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Apolipoprotein B

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930591/lipoprotein-a-and-cardiovascular-disease-current-state-and-future-directions-for-an-enigmatic-lipoprotein
#1
Anum Saeed, Salim S Virani
Lipoprotein (a) (Lp (a)) is a complex polymorphic lipoprotein. Although structurally similar to low-density lipoprotein, Lp(a) has a glycoprotein, apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)), attached to the apolipoprotein B-100 component. Several unique properties of Lp(a) can be attributed to the presence of apo(a). Several decades of research has improved our understanding of the structure, biochemistry, and pathophysiology of Lp(a) associated diseases. Genetic, epidemiological, and translational data indicate that elevated Lp(a) levels are likely in the causal pathway for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases as well as calcification of the aortic valves...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928170/effect-of-adding-bezafibrate-to-standard-lipid-lowering-therapy-on-post-fat-load-lipid-levels-in-patients-with-familial-dysbetalipoproteinemia-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-crossover-trial
#2
Charlotte Koopal, A David Marais, Jan Westerink, Yolanda van der Graaf, Frank L J Visseren
Familial dysbetalipoproteinemia (FD) is a genetic disorder associated with impaired postprandial lipid clearance. The effect of adding bezafibrate to standard lipid-lowering therapy on postprandial and fasting lipid levels in patients with FD is unknown. In this randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover trial, 15 patients with FD received bezafibrate and placebo for 6 weeks in randomized order in addition to standard lipid-lowering therapy (statin, ezetimibe and/or lifestyle). We assessed post-fat load lipids, expressed as (incremental) area under the curve (iAUC and AUC); as well as fasting levels and safety, and found that adding bezafibrate did not reduce post-fat load non-HDL-cholesterol (non-HDL-C) iAUC (1...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926730/impact-of-evolocumab-treatment-on-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-levels-in-heterozygous-familial-hypercholesterolemic-patients-withdrawing-from-regular-apheresis
#3
Masa-Aki Kawashiri, Atsushi Nohara, Toshinori Higashikata, Hayato Tada, Chiaki Nakanishi, Hirofumi Okada, Tetsuo Konno, Kenji Sakata, Kenshi Hayashi, Akihiro Inazu, Hiroshi Mabuchi, Masakazu Yamagishi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis has been used to treat refractory hyperlipidemia such as familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Evolocumab, a proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor used in clinical settings, can reduce LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) levels by >70%. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the impact of evolocumab on withdrawal from regular LDL apheresis in patients with heterozygous FH (HeFH). METHODS: Eleven patients with HeFH undergoing biweekly LDL apheresis were enrolled and were subsequently switched to a biweekly subcutaneous injection of 140 mg of evolocumab...
September 9, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924146/apols-with-low-ph-dependence-can-kill-all-african-trypanosomes
#4
Frédéric Fontaine, Laurence Lecordier, Gilles Vanwalleghem, Pierrick Uzureau, Nick Van Reet, Martina Fontaine, Patricia Tebabi, Benoit Vanhollebeke, Philippe Büscher, David Pérez-Morga, Etienne Pays
The primate-specific serum protein apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) is the only secreted member of a family of cell death promoting proteins (1-4) . APOL1 kills the bloodstream parasite Trypanosoma brucei brucei, but not the human sleeping sickness agents T.b. rhodesiense and T.b. gambiense (3) . We considered the possibility that intracellular members of the APOL1 family, against which extracellular trypanosomes could not have evolved resistance, could kill pathogenic T. brucei subspecies. Here we show that recombinant APOL3 (rAPOL3) kills all African trypanosomes, including T...
