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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792380/alirocumab-as-add-on-therapy-to-statins-current-evidence-and-clinical-potential
#1
Johann Auer, Robert Berent
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVDs) are associated with a substantial mortality, physical morbidity, and mental disability. Elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels play a major role in the pathophysiology of ASCVDs. Statins have been shown to reduce ASCVD risk and associated events and are recommended as first-line therapy for treatment of hypercholesterolemia by current international guidelines. The key issue is to attain guideline-recommended LDL-C levels (below 70 mg/dl) for patients at very high cardiovascular risk...
May 1, 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789878/nuts-as-a-replacement-for-carbohydrates-in-the-diabetic-diet-a-reanalysis-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#2
David J A Jenkins, Cyril W C Kendall, Benoît Lamarche, Monica S Banach, Korbua Srichaikul, Edward Vidgen, Sandy Mitchell, Tina Parker, Stephanie Nishi, Balachandran Bashyam, Russell J de Souza, Christopher Ireland, Sathish C Pichika, Joseph Beyene, John L Sievenpiper, Robert G Josse
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In line with current advice, we assessed the effect of replacing carbohydrate consumption with mixed nut consumption, as a source of unsaturated fat, on cardiovascular risk factors and HbA1c in type 2 diabetes. The data presented here are from a paper that was retracted at the authors' request ( https://doi.org/10.2337/dc16-rt02 ) owing to lack of adjustment for repeated measures in the same individual. Our aim, therefore, was to fix the error and add new complementary data of interest, including information on clotting factors and LDL particle size...
May 23, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789212/fibrates-in-primary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease-comments-on-the-results-of-a-systematic-review-of-the-cochrane-collaboration
#3
Angel Brea, Jesús Millán, Juan F Ascaso, Mariano Blasco, Angel Díaz, Antonio Hernández-Mijares, Teresa Mantilla, Juan C Pedro-Botet, Xavier Pintó
Fibrates are drugs that reduce triglycerides, elevate high-density lipoproteins, as well as decrease small, dense LDL particles. The results of a study have recently been published by the Cochrane Collaboration on fibrates efficacy and safety in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. This study includes a systematic review and a meta-analysis of 6 studies (16,135 patients) that evaluated the clinical benefits of fibrates compared to placebo use or other lipid-lowering drugs. This review showed evidence of a protective effect of the fibrates compared with placebo as regards a reduction 16% of a compound objective of death due to cardiovascular disease, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or non-fatal cerebrovascular accident (NNT: 112), and that reduce coronary morbidity and mortality by 21% (NNT: 125)...
May 19, 2018: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775461/effects-of-aerobic-training-with-and-without-weight-loss-on-insulin-sensitivity-and-lipids
#4
Damon L Swift, Joseph A Houmard, Cris A Slentz, William E Kraus
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of exercise training with modest or greater weight loss (≥3%) or not (<3%) on insulin sensitivity, lipoprotein concentrations, and lipoprotein particle size in overweight and obese participants. METHODS: Adults (N = 163, body mass index: 25-37 [kg/m2]) participated in 8 months of exercise training. Insulin sensitivity, lipid concentrations, lipid particle size and other cardiometabolic variables were measured at baseline and follow-up...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772531/effects-of-oxidized-lipids-and-lipoproteins-on-cardiac-function
#5
Tahar Hajri
Oxidative modifications of lipids and lipoproteins have long been linked to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis and coronary disease. Furthermore, overwhelming evidence indicate that oxidized lipids are also associated with myocardial dysfunction and cardiomyopathy. Oxidized lipid derivatives are generated by enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions with unsaturated lipids in the cell and foods. In addition, blood LDL particles are prone to oxidation leading to the formation of oxidized LDL (oxLDL), which is often associated with obesity, diabetes and metabolic disease...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760220/quantifying-atherogenic-lipoproteins-current-and-future-challenges-in-the-era-of-personalized-medicine-and-vldl-cholesterol-a-consensus-statement-from-eas-and-eflm
#6
Michel R Langlois, M John Chapman, Christa Cobbaert, Samia Mora, Alan T Remaley, Emilio Ros, Gerald F Watts, Jan Borén, Hannsjörg Baum, Eric Bruckert, Alberico Catapano, Olivier S Descamps, Arnold von Eckardstein, Pia R Kamstrup, Genovefa Kolovou, Florian Kronenberg, Anne Langsted, Kari Pulkki, Nader Rifai, Grazyna Sypniewska, Olov Wiklund, B Rge G Nordestgaard
BACKGROUND: The European Atherosclerosis Society-European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine Consensus Panel aims to provide recommendations to optimize atherogenic lipoprotein quantification for cardiovascular risk management. CONTENT: We critically examined LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B (apoB), and LDL particle number assays based on key criteria for medical application of biomarkers. ( a ) Analytical performance: Discordant LDL cholesterol quantification occurs when LDL cholesterol is measured or calculated with different assays, especially in patients with hypertriglyceridemia >175 mg/dL (2 mmol/L) and low LDL cholesterol concentrations <70 mg/dL (1...
