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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336935/update-on-the-laboratory-investigation-of-dyslipidemias
#1
REVIEW
I Ramasamy
The role of the clinical laboratory is evolving to provide more information to clinicians to assess cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and target therapy more effectively. Current routine methods to measure LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), the Friedewald calculation, ultracentrifugation, electrophoresis and homogeneous direct methods have established limitations. Studies suggest that LDL and HDL size or particle concentration are alternative methods to predict future CVD risk. At this time there is no consensus role for lipoprotein particle or subclasses in CVD risk assessment...
January 11, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331380/eicosapentaenoic-acid-inhibits-oxidation-of-high-density-lipoprotein-particles-in-a-manner-distinct-from-docosahexaenoic-acid
#2
Samuel C R Sherratt, R Preston Mason
The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) reduces oxidation of ApoB-containing particles in vitro and in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. EPA may produce these effects through a potent antioxidant mechanism, which may facilitate LDL clearance and slow plaque progression. We hypothesize that EPA antioxidant effects may extend to ApoA-containing particles like HDL, potentially preserving certain atheroprotective functions. HDL was isolated from human plasma and incubated at 37 °C in the absence (vehicle) or presence of EPA and/or DHA; 5...
January 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324459/discordance-between-lipoprotein-particle-number-and-cholesterol-content-an-update
#3
Eric P Cantey, John T Wilkins
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The cholesterol content within atherogenic apolipoprotein-B (apoB) containing lipid particles is the center of consensus guidelines and clinicians' focus whenever evaluating a patient's risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The pathobiology of atherosclerosis requires the retention of lipoprotein particles within the vascular intima over time followed by maladaptive inflammation resulting in plaque formation and rupture in some. The cholesterol content is widely variable within each particle creating either cholesterol-deplete or cholesterol-enriched particles...
January 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324056/cardiopulmonary-effects-induced-by-occupational-exposure-to-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles
#4
Lin Zhao, Yifang Zhu, Zhangjian Chen, Huadong Xu, Jingwen Zhou, Shichuan Tang, Zhizhen Xu, Fanling Kong, Xinwei Li, Yifei Zhang, Xianzuo Li, Ji Zhang, Guang Jia
Although some toxicological studies have reported that exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) may elicit adverse cardiopulmonary effects, related data collected from human are currently limited. The purpose of this study is to explore cardiopulmonary effects among workers who were exposed to nano-TiO2 and to identify biomarkers associated with exposure. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a nano-TiO2 manufacturing plant in eastern China. Exposure assessment and characterization of TiO2 particles were performed in a packaging workshop...
January 11, 2018: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321013/hemoglobin-level-and-lipoprotein-particle-size
#5
Päivi Hämäläinen, Juha Saltevo, Hannu Kautiainen, Pekka Mäntyselkä, Mauno Vanhala
BACKGROUND: Alterations in lipoprotein size are associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. Higher hemoglobin levels may indicate a higher risk of atherosclerosis and was previously associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance. No previous studies have investigated an association between hemoglobin concentration and lipoprotein particle size. METHODS: We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study of 766 Caucasian, middle-aged subjects (341 men and 425 women) born in Pieksämäki, Finland, who were categorized into five age groups...
January 10, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320971/the-effect-of-nutritional-intervention-on-the-lipid-profile-and-dietary-intake-of-adolescents-with-juvenile-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
S G L da Silva, M T Terreri, T T O Abad, D Machado, F L A Fonseca, S Hix, F I Suano-Souza, R O S Sarni, C A Len
Objective This study sought to evaluate the effects of a nutritional intervention on the lipid metabolism biomarkers associated with cardiovascular risk, and their variation over time, in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) patients. This study also investigated the relationships between these biomarkers and dietary intake, nutritional status, disease variables, and medication used. Methods A total of 31 10- to 19-year-old female adolescents with JSLE for at least six months were analyzed. The participants were randomly allocated to two groups: nutritional intervention or control...