September 18, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924084/comparison-of-the-effect-of-trans-fatty-acid-isomers-on-apolipoprotein-a1-and-b-secretion-in-hepg2-cells
#5
Koji Nagao, Kazuaki Yoshinaga, Toshiharu Nagai, Hoyo Mizobe, Akihiko Yoshida, Fumiaki Beppu, Naohiro Gotoh
Intake of trans fatty acid (TFA) is believed to change the ratio of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in blood, which leads to cardiovascular disease. In this study, thirteen types of TFA including monoene type TFA (trans-octadecenoic fatty acid isomers, t-18:1 isomers), diene type TFA (t9,t12-18:2), and triene type TFA (t-18:3) were added to cultured HepG2 cells to compare the amount of apolipoprotein A1 and B (those relating to levels of HDL and LDL cholesterol in blood, respectively) being secreted...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918033/six-highly-conserved-targets-of-rnai-revealed-in-hiv-1-infected-patients-from-russia-are-also-present-in-many-hiv-1-strains-worldwide
#6
Olga V Kretova, Daria M Fedoseeva, Maria A Gorbacheva, Natalya M Gashnikova, Maria P Gashnikova, Nataliya V Melnikova, Vladimir R Chechetkin, Yuri V Kravatsky, Nickolai A Tchurikov
RNAi has been suggested for use in gene therapy of HIV/AIDS, but the main problem is that HIV-1 is highly variable and could escape attack from the small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) due to even single nucleotide substitutions in the potential targets. To exhaustively check the variability in selected RNA targets of HIV-1, we used ultra-deep sequencing of six regions of HIV-1 from the plasma of two independent cohorts of patients from Russia. Six RNAi targets were found that are invariable in 82%-97% of viruses in both cohorts and are located inside the domains specifying reverse transcriptase (RT), integrase, vpu, gp120, and p17...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912679/proteomic-differences-in-blood-plasma-associated-with-antidepressant-treatment-response
#7
Christoph W Turck, Paul C Guest, Giuseppina Maccarrone, Marcus Ising, Stefan Kloiber, Susanne Lucae, Florian Holsboer, Daniel Martins-de-Souza
The current inability of clinical psychiatry to objectively select the most appropriate treatment is a major factor contributing to the severity and clinical burden of major depressive disorder (MDD). Here, we have attempted to identify plasma protein signatures in 39 MDD patients to predict response over a 6-week treatment period with antidepressants. LC-MS/MS analysis showed that differences in the levels of 29 proteins at baseline were found in the group with a favorable treatment outcome. Most of these proteins were components of metabolism or immune response pathways as well as multiple components of the coagulation cascade...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912655/chronic-eccentric-exercise-and-antioxidant-supplementation-effects-on-lipid-profile-and-insulin-sensitivity
#8
Christina Yfanti, Athanasios Tsiokanos, Ioannis G Fatouros, Anastasios A Theodorou, Chariklia K Deli, Yiannis Koutedakis, Athanasios Z Jamurtas
Eccentric exercise has been shown to exert beneficial effects in both lipid profile and insulin sensitivity. Antioxidant supplementation during chronic exercise is controversial as it may prevent the physiological training-induced adaptations. The aim of this study was to investigate: 1) the minimum duration of the eccentric exercise training required before changes on metabolic parameters are observed and 2) whether antioxidant supplementation during training would interfere with these adaptations. Sixteen young healthy men were randomized into the Vit group (1 g of vitamin C and 400 IU vitamin E daily) and the placebo (PL) group...
September 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910603/apolipoprotein-a-iv-constrains-hpa-and-behavioral-stress-responsivity-in-a-strain-dependent-manner
#9
Amy E B Packard, Jintao Zhang, Brent Myers, Chih-Wei Ko, Fei Wang, Patrick Tso, Yvonne M Ulrich-Lai
There is a critical gap in our knowledge of the mechanisms that govern interactions between daily life experiences (e.g., stress) and metabolic diseases, despite evidence that stress can have profound effects on cardiometabolic health. Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) is a protein found in chylomicrons (lipoprotein particles that transport lipids throughout the body) where it participates in lipid handling and the regulation of peripheral metabolism. Moreover, apoA-IV is expressed in brain regions that regulate energy balance including the arcuate nucleus...
