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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145698/illicit-drug-use-illicit-drug-use-disorders-and-drug-overdose-deaths-in-metropolitan-and-nonmetropolitan-areas-united-states
#1
EDITORIAL
Karin A Mack, Christopher M Jones, Michael F Ballesteros
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Drug overdoses are a leading cause of injury death in the United States, resulting in approximately 52,000 deaths in 2015. Understanding differences in illicit drug use, illicit drug use disorders, and overall drug overdose deaths in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas is important for informing public health programs, interventions, and policies. REPORTING PERIOD: Illicit drug use and drug use disorders during 2003-2014, and drug overdose deaths during 1999-2015...
December 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145693/early-erythropoiesis-stimulating-agents-in-preterm-or-low-birth-weight-infants
#2
REVIEW
Arne Ohlsson, Sanjay M Aher
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants have low plasma levels of erythropoietin (EPO), providing a rationale for the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) to prevent or treat anaemia and to provide neuro protection and protection against necrotising enterocolitis (NEC). Darbepoetin (Darbe) and EPO are currently available ESAs. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of ESAs (erythropoietin (EPO) and/or Darbe) initiated early (before eight days after birth) compared with placebo or no intervention in reducing red blood cell (RBC) transfusions, adverse neurological outcomes, and feeding intolerance including necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm and/or low birth weight infants...
November 16, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145666/frontiers-of-prevention-pollution-infection-cognitive-function-and-frailty
#3
Thomas F Lüscher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145631/rifaximin-fails-to-prevent-campylobacteriosis-in-the-human-challenge-model-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#4
Joanna E Rimmer, Clayton Harro, David A Sack, Kawsar R Talaat, Ramiro L Gutierrez, Barbara DeNearing, Jessica Brubaker, Renee M Laird, Frédéric Poly, Alexander C Maue, Kayla Jaep, Ashley Alcala, Yelizaveta Mochalova, Christina L Gariepy, Subhra Chakraborty, Patricia Guerry, David R Tribble, Chad K Porter, Mark S Riddle
Background: Campylobacter species are a leading cause of diarrheal disease globally with significant morbidity. Primary prevention efforts have yielded limited results. Rifaximin chemoprophylaxis decreases travelers' diarrhea rates and may be suitable for high risk persons. We assessed the efficacy of rifaximin in the controlled human infection model (CHIM) for Campylobacter jejuni. Methods: Twenty-eight subjects were admitted to an inpatient facility and randomized to a twice daily dose of 550 mg rifaximin or placebo...
November 14, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145588/the-perspectives-of-pre-frail-and-frail-older-people-on-being-advised-about-exercise-a-qualitative-study
#5
Agathe Daria Jadczak, Joanne Dollard, Neha Mahajan, Renuka Visvanathan
Background: Exercise is considered to be the most effective strategy to treat, prevent and delay frailty, a prevalent geriatric syndrome observed in clinical practice. Encouraging frail older people to take up exercise is crucial in the management of this condition. The study aimed to explore pre-frail and frail older peoples' perspectives in relation to being advised about exercise and their perceptions of the general practitioners' (GPs) role in promoting exercise for older people. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 community-dwelling older (median age 83 years) participants screened pre-frail or frail using the FRAIL Screen...
November 14, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145583/association-between-the-severity-of-diabetic-retinopathy-and-falls-in-an-asian-population-with-diabetes-the-singapore-epidemiology-of-eye-diseases-study
#6
Preeti Gupta, Amudha Aravindhan, Alfred T L Gan, Ryan E K Man, Eva K Fenwick, Paul Mitchell, Nicholas Tan, Charumathi Sabanayagam, Tien Yin Wong, Ching-Yu Cheng, Ecosse L Lamoureux
Importance: The presence and severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR) may contribute to the risk of falling in persons with diabetes, but evidence is currently equivocal. Objective: To investigate the associations of diabetes and DR severity with the likelihood of falls in a multiethnic Asian population. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional post hoc analysis of the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases study, a population-based study of participants from 3 ethnic groups (3280 Malay, 3400 Indian, and 3353 Chinese individuals) conducted from 2004 to 2011...
