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Apolipoprotein B

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212898/low-serum-iron-is-associated-with-high-serum-intact-fgf23-in-elderly-men-the-swedish-mros-study
#1
Catharina Lewerin, Östen Ljunggren, Herman Nilsson-Ehle, Magnus K Karlsson, Hans Herlitz, Mattias Lorentzon, Claes Ohlsson, Dan Mellström
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF23) is a protein that is produced by osteoblasts and osteocytes. Increased serum levels of FGF23 have been associated with increased risks of osteoporotic fractures and cardiovascular disease, particularly in participants with poor renal function. Serum iron (Fe) has been suggested as a regulator of FGF23 homeostasis. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Fe and iron status are determinants of the levels of intact FGF23 (iFGF23) in elderly men...
February 14, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202387/varenicline-enhances-oxidized-ldl-uptake-by-increasing-expression-of-lox-1-and-cd36-scavenger-receptors-through-%C3%AE-7-nachr-in-macrophages
#2
Yuki Kanaoka, Mitsuhisa Koga, Keita Sugiyama, Kaoru Ohishi, Yasufumi Kataoka, Atsushi Yamauchi
Varenicline is a widely used and effective drug for smoking cessation. It is a partial agonist of the α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and full agonist of α7 nAChR. We have reported that varenicline aggravates formation of atherosclerotic plaques through α7 nAChR in apolipoprotein E knockout mice. However, little is known about its effects on macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques. Here, we ascertained whether varenicline promotes oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) uptake in mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro and clarified its mechanism...
February 12, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193317/identification-of-differentially-expressed-placental-transcripts-during-multiple-gestations-in-the-eurasian-beaver-castor-fiber-l
#3
A Lipka, L Paukszto, M Majewska, J P Jastrzebski, K Myszczynski, G Panasiewicz, B Szafranska
The Eurasian beaver is one of the largest rodents that, despite its high impact on the environment, is a non-model species that lacks a reference genome. Characterising genes critical for pregnancy outcome can serve as a basis for identifying mechanisms underlying effective reproduction, which is required for the success of endangered species conservation programs. In the present study, high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was used to analyse global changes in the Castor fiber subplacenta transcriptome during multiple pregnancy...
February 14, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190386/high-density-lipoprotein-and-low-density-lipoprotein-therapeutic-approaches-in-acute-coronary-syndromes
#4
Emmanuel Androulakis, Effimia Zacharia, Nikolaos Papageorgiou, Eirini Lioudaki, Dimitris Bertsias, Marietta Charakida, Gerasimos Siasos, Dimitris Tousoulis
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), and especially its oxidized form, renders the atherosclerotic plaque vulnerable to rupture in acute coronary syndromes (ACS). On the other hand, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is considered an anti-atherogenic molecule. The more recent HDL-targeted drugs may prove to be superior to those used before. Indeed, delipidated HDL and HDL mimetics are efficient in increasing HDL levels, while the apoA-I upregulation with RVX-208 appears to offer a clinical benefit which is beyond the HDL related effects...
February 9, 2017: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188431/lipoprotein-a-and-its-role-in-inflammation-atherosclerosis-and-malignancies
#5
Evelyn Orsó, Gerd Schmitz
Lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) is a modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle with an additional specific apolipoprotein (a), covalently attached to apolipoprotein B‑100 of LDL by a single thioester bond. Increased plasma Lp(a) level is a genetically determined, independent, causal risk factor for cardiovascular disease.The precise quantification of Lp(a) in plasma is still hampered by mass-sensitive assays, large particle variation, poor standardization and lack of assay comparability.The physiological functions of Lp(a) include wound healing, promoting tissue repair and vascular remodeling...
