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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936395/antioxidative-activity-of-high-density-lipoprotein-hdl-mechanistic-insights-into-potential-clinical-benefit
#1
REVIEW
Fernando Brites, Maximiliano Martin, Isabelle Guillas, Anatol Kontush
Uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles by macrophages represents a key step in the development of atherosclerotic plaques, leading to the foam cell formation. Chemical modification of LDL is however necessary to induce this process. Proatherogenic LDL modifications include aggregation, enzymatic digestion and oxidation. LDL oxidation by one-electron (free radicals) and two-electron oxidants dramatically increases LDL affinity to macrophage scavenger receptors, leading to rapid LDL uptake and fatty streak formation...
December 2017: BBA Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916714/interleukin-6-blockade-raises-ldl-via-reduced-catabolism-rather-than-via-increased-synthesis-a-cytokine-specific-mechanism-for-cholesterol-changes-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#2
Jamie Robertson, Duncan Porter, Naveed Sattar, Chris J Packard, Muriel Caslake, Iain McInnes, David McCarey
OBJECTIVES: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have reduced serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), which increases following therapeutic IL-6 blockade. We aimed to define the metabolic pathways underlying these lipid changes. METHODS: In the KALIBRA study, lipoprotein kinetic studies were performed on 11 patients with severe active RA at baseline and following three intravenous infusions of the IL-6R blocker tocilizumab. The primary outcome measure was the fractional catabolic rate (FCR) of LDL...
September 15, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913361/insulin-resistance-predicts-atherogenic-lipoprotein-profile-in-nondiabetic-subjects
#3
Flávia De C Cartolano, Gabriela D Dias, Maria C P de Freitas, Antônio M Figueiredo Neto, Nágila R T Damasceno
BACKGROUND: Atherogenic diabetes is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk and mortality in diabetic individuals; however, the impact of insulin resistance (IR) in lipid metabolism in preclinical stages is generally underreported. For that, we evaluated the capacity of IR to predict an atherogenic lipid subfraction profile. METHODS: Complete clinical evaluation and biochemical analysis (lipid, glucose profile, LDL, and HDL subfractions and LDL phenotype and size) were performed in 181 patients...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911304/sialidases-therapeutic-and-antiatherogenic-potential
#4
Vasily Nikolaevich Sukhorukov, Vasily Petrovich Karagodin, Emile Rustemovich Zakiev, Andrey Vyacheslavovich Grechko, Alexandr Nikolaevich Orekhov
This review focuses on the biological role and clinical relevance of relatively poor studied enzymes known as sialidases. We describe structure and function of sialic acid, in particular as a component of gangliosides and plasma lipoproteins. Several types of sialidases are known in mammals, of which trans-sialidase is of special interest, since it is capable of removing sialic acid from low density lipoprotein (LDL) particles and transferring it to different acceptors in blood plasma. Desialylation of LDL, in turn, endows it a capacity to accumulate in the smooth muscle cells of human aortic intima, and therefore is important for atherogenesis...
June 8, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894089/heparan-sulfate-proteoglycans-present-pcsk9-to-the-ldl-receptor
#5
Camilla Gustafsen, Ditte Olsen, Joachim Vilstrup, Signe Lund, Anika Reinhardt, Niels Wellner, Torben Larsen, Christian B F Andersen, Kathrin Weyer, Jin-Ping Li, Peter H Seeberger, Søren Thirup, Peder Madsen, Simon Glerup
Coronary artery disease is the main cause of death worldwide and accelerated by increased plasma levels of cholesterol-rich low-density lipoprotein particles (LDL). Circulating PCSK9 contributes to coronary artery disease by inducing lysosomal degradation of the LDL receptor (LDLR) in the liver and thereby reducing LDL clearance. Here, we show that liver heparan sulfate proteoglycans are PCSK9 receptors and essential for PCSK9-induced LDLR degradation. The heparan sulfate-binding site is located in the PCSK9 prodomain and formed by surface-exposed basic residues interacting with trisulfated heparan sulfate disaccharide repeats...
