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Apolipoprotein B

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920529/synthetic-high-density-lipoproteins-for-delivery-of-10-hydroxycamptothecin
#1
Yue Yuan, Jian Wen, Jie Tang, Qiming Kan, Rose Ackermann, Karl Olsen, Anna Schwendeman
The purpose of this study was to develop a novel synthetic high-density lipoprotein (sHDL) nanoparticle delivery system for 10-hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) for treatment of colon carcinoma. HDL is recognized by scavenger receptor B-I (SR-BI) over-expressed in colon carcinomas 5- to 35-fold relative to the human fibroblasts. The sHDL nanoparticles were composed of apolipoprotein A-I mimic peptide (5A) and contained 0.5%-1.5% (w/w) of HCPT. An optimized HCPT-sHDL formulation exhibited 0.7% HCPT loading with 70% efficiency with an average size of 10-12 nm...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919356/lipoprotein-a-cholesterol-levels-estimated-by-vertical-auto-profile-correlate-poorly-with-lp-a-mass-in-hyperlipidemic-subjects-implications-for-clinical-practice-interpretation-of-lp-a-mediated-risk
#2
Calvin Yeang, Paul C Clopton, Sotirios Tsimikas
BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is generally measured as total mass of the entire particle or as apolipoprotein(a) particle number. OBJECTIVE: The cholesterol content of Lp(a) [Lp(a)-C)] can be estimated by the vertical auto profile (VAP) method. We assessed whether this is an accurate surrogate measurement of Lp(a) mass. METHODS: VAP-Lp(a)-C and VAP-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) estimated by the VAP technique, Lp(a) mass, oxidized phospholipids on apolipoprotein B-100 (OxPL-apoB) that primarily reflect OxPL on Lp(a), and HDL-C measured by enzymatic methods were measured in 552 hypercholesterolemic patients at baseline and 24 weeks after therapy with niacin monotherapy (N = 118), ezetimibe/simvastatin monotherapy (n = 155), or ezetimibe/simvastatin (10/20 mg) + niacin (to 2 g) (N = 279) in a randomized, double-blind trial...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919352/impact-of-a-1-year-lifestyle-modification-program-on-plasma-lipoprotein-and-pcsk9-concentrations-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#3
Marjorie Boyer, Valérie Lévesque, Paul Poirier, André Marette, Patrick Mathieu, Jean-Pierre Després, Éric Larose, Benoit J Arsenault
BACKGROUND: Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) are characterized by an impaired cardiometabolic risk profile including high levels of atherogenic apolipoprotein (apo) B-containing lipoprotein levels. Genetic studies have highlighted a critical role for proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) in lipoprotein metabolism and CAD risk. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether improving dietary quality and increasing physical activity levels improve parameters of the cardiometabolic risk profile such as plasma apoB and PCSK9 levels in patients with CAD...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919345/familial-defective-apolipoprotein-b-100-a%C3%A2-review
#4
REVIEW
Lars H Andersen, André R Miserez, Zahid Ahmad, Rolf L Andersen
Familial defective apolipoprotein B-100 (FDB) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder of lipid metabolism associated with hyperlipidemia and elevated risk for atherosclerosis. FDB is caused by mutations in APOB reducing the binding affinity between apolipoprotein B-100 and the low-density lipoprotein receptor. Population studies suggest that approximately 0.1% of Northern Europeans and US Caucasians carries the R3500Q variant in APOB most commonly associated with FDB; in addition, the APOB R3500 W variant is known to make a significant contribution to familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) among East Asians...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919344/jcl-roundtable-risk-evaluation-and-mitigation-strategy
#5
REVIEW
W Virgil Brown, Dean A Bramlet, Joyce L Ross, James A Underberg
Many factors enter into the decision by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to approve a new drug for use by physicians and other health care providers in treating diseases. Initially, the FDA authority was restricted to issues of safety and only later did the documentation of efficacy become part of the review process required for approval. However, all drugs have the potential for causing harm at some dose level to all and at lower doses in certain patients with vulnerability to the particular pharmacology of the agent...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914033/l-carnitine-simvastatin-reduces-lipoprotein-a-levels-compared-with-simvastatin-monotherapy-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#6
M Florentin, M S Elisaf, C V Rizos, V Nikolaou, E Bilianou, C Pitsavos, E N Liberopoulos
Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. There are currently limited therapeutic options to lower Lp(a) levels. L-Carnitine has been reported to reduce Lp(a) levels. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of L-carnitine/simvastatin co-administration with that of simvastatin monotherapy on Lp(a) levels in subjects with mixed hyperlipidemia and elevated Lp(a) concentration. Subjects with levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) >160 mg/dL, triacylglycerol (TAG) >150 mg/dL and Lp(a) >20 mg/dL were included in this study...