January 1, 2018: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319258/familial-lecithin-cholesterol-acyl-transferase-deficiency-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#7
N Gopalakrishnan, R Arul, J Dhanapriya, T Dinesh Kumar, R Sakthirajan, T Balasubramaniyan
Familial lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive (AR) disease caused by mutation in the LCAT gene. LCAT enzyme esterifies cholesterol molecules in high-density lipoprotein(HDL) and low density-lipoprotein (LDL) particles. This enzyme deficiency is characterised by progressive corneal opacification, glomerulopathy, mild - moderate haemolytic anaemia and very low plasma levels of HDL. We here report a 34 year-old lady who presented with hypertension, nephrotic proteinuria, renal failure, corneal ring opacities, anemia and dyslipidemia...
October 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317346/protein-corona-and-phospholipase-activity-drive-selective-accumulation-of-nanomicelles-in-atherosclerotic-plaques
#8
Ana V Lechuga-Vieco, Hugo Groult, Juan Pellico, Jesús Mateo, Jose A Enríquez, Jesús Ruiz-Cabello, Fernando Herranz
ApoB-100 and Phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) are important contributors to atherosclerosis development. ApoB-100 is the main structural protein of LDL, being directly associated with atherosclerosis plaque generation. PC-PLC is highly expressed in atherosclerosis lesions and contributes to their progression. We show how phosphatidylcholine-coated nanomicelles can be used for specific characterisation of atherosclerosis plaque. Results show that ApoB-100 in the protein corona of the nanomicelle targets the particles to atherosclerotic areas in apolipoprotein E-/- mice...
January 6, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316715/twelve-weeks-of-medium-intensity-exercise-therapy-affects-the-lipoprotein-profile-of-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#9
Winde Jorissen, Tim Vanmierlo, Inez Wens, Veerle Somers, Bart Van Wijmeersch, Jeroen F Bogie, Alan T Remaley, Bert O Eijnde, Jerome J A Hendriks
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory auto-immune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Serum glucose alterations and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are reported in MS patients, and are commonly associated with the development of cardio-metabolic co-morbidities. We previously found that a subgroup of MS patients shows alterations in their lipoprotein profile that are similar to a pre-cardiovascular risk profile. In addition, we showed that a high-intensity exercise training has a positive effect on IGT in MS patients...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313753/compared-to-an-oatmeal-breakfast-two-eggs-day-increased-plasma-carotenoids-and-choline-without-increasing-trimethyl-amine-n-oxide-concentrations
#10
Amanda Missimer, Maria Luz Fernandez, Diana M DiMarco, Gregory H Norris, Christopher N Blesso, Ana Gabriela Murillo, Marcela Vergara-Jimenez, Bruno S Lemos, Isabel Medina-Vera, Olga V Malysheva, Marie A Caudill
BACKGROUND: Habitual consumption of eggs has been hypothesized to positively modify biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk through proposed antioxidant properties. OBJECTIVES: To examine this relationship, 50 young, healthy men and women were enrolled into a randomized crossover clinical intervention. METHODS: Participants consumed either 2 eggs per day or one packet of oatmeal a day for 4 weeks, followed by a 3-week wash-out and crossed over to the alternate breakfast...
January 9, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307667/atherogenic-postprandial-remnant-lipoproteins-vldl-remnants-as-a-causal-factor-in-atherosclerosis
#11
REVIEW
Katsuyuki Nakajima, Akira Tanaka
Oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL) and chylomicron (CM) remnants have been suggested to be the most atherogenic lipoproteins that initiate and exacerbate coronary atherosclerosis. In this review, we propose a hypothesis of the causal lipoproteins in atherosclerosis based on our recent findings on postprandial remnant lipoproteins (RLP). Plasma RLP-C and RLP-TG increased significantly after food intake, especially a fat load. More than 80% of the TG increase after the fat load consisted of the TG in RLP, which contained significantly greater apoB100 than apoB48 particles as VLDL remnants...
