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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637335/astrocyte-produced-mir-146a-as-a-mediator-of-motor-neuron-loss-in-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#1
Samantha L Sison, Teresa N Patitucci, Emily R Seminary, Eric Villalon, Christian L Lorson, Allison D Ebert
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), the leading genetic cause of infant mortality, is caused by loss of the survival motor neuron-1 (SMN1) gene, which leads to motor neuron loss, muscle atrophy, respiratory distress, and death. Motor neurons exhibit the most profound loss, but the mechanisms underlying disease pathogenesis are not fully understood. Recent evidence suggests that motor neuron extrinsic influences, such as those arising from astrocytes, contribute to motor neuron malfunction and loss. Here we investigated both loss-of-function and toxic gain-of-function astrocyte mechanisms that could play a role in SMA pathology...
June 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637315/attenuated-effects-of-bile-acids-on-glucose-metabolism-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-a-male-mouse-model-of-prenatal-undernutrition
#2
Huijuan Ma, Vicencia M Sales, Ashley R Wolf, Sathish Subramanian, Tucker J Matthews, Michael Chen, Aparna Sharma, Walt Gall, Wim Kulik, David E Cohen, Yusuke Adachi, Nicholas W Griffin, Jeffrey I Gordon, Mary-Elizabeth Patti, Elvira Isganaitis
Prenatal undernutrition and low birth weight are associated with risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Prenatal caloric restriction results in low birth weight, glucose intolerance, obesity, and reduced plasma bile acids (BA) in offspring mice. Since BAs can regulate systemic metabolism and glucose homeostasis, we hypothesized that BA supplementation could prevent diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance in this model of developmental programming. Pregnant dams were food restricted by 50% from gestational days 12...
June 15, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637313/trajectories-of-alcohol-use-disorders-and-their-differential-impact-a-population-based-cohort-study-in-goa-india
#3
Abhijit Nadkarni, Helen A Weiss, Bhargav Bhat, Vikram Patel
Aims: The aim of this study was to examine trajectories of Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD) over a 6 year period and compare the bio-psycho-social correlates between these trajectories. Methods: Community-based cohort of 1899 adult men were interviewed in 2006-2008 and 2012-2014. AUD were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, and potential correlates including psycho-social problems, morbidity and physiological parameters were measured at follow-up...
June 14, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637299/serological-investigation-of-mycoplasma-synoviae-infection-in-china-from-2010-to-2015
#4
J Xue, M Y Xu, Z J Ma, J Zhao, N Jin, G Z Zhang
Mycoplasma synoviae can cause worldwide respiratory diseases, synovitis, or subclinical symptoms in poultry. M. synoviae infection occurs throughout the yr and causes significant economic losses, including increased mortality, condemnations, medication, and live production cost. In the present study, the seroprevalence of M. synoviae among 44,395 non-vaccinated chickens from 21 provinces in China from 2010 to 2015 was estimated using ELISA. The overall seroprevalence was 41.19%. Seropositive rates in different yr ranged between 24...
June 15, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637295/inhibition-of-polyamine-synthesis-causes-entry-of-the-mouse-blastocyst-into-embryonic-diapause1
#5
Jane C Fenelon, Bruce D Murphy
Embryonic diapause is a common reproductive strategy amongst mammals, requiring an intimate cross-talk between the endometrium and the blastocyst. To date, the precise molecular signals responsible are unknown in the mouse or any other mammal. Previous studies in the mink implicate polyamines as major regulators of the control of diapause. In the mouse, inhibiting the rate-limiting enzyme of polyamine synthesis, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC1) during early pregnancy largely prevents implantation, but the fate of the non-implanted embryos is unknown...
June 16, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637260/associations-of-obesity-and-lifestyle-with-the-risk-and-mortality-of-bloodstream-infection-in-a-general-population-a-15-year-follow-up-of-64%C3%A2-027-individuals-in-the-hunt-study
#6
Julie Paulsen, Åsa Askim, Randi Marie Mohus, Arne Mehl, Andrew Dewan, Erik Solligård, Jan Kristian Damås, Bjørn O Åsvold
Background: Bloodstream infections (BSI) cause considerable morbidity and mortality, and primary prevention should be a priority. Lifestyle factors are of particular interest since they represent a modifiable target. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study among participants in the population-based Norwegian HUNT2 Survey, where 64 027 participants were followed from 1995-97 through 2011 by linkage to prospectively recorded information on BSI at local and regional hospitals...