December 2, 2016: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909409/3-5-3-triiodo-l-thyronine-and-3-5-diiodo-l-thyronine-affected-metabolic-pathways-in-liver-of-ldl-receptor-deficient-mice
#7
Maria Moreno, Elena Silvestri, Maria Coppola, Ira J Goldberg, Li-Shin Huang, Anna M Salzano, Fulvio D'Angelo, Joel R Ehrenkranz, Fernando Goglia
3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) and 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (T2), when administered to a model of familial hypercholesterolemia, i.e., low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr)-knockout (Ldlr(-/-)) mice fed with a Western type diet (WTD), dramatically reduce circulating total and very low-density lipoprotein/LDL cholesterol with decreased liver apolipoprotein B (ApoB) production. The aim of the study was to highlight putative molecular mechanisms to manage cholesterol levels in the absence of LDLr. A comprehensive comparative profiling of changes in expression of soluble proteins in livers from Ldlr(-/-) mice treated with either T3 or T2 was performed...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908554/apolipoprotein-a-i-and-b-and-subjective-global-assessment-relationship-can-reflect-lipid-defects-in-diabetic-retinopathy
#8
Yashodhara Sharma, Sandeep Saxena, Arvind Mishra, Anita Saxena, Shankar Madhav Natu
OBJECTIVE: Elevated lipid levels increase complications of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Uncontrolled diabetes increases these complications and causes unintentional weight loss, indicating an apparently normal body mass index (BMI). Thus, it is easy to assume that patients with DR and a normal BMI have optimal lipid status. Apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I and Apo B levels differentially indicate serum lipid status in DR. Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) scores are associated with DR status. If SGA scores and serum Apo A-I and B levels are found to be interrelated, their relationship can reflect lipid defects in patients with DR despite apparently normal BMI...
January 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903739/homocysteine-activates-b-cells-via-regulating-pkm2-dependent-metabolic-reprogramming
#9
Jiacheng Deng, Silin Lü, Huiying Liu, Bo Liu, Changtao Jiang, Qingbo Xu, Juan Feng, Xian Wang
The overactivation of immune cells plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)-accelerated atherosclerosis. Homocysteine (Hcy) activates B cell proliferation and Ab secretion; however, the underlying mechanisms for these effects remain largely unknown. Metabolic reprogramming is critical for lymphocyte activation and effector function. In this study, we showed that Hcy-activated B cells displayed an increase in both oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis, with a tendency to shift toward the latter, as well as an accumulation of intermediates in the pentose phosphate pathway, to provide energy and biosynthetic substrates for cell growth and function...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900987/effect-of-half-dose-and-standard-dose-conjugated-equine-estrogens-combined-with-natural-progesterone-or-dydrogesterone-on-components-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-healthy-postmenopausal-women-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Wei Xue, Yan Deng, Yan-Fang Wang, Ai-Jun Sun
BACKGROUND: Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) has been proven to have beneficial effects on several components of metabolic syndrome. However, the effects vary according to different regimens, dosages, and duration of MHT. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of standard-dose 0.625 mg conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) and half-dose 0.3 mg CEE daily with different progestogens in a continuous sequential regimen on postmenopausal metabolic parameters in generally healthy postmenopausal women...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896567/foxo1-and-lxr%C3%AE-downregulate-the-apolipoprotein-a-i-gene-expression-during-hydrogen-peroxide-induced-oxidative-stress-in-hepg2-cells
#11
Vladimir S Shavva, Alexandra M Bogomolova, Artemy A Nikitin, Ella B Dizhe, Galina N Oleinikova, Ivan A Lapikov, Dmitry A Tanyanskiy, Andrej P Perevozchikov, Sergey V Orlov
Reactive oxygen species damage various cell components including DNA, proteins, and lipids, and these impairments could be a reason for severe human diseases including atherosclerosis. Forkhead box O1 (FOXO1), an important metabolic transcription factor, upregulates antioxidant and proapoptotic genes during oxidative stress. Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) forms high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles that are responsible for cholesterol transfer from peripheral tissues to liver for removal in bile in vertebrates...
