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LDL particle

Johan G Schnitzler, Geesje M Dallinga-Thie, Jeffrey Kroon
Over the last century, many studies have demonstrated that low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is a key risk factor of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) related to atherosclerosis. Thus, for these CVD patients, LDL lowering agents are commonly used in the clinic to reduce the risk for CVD. LDL, upon modification, will develop distinct inflammatory and pro-atherogenic potential, leading to impaired endothelial behavior and subsequent increased foam cell formation. LDL can also directly affect circulating monocyte composition, rendering them in a more favorable position to migrate and accumulate in the subendothelial space...
March 16, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Thomas Lange, Kathrin Budde, Georg Homuth, Gabi Kastenmüller, Anna Artati, Jan Krumsiek, Henry Völzke, Jerzy Adamski, Astrid Petersmann, Uwe Völker, Matthias Nauck, Nele Friedrich, Maik Pietzner
Objective: Thyroid hormones are ubiqiutiously involved in human metabolism. However, the precise molecular patterns associated with alterations in thyroid hormones levels remain to be explored in detail. A number of recent studies took great advantage of metabolomics profiling to outline metabolic actions of thyroid hormones in humans. Methods: Among 952 participants of the Study of Health in Pomerania data on serum free thyroxine (FT4) and thyrotropin (TSH) as well as comprehensive (non-)targeted metabolomics data of plasma and urine samples were available...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Kana Ide, Masaya Koshizaka, Hirotake Tokuyama, Takahiko Tokuyama, Takahiro Ishikawa, Yoshiro Maezawa, Minoru Takemoto, Koutaro Yokote
BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes are at high risk for cardiovascular disease. Although hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) can reduce cardiovascular events, residual risk remains even after target low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels have been achieved. Lipoprotein particle size and fraction changes are thought to contribute to such risks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), predominantly eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, on lipoprotein particle size, concentration, and glycemic control in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia...
March 15, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Katarina Lalić, Milan Nedeljković, Alekasandra Jotić, Rade Babić, Nataša Rajković, Ljiljana Popović, Ljiljana Lukić, Tanja Miličić, Sandra Singh Lukač, Ljubica Stošić, Marija Maćešić, Iva Rasulić, Jelena Stanarčić Gajović, Nebojša M Lalić
AIMS: This study was aimed to compare insulin sensitivity and secretion response, lipoprotein and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) levels between the subjects with and without coronary artery endothelial dysfunction (ED). METHODS: ED was detected by intracoronary injection of acetylcholine (ACh) in 47 nondiabetes subjects without stenotic coronary arteries, selected from 316 consecutive patients with coronary angiography performed for suspected coronary artery disease...
March 8, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
K Tabeta, M Hosojima, M Nakajima, S Miyauchi, H Miyazawa, N Takahashi, Y Matsuda, N Sugita, Y Komatsu, K Sato, T Ishikawa, K Akiishi, K Yamazaki, K Kato, A Saito, H Yoshie
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Previous reports suggest that several serum biomarkers play roles in the pathogenesis, inflammatory response, and oxidative stress in periodontitis caused by bacterial infections, linking chronic periodontitis to atherosclerotic vascular disease (ASVD). The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate, in a Japanese cross-sectional community survey, potential serum biomarkers of periodontitis that are associated with ASVD and chronic periodontitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study cohort included a total of 108 male subjects who underwent annual health examinations...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Periodontal Research
Shen Gao, Dong Zhao, Yue Qi, Wei Wang, Miao Wang, Jiayi Sun, Jun Liu, Yan Li, Jing Liu
AIMS: To investigate the association between circulating oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) levels and progression of subclinical atherosclerosis and to examine whether this link is independent of other low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-related parameters. METHODS: Totally, 804 subjects who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline completed risk factor surveys and carotid ultrasound measurements in 2002 and 2012. Modified Poisson regression was performed to examine the association between baseline serum ox-LDL levels and the 10-year risk of progression of carotid atherosclerosis which was defined as the development of at least one new plaque in a previously plaque-free carotid segment at re-examination...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
Koshiro Sakai, Shinji Koba, Yuya Nakamura, Yuya Yokota, Fumiyoshi Tsunoda, Makoto Shoji, Yasuki Itoh, Yuji Hamazaki, Youichi Kobayashi
AIM: The study objective was to investigate whether small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL-C) is superior to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and other biomarkers to predict future cardiovascular events (CE) in secondary prevention. METHODS: sdLDL-C measured by a homogeneous assay, remnant lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL particle diameter and other biomarkers were compared in 345 men aged ≥65 years with stable coronary artery disease...
