry databases is an important aspect of health services research. It allows for a critical evaluation of the safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness of clinical treatment concepts in large patient populations. The findings of registry research represent real-world patients and treatment structures as they are not limited by strict inclusion criteria or unrealistic conditions as applied in prospective clinical trials. The implementation of the German Thorax Registry has enabled the collection and analysis of data on the interdisciplinary care (thoracic surgery, anaesthesiology, intensive care, pain management) of patients undergoing thoracic surgery...
June 2017: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641354/-acute-liver-failure-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-hepatorenal-syndrome-hepatopulmonary-syndrome-and-portopulmonary-hypertension-artificial-liver-support-on-the-icu
#7
Uwe Lodes, David Jacob, Frank Meyer
Background Acute hepatic dysfunction in the form of acute liver failure (ALF) or acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a disease with a high risk of mortality and requires interdisciplinary intensive care. Aim This article explains the nomenclature, pathophysiology, prognosis and possible treatment options of ALF and ACLF, including the possibilities of extracorporeal liver support therapy at the point of liver transplantation (LTx). Method Narrative review with a selective literature review and representative case studies...
June 2017: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641352/-do-general-surgeons-feel-adequately-prepared-for-the-complex-questions-associated-with-the-handling-of-multi-resistant-pathogens-results-of-the-mr2-survey
#8
Matthias May, Philipp J Spachmann, Steffen Lebentrau, Harald Schumacher, Christian Gilfrich, Hans-Martin Fritsche, Malte Vetterlein, Sabine Brookman-May, Martin Schostak, Florian M Wagenlehner, Maximilian Burger, Alexander Novotny, Robert Obermaier
Background At the present time, there is no evidence available as to the knowledge of general surgeons regarding multi-resistant pathogens (MRP) and the rational use of antibiotic medication (antibiotic stewardship/ABS) compared with physicians from other disciplines. Methods As part of the MR2 survey (Multiinstitutional Reconnaissance of practice with MultiResistant bacteria - a survey focussing on German hospitals), a questionnaire comprising 4 + 35 items was distributed to urologists, internists, gynaecologists and general surgeons in 18 hospitals...
June 2017: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641317/reply-to-comment-on-the-impact-of-vitamin-d-pathway-genetic-variation-and-circulating-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-on-cancer-outcome-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
L Zgaga, P G Vaughan-Shaw, F O'Sullivan, S M Farrington, E Theodoratou, H Campbell, M G Dunlop
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 22, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641314/no-additional-prognostic-value-for-mre11-in-squamous-cell-carcinomas-of-the-anus-treated-with-chemo-radiotherapy
#10
Alexandra K Walker, Christiana Kartsonaki, Elena Collantes, Judith Nicholson, Duncan C Gilbert, Anne E Kiltie
BACKGROUND: The majority of anal cancers (84-95%) are driven by infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV-positive tumours show significantly better responses to chemo-radiotherapy when compared with HPV-negative tumours. HPV infection is linked to alterations in DNA damage response proteins, including MRE11. MRE11 is a potential predictive biomarker for response to radiotherapy in muscle-invasive bladder cancer and may hold predictive power in other cancers. METHODS: Using a previously reported cohort, we evaluated the levels of MRE11 in anal cancer and assessed its predictive value in this disease...
June 22, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641312/impact-of-novel-mir-145-3p-regulatory-networks-on-survival-in-patients-with-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#11
Yusuke Goto, Akira Kurozumi, Takayuki Arai, Nijiro Nohata, Satoko Kojima, Atsushi Okato, Mayuko Kato, Kazuto Yamazaki, Yasuo Ishida, Yukio Naya, Tomohiko Ichikawa, Naohiko Seki
BACKGROUND: Despite recent advancements, metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is not considered curative. Novel approaches for identification of therapeutic targets of CRPC are needed. METHODS: Next-generation sequencing revealed 945-1248 miRNAs from each lethal mCRPC sample. We constructed miRNA expression signatures of CRPC by comparing the expression of miRNAs between CRPC and normal prostate tissue or hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (HSPC)...
June 22, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641310/potentiating-the-effects-of-radiotherapy-in-rectal-cancer-the-role-of-aspirin-statins-and-metformin-as-adjuncts-to-therapy
#12
K J Gash, A C Chambers, D E Cotton, A C Williams, M G Thomas
BACKGROUND: Complete tumour response (pCR) to neo-adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy for rectal cancer is associated with a reduction in local recurrence and improved disease-free and overall survival, but is achieved in only 20-30% of patients. Drug repurposing for anti-cancer treatments is gaining momentum, but the potential of such drugs as adjuncts, to increase tumour response to chemo-radiotherapy in rectal cancer, is only just beginning to be recognised. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted and all studies investigating the use of drugs to enhance response to neo-adjuvant radiation in rectal cancer were included...
June 22, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641263/radian-visual-exploration-of-traceroutes
#13
Massimo Candela, Marco Di Bartolomeo, Giuseppe Di Battista, Claudio Squarcella
Several projects deploy probes in the Internet. Probes are systems that continuously perform traceroutes and other networking measurements (e.g. ping) towards selected targets. Measurements can be stored and analyzed to gain knowledge on several aspects of the Internet, but making sense of such data requires suitable methods and tools for exploration and visualization. We present Radian, a tool that allows to visualize traceroute paths at different levels of detail and to animate their evolution during a selected time interval...