January 4, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306242/associations-of-apgar-score-and-size-at-birth-with-lipoprotein-subclasses-in-juvenile-obesity
#12
Osama H. Bekhet, Jelena Vekic, Aleksandra Zeljkovic, Dusan Parıpovıc, Tamara Gojkovıc, Jelena Janac, Vesna Spasojevıc-Kalımanovska, Amira Peco-Antıc, Gordana Mılosevskı-Lomıc, Zorana Jelıc-Ivanovıc, Aleksandra Stefanovıc
Background/aim: Juvenile obesity is associated with several metabolic abnormalities, one of them being atherogenic dyslipidemia. Suboptimal fetal growth is associated with obesity risk in childhood, but also with increased rate of metabolic diseases in later life. This study investigated associations of neonatal data (Apgar score, birth weight and birth length) with low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein (LDL and HDL) subclasses in a group of obese children, as well as a possible impact of breastfeeding duration on obesity-associated lipoprotein subclasses distributions...
December 19, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304079/particle-number-analysis-of-lipoprotein-subclasses-by-gel-permeation-hplc-in-patients-with-cholesteryl-ester-transfer-protein-deficiency
#13
Takeshi Okada, Tohru Ohama, Mitsuyo Okazaki, Kotaro Kanno, Hibiki Matsuda, Masami Sairyo, Yinghong Zhu, Ayami Saga, Takuya Kobayashi, Daisaku Masuda, Masahiro Koseki, Makoto Nishida, Yasushi Sakata, Shizuya Yamashita
OBJECTIVE: We previously reported that patients with cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) deficiency (CETP-D) have a higher prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, in spite of increased HDL-C levels. However, characterization of HDL in CETP-D has not been well described. Therefore, we examined HDL particle number (PN) rather than HDL-C level. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Nine patients with CETP-D and 9 normolipidemic subjects were enrolled. We performed gel permeation high-performance liquid chromatography (GP-HPLC) analysis, determined the cholesterol and triglyceride composition of all lipoprotein subclasses, and calculated the PN of each subclass, which consisted of 3 VLDL (large, medium, and small), 4 LDL (large, medium, small, and very small), and 5 HDL (very large, large, medium, small, and very small) subclasses...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298487/low-density-lipoproteins-and-human-serum-albumin-as-the-carriers-of-squalenoylated-drugs-insights-from-molecular-simulations
#14
Semen O Yesylevskyy, Christophe Ramseyer, Mariia Savenko, Simona Mura, Patrick Couvreur
We have studied the interaction of three clinically promising squalenoylated drugs (gemcitabine-squalene, adenine-squalene and doxorubicin-squalene) with low-density lipoproteins (LDL) by means of atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. It is shown that all studied squalenoylated drugs accumulated inside the LDL particles. This effect is promoted by the squalene moiety, which acts as an anchor and drives the hydrophilic drugs into the hydrophobic core of the LDL lipid droplet. Our data suggest that LDL particles could be a universal carriers of squalenoylated drugs in the blood stream...
January 4, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286309/lowering-low-density-lipoprotein-particles-in-plasma-using-dextran-sulphate-co-precipitates-procoagulant-extracellular-vesicles
#15
Jiong-Wei Wang, Ya-Nan Zhang, Siu Kwan Sze, Sander M van de Weg, Flora Vernooij, Arjan H Schoneveld, Sock-Hwee Tan, Henri H Versteeg, Leo Timmers, Carolyn S P Lam, Dominique P V de Kleijn
Plasma extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid membrane vesicles involved in several biological processes including coagulation. Both coagulation and lipid metabolism are strongly associated with cardiovascular events. Lowering very-low- and low-density lipoprotein ((V)LDL) particles via dextran sulphate LDL apheresis also removes coagulation proteins. It remains unknown, however, how coagulation proteins are removed in apheresis. We hypothesize that plasma EVs that contain high levels of coagulation proteins are concomitantly removed with (V)LDL particles by dextran sulphate apheresis...