February 10, 2017: Clinical Research in Cardiology Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187045/apolipoprotein-l1-and-chronic-kidney-disease-risk-in-young-potential-living-kidney-donors
#6
Jayme E Locke, Deirdre Sawinski, Rhiannon D Reed, Brittany Shelton, Paul A MacLennan, Vineeta Kumar, Shikha Mehta, Roslyn B Mannon, Robert Gaston, Bruce A Julian, John J Carr, James G Terry, Meredith Kilgore, Allan B Massie, Dorry L Segev, Cora E Lewis
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a novel chronic kidney disease (CKD) risk prediction tool for young potential living kidney donors. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Living kidney donor selection practices have evolved from examining individual risk factors to a risk calculator incorporating multiple characteristics. Owing to limited long-term data and lack of genetic information, current risk tools lack precision among young potential living kidney donors, particularly African Americans (AAs)...
February 9, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185713/effects-of-pitavastatin-on-lipid-rich-carotid-plaques-studied-using-high-resolution-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#7
Tao Feng, Xiaoxing Huang, Qundi Liang, Yun Liang, Yong Yuan, Li Feng, Wenjun Wu, Xuehong Xiao, Ying Han
PURPOSE: This study evaluates the effectiveness of pitavastatin in patients with atherosclerosis. METHODS: Sixty patients with atherosclerosis with lipid-rich carotid plaques were included and allocated into low-dose (2 mg/d) and high-dose (4 mg/d) pitavastatin groups with 48 weeks of treatment. Total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B, lipoprotein (a), and the inflammation-related factors interleukin 6, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and homocysteine were determined...
February 6, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183703/aup1-ancient-ubiquitous-protein-1-is-a-key-determinant-of-hepatic-very-low-density-lipoprotein-assembly-and-secretion
#8
Jing Zhang, Mostafa Zamani, Christoph Thiele, Jennifer Taher, Mohsen Amir Alipour, Zemin Yao, Khosrow Adeli
OBJECTIVE: AUP1 (ancient ubiquitous protein 1) is an endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein that also localizes to the surface of lipid droplets (LDs), with dual role in protein quality control and LD regulation. Here, we investigated the role of AUP1 in hepatic lipid mobilization and demonstrate critical roles in intracellular biogenesis of apoB100 (apolipoprotein B-100), LD mobilization, and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly and secretion. APPROACH AND RESULTS: siRNA knockdown of AUP1 significantly increased secretion of VLDL-sized apoB100-containing particles from HepG2 cells, correcting a key metabolic defect in these cells that normally do not secrete much VLDL...
February 9, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183448/c-reactive-protein-levels-are-inversely-correlated-with-the-apolipoprotein-b-48-containing-triglyceride-rich-lipoprotein-production-rate-in-insulin-resistant-men
#9
Jean-Philippe Drouin-Chartier, André J Tremblay, Jean-Charles Hogue, Myriam Leclerc, Marie-Ève Labonté, Johanne Marin, Benoît Lamarche, Patrick Couture
: The pro-inflammatory state and elevated plasma levels of post-prandial triglycerides (TG) are associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. Recent studies suggested that the increase in the production rate of post-prandial lipoproteins observed in patients with insulin resistance (IR) may be caused, at least in part, by the dysregulation of intestinal insulin sensitivity triggered by inflammation. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the association between IR, plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and the kinetics of TG-rich lipoprotein (TRL) containing apolipoprotein (apo) B-48 in a large sample of insulin sensitive (IS) and IR men...