November 28, 2016: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891330/evaluation-of-lipid-profile-and-apolipoproteins-in-essential-hypertensive-patients
#12
Parsuram Nayak, Suchismita Panda, Pravat Kumar Thatoi, Roma Rattan, Srikrushna Mohapatra, Pramila Kumari Mishra
INTRODUCTION: Essential hypertension is one of the most common diseases of the Indian population contributing greatly to the morbidity, mortality and economic burden. It has a strong association with cardiovascular disease and abnormal lipid metabolism. Not only the traditional lipid parameters, but also the novel lipid components like Apo A1 and Apo B100 also have been identified to play a role. AIM: The present study was done to evaluate serum lipid profile and Apo A1, Apo B 100 in essential hypertensive patients and correlate their values with the degree of hypertension...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890786/heat-increases-the-editing-efficiency-of-human-papillomavirus-e2-gene-by-inducing-upregulation-of-apobec3a-and-3g
#13
Yang Yang, Hexiao Wang, Xinrui Zhang, Wei Huo, Ruiqun Qi, Yali Gao, Gaofeng Zhang, Bing Song, Hongduo Chen, Xinghua Gao
Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing catalytic polypeptide (APOBEC) 3 proteins have been identified as potent viral DNA mutators and have broad antiviral activity. In this study, we demonstrated APOBEC3A (A3A) and A3G expression levels were significantly upregulated in HPV infected cell lines and tissues. Heat treatment resulted in elevated expression of A3A and A3G in a temperature-dependent manner in HPV infected cells. Correspondingly, 44 ºC heating treated HPV infected cells showed accumulated G-to-A or C-to-T mutation in HPVE2 gene...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888904/-anti-pcsk9-antibodies-in-type-2-diabetes-and-secondary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#14
José López-Miranda, Xavier Pintó
Patients with type 2 diabetes are considered to have the same cardiovascular risk as patients with ischemia. However, the degree of lipid control in diabetic and ischemic patients remains highly deficient. The availability of new agents, such as anti-PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies, could represent a notable advance in meeting this unmet need. Alirocumab and evolucumab, followed by bococizumab, are currently under the advanced phase of research. A growing database has demonstrated a relationship between glucose metabolism, body weight and PCSK9 function, but the clinical implications of this relationship have not been well defined...
May 2016: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887752/changes-in-plasma-fatty-acid-composition-are-associated-with-improvements-in-obesity-and-related-metabolic-disorders-a-therapeutic-approach-to-overweight-adolescents
#15
Marcela Guerendiain, Rosa Montes, Gemma López-Belmonte, Miguel Martín-Matillas, Ana I Castellote, Elena Martín-Bautista, Amelia Martí, J Alfredo Martínez, Luis Moreno, Jesús Mª Garagorri, Julia Wärnberg, Javier Caballero, Ascensión Marcos, M Carmen López-Sabater, Cristina Campoy
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In recent years, obesity has reached alarming levels among children and adolescents. The study of plasma fatty acid (FA) composition, as a reflection of diet, and its associations with other parameters, that are closely linked to obesity and the cardiometabolic profile, may be useful for setting nutritional goals for obesity treatment and prevention. This study explored the relationship between plasma FA levels and body fat and cardiometabolic risk markers, in overweight adolescents...