June 15, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637219/preventing-occupational-injury-among-police-officers-does-motivation-matter
#7
D K C Chan, D Webb, R M Ryan, T C W Tang, S X Yang, N Ntoumanis, M S Hagger
Background: Injury prevention is an important issue for police officers, but the effectiveness of prevention initiatives is dependent on officers' motivation toward, and adherence to, recommended health and safety guidelines. Aims: To understand effects of police officers' motivation to prevent occupational injury on beliefs about safety and adherence to injury prevention behaviours. Methods: Full-time police officers completed a survey comprising validated psychometric scales to assess autonomous, controlled and amotivated forms of motivation (Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire), behavioural adherence (Self-reported Treatment Adherence Scale) and beliefs (Safety Attitude Questionnaire) with respect to injury prevention behaviours...
June 20, 2017: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637213/vaccination-to-prevent-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-diseases
#8
Ulrich Laufs, Brian A Ference
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 19, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637178/the-at04a-vaccine-against-proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-type-9-reduces-total-cholesterol-vascular-inflammation-and-atherosclerosis-in-apoe-3leiden-cetp-mice
#9
Christine Landlinger, Marianne G Pouwer, Claudia Juno, José W A van der Hoorn, Elsbet J Pieterman, J Wouter Jukema, Guenther Staffler, Hans M G Princen, Gergana Galabova
Aims: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) has emerged as a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of hypercholesterolaemia and atherosclerosis. PCSK9 binds to the low density lipoprotein receptor and enhances its degradation, which leads to the reduced clearance of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) and a higher risk of atherosclerosis. In this study, the AT04A anti-PCSK9 vaccine was evaluated for its therapeutic potential in ameliorating or even preventing coronary heart disease in the atherogenic APOE*3Leiden...
June 19, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637176/dissociation-of-striatal-dopamine-and-tyrosine-hydroxylase-expression-from-aging-related-motor-decline-evidence-from-calorie-restriction-intervention
#10
Michael F Salvatore, Jennifer Terrebonne, Mark A Cantu, Tamara R McInnis, Katy Venable, Parker Kelley, Ella A Kasanga, Brian Latimer, Catherine L Owens, Brandon S Pruett, Yongmei Yu, Robert Luedtke, Michael J Forster, Nathalie Sumien, Donald K Ingram
The escalating increase in retirees living beyond their 8th decade brings increased prevalence of aging-related impairments, including locomotor impairment (Parkinsonism) which may affect ~50% of those reaching age 80, but has no confirmed neurobiological mechanism. Lifestyle strategies that attenuate motor decline, and its allied mechanisms, must be identified. Aging studies report little to moderate loss of striatal dopamine (DA) or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in nigrostriatal terminals, in contrast to ~70-80% loss associated with bradykinesia onset in Parkinson's disease...
June 20, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637139/translation-cross-cultural-adaptation-and-validation-of-the-persian-version-of-coop-wonca-charts-in-persian-speaking-iranians-with-multiple-sclerosis
#11
Morteza Taghipour, Mahyar Salavati, Seyed Massood Nabavi, Behnam Akhbari, Ismail Ebrahimi Takamjani, Hossein Negahban, Fatemeh Rajabzadeh
PURPOSE: Translation, cross-culturally adaptation and validation of a Persian version of COOP/WONCA charts in Persian-speaking Iranians with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHOD: The Persian version of COOP/WONCA charts was developed after a standard forward translation, synthesis and backward translation. A total of 197 subjects with MS participated in this study. They were asked to complete the COOP/WONCA charts and Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36). The COOP/WONCA charts were re-administered to 50 patients, 4 weeks after the first session...
February 21, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637132/international-employee-perspectives-on-disability-management
#12
Shannon Wagner, Nicholas Buys, Ignatius Yu, Thomas Geisen, Henry Harder, Christine Randall, Alex Fraess-Phillips, Benedikt Hassler, Liz Scott, Karen Lo, Dan Tang, Caroline Howe
PURPOSE: To provide an international analysis of employees' views of the influence of disability management (DM) on the workplace. METHODOLOGY: An international research team with representation from Australia, Canada, China, and Switzerland collected survey data from employees in public and private companies in their respective regions. Due to lack of availability of current measures, a research team-created survey was used and a total of 1201 respondents were collected across the four countries...
February 7, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637120/is-tutobone-an-efficient-alternative-to-other-implants-used-in-anterior-cervical-discectomy-and-fusion-surgeries
#13
Savithru Kumar Prakash, Nitin Mukerji, Fredrik Prem Nath
BACKGROUND: The graft site morbidity following iliac crest harvesting is significant. To overcome this, different bone substitutes like coral dowels, solvent dissolved bovine/human bone substitutes, and carbon fiber/titanium cages have been used. This study was undertaken to assess the postoperative radiological fusion rates and symptom relief in patients who had Tutobone used as an interbody spacer compared to autologous bone graft (ABG), cages, surgibone and coral dowels. METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational study...