September 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887769/%C3%AE-synuclein-interacts-with-lipoproteins-in-plasma
#6
Fatemeh Nouri Emamzadeh, David Allsop
Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by dopaminergic neural cell death in the substantia nigra of the brain and α-synuclein (α-syn) accumulation in Lewy bodies. α-Syn can be detected in blood and is a potential biomarker for PD. It has been shown recently that α-syn can pass through the blood-brain barrier (BBB), but the mechanism is not yet understood. We hypothesized that α-syn could interact with lipoproteins, and in association with these particles, could pass through the BBB...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886230/lipoprotein-particle-concentration-measured-by-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-is-associated-with-gestational-age-at-delivery-a-prospective-cohort-study
#7
Matthew R Grace, Catherine J Vladutiu, Rachel C Nethery, Anna Maria Siega-Riz, Tracy A Manuck, Amy H Herring, David Savitz, John T Thorp
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the association between lipoprotein particle concentrations in pregnancy and gestational age at delivery. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: The study was conducted in the United States at the University of North Carolina. POPULATION: We assessed 715 women enrolled in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition study from 2001-2005. METHODS: Fasting blood was collected at two time points (<20 weeks and 24-29 weeks gestation)...
September 8, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873642/chemical-crosslinking-improves-the-gastrointestinal-stability-and-enhances-nutrient-delivery-potentials-of-egg-yolk-ldl-polysaccharide-nanogels
#8
Mingyong Zhou, Keiona Khen, Taoran Wang, Qiaobin Hu, Jingyi Xue, Yangchao Luo
Egg yolk low density lipoprotein (LDL)/polysaccharide nanogels are newly explored as oral delivery systems with promising encapsulation potentials. Nonetheless, the stability of nanogels against aggregation in gastrointestinal tract remains a challenge. Therefore, chemical crosslinking by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) and carbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) was adopted to improve the gastrointestinal stability of nanogels. Compared to original uncrosslinked nanogels, crosslinking did not change particle size, polydispersity index (PDI) and morphology, but it reduced surface charge of nanogels...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855976/antioxidant-effects-of-a-hydroxytyrosol-based-pharmaceutical-formulation-on-body-composition-metabolic-state-and-gene-expression-a-randomized-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-crossover-trial
#9
Carmela Colica, Laura Di Renzo, Domenico Trombetta, Antonella Smeriglio, Sergio Bernardini, Giorgia Cioccoloni, Renata Costa de Miranda, Paola Gualtieri, Paola Sinibaldi Salimei, Antonino De Lorenzo
Hydroxytyrosol (HT) plays a significant role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) protection, and its metabolites are able to protect from the endothelial dysfunction commonly present in atherosclerosis. This randomized double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover trial determined the effect in healthy volunteers of two gastroresistant capsules containing 15 mg/day of HT, for a 3-week period (HTT). Evaluation of nutritional status, serum metabolites, oxidative stress biomarkers, and gene expression of 9 genes related to oxidative stress, inflammation, and CVDs was performed...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852492/high-density-lipoprotein-particle-pattern-and-overall-lipid-responses-to-a-short-term-moderate-intensity-aerobic-exercise-training-intervention-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#10
Emily M Miele, Samuel A E Headley, Michael Germain, Jyovani Joubert, Sarah Herrick, Charles Milch, Elizabeth Evans, Allen Cornelius, Britton Brewer, Beth Taylor, Richard J Wood
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with abnormal lipid profiles and altered high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particle size patterns. Lower levels of the larger, cardioprotective HDL particles found in CKD may play a role in the increased risk for cardiovascular disease in these patients. The current study was designed to assess the effects of short-term moderate-intensity aerobic exercise training on the HDL particle pattern and overall lipid profiles in stage 3 CKD patients...