March 7, 2018: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
Bianca Scolaro, Marina S Nogueira, Aline Paiva, Adriana Bertolami, Lucia P Barroso, Tomas Vaisar, Sean P Heffron, Edward A Fisher, Inar A Castro
OBJECTIVE: Statin intolerance, whether real or perceived, is a growing issue in clinical practice. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of reduced-dose statin therapy complemented with nutraceuticals. METHODS: First phase: Initially, 53 type 2 diabetic statin-treated patients received a supplementation with fish oil (1.7 g EPA + DHA/day), chocolate containing plant sterols (2.2 g/day), and green tea (two sachets/day) for 6 weeks. Second phase: "Good responders" to supplementation were identified after multivariate analysis (n = 10), and recruited for a pilot protocol of statin dose reduction...
February 20, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Katsuyuki Nakajima, Akira Tanaka
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) and chylomicron remnants were previously proposed as the most atherogenic lipoproteins for the causal lipoproteins of atherosclerosis. However, there are still controversies on these hypothesizes. Therefore, we have proposed a new hypothesis based on our recent findings of remnant lipoproteins (RLPs) in postprandial plasma. RECENT FINDINGS: Plasma RLP-C and RLP-TG increased significantly after fat load...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Julio A Lamprea-Montealegre, Robyn L McClelland, Morgan Grams, Pamela Ouyang, Moyses Szklo, Ian H de Boer
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to characterise the main dyslipidaemic phenotypes present in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and their association with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. METHODS: Analyses included 6612 individuals in the multiethnic study of atherosclerosis free of CHD at baseline. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 15 to <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (stages 3-4). Principal component analyses were used to characterise the main dyslipidaemic phenotypes of CKD accounting for the correlation among different lipoproteins and lipoprotein particles...
February 22, 2018: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
Peter C Taylor, Joel M Kremer, Paul Emery, Steven H Zuckerman, Giacomo Ruotolo, Jinglin Zhong, Lei Chen, Sarah Witt, Chadi Saifan, Monika Kurzawa, James D Otvos, Margery A Connelly, William L Macias, Douglas E Schlichting, Terence P Rooney, Stephanie de Bono, Iain B McInnes
OBJECTIVES: Lipid profiles are altered by active disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and may be further modified by treatment with Janus kinase inhibitors and other disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. METHODS: Lipid data were analysed from phase II and III studies of 4 mg (n=997) and 2 mg (n=479) oral baricitinib administered once daily in patients with moderate-to-severe active RA. Lipoprotein particle size and number and GlycA were evaluated with nuclear magnetic resonance in one phase III study...
February 20, 2018: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Priska Stahel, Changting Xiao, Robert A Hegele, Gary F Lewis
Despite the effectiveness of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-lowering strategies for the treatment of diabetic dyslipidemia, significant residual risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease remains. Residual risk might in part be explained by lipid abnormalities that go beyond LDL cholesterol elevation, collectively termed the "atherogenic dyslipidemia complex (ADC)," consisting of hypertriglyceridemia, elevated small dense LDL particles, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein particle numbers, increased remnant lipoproteins, and postprandial hyperlipidemia...
December 15, 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Mohamed F Zidan, Hany M Ibrahim, Mohsen I Afouna, Elsherbeny A Ibrahim
The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of complexing the poorly water-soluble drug atorvastatin calcium (AC) with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) based nanosponges (NS), which offer advantages of improving dissolution rate and eventually oral bioavailability. Blank NS were fabricated at first by reacting β-CD with the cross-linker carbonyldiimidazole at different molar ratios (1:2, 1:4 and 1:8), then NS of highest solubilization extent for AC were complexed with AC. AC loaded NS (AC-NS) were characterized for various physicochemical properties...