March 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181168/apoa-i-sr-bi-modulates-s1p-s1pr2-mediated-inflammation-through-the-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway-in-huvecs
#10
Kun Ren, Yan-Ju Lu, Zhong-Cheng Mo, Xing -Liu, Zhen-Li Tang, Yue Jiang, Xiao-Shan Peng, Li Li, Qing-Hai Zhang, Guang-Hui Yi
Endothelial dysfunction plays a vital role during the initial stage of atherosclerosis. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) induces vascular endothelial injury and vessel wall inflammation. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) exerts numerous vasoprotective effects by binding to diverse S1P receptors (S1PRs; S1PR1-5). A number of studies have shown that in endothelial cells (ECs), S1PR2 acts as a pro-atherosclerotic mediator by stimulating vessel wall inflammation through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179493/nutritional-and-lipid-modulation-of-pcsk9-effects-on-cardiometabolic-risk-factors
#11
REVIEW
Jacqueline A Krysa, Teik Chye Ooi, Spencer D Proctor, Donna F Vine
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a serine protease involved in the regulation of LDL receptor (LDLR) expression and apolipoprotein B lipoprotein cholesterol metabolism. Hepatic PCSK9 protein expression, activity, and secretion have been shown to affect cholesterol homeostasis. An upregulation of hepatic PSCK9 protein leads to increased LDLR degradation, resulting in decreased uptake of apoB lipoproteins and a consequent increase in the plasma concentration of these lipoproteins, including LDL and chylomicron remnants...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174174/discordance-between-circulating-atherogenic-cholesterol-mass-and-lipoprotein-particle-concentration-in-relation-to-future-coronary-events-in-women
#12
Patrick R Lawler, Akintunde O Akinkuolie, Paul M Ridker, Allan D Sniderman, Julie E Buring, Robert J Glynn, Daniel I Chasman, Samia Mora
BACKGROUND: It is uncertain whether measurement of circulating total atherogenic lipoprotein particle cholesterol mass (non-HDL cholesterol [nonHDLc]) or particle concentration (apolipoprotein B[apo B] and LDL particle concentration [LDLp]) more accurately reflects risk of incident coronary heart disease (CHD). We evaluated CHD risk among women in whom these markers where discordant. METHODS: Among 27533 initially healthy women in the Women's Health Study (NCT00000479), using residuals from linear regression models, we compared risk among women with higher or lower observed particle concentration relative to nonHDLc (highest and lowest residual quartiles, respectively) to individuals with agreement between markers (middle quartiles) using Cox proportional hazards models...
February 7, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173800/oxidized-ldl-induced-jab1-influences-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-independent-inflammatory-signaling-in-human-macrophages-during-foam-cell-formation
#13
Anja Schwarz, Gabriel A Bonaterra, Hans Schwarzbach, Ralf Kinscherf
BACKGROUND: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) mediates the transformation of macrophages (MΦ) to cholesterol-rich foam cells and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines during atherogenesis. JAB1 (Jun activation domain binding protein-1) is present in all stages of human plaques, involved in the Toll-like receptor-mediated activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and controls nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation. Thus, we were interested in the role of JAB1 during foam cell formation of MΦ after oxLDL exposition...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169993/the-evolving-genomic-landscape-of-urothelial-carcinoma
#14
REVIEW
Alexander P Glaser, Damiano Fantini, Ali Shilatifard, Edward M Schaeffer, Joshua J Meeks
Survival of patients with urothelial carcinoma (including bladder cancer and upper tract urothelial carcinoma) is limited by our current approaches to staging, surgery, and chemotherapy. Large-scale, next-generation sequencing collaborations, such as The Cancer Genome Atlas, have already identified drivers and vulnerabilities of urothelial carcinoma. This disease has a high degree of mutational heterogeneity and a high frequency of somatic mutations compared with other solid tumours, potentially resulting in an increased neoantigen burden...
February 7, 2017: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168401/dyslipidemia-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#15
Melinda Zsuzsanna Szabó, Peter Szodoray, Emese Kiss
Cardiovascular disease is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Accelerated atherosclerosis is related to traditional (age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, obesity, smoking, and positive family history) and non-traditional, disease-related factors. Traditional risk factors are still more prominent in patients with lupus, as both hypertension and hypercholesterinemia were independently associated with premature atherosclerosis in several SLE cohorts...