May 14, 2018: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756771/resolution-of-lipoprotein-subclasses-by-charge-detection-mass-spectrometry
#7
Corinne A Lutomski, Scott M Gordon, Alan T Remaley, Martin F Jarrold
Lipoproteins are micelle-like assemblies that are key players in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. High-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) are the three major classes present in fasting plasma. Within each class, there is a broad size distribution with wide variations in protein and lipid content. The development of better metrics for cardiovascular risk is thought to depend on better characterization of lipoprotein subclasses. Using charge detection mass spectrometry (CDMS), the mass distributions of HDL, LDL, and VLDL have been directly measured for the first time...
May 14, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747696/oxidative-modifications-of-foetal-ldl-c-and-hdl-c-lipoproteins-in-preeclampsia
#8
G León-Reyes, S Espino Y Sosa, R Medina-Navarro, A M Guzmán-Grenfell, A X Medina-Urrutia, S Fuentes-García, G J J Hicks, Y D Torres-Ramos
BACKGROUND: Oxidative modifications have been observed in lipids and proteins in lipoproteins isolated from women with preeclampsia. Thus, newborns could also be susceptible to this damage directly through their mothers. In this study, we evaluated the oxidative profile of LDL-c and HDL-c lipoproteins isolated from the umbilical cord from newborns born to women with preeclampsia. METHODS: Thirty newborns born to women with preeclampsia and thirty newborns born to women with healthy pregnancies were included...
May 10, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737015/therapeutic-agents-targeting-cardiometabolic-risk-for-preventing-and-treating-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-diseases
#9
Benoit J Arsenault, Nicolas Perrot, Rishi Puri
Targeting atherogenic lipoprotein levels with statins remains the current cornerstone of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD) management. In patients at high ACVD risk who cannot achieve the desired low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol target, the addition of compounds such as ezetimibe and proprotein subtilisin/kexin type-9 (PCSK9) inhibitors incrementally lowers cardiovascular risk. New glucose-lowering drugs such as glucacon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1R) agonists and sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors were also shown to improve cardiometabolic risk factors and provide cardiovascular benefits in patients with type 2 diabetes...
May 8, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712560/cardiovascular-disease-risk-factor-responses-to-a-type-2-diabetes-care-model-including-nutritional-ketosis-induced-by-sustained-carbohydrate-restriction-at-1-year-an-open-label-non-randomized-controlled-study
#10
Nasir H Bhanpuri, Sarah J Hallberg, Paul T Williams, Amy L McKenzie, Kevin D Ballard, Wayne W Campbell, James P McCarter, Stephen D Phinney, Jeff S Volek
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). We recently reported that glycemic control in patients with T2D can be significantly improved through a continuous care intervention (CCI) including nutritional ketosis. The purpose of this study was to examine CVD risk factors in this cohort. METHODS: We investigated CVD risk factors in patients with T2D who participated in a 1 year open label, non-randomized, controlled study...
