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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808191/shunts-channels-and-lipoprotein-endosomal-traffic-a-new-model-of-cholesterol-homeostasis-in-the-hepatocyte
#1
Robert Scott Kiss, Allan Sniderman
The liver directs cholesterol metabolism in the organism. All the major fluxes of cholesterol within the body involve the liver: dietary cholesterol is directed to the liver; cholesterol from peripheral cells goes to the liver; the liver is a major site of cholesterol synthesis for the organism; cholesterol is secreted from the liver within the bile, within apoB lipoproteins and translocated to nascent HDL. The conventional model of cholesterol homeostasis posits that cholesterol from any source enters a common, rapidly exchangeable pool within the cell, which is in equilibrium with a regulatory pool...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754439/myocardial-blood-flow-reserve-is-impaired-in-patients-with-aortic-valve-calcification-and-unobstructed-epicardial-coronary-arteries
#2
Karen Nel, Michael C Y Nam, Chris Anstey, Christopher J Boos, Edward Carlton, Roxy Senior, Juan Carlos Kaski, Ahmed Khattab, Delva Shamley, Christopher D Byrne, Tony Stanton, Kim Greaves
BACKGROUND: Although calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is associated with coronary atherosclerosis, it is not known whether early CAVD is associated with coronary microcirculatory dysfunction (CMD). We sought to investigate the relationship between myocardial blood flow reserve (MBFR) - a measure of CMD, and early CAVD in the absence of obstructive epicardial coronary artery disease. We also determined whether this relationship was independent of coronary artery disease (CAD) and hs-CRP, a marker of systemic inflammation...
June 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751953/pcsk9-and-carbohydrate-metabolism-a-double-edged-sword
#3
EDITORIAL
Theodosios D Filippatos, Sebastian Filippas-Ntekouan, Eleni Pappa, Thalia Panagiotopoulou, Vasilios Tsimihodimos, Moses S Elisaf
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) plays a paramount role in the degradation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors (LDLR) on the hepatic cells surface and subsequently affects LDL particles catabolism and LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) levels. The anti-PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies lead to substantial decrease of LDL-c concentration. PCSK9 (which is also expressed in pancreatic delta-cells) can decrease LDLR and subsequently decrease cholesterol accumulation in pancreatic beta-cells, which impairs glucose metabolism and reduces insulin secretion...
July 15, 2017: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751001/effect-of-tofacitinib-on-lipid-levels-and-lipid-related-parameters-in-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-psoriasis
#4
Robert Wolk, Ehrin J Armstrong, Peter R Hansen, Bruce Thiers, Shuping Lan, Anna M Tallman, Mandeep Kaur, Svitlana Tatulych
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a systemic inflammatory disease associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) risk and altered lipid metabolism. Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of tofacitinib on traditional and nontraditional lipid parameters and CV risk markers in patients with psoriasis from a phase III study, OPT Pivotal 1. METHODS: Patients with psoriasis were randomized to tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg twice daily (BID) or placebo BID...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742600/cholesterol-reduction-and-macrophage-function-role-of-paraoxonases
#5
C Roger White, G M Anantharamaiah
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Unregulated uptake of oxidized LDL by macrophages to form foam cells is the hallmark for atherosclerosis. The paraoxonase (PON) family of enzymes plays a critical role in attenuating atherosclerotic lesion formation by hydrolyzing lipid peroxides (LOOHs) and preventing the oxidation of LDL particles and by enhancing HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux. Findings in recent years suggest novel mechanisms by which PON isoforms interact with macrophages to regulate cholesterol metabolism and cellular function...