February 7, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166253/effects-of-a-very-high-saturated-fat-diet-on-ldl-particles-in-adults-with-atherogenic-dyslipidemia-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Sally Chiu, Paul T Williams, Ronald M Krauss
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that increases in LDL-cholesterol resulting from substitution of dietary saturated fat for carbohydrate or unsaturated fat are due primarily to increases in large cholesterol-enriched LDL, with minimal changes in small, dense LDL particles and apolipoprotein B. However, individuals can differ by their LDL particle distribution, and it is possible that this may influence LDL subclass response. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to test whether the reported effects of saturated fat apply to individuals with atherogenic dyslipidemia as characterized by a preponderance of small LDL particles (LDL phenotype B)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163820/apolipoprotein-ciii-overexpression-induced-hypertriglyceridemia-increases-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-association-with-inflammation-and-cell-death
#17
Adriene A Paiva, Helena F Raposo, Amarylis C B A Wanschel, Tarlliza R Nardelli, Helena C F Oliveira
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the principal manifestation of liver disease in obesity and metabolic syndrome. By comparing hypertriglyceridemic transgenic mice expressing apolipoprotein (apo) CIII with control nontransgenic (NTg) littermates, we demonstrated that overexpression of apoCIII, independent of a high-fat diet (HFD), produces NAFLD-like features, including increased liver lipid content; decreased antioxidant power; increased expression of TNFα, TNFα receptor, cleaved caspase-1, and interleukin-1β; decreased expression of adiponectin receptor-2; and increased cell death...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161202/analysis-of-children-and-adolescents-with-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#18
Ilenia Minicocci, Simone Pozzessere, Cristina Prisco, Anna Montali, Alessia di Costanzo, Eliana Martino, Francesco Martino, Marcello Arca
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of criteria based on child-parent assessment in predicting familial hypercholesterolemia (FH)-causative mutations in unselected children with hypercholesterolemia. STUDY DESIGN: LDLR, APOB, and PCSK9 genes were sequenced in 78 children and adolescents (mean age 8.4 ± 3.7 years) with clinically diagnosed FH. The presence of polygenic hypercholesterolemia was further evaluated by genotyping 6 low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)-raising single-nucleotide polymorphisms...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160067/tau-aggregation-influences-cognition-and-hippocampal-atrophy-in-the-absence-of-beta-amyloid-a-clinico-imaging-pathological-study-of-primary-age-related-tauopathy-part
#19
Keith A Josephs, Melissa E Murray, Nirubol Tosakulwong, Jennifer L Whitwell, David S Knopman, Mary M Machulda, Stephen D Weigand, Bradley F Boeve, Kejal Kantarci, Leonard Petrucelli, Val J Lowe, Clifford R Jack, Ronald C Petersen, Joseph E Parisi, Dennis W Dickson
We investigate whether there is any association between the Braak neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) stage and clinical and MRI features in definite primary age-related tauopathy (PART). We analysed 52 cases with a Braak NFT tangle stage >0 and ≤IV, and a Thal phase of 0 (no beta-amyloid present). Twenty-nine (56%) were female. Median age at death was 88 years (IQR 82-92 years). Fifteen (29%) were TDP-positive (75% TDP stage I), 16 (31%) had argyrophilic grain disease and three (6%) had alpha-synuclein-positive Lewy bodies...
February 3, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159868/using-murine-derived-primary-intestinal-enteroids-for-studies-of-dietary-triglyceride-absorption-and-lipoprotein-synthesis-and-to-determine-the-role-of-intestine-specific-apoc-iii
#20
Javeed J Jattan, Cayla N Rodia, Diana Li, Adama C Diakhate, Hongli Dong, Amy M Bataille, Noah F Shroyer, Alison B Kohan
Since its initial report in 2009, the intestinal enteroid culture system has been a powerful tool used to study stem cell biology and development in the gastrointestinal tract. However, a major question is whether enteroids retain intestinal function and physiology. There have been significant contributions describing ion transport physiology of human intestinal organoid cultures, as well as physiology of gastric organoids, but critical studies on dietary fat absorption and chylomicron synthesis in primary intestinal enteroids have not been undertaken...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
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