May 1, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709480/effects-of-enzymes-on-elastic-modulus-of-low-density-lipoproteins-were-investigated-using-atomic-force-microscopy
#11
Seiji Takeda, Toshihiro Sakurai, Shu-Ping Hui, Hirotoshi Fuda, Hitoshi Chiba
Oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) induces development of cardiovascular disease. Recently, reports of studies using atomic force microscopy (AFM) have described that the elastic modulus of metal-induced oxidized LDLs is lower than the modulus before oxidation. However, the mechanisms of change of the elastic modulus have not been well investigated. We postulated that disorder of the LDL structure might decrease the elastic modulus. This study measured the elastic modulus of LDLs before and after enzyme treatment with V8 protease, α-chymotrypsin, and phospholipase A2 ...
April 27, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709185/phosphorescence-kinetics-of-singlet-oxygen-produced-by-photosensitization-in-spherical-nano-particles-part-ii-the-case-of-hypericin-loaded-ldl-particles
#12
Shubhashis Datta, Andrej Hovan, Annamária Jutkova, Sergei G Kruglik, Daniel Jancura, Pavol Miskovsky, Gregor Bano
The phosphorescence kinetics of singlet oxygen produced by photosensitized hypericin (Hyp) molecules inside low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles was studied experimentally and by means of numerical and analytical modelling. The phosphorescence signal was measured after short laser pulse irradiation of aqueous Hyp/LDL solutions. The Hyp triplet state lifetime determined by a laser flash-photolysis measurement was 5.3×10-6 s. The numerical and the analytical model described in Part-I of the present work were used to analyze the observed phosphorescence kinetics of singlet oxygen...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703634/human-mast-cell-neutral-proteases-generate-modified-ldl-particles-with-increased-proteoglycan-binding
#13
Katariina Maaninka, Su Duy Nguyen, Mikko I Mäyränpää, Riia Plihtari, Kristiina Rajamäki, Perttu J Lindsberg, Petri T Kovanen, Katariina Öörni
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Subendothelial interaction of LDL with extracellular matrix drives atherogenesis. This interaction can be strengthened by proteolytic modification of LDL. Mast cells (MCs) are present in atherosclerotic lesions, and upon activation, they degranulate and release a variety of neutral proteases. Here we studied the ability of MC proteases to cleave apoB-100 of LDL and affect the binding of LDL to proteoglycans. METHODS: Mature human MCs were differentiated from human peripheral blood-derived CD34+ progenitors in vitro and activated with calcium ionophore to generate MC-conditioned medium...
April 13, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694831/atorvastatin-in-nano-particulate-formulation-abates-muscle-and-liver-affliction-when-coalesced-with-coenzyme-q10-and-or-vitamin-e-in-hyperlipidemic-rats
#14
S M Farrag, M A Hamzawy, M F El-Yamany, M A Saad, N N Nassar
AIMS: Statins are the most widely used to lower elevated low-density lipoprotein levels and preventing cardiovascular diseases in humans. However, about 20% of patients treated with this medication suffer from statin-related myalgia. To this end, this study investigated the potential effect of nano-particulate formulation in alleviating the muscles and liver damage either alone or when co-administered with nano coenzyme Q10 and nano vitamin E. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats were fed normal diet or high-fat diet for 12 weeks, following which rats were treated with either (i) atorvastatin (5 or 20 mg/kg/day, p...
April 22, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677628/circulating-metabolomic-profile-can-predict-dyslipidemia-in-hiv-patients-undergoing-antiretroviral-therapy
#15
Esther Rodríguez-Gallego, Josep Gómez, Pere Domingo, Sara Ferrando-Martínez, Joaquim Peraire, Consuelo Viladés, Sergi Veloso, Miguel López-Dupla, Raúl Beltrán-Debón, Verónica Alba, Montserrat Vargas, Alfonso J Castellano, Manuel Leal, Yolanda María Pacheco, Ezequiel Ruiz-Mateos, Félix Gutiérrez, Francesc Vidal, Anna Rull
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Dyslipidemia in HIV-infected patients is unique and pathophysiologically associated with host factors, HIV itself and the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). The use of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) provides additional data to conventional lipid measurements concerning the number of lipoprotein subclasses and particle sizes. METHODS: To investigate the ability of lipoprotein profile, we used a circulating metabolomic approach in a cohort of 103 ART-naive HIV-infected patients, who were initiating non-nucleoside analogue transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based ART, and we subsequently followed up these patients for 36 months...