September 1, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910310/gugulipid-causes-hypercholesterolemia-leading-to-endothelial-dysfunction-increased-atherosclerosis-and-premature-death-by-ischemic-heart-disease-in-male-mice
#10
Andrea Leiva, Susana Contreras-Duarte, Ludwig Amigo, Esteban Sepúlveda, Mauricio Boric, Verónica Quiñones, Dolores Busso, Attilio Rigotti
For proper cholesterol metabolism, normal expression and function of scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI), a high-density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor, is required. Among the factors that regulate overall cholesterol homeostasis and HDL metabolism, the nuclear farnesoid X receptor plays an important role. Guggulsterone, a bioactive compound present in the natural product gugulipid, is an antagonist of this receptor. This natural product is widely used globally as a natural lipid-lowering agent, although its anti-atherogenic cardiovascular benefit in animal models or humans is unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905478/efficacy-and-safety-of-alirocumab-in-insulin-treated-individuals-with-type-1-or-type-2-diabetes-and-high-cardiovascular-risk-the-odyssey-dm-insulin-randomized-trial
#11
Lawrence A Leiter, Bertrand Cariou, Dirk Müller-Wieland, Helen M Colhoun, Stefano Del Prato, Francisco J Tinahones, Kausik K Ray, Maja Bujas-Bobanovic, Catherine Domenger, Jonas Mandel, Rita Samuel, Robert R Henry
AIMS: To investigate efficacy and safety of alirocumab in participants with type 2 or type 1 diabetes treated with insulin and with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) despite maximally tolerated statin therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants at high cardiovascular risk with type 2 (n = 441) or type 1 diabetes (n = 76) and LDL-C ≥70 mg/dL (≥1.8 mmol/L) were randomized 2:1 to alirocumab:placebo administered subcutaneously every 2 weeks (Q2W), for 24 weeks' double-blind treatment...
September 14, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902930/association-between-polymorphisms-in-the-apob-gene-and-hyperlipidemia-in-the-chinese-yugur-population
#12
Q-L Gu, Y Han, Y-M Lan, Y Li, W Kou, Y-S Zhou, X-J Hai, B Yan, C-H Ci
We investigated the influence of apolipoprotein B gene (APOB) variants on the risk of hyperlipidemia (HL) in 631 middle-aged and elderly members of the Chinese Yugur population (HL, n=336; normolipidemia, n=295). APOB polymorphisms were identified using mass spectrometry, and five single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs1042034, rs2163204, rs512535, rs676210, and rs679899) and serum lipids were further analyzed. rs1042034 and rs676210 were significantly associated with HL (P<0.05). Compared with the GG or AA genotype, individuals with AG and AG+AA in rs1042034 and with AG and AG+GG in rs676210 had a 1...
September 12, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900205/apoe4-associated-phospholipid-dysregulation-contributes-to-development-of-tau-hyper-phosphorylation-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Jiqing Cao, Farida El Gaamouch, James S Meabon, Kole D Meeker, Li Zhu, Margaret B Zhong, John Bendik, Gregory Elder, Ping Jing, Jiahong Xia, Wenjie Luo, David G Cook, Dongming Cai
The apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) genotype combines with traumatic brain injury (TBI) to increase the risk of developing Alzheimer's Disease (AD). However, the underlying mechanism(s) is not well-understood. We found that after exposure to repetitive blast-induced TBI, phosphoinositol biphosphate (PIP2) levels in hippocampal regions of young ApoE3 mice were elevated and associated with reduction in expression of a PIP2 degrading enzyme, synaptojanin 1 (synj1). In contrast, hippocampal PIP2 levels in ApoE4 mice did not increase after blast TBI...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898389/racial-differences-in-the-association-between-apolipoprotein-e-risk-alleles-and-overall-and-total-cardiovascular-mortality-over-18%C3%A2-years
#14
Kumar B Rajan, Lisa L Barnes, Robert S Wilson, Elizabeth A McAninch, Jennifer Weuve, Dominique Sighoko, Denis A Evans
OBJECTIVES: To examine the difference in the association between apolipoprotein (APO)E allele and overall and cardiovascular mortality between African Americans (AAs) and European Americans (EAs). DESIGN: Longitudinal, cohort study of 18 years. SETTING: Biracial urban US population sample. PARTICIPANTS: 4,917, 68% AA and 32% EA. MEASUREMENTS: APOE genotype and mortality based on National Death Index...