February 16, 2018: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Kausik K Ray, Lawrence A Leiter, Dirk Müller-Wieland, Bertrand Cariou, Helen M Colhoun, Robert R Henry, Francisco J Tinahones, Maja Bujas-Bobanovic, Catherine Domenger, Alexia Letierce, Rita Samuel, Stefano Del Prato
AIMS: Individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and mixed dyslipidaemia represent a high-risk and difficult-to-treat population. ODYSSEY DM-DYSLIPIDEMIA (NCT02642159) compared alirocumab, a proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 inhibitor, with usual care (UC) in individuals with T2DM and mixed dyslipidaemia not optimally managed by maximally-tolerated statins. MATERIALS AND METHODS: UC options (no additional lipid-lowering therapy; fenofibrate; ezetimibe; omega-3 fatty acid; nicotinic acid) were selected prior to stratified randomization to open-label alirocumab 75 mg every 2 weeks (Q2W; with increase to 150 mg Q2W at Week [W]12 if W8 non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [non-HDL-C] was ≥2...
February 13, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Jacqueline K Innes, Philip C Calder
A large body of evidence supports the cardioprotective effects of the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). There is increasing interest in the independent effects of EPA and DHA in the modulation of cardiometabolic risk factors. This systematic review aims to appraise the latest available evidence of the differential effects of EPA and DHA on such risk factors. A systematic literature review was conducted up to May 2017. Randomised controlled trials were included if they met strict eligibility criteria, including EPA or DHA > 2 g/day and purity ≥ 90%...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Linghao Qin, Yawei Niu, Yuemin Wang, Xiaomei Chen
Water-insoluble drugs can not be absorbed effectively through gastrointestinal tract due to insufficient solubility and often face the problems of low bioavailability and poor therapeutic efficacy. To overcome these biopharmaceutical challenges, lipid-based formulations were suggested and have been researched in recent years. In this study, we used atorvastatin as a model drug to prepare a phospholipid complex pro-drug system to upgrade its lipophilicity and further developed a drug loaded submicron emulsion to improve its in vivo bioavailability...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Dragana Bojanin, Tatjana Milenkovic, Jelena Vekic, Rade Vukovic, Aleksandra Zeljkovic, Jelena Janac, Jasmina Ivanisevic, Sladjana Todorovic, Ilijana Mazibrada, Vesna Spasojevic-Kalimanovska
OBJECTIVE: Paediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) frequently develop other autoimmune disorders; most commonly autoimmune thyroiditis (ATD) and celiac disease (CD). In this study we evaluated whether co-existing autoimmune diseases had significant impact on lipid and lipoprotein subclasses, as known cardiovascular risk factors in T1DM. DESIGN AND METHODS: Study included 201 subjects with T1DM (14.1 ± 2.9 years) and 141 age- and gender-matched controls...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
James D Otvos, John R Guyton, Margery A Connelly, Sydney Akapame, Vera Bittner, Steven L Kopecky, Megan Lacy, Santica M Marcovina, Joseph B Muhlestein, William E Boden
BACKGROUND: The Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome with Low HDL/High Triglycerides and Impact on Global Health Outcomes trial showed no incremental benefit of extended-release niacin (ERN) therapy added to simvastatin in subjects with cardiovascular disease (CVD). OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of ERN treatment on lipoprotein particles and GlycA, a new marker of systemic inflammation, and their relations with incident CVD events including mortality...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Cèlia Rodríguez-Borjabad, Daiana Ibarretxe, Josefa Girona, Raimon Ferré, Albert Feliu, Núria Amigó, Eugenio Guijarro, Luis Masana, Núria Plana
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is underdiagnosed in children. In addition to lipid concentrations, lipoprotein particle quantity and quality could influence cardiovascular risk. We aimed to perform a comprehensive plasma lipid study, including lipoprotein particle number and size assessment by two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-1H-NMR), in children with FH compared to non-affected children and to evaluate the clinical value of these factors as subclinical atherosclerosis biomarkers...
January 31, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Carlos Moya, Salvador Máñez
Atherosclerosis is one of the leading causes of death in Western countries, with high-density lipoproteins (HDL) playing an important protective role due to their ability to inhibit oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL), thus relieving vascular subendothelial damage. One of the proteins constituting HDL particles is paraoxonase-1 (PON1), an enzyme able to hydrolyze aryl esters, lactones, and organophosphates. Other closely related paraoxonases are designated as PON2, which is a protein localized inside many different kinds of cells, and PON3, not only present in HDL but also in mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, as well...
February 6, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
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