November 16, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145581/prospective-epidemiological-research-studies-in-iran-the-persian-cohort-rationale-objectives-and-design
#7
Hossein Poustchi, Sareh Eghtesad, Farin Kamangar, Arash Etemadi, Abbas-Ali Keshtkar, Azita Hekmatdoost, Zahra Mohammadi, Zahra Mahmoudi, Amaneh Shayanrad, Farzin Roozafzai, Mahdi Sheikh, Alireza Jalaeikhoo, Mohammad Hossein Somi, Fariborz Mansour-Ghanaei, Farid Najafi, Ehsan Bahramali, Amirhoushang Mehrparvar, Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam, Ahmad Ali Enayati, Ali Esmaeili Nadimi, Abbas Rezaianzadeh, Nader Saki, Fatemeh Alipour, Roya Kelishadi, Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar, Nayyereh Aminisani, Paolo Boffetta, Reza Malekzadeh
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) account for 76% of deaths in Iran and this number is on the rise, parallel to global rates. Many risk factors associated with NCDs are preventable; however it is first necessary to conduct observational studies to identify relevant risk factors, and the most appropriate approach to control them. Iran is a multi-ethnic country, therefore the Ministry of Health and Medical Education sought to launch a nationwide cohort study-the Prospective Epidemiological Research Studies in IrAN (PERSIAN)-in order to identify the most prevalent NCDs among Iranian ethnicities, and to investigate effective methods of prevention...
November 14, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145579/progesterone-the-maternal-immune-system-and-the-onset-of-parturition-in-the-mouse
#8
Lydia F Edey, Hector Georgiou, Kieran P O'Dea, Sam Mesiano, Bronwen R Herbert, Kaiyu Lei, Renyi Hua, Danijela Markovic, Simon N Waddington, David MacIntyre, Philip Bennett, Masao Takata, Mark R Johnson
The role of progesterone (P4) in the regulation of the local (uterine) and systemic innate immune system, myometrial expression of connexin 43 (Cx-43) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and the onset of parturition was examined in: 1) naïve mice delivering at term; 2) E16 mice treated with RU486 (P4-antagonist) to induce preterm parturition; and 3) in mice treated with P4 to prevent term parturition.In naïve mice, myometrial neutrophil and monocyte numbers peaked at E18 and declined with the onset of parturition...
November 14, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145568/seasonal-influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-in-preventing-laboratory-confirmed-influenza-in-primary-care-in-israel-2016-2017-season-insights-into-novel-age-specific-analysis
#9
Yaniv Stein, Michal Mandelboim, Hanna Sefty, Rakefet Pando, Ella Mendelson, Tamy Shohat, Aharona Glatman-Freedman
Background: The 2016-2017 influenza season in Israel was dominated by the circulation of influenza A(H3N2). Influenza vaccine is recommended for the entire population in Israel over the age of six months. The inactivated influenza vaccine was chosen for use this season. Methods: We estimated the 2016-2017 end-of-season influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) in preventing influenza-like illness (ILI) due to influenza A(H3N2), using the test-negative design. Age-specific VE was estimated using a moving age window and weekly analysis...
November 14, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145557/comparative-analysis-of-the-growth-pattern-of-thyroid-cancer-in-young-patients-screened-by-ultrasonography-in-japan-after-a-nuclear-accident-the-fukushima-health-management-survey
#10
Sanae Midorikawa, Akira Ohtsuru, Michio Murakami, Hideto Takahashi, Satoru Suzuki, Takashi Matsuzuka, Hiroki Shimura, Tetsuya Ohira, Shin-Ichi Suzuki, Seiji Yasumura, Shunichi Yamashita, Hitoshi Ohto, Koichi Tanigawa, Kenji Kamiya
Importance: Thyroid cancer generally grows at a very slow rate in adults, and overdiagnosis is a global issue. However, the detection of early-stage thyroid cancer by screening is not well described in young patients. To prevent overdiagnosis, it is essential to understand the natural course of thyroid cancer growth detection by ultrasonography screening in young patients. Objective: To evaluate the natural progression of thyroid cancer in young patients. Design, Setting, and Participants: An observational study evaluated changes in the diameter of malignant or suspected malignant thyroid tumors on 2 occasions...