July 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739055/dietary-fatty-acids-were-not-independently-associated-with-lipoprotein-subclasses-in-elderly-women
#6
Fatemeh Ramezan Alaghehband, Maria Lankinen, Miika Värri, Joonas Sirola, Heikki Kröger, Arja T Erkkilä
Dietary fatty acids are known to affect serum lipoproteins; however, little is known about the associations between consumption of dietary fatty acids and lipoprotein subclasses. In this study, we hypothesized that there is an association between dietary fatty acids and lipoprotein subclasses and investigated the cross-sectional association of dietary fat intake with subclasses of lipoproteins in elderly women. Altogether, 547 women (aged ≥65 years) who were part of OSTPRE cohort participated. Dietary intake was assessed by 3-day food records, lifestyle, and health information obtained through self-administrated questionnaires, and lipoprotein subclasses were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
July 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733727/low-density-lipoproteins-investigated-under-high-hydrostatic-pressure-by-elastic-incoherent-neutron-scattering
#7
J Peters, N Martinez, B Lehofer, R Prassl
Human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is a highly complex nano-particle built up of various lipid classes and a single large protein moiety (apoB-100) owning essential physiological functions in the human body. Besides its vital role as a supplier of cholesterol and fat for peripheral tissues and cells, it is also a known key player in the formation of atherosclerosis. Due to these important roles in physiology and pathology the elucidation of structural and dynamical details is of great interest. In the current study we drew a broader picture of LDL dynamics using elastic incoherent neutron scattering (EINS) as a function of specified temperature and pressure points...
July 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733430/atherogenic-lipoprotein-determinants-of-cardiovascular-disease-and-residual-risk-among-individuals-with-low-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol
#8
Patrick R Lawler, Akintunde O Akinkuolie, Audrey Y Chu, Svati H Shah, William E Kraus, Damian Craig, Latha Padmanabhan, Robert J Glynn, Paul M Ridker, Daniel I Chasman, Samia Mora
BACKGROUND: Levels of LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol in the population are declining, and increasing attention is being focused on residual lipid-related pathways of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk beyond LDL cholesterol. Among individuals with low (<130 mg/dL) LDL cholesterol, we undertook detailed profiling of circulating atherogenic lipoproteins in relation to incident cardiovascular disease in 2 populations. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to quantify concentrations of LDL and VLDL (very low-density lipoprotein) particle subclasses in 11 984 JUPITER trial participants (NCT00239681)...
July 21, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728064/ldl-subfractions-are-associated-with-incident-cardiovascular-disease-in-the-malm%C3%A3-prevention-project-study
#9
Dov Shiffman, Judy Z Louie, Michael P Caulfield, Peter M Nilsson, James J Devlin, Olle Melander
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: After assessing the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) based on traditional risk factors, decisions concerning lipid lowering therapy might remain uncertain. To investigate whether lipoprotein subfraction levels could aid these decisions, we assessed the association between lipoprotein subfractions and CVD, after adjustment for traditional risk factors including standard lipids. METHODS: Using a case-cohort design, participants were randomly drawn from the Malmö Prevention Project (MPP), a population-based prospective study of 18,240 participants, and supplemented with additional incident CVD events (5764 participants, 1784 CVD events)...
July 5, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716185/pitavastatin-and-hdl-effects-on-plasma-levels-and-function-s
#10
REVIEW
Angela Pirillo, Alberico L Catapano
Low high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels represent an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease; in addition to the reduced HDL-C levels commonly observed in patients at cardiovascular risk, the presence of dysfunctional HDL, i.e. HDL with reduced atheroprotective properties, has been reported. Despite the established inverse correlation between HDL-C levels and cardiovascular risk, several clinical trials with HDL-C-increasing drugs (such as niacin, CETP inhibitors or fibrate) failed to demonstrate that a significant rise in HDL-C levels translate into a cardiovascular benefit...
July 2017: Atherosclerosis. Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692480/association-of-plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1-and-low-density-lipoprotein-heterogeneity-as-a-risk-factor-of-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease-with-triglyceride-metabolic-disorder-a-pilot-cross-sectional-study
#11
Kiyoshi Iida, Shigemasa Tani, Wataru Atsumi, Tsukasa Yagi, Kenji Kawauchi, Naoya Matsumoto, Atsushi Hirayama
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that an increase in plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) might reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle size in conjunction with triglyceride (TG) metabolism disorder, resulting in an increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). METHODS: This study was carried out as a hospital-based cross-sectional study in 537 consecutive outpatients (mean age: 64 years; men: 71%) with one or more risk factors for ASCVD from April 2014 to October 2014 at the Cardiovascular Center of Nihon University Surugadai Hospital...