August 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28849320/triglyceride-metabolism-in-japanese-kidney-transplant-recipients
#11
Makoto Tsujita, Norihiko Goto, Kenta Futamura, Manabu Okada, Takahisa Hiramitsu, Syunji Narumi, Yoshihiko Watarai
BACKGROUND: Residual cardiovascular risk factors, such as triglyceride (TG), can cause cardiovascular disease. The role of TG metabolism in kidney transplantation remains unclear. METHODS: Sixty-three consecutive stable recipients at 1 year after their kidney transplants were included in the study from January to September 2014 at Nagoya Daini Red Cross Hospital. We performed the cookie test to evaluate TG metabolism. TG, blood sugar, and remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) were measured at fasting (f) and 2 and 4 h after ingestion...
August 28, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846118/association-of-genetic-variants-related-to-cetp-inhibitors-and-statins-with-lipoprotein-levels-and-cardiovascular-risk
#12
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Brian A Ference, John J P Kastelein, Henry N Ginsberg, M John Chapman, Stephen J Nicholls, Kausik K Ray, Chris J Packard, Ulrich Laufs, Robert D Brook, Clare Oliver-Williams, Adam S Butterworth, John Danesh, George Davey Smith, Alberico L Catapano, Marc S Sabatine
Importance: Some cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels without reducing cardiovascular events, suggesting that the clinical benefit of lowering LDL-C may depend on how LDL-C is lowered. Objective: To estimate the association between changes in levels of LDL-C (and other lipoproteins) and the risk of cardiovascular events related to variants in the CETP gene, both alone and in combination with variants in the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) gene...
September 12, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844679/syzygium-cumini-leaf-extract-inhibits-ldl-oxidation-but-does-not-protect-the-liproprotein-from-glycation
#13
Matheus M Dos Santos, Alessandro S Prestes, Gabriel T de Macedo, Assis Ecker, Rômulo P Barcelos, Aline A Boligon, Diego Souza, Andreza F de Bem, João B T da Rocha, Nilda V Barbosa
ETNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels is a plant widely used in folk medicine to treat diabetes mellitus (DM). The tea from its leaves is frequently used by diabetics for lowering hyperglycemia. There is a close relationship between DM and atherosclerosis, a chronic immuno-inflammatory disease, were the early stages encompass oxidative and glycative modifications in the structure of low density lipoprotein (LDL). AIM OF THIS STUDY: To investigate the potential protective effects of aqueous-leaf extract from Syzygium cumini (S...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829977/hdl-subclasses-and-the-common-cetp-taqib-variant-predict-the-incidence-of-microangiopatic-complications-in-type-2-diabetic-women-a-9years-follow-up-study
#14
Giuseppina T Russo, Annalisa Giandalia, Elisabetta L Romeo, Marco Muscianisi, Maria Concetta Ruffo, Angela Alibrandi, Alessandra Bitto, Fiorella Forte, Andrea Grillone, Bela Asztalos, Domenico Cucinotta
AIMS: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and retinopathy (DR) develop in a considerable number of subjects with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) despite the achievement of the recommended targets for glycaemia and blood pressure. Atherogenic dyslipidemia may play a relevant role, especially in T2DM women. METHODS: We report our findings on the effect of diabetic dyslipidaemia, the HDL subclasses distribution and the common cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP)TaqIB variant on the incidence or the progression of DKD and DR in 97 T2D women, after a ∼9years of follow-up...