November 16, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145500/estimation-of-stress-distribution-in-ferromagnetic-tensile-specimens-using-low-cost-eddy-current-stress-measurement-system-and-bp-neural-network
#11
Jianwei Li, Weimin Zhang, Weiqin Zeng, Guolong Chen, Zhongchao Qiu, Xinyuan Cao, Xuanyi Gao
Estimation of the stress distribution in ferromagnetic components is very important for evaluating the working status of mechanical equipment and implementing preventive maintenance. Eddy current testing technology is a promising method in this field because of its advantages of safety, no need of coupling agent, etc. In order to reduce the cost of eddy current stress measurement system, and obtain the stress distribution in ferromagnetic materials without scanning, a low cost eddy current stress measurement system based on Archimedes spiral planar coil was established, and a method based on BP neural network to obtain the stress distribution using the stress of several discrete test points was proposed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145470/active-immunization-in-patients-transplanted-for-hepatitis-b-virus-related-liver-diseases-a-prospective-study
#12
Anli Yang, Zhiyong Guo, Qingqi Ren, Linwei Wu, Yi Ma, Anbin Hu, Dongping Wang, Haidan Ye, Xiaofeng Zhu, Weiqiang Ju, Xiaoshun He
INTRODUCTION: Prophylactic administration of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) is the standard treatment for controlling hepatitis B virus (HBV) recurrence after liver transplantation (LT). Since lifelong use of HBIG is expensive and inconvenient and the antibodies level in anti-hepatitis B surface (HBs) is not sustainable and stable, an alternative strategy is to produce anti-HBs antibodies by active immunization. Our present study aimed to prospectively investigate the efficacy and safety of procedural HBV vaccination in transplanted patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145465/hospital-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-risk-factors-in-south-african-tertiary-public-hospitals
#13
Liliwe L Shuping, Lazarus Kuonza, Alfred Musekiwa, Samantha Iyaloo, Olga Perovic
INTRODUCTION: Hospital-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (HA-MRSA) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We conducted a study to determine risk factors for HA-MRSA in order to inform control strategies in South Africa. METHODS: We used surveillance data collected from five tertiary hospitals in Gauteng and Western Cape provinces during 2014 for analysis. A case of HA-MRSA was defined as isolation of MRSA from a blood culture 48 hours after admission and/or if the patient was hospitalised in the six months prior to the current culture...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145462/circulating-soluble-endoglin-modifies-the-inflammatory-response-in-mice
#14
Laura Ruiz-Remolina, Claudia Ollauri-Ibáñez, Lucía Pérez-Roque, Elena Núñez-Gómez, Fernando Pérez-Barriocanal, José Miguel López-Novoa, Miguel Pericacho, Alicia Rodríguez-Barbero
Inflammation is associated with every health condition, and is an important component of many pathologies such as cardiovascular diseases. Circulating levels of soluble endoglin have been shown to be higher in the serum of patients with cardiovascular diseases with a significant inflammatory component. The aim of this study was to evaluate the implication of circulating soluble endoglin in the inflammatory response. For this purpose, a transgenic mouse expressing human soluble endoglin (sEng+) was employed, and three different inflammatory approaches were used to mimic inflammatory conditions in different tissues...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145453/the-antiviral-drug-tenofovir-an-inhibitor-of-pannexin-1-mediated-atp-release-prevents-liver-and-skin-fibrosis-by-downregulating-adenosine-levels-in-the-liver-and-skin
#15
Jessica L Feig, Aranzazu Mediero, Carmen Corciulo, Hailing Liu, Jin Zhang, Miguel Perez-Aso, Laura Picard, Tuere Wilder, Bruce Cronstein
BACKGROUND: Fibrosing diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and, therefore, there is a need for safe and effective antifibrotic therapies. Adenosine, generated extracellularly by the dephosphorylation of adenine nucleotides, ligates specific receptors which play a critical role in development of hepatic and dermal fibrosis. Results of recent clinical trials indicate that tenofovir, a widely used antiviral agent, reverses hepatic fibrosis/cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145448/steps-to-achieve-quantitative-measurements-of-microrna-using-two-step-droplet-digital-pcr