November 11, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886619/open-label-therapy-with-alirocumab-in-patients-with-heterozygous-familial-hypercholesterolemia-results-from-three-years-of-treatment
#16
Robert Dufour, Jean Bergeron, Daniel Gaudet, Robert Weiss, G Kees Hovingh, Zhizhi Qing, Feng Yang, Matthew Andisik, Albert Torri, Robert Pordy, Daniel A Gipe
BACKGROUND: PCSK9 inhibition with alirocumab significantly reduced LDL-C levels in trials of up to 78weeks' duration in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH). We report results from 3years of an ongoing open-label treatment extension (NCT01576484) to a 12-week double-blind trial in HeFH patients (NCT01266876). METHODS: Patients who completed the parent study and were receiving stable daily statin±ezetimibe could enter the open-label extension, where they received alirocumab 150mg every 2 weeks (Q2W) subcutaneously (n=58)...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885490/localized-cortical-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-pathology-after-single-severe-axonal-injury-in-human-brain
#17
Sharon B Shively, Sarah L Edgerton, Diego Iacono, Dushyant P Purohit, Bao-Xi Qu, Vahram Haroutunian, Kenneth L Davis, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Daniel P Perl
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with repetitive mild impact traumatic brain injury from contact sports. Recently, a consensus panel defined the pathognomonic lesion for CTE as accumulations of abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau) in neurons (neurofibrillary tangles), astrocytes and cell processes distributed around small blood vessels at sulcal depths in irregular patterns within the cortex. The pathophysiological mechanism for this lesion is unknown. Moreover, a subset of CTE cases harbors cortical β-amyloid plaques...
November 24, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879044/clustering-according-to-urolithin-metabotype-explains-the-interindividual-variability-in-the-improvement-of-cardiovascular-risk-biomarkers-in-overweight-obese-individuals-consuming-pomegranate-a-randomised-clinical-trial
#18
Antonio González-Sarrías, Rocío García-Villalba, María Romo-Vaquero, Cesarettin Alasalvar, Asim Örem, Pilar Zafrilla, Francisco A Tomás-Barberán, María V Selma, Juan Carlos Espín
SCOPE: The pomegranate lipid-lowering properties remain controversial, probably due to the interindividual variability in polyphenol (ellagitannins) metabolism. OBJECTIVE: We aimed at investigating whether the microbial-derived ellagitannin-metabolizing phenotypes, i.e. urolithin metabotypes A, (UM-A), B (UM-B) and 0 (UM-0), influence the effects of pomegranate extract (PE) consumption on eighteen cardiovascular risk biomarkers in healthy overweight-obese individuals...
November 23, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875503/influence-of-partial-external-biliary-diversion-on-the-lipid-profile-in-children-with-progressive-familial-intrahepatic-cholestasis
#19
Irena Jankowska, Piotr Czubkowski, Aldona Wierzbicka, Joanna Pawłowska, Piotr Kaliciński, Piotr Socha
OBJECTIVES: The concentration of bile acids is highly increased in progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC). Bile acids are the end products of cholesterol metabolism, and aid in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins and dietary fat. The aim of our study was to investigate lipid metabolism in patients with PFIC with focus on the effect of partial external biliary diversion (PEBD). METHODS: In 26 patients with PFIC, who underwent PEBD surgery at the median age of 2...
December 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869537/rna-binding-to-apobec-deaminases-not-simply-a-substrate-for-c-to-u-editing
#20
Harold C Smith
Apolipoprotein B mRNA Editing Catalytic Polypeptide-like 1 or APOBEC1 was discovered in 1993 as the zinc-dependent cytidine deaminase responsible for the production of an in frame stop codon in apoB mRNA through modification of cytidine at nucleotide position 6666 to uridine. At the time of this discovery there was much speculation concerning the mechanism of base modification RNA editing which has been rekindled by the discovery of multiple C to U RNA editing events in the 3' UTRs of mRNAs and the finding that other members of the APOBEC family while able to bind RNA, have the biological function of being DNA mutating enzymes...
November 21, 2016: RNA Biology
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