June 19, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641261/robust-web-image-annotation-via-exploring-multi-facet-and-structural-knowledge
#14
Mengqiu Hu, Yang Yang, Fumin Shen, Luming Zhang, Heng Tao Shen, Xuelong Li
Driven by the rapid development of Internet and digital technologies, we have witnessed the explosive growth of Web images in recent years. Seeing that labels can reflect the semantic contents of the images, automatic image annotation, which can further facilitate the procedure of image semantic indexing, retrieval and other image management tasks, has become one of the most crucial research directions in multimedia. Most of the existing annotation methods heavily rely on well-labeled training data (expensive to collect) and/or single view of visual features (insufficient representative power)...
June 19, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641259/face-hallucination-using-linear-models-of-coupled-sparse-support
#15
Reuben A Farrugia, Christine Guillemot
Most face super-resolution methods assume that low- and high-resolution manifolds have similar local geometrical structure, hence learn local models on the low-resolution manifold (e.g. sparse or locally linear embedding models), which are then applied on the high- resolution manifold. However, the low-resolution manifold is distorted by the one-to-many relationship between low- and high- resolution patches. This paper presents the Linear Model of Coupled Sparse Support (LM-CSS) method which learns linear models based on the local geometrical structure on the high-resolution manifold rather than on the low-resolution manifold...
June 19, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641244/computerized-lung-sound-screening-for-pediatric-auscultation-in-noisy-field-environments
#16
Dimitra Emmanouilidou, Eric D McCollum, Daniel E Park, Mounya Elhilali
GOAL: Chest auscultations offer a non-invasive and low-cost tool for monitoring lung disease. However, they present many shortcomings including inter-listener variability, subjectivity, and vulnerability to noise and distortions. The current work proposes a computer-aided approach to process lung signals acquired in the field under adverse noisy conditions, by improving the signal quality and offering automated iden- tification of abnormal auscultations indicative of respiratory pathologies...
June 19, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641243/ecurves-a-temporal-shape-encoding
#17
Elena Bernardis, Yong Zhang, Ender Konukoglu, Yangming Ou, Harold Javitz, Leon Axel, Dimitris N Metaxas, Benoit Desjardins, Kilian M Pohl
OBJECTIVE: This paper presents a framework for temporal shape analysis to capture the shape and changes of anatomical structures from 3D+t(ime) medical scans. METHOD: We first encode the shape of a structure at each time point with the spectral signature, i.e., the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Laplace operator. We then expand it to capture morphing shapes by tracking the eigenmodes across time according to the similarity of their eigenfunctions. The similarity metric is motivated by the fact that small shape deformations lead to minor changes in the eigenfunctions...
June 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641233/large-eddy-simulation-and-experimental-study-on-vented-gasoline-air-mixture-explosions-in-a-semi-confined-obstructed-pipe
#18
Guoqing Li, Yang Du, Shimao Wang, Sheng Qi, Peili Zhang, Wenzhuo Chen
In this work, LES simulation coupled with a TFC sub-grid combustion model has been performed in a semi-confined pipe (L/D=10, V=10L) in the presence of four hollow-square obstacles (BR=49.8%) with circular hollow cross-section, in order to study the premixed gasoline-air mixture explosions. The comparisons between simulated results and experimental results have been conducted. It was found that the simulated results were in good agreement with experimental data in terms of flame structures, flame locations and overpressure time histories...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641224/elemental-copper-nanoparticle-toxicity-to-anaerobic-ammonium-oxidation-and-the-influence-of-ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic-acid-edta-on-copper-toxicity
#19
Jorge Gonzalez-Estrella, Guangbin Li, Sarah E Neely, Daniel Puyol, Reyes Sierra-Alvarez, Jim A Field
Soluble ions released by elemental copper nanoparticles (Cu(0) NP) are toxic to key microorganisms of wastewater treatment processes. However, their toxicity to anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) has not yet been studied. Chelating agents occurring in wastewater may decrease copper ions (Cu(2+)) concentration and consequently, decrease copper toxicity. This study evaluated Cu(0) NP and CuCl2 toxicity to anammox and the influence of ethylene diamine-tetra acetic acid (EDTA) on copper toxicity. Bioassays were supplemented with Cu(0) NP or CuCl2 with and without EDTA...
June 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641221/a-curse-of-knowledge-in-the-absence-of-knowledge-people-misattribute-fluency-when-judging-how-common-knowledge-is-among-their-peers
#20
Susan A J Birch, Patricia E Brosseau-Liard, Taeh Haddock, Siba E Ghrear
Knowledge can be a curse: Once we have acquired a particular item of knowledge it tends to bias, or contaminate, our ability to reason about a less informed perspective (referred to as the 'curse of knowledge' or 'hindsight bias'). The mechanisms underlying the curse of knowledge bias are a matter of great import and debate. We highlight two mechanisms that have been proposed to underlie this bias-inhibition and fluency misattribution. Explanations that involve inhibition argue that people have difficulty fully inhibiting or suppressing the content of their knowledge when trying to reason about a less informed perspective...
June 19, 2017: Cognition
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