July 7, 2017: Coronary Artery Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692288/toward-reliable-lipoprotein-particle-predictions-from-nmr-spectra-of-human-blood-an-interlaboratory-ring-test
#12
Sandra Monsonis Centelles, Huub C J Hoefsloot, Bekzod Khakimov, Parvaneh Ebrahimi, Mads V Lind, Mette Kristensen, Niels de Roo, Doris M Jacobs, John van Duynhoven, Claire Cannet, Fang Fang, Eberhard Humpfer, Hartmut Schäfer, Manfred Spraul, Søren B Engelsen, Age K Smilde
Lipoprotein profiling of human blood by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a rapid and promising approach to monitor health and disease states in medicine and nutrition. However, lack of standardization of measurement protocols has prevented the use of NMR-based lipoprotein profiling in metastudies. In this study, a standardized NMR measurement protocol was applied in a ring test performed across three different laboratories in Europe on plasma and serum samples from 28 individuals. Data was evaluated in terms of (i) spectral differences, (ii) differences in LPD predictions obtained using an existing prediction model, and (iii) agreement of predictions with cholesterol concentrations in high- and low-density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL) particles measured by standardized clinical assays...
August 1, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682864/characterization-of-lipid-profile-by-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-1h-nmr-of-metabolically-healthy-obese-women-after-weight-loss-with-mediterranean-diet-and-physical-exercise
#13
Enrique Rodriguez-Garcia, Josefina Ruiz-Nava, Sonia Santamaria-Fernandez, Jose Carlos Fernandez-Garcia, Antonio Vargas-Candela, Raquel Yahyaoui, Francisco J Tinahones, Maria Rosa Bernal-Lopez, Ricardo Gomez-Huelgas
Obesity is associated with an atherogenic lipid profile. No data exists on lipoprotein particle profiles in metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individuals. Our aim is to characterize lipoprotein size, particle, and subclass concentrations in MHO women after 3 months of weight loss through dietary restriction and physical exercise.A total of 115 nondiabetic women (aged 35-55 years) with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 to 40 kg/m and ≤1 of the following criteria: blood pressure ≤135/85 mm Hg, fasting plasma glucose ≤100 mg/dL, HDL-cholesterol ≤50 mg/dL, and triglycerides ≤150 mg/dL were included...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682808/protein-changes-in-non-ldl-lipoproteins-in-familial-hypercholesterolemia-implications-in-cardiovascular-disease-manifestation-and-outcome
#14
Lina Badimon, Teresa Padró, Judit Cubedo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Familial hypercholesterolemia, represents one of the most extreme clinical entities associated with premature coronary artery disease (CAD). However, clinical manifestation of CAD varies across cohorts and individual patients suggesting the existence of additional non-LDL factors potentially contributing to their cardiovascular burden. RECENT FINDINGS: Changes in HDL-associated proteins appear as one of the potential additional factors contributing to the cardiovascular risk in familial hypercholesterolemia...
July 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677496/metabolic-syndrome-dyslipidemia-and-regulation-of-lipoprotein-metabolism
#15
Jahangir Iqbal, Ali Al Qarni, Abbas Hawwari, Ahmad F Al Ghanem, Ahmed Gasmelseed
INTRODUCTION: Metabolic syndrome is associated with increased risk for both type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Development of these pathologies is associated with the disorders of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Dyslipidemia leads to the overproduction of potentially atherogenic lipid and lipoproteins. Furthermore, there is a decrease in the levels of high-density lipoproteins and an increase in the levels of remnant and small dense LDL particles. CONCLUSION: In the current review, we have discussed the pathophysiology of lipoprotein biosynthesis and metabolism in the metabolic syndrome...