December 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283060/effects-of-high-intensity-statin-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-diabetic-dyslipidemia-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#16
Marija Vavlukis, Sasko Kedev
BACKGROUND: Diabetic dyslipidemia has specifics that differ from dyslipidemia in patients without diabetes, which contributes to accelerated atherosclerosis equally as dysglycemia. The aim of this study was to deduce the interdependence of diabetic dyslipidemia and cardiovascular diseases (CVD), therapeutic strategies and the risk of diabetes development with statin therapy. METHOD: We conducted a literature review of English articles through PubMed, PubMed Central and Cochrane, on the role of diabetic dyslipidemia in atherosclerosis, the antilipemic treatment with statins, and the role of statin therapy in newly developed diabetes, by using key words: atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, diabetic dyslipidemia, CVD, statins, nicotinic acid, fibrates, PCSK9 inhibitors...
December 27, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280761/a-baseline-metabolomic-signature-is-associated-with-immunological-cd4-t-cell-recovery-after-36-months-of-art-in-hiv-infected-patients
#17
Esther Rodríguez-Gallego, Josep Gómez, Yolanda María Pacheco, Joaquim Peraire, Consuelo Viladés, Raúl Beltrán-Debón, Roger Mallol, Miguel López-Dupla, Sergi Veloso, Verónica Alba, Julià Blanco, Nicolau Cañellas, Anna Rull, Manuel Leal, Xavier Correig, Pere Domingo, Francesc Vidal
OBJECTIVES: Poor immunological recovery in treated HIV-infected patients is associated with greater morbidity and mortality. To date, predictive biomarkers of this incomplete immune reconstitution have not been established. We aimed to identify a baseline metabolomic signature associated with a poor immunological recovery after ART in order to envisage the underlying mechanistic pathways that influence the treatment response. DESIGN: This was a multi-centre, prospective cohort study in ART-naïve and a pre-ART low nadir (<200 cells/μl) HIV-infected patients (n = 64)...
December 26, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273220/simulation-of-low-density-lipoprotein-ldl-permeation-into-multilayer-coronary-arterial-wall-interactive-effects-of-wall-shear-stress-and-fluid-structure-interaction-in-hypertension
#18
Mehrdad Roustaei, Mohammad Reza Nikmaneshi, Bahar Firoozabadi
Due to increased atherosclerosis-caused mortality, identification of its genesis and development is of great importance. Although, key factors of the origin of the disease is still unknown, it is widely believed that cholesterol particle penetration and accumulation in arterial wall is mainly responsible for further wall thickening and decreased rate of blood flow during a gradual progression. To date, various effective components are recognized whose simultaneous consideration would lead to a more accurate approximation of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) distribution within the wall...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260404/new-treatment-options-for-lipid-lowering-therapy-in-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes
#19
Roberto Scicali, Antonino Di Pino, Viviana Ferrara, Francesca Urbano, Salvatore Piro, Agata Maria Rabuazzo, Francesco Purrello
Dyslipidemias represent a variety of quantitative and/or qualitative lipoprotein abnormalities. According to etiology, we distinguish primary dyslipidemias with strictly genetic background and secondary ones with their origin in other disease or pathological states. Diabetic dyslipidemia is a type of secondary dyslipidemia and plays an important role in determining the cardiovascular risk of subjects with type 2 diabetes. In these patients, insulin resistance is responsible for overproduction and secretion of atherogenic very low density lipoprotein...
December 19, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260378/%C3%AF-3-fatty-acid-synergized-novel-nanoemulsifying-system-for-rosuvastatin-delivery-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation
#20
Chandra Bhushan Tripathi, Neha Gupta, Pranesh Kumar, Ashok Kumar Singh, Vinit Raj, Poonam Parashar, Mahendra Singh, Jovita Kanoujia, Malti Arya, Shubhini A Saraf, Sudipta Saha
The present study was undertaken to improve rosuvastatin (RSV) bioavailability and pharmacological response through formation of SNES using Perilla frutescens oil as lipid carrier. The composition of oil was estimated by fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis using gas chromatography. Solubility of RSV in Perilla frutescens oil and Cremophor EL was 25.0 ± 3.0 and 60.0 ± 5.0 mg/mL, respectively. Later, nanophasic maps and a central composite design were employed to determine the maximum nanoemulsion region and further optimize SNES in this study...
December 19, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
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