March 6, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637095/selective-cd28-blockade-results-in-superior-inhibition-of-donor-specific-t-follicular-helper-cell-and-antibody-responses-relative-to-ctla-4-ig
#14
I R Badell, G M La Muraglia, D Liu, M E Wagener, G Ding, M L Ford
Donor-specific antibodies (DSA) are a barrier to improved long-term outcomes following kidney transplantation. Costimulation blockade with CTLA-4-Ig has shown promise as a potential therapeutic strategy to control DSA. T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, a subset of CD4(+) T cells required for optimum antibody production, are reliant on the CD28 costimulatory pathway. We have previously shown that selective CD28 blockade leads to superior allograft survival through improved control of CD8(+) T cells relative to CTLA-4-Ig, but the impact of CD28-specific blockade on CD4(+) Tfh cells is unknown...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637093/intra-abdominal-cooling-system-limits-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-during-robot-assisted-renal-transplantation
#15
Raphael P H Meier, Vincent Piller, Monika E Hagen, Charles Joliat, Jean-Bernard Buchs, Antonio Nastasi, Raphael Ruttimann, Nicolas C Buchs, Solange Moll, Jean-Paul Vallée, François Lazeyras, Philippe Morel, Leo Bühler
Robot-assisted kidney transplantation is feasible; however, concerns have been raised about possible increases in warm ischemia times. We describe a novel intra-abdominal cooling system to continuously cool the kidney during the procedure. Porcine kidneys were procured by standard open technique. Groups were as follow: Robotic renal transplantation with (n=11) and without (n=6) continuous intra-abdominal cooling and conventional open technique with intermittent 4°C saline cooling (n=6). Renal cortex temperature, magnetic resonance imaging and histology were analyzed...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637091/nurse-managers-determinants-and-behaviours-in-relation-to-patient-and-visitor-aggression-in-general-hospitals-a-qualitative-study
#16
Birgit Heckemann, Karin A Peter, Ruud Jg Halfens, Jos Mga Schols, Gerjo Kok, Sabine Hahn
AIM: 'To explore nurse managers' behaviours, attitudes, perceived social norms and behavioural control in the prevention and management of patient and visitor aggression in general hospitals. BACKGROUND: Patient and visitor aggression in general hospitals is a global problem that incurs substantial human suffering and organizational cost. Managers are key persons for creating low-aggression environments, yet their role and behaviour in reducing patient and visitor aggression remains unexplored...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637081/molecular-characterization-of-gluten-hydrolyzing-bacillus-spp-and-their-efficacy-and-biotherapeutic-potential-as-probiotics-using-caco-2-cell-line
#17
B S Rashmi, Gayathri Devaraja
AIM: To isolate and characterize indigenous gluten hydrolyzing bacteria from wheat sourdough and curd samples and further evaluation of their probiotic potentiality. METHODS AND RESULTS: Indigenous gluten hydrolyzing isolates GS 33, GS 143, GS 181 and GS 188 were identified as Bacillus spp. by molecular-typing methods and studied extensively for their functional and probiotic attributes. All the tested isolates could survive at pH 2 and toxicity of 0.3% bile and also exhibited cell-surface hydrophobicity and autoaggregation phenotype...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637078/-update-cardiovascular-sleep-medicine
#18
Benedikt Linz, Michael Böhm, Dominik Linz
The prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is high in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Typical symptoms like daytime sleepiness can be absent and those patients may report unspecific, therapy-resistant symptoms related to their underlying disease. Particularly sleep-related symptoms like nocturia, nocturnal dyspnea and pectangina can be present. Based on the results of recently published studies, the treatment of central sleep apnea in patients with symptomatic, systolic heart failure by adaptive servo-ventilation is no longer recommended...
June 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637075/-vitamins-and-minerals-in-oncology
#19
Julian Walter Holch, Marlies Michl, Volker Heinemann, Nicole Erickson
The use of vitamins and minerals to prevent cancer as well as their supportive use in oncological patients is widespread and often occurs without the knowledge of the treating physician. Beyond general recommendations with regard to a balanced and healthy diet, no evidence exists supporting the use of vitamins and minerals in the prevention of cancer. Furthermore, the diet of oncological patients should contain vitamins and minerals of the same quantity as for healthy individuals. In particular, there is currently no rationale for a high-dosage administration of antioxidants...
June 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637074/-nutrition-in-cancer-effective-in-prevention-and-treatment
#20
Jann Arends
Nutritional effects on cancer occurrence and on treatment outcome in cancer patients may depend on food preferences and on the quantity of foods supplied. However, it has been difficult to reliably show beneficial effects of specific dietary concepts on cancer incidence. On the other hand, obesity as a result of chronic overfeeding has been linked firmly to an increased risk of a number of cancers as well as on cancer recurrence after treatment. Metabolic consequences of obesity and other components of the metabolic syndrome may be responsible for inducing and/or promoting cancer growth and should be antagonized by regular moderate physical activity in healthy subjects and in cancer survivors...
June 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
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