#16
Erica V Stein, David L Duewer, Natalia Farkas, Erica L Romsos, Lili Wang, Kenneth D Cole
Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) is being advocated as a reference method to measure rare genomic targets. It has consistently been proven to be more sensitive and direct at discerning copy numbers of DNA than other quantitative methods. However, one of the largest obstacles to measuring microRNA (miRNA) using ddPCR is that reverse transcription efficiency depends upon the target, meaning small RNA nucleotide composition directly effects primer specificity in a manner that prevents traditional quantitation optimization strategies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145424/levosimendan-protects-human-hepatocytes-from-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#17
Stefanie N Brunner, Nicolai V Bogert, Andreas A Schnitzbauer, Eva Juengel, Anton Moritz, Isabella Werner, Angela Kornberger, Andres Beiras-Fernandez
BACKGROUND: Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major challenge in liver transplantation. The mitochondrial pathway plays a pivotal role in hepatic IRI. Levosimendan, a calcium channel sensitizer, was shown to attenuate apoptosis after IRI in animal livers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of levosimendan on apoptosis in human hepatocytes. METHODS: Primary human hepatocytes were either exposed to hypoxia or cultured under normoxic conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145414/five-year-survival-and-associated-factors-in-women-treated-for-cervical-cancer-at-a-reference-hospital-in-the-brazilian-amazon
#18
Saul Rassy Carneiro, Marcela de Araújo Fagundes, Pricila de Jesus Oliveira do Rosário, Laura Maria Tomazi Neves, Givago da Silva Souza, Maria da Conceição Nascimento Pinheiro
Cervical cancer (CC) is the most common type of cancer in women and is the third leading cause of death in most developing countries, causing more than 288,000 deaths in women worldwide each year. The most favourable survival rate is in developed countries, since CC mortality has recently declined in those countries. The purpose of this study was to determine the survival rate and associated factors of CC patients at a reference hospital in the Amazon region. The patient sample included records of 339 patients with cervical cancer who had been hospitalized in Belém, Pará, Brazil from January 2005 to December 2010; the socioeconomic and clinical data were collected between June and September 2016...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145408/effect-of-pulse-pressure-on-borehole-stability-during-shear-swirling-flow-vibration-cementing
#19
Zhihua Cui, Chi Ai, Lei Lv, Fangxian Yin
The shear swirling flow vibration cementing (SSFVC) technique rotates the downhole eccentric cascade by circulating cementing fluid. It makes the casing eccentrically revolve at high speed around the borehole axis. It produces strong agitation action to the annulus fluid, makes it in the state of shear turbulent flow, and results in the formation of pulse pressure which affects the surrounding rock stress. This study was focused on 1) the calculation of the pulse pressure in an annular turbulent flow field based on the finite volume method, and 2) the analysis of the effect of pulse pressure on borehole stability...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145397/post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis-in-the-indian-subcontinent-a-threat-to-the-south-east-asia-region-kala-azar-elimination-programme
#20
REVIEW
Eduard E Zijlstra, Fabiana Alves, Suman Rijal, Byron Arana, Jorge Alvar
BACKGROUND: The South-East Asia Region Kala-azar Elimination Programme (KAEP) is expected to enter the consolidation phase in 2017, which focuses on case detection, vector control, and identifying potential sources of infection. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is thought to play a role in the recurrence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL)/kala-azar outbreaks, and control of PKDL is among the priorities of the KAEP. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDING: We reviewed the literature with regard to PKDL in Asia and interpreted the findings in relation to current intervention methods in the KAEP in order to make recommendations...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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