July 5, 2017: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672042/syncytiotrophoblast-extracellular-vesicles-impair-rat-uterine-vascular-function-via-the-lectin-like-oxidized-ldl-receptor-1
#16
Floor Spaans, Cindy K Kao, Jude S Morton, Anita L Quon, Tatsuya Sawamura, Dionne S Tannetta, Ian L Sargent, Sandra T Davidge
Syncytiotrophoblast extracellular vesicles (STBEVs) are placenta derived particles that are released into the maternal circulation during pregnancy. Abnormal levels of STBEVs have been proposed to affect maternal vascular function. The lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is a multi-ligand scavenger receptor. Increased LOX-1 expression and activation has been proposed to contribute to endothelial dysfunction. As LOX-1 has various ligands, we hypothesized that, being essentially packages of lipoproteins, STBEVs are able to activate the LOX-1 receptor thereby impairing vascular function via the production of superoxide and decreased nitric oxide bioavailability...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671714/significant-differentiation-in-the-apolipoprotein-a-lipoprotein-a-trait-between-chimpanzees-from-western-and-central-africa
#17
Asma Noureen, Claudius Ronke, Mahmoud Khalifa, Michel Halbwax, Anne Fischer, Claudine André, Rebeca Atencia, Rosa Garriga, Lawrence Mugisha, Uta Ceglarek, Joachim Thiery, Gerd Utermann, Konrad Schmidt
Elevated Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) plasma concentrations are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in humans, largely controlled by the LPA gene encoding apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)). Lp(a) is composed of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and apo(a) and restricted to Catarrhini. A variable number of kringle IV (KIV) domains in LPA lead to a size polymorphism of apo(a) that is inversely correlated with Lp(a) concentrations. Smaller apo(a) isoforms and higher Lp(a) levels in central chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes [PTT]) compared to humans from Europe had been reported...
July 3, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652759/reference-values-assessment-in-a-mediterranean-population-for-small-dense-low-density-lipoprotein-concentration-isolated-by-an-optimized-precipitation-method
#18
Bárbara Fernández-Cidón, Ariadna Padró-Miquel, Pedro Alía-Ramos, María José Castro-Castro, Marta Fanlo-Maresma, Dolors Dot-Bach, José Valero-Politi, Xavier Pintó-Sala, Beatriz Candás-Estébanez
BACKGROUND: High serum concentrations of small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sd-LDL-c) particles are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Their clinical application has been hindered as a consequence of the laborious current method used for their quantification. OBJECTIVE: Optimize a simple and fast precipitation method to isolate sd-LDL particles and establish a reference interval in a Mediterranean population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-five serum samples were collected, and sd-LDL particles were isolated using a modified heparin-Mg(2+) precipitation method...
2017: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644829/swapping-the-n-and-c-terminal-domains-of-human-apolipoprotein-e3-and-ai-reveals-insights-into-their-structure-activity-relationship
#19
Mark T Lek, Siobanth Cruz, Nnejiuwa U Ibe, Wendy H J Beck, John K Bielicki, Paul M M Weers, Vasanthy Narayanaswami
Apolipoprotein (apo) E3 and apoAI are exchangeable apolipoproteins that play a dominant role in regulating plasma lipoprotein metabolism. ApoE3 (299 residues) is composed of an N-terminal (NT) domain bearing a 4-helix bundle and a C-terminal (CT) domain bearing a series of amphipathic α-helices. ApoAI (243 residues) also comprises a highly helical NT domain and a less structured CT tail. The objective of this study was to understand their structural and functional role by generating domain swapped chimeras: apoE3-NT/apoAI-CT and apoAI-NT/apoE-CT...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641428/liquid-liquid-phase-transition-in-an-ionic-model-of-silica
#20
Renjie Chen, Erik Lascaris, Jeremy C Palmer
Recent equation of state calculations [E. Lascaris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 125701 (2016)] for an ionic model of silica suggest that it undergoes a density-driven, liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) similar to the controversial transition hypothesized to exist in deeply supercooled water. Here, we perform extensive free energy calculations to scrutinize the model's low-temperature phase behavior and confirm the existence of a first-order phase transition between two liquids with identical compositions but different densities...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
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