July 28, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826575/apolipoprotein-b-is-associated-with-carotid-atherosclerosis-progression-independent-of-individual-cholesterol-measures-in-a-9-year-prospective-study-of-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis-participants
#15
Brian T Steffen, Weihua Guan, Alan T Remaley, James H Stein, Mathew C Tattersall, Joel Kaufman, Michael Y Tsai
BACKGROUND: High blood cholesterol contributes to atherosclerosis, yet reliance on the lipid panel alone may mischaracterize individuals with elevated lipoprotein particle numbers. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the article was to determine whether elevated lipoprotein or apolipoprotein measures are associated with carotid atherosclerosis and plaque progression independent of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors including standard lipids in a subcohort of 2228 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826565/lipoprotein-particle-number-and-size-predict-vascular-structure-and-function-better-than-traditional-lipids-in-adolescents-and-young-adults
#16
Elaine M Urbina, Connie E McCoy, Zhiqian Gao, Philip R Khoury, Amy S Shah, Lawrence M Dolan, Thomas R Kimball
BACKGROUND: In adults, dyslipidemia is associated with higher carotid thickness and arterial stiffness, predictors of cardiovascular events. In young subjects, lipid concentrations have not been consistently associated with vascular measures. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to compare nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measures of lipoprotein particle number (low-density lipoprotein [LDL] particle, low-density lipoprotein [HDL] particle, very low-density lipoprotein [VLDL] particle) and size (LDL size, HDL size, and VLDL size) to determine if they were associated with vascular measures more strongly than lipid concentrations (LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride [TG])...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818791/low-density-lipoprotein-modified-by-myeloperoxidase-oxidants-induces-endothelial-dysfunction
#17
Adrian I Abdo, Benjamin S Rayner, David M van Reyk, Clare L Hawkins
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) modified by hypochlorous acid (HOCl) produced by myeloperoxidase (MPO) is present in atherosclerotic lesions, where it is implicated in the propagation of inflammation and acceleration of lesion development by multiple pathways, including the induction of endothelial dysfunction. Thiocyanate (SCN(-)) ions are utilised by MPO to produce the oxidant hypothiocyanous acid (HOSCN), which reacts with LDL in a different manner to HOCl. Whilst the reactivity of HOCl-modified LDL has been previously studied, the role of HOSCN in the modification of LDL in vivo is poorly defined, although emerging evidence suggests that these particles have distinct biological properties...
August 5, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814234/biomarkers-of-cardiovascular-risk-in-haemodialysis-patients
#18
Beata Franczyk, Anna Gluba-Brzózka, Jacek Rysz
BACKGROUND: All stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) are associated with increased risks of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. According to studies, levels of copeptin, growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) and heart fatty-acid binding protein (h-FABP) are increased in dialysis patients. MATERIALS: This study included 50 patients (19 women, 31 men) chronically undergoing haemodialysis. The concentration of markers: copeptin, GDF-15, h-FABP, troponin and serum creatine kinase MB (CKMB) were measured with the use of ELISA tests...
August 15, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808191/shunts-channels-and-lipoprotein-endosomal-traffic-a-new-model-of-cholesterol-homeostasis-in-the-hepatocyte
#19
Robert Scott Kiss, Allan Sniderman
The liver directs cholesterol metabolism in the organism. All the major fluxes of cholesterol within the body involve the liver: dietary cholesterol is directed to the liver; cholesterol from peripheral cells goes to the liver; the liver is a major site of cholesterol synthesis for the organism; cholesterol is secreted from the liver within the bile, within apoB lipoproteins and translocated to nascent HDL. The conventional model of cholesterol homeostasis posits that cholesterol from any source enters a common, rapidly exchangeable pool within the cell, which is in equilibrium with a regulatory pool...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754439/myocardial-blood-flow-reserve-is-impaired-in-patients-with-aortic-valve-calcification-and-unobstructed-epicardial-coronary-arteries
#20
Karen Nel, Michael C Y Nam, Chris Anstey, Christopher J Boos, Edward Carlton, Roxy Senior, Juan Carlos Kaski, Ahmed Khattab, Delva Shamley, Christopher D Byrne, Tony Stanton, Kim Greaves
BACKGROUND: Although calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is associated with coronary atherosclerosis, it is not known whether early CAVD is associated with coronary microcirculatory dysfunction (CMD). We sought to investigate the relationship between myocardial blood flow reserve (MBFR) - a measure of CMD, and early CAVD in the absence of obstructive epicardial coronary artery disease. We also determined whether this relationship was independent of coronary artery disease (CAD) and hs-CRP, a marker of systemic inflammation...
June 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
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