April 9, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668255/differential-recognition-of-nanoparticle-protein-corona-and-modified-low-density-lipoprotein-by-macrophage-receptor-with-collagenous-structure
#16
Sandra Lara, André Perez-Potti, Luciana M Herda, Laurent Adumeau, Kenneth A Dawson, Yan Yan
Key practical challenges such as to understand the immunological processes at the nanoscale, and to control the targeting and accumulation of nano-objects in vivo now further stimulate efforts to underpin phenomenological knowledge of the nanoscale with more mechanistic and molecular insight. Thus, the question as to what constitutes nanoscale biological identity continues to evolve. Certainly nanoparticles in contact with complex biological milieu develop a biological identity, differing from the original nanomaterial, now referred to as the 'biomolecular corona'...
April 18, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663823/would-janus-view-on-hdl-be-useful
#17
M Kasko, V Kasko, S Oravec
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is generally considered to be pro-atherogenic and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) to be anti-atherogenic. The clinical approach to the diagnostics and treatment of clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis is the examination of the lipid spectrum. In routine clinical practice, the effects of the HDL class are measured only by determining the concentration of HDL cholesterol. It is questionable whether this clinical approach provides sufficient information to evaluate both the overall cardiovascular risk and the effect of hypolipidemic therapy...
2018: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663407/ground-beef-high-in-total-fat-and-saturated-fatty-acids-decreases-x-receptor-signaling-targets-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-of-men-and-women
#18
Seong H Choi, Ghazal Gharahmany, Rosemary L Walzem, Thomas H Meade, Stephen B Smith
We hypothesized that consumption of saturated fatty acids in the form of high-fat ground beef for 5 weeks would depress liver X receptor signaling targets in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and that changes in gene expression would be associated with the corresponding changes in lipoprotein cholesterol (C) concentrations. Older men (n = 5, age 68.0 ± 4.6 years) and postmenopausal women (n = 7, age 60.9 ± 3.1 years) were assigned randomly to consume ground-beef containing 18% total fat (18F) or 25% total fat (25F), five patties per week for 5 weeks with an intervening 4-week washout period...
March 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656494/oxidized-ldl-phagocytosis-during-foam-cell-formation-in-atherosclerotic-plaques-relies-on-a-pld2-cd36-functional-interdependence
#19
Ramya Ganesan, Karen M Henkels, Lucile E Wrenshall, Yasunori Kanaho, Gilbert Di Paolo, Michael A Frohman, Julian Gomez-Cambronero
The uptake of cholesterol carried by low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is tightly controlled in the body. Macrophages are not well suited to counteract the cellular consequences of excess cholesterol leading to their transformation into "foam cells," an early step in vascular plaque formation. We have uncovered and characterized a novel mechanism involving phospholipase D (PLD) in foam cell formation. Utilizing bone marrow-derived macrophages from genetically PLD deficient mice, we demonstrate that PLD2 (but not PLD1)-null macrophages cannot fully phagocytose aggregated oxidized LDL (Agg-Ox-LDL), which was phenocopied with a PLD2-selective inhibitor...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628368/sebelipase-alfa-improves-atherogenic-biomarkers-in-adults-and-children-with-lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficiency
#20
Don P Wilson, Mark Friedman, Sachin Marulkar, Tyler Hamby, Eric Bruckert
BACKGROUND: Measures of atherogenic cholesterol, with and without concomitant use of lipid-lowering medications (LLMs), are reported with up to 52 weeks of sebelipase alfa treatment in children and adults with lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LAL-D) participating in the phase 3 Acid Lipase Replacement Investigating Safety and Efficacy study (NCT01757184). OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of sebelipase alfa on levels of atherogenic biomarkers in the Acid Lipase Replacement Investigating Safety and Efficacy study...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
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