September 12, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888368/involvement-of-scavenger-receptor-class-b-type-1-and-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-in-the-internalization-of-liposomes-into-hepg2-cells
#15
Kumiko Sakai-Kato, Mari Sakurai, Yuki Takechi-Haraya, Kunie Nanjo, Yukihiro Goda
In this study, HepG2 cells, an in vitro model system for human hepatocytes, were used to evaluate the interaction of lipoprotein receptors with liposomes carrying fluorescently labeled cholesterol and their subsequent intracellular uptake. In these experiments, two lipoprotein receptors, scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), accounted for approximately 20% and 10%, respectively, of the intracellular uptake of the labeled liposomes. These findings indicate that additional mechanisms contributed to liposomal internalization...
September 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882870/crispr-cas9-mediated-gene-editing-in-human-ipsc-derived-macrophage-reveals-lysosomal-acid-lipase-function-in-human-macrophages
#16
Hanrui Zhang, Jianting Shi, Melanie A Hachet, Chenyi Xue, Robert C Bauer, Hongfeng Jiang, Wenjun Li, Junichiro Tohyama, John Millar, Jeffrey Billheimer, Michael C Phillips, Babak Razani, Daniel J Rader, Muredach P Reilly
OBJECTIVE: To gain mechanistic insights into the role of LIPA(lipase A), the gene encoding LAL (lysosomal acid lipase) protein, in human macrophages. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We used CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats )/Cas9 (CRISPR-associated protein 9) technology to knock out LIPA in human induced pluripotent stem cells and then differentiate to macrophage (human-induced pluripotent stem cells-derived macrophage [IPSDM]) to explore the human macrophage LIPA loss-of-function phenotypes...
September 7, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874158/associations-of-the-apob-rs693-and-rs17240441-polymorphisms-with-plasma-apob-and-lipid-levels-a-meta-analysis
#17
Caiqin Niu, Zhi Luo, Liuqin Yu, Yang Yang, Yun Chen, Xin Luo, Feiya Lai, Yongyan Song
BACKGROUND: The associations of the apolipoprotein B gene (APOB) rs693 and rs17240441 polymorphisms with plasma levels of APOB and lipids have been widely explored, but the results were inconclusive. This meta-analysis aimed to clarify the associations of the rs693 and rs17240441 polymorphisms with fasting APOB and lipid levels. METHODS: Sixty-one studies (50,018 subjects) and 23 studies (8425 subjects) were respectively identified for the rs693 and rs17240441 polymorphisms by searching in PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Wanfang, VIP and CNKI databases...
September 6, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870784/isotypes-of-autoantibodies-against-differentially-expressed-novel-malondialdehyde-modified-peptide-adducts-in-serum-of-taiwanese-women-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#18
Chen-Chung Liao, Yu-Sheng Chang, Chao-Wen Cheng, Wei-Ming Chi, Kai-Leun Tsai, Wei-Jung Chen, Ting-Shuan Kung, Chih-Chun Tai, Yi-Fang Lin, Hung-Tse Lin, Yi-Ying Lu, Ching-Yu Lin
This study identified and validated four differentially expressed novel malondialdehyde (MDA)-modified peptide adducts and evaluated autoantibodies against native and MDA-modified peptides among Taiwanese women patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoarthritis (OA) and healthy controls (HCs). Ig kappa chain C region(76-99), alpha-1-antitrypsin(284-298), alpha-2-macroglobulin(824-841), and apolipoprotein B-100(4022-4040) exhibiting 2-fold differences in relative modification ratios were identified by concanavalin A (Con A) affinity chromatography, 1D SDS-PAGE, in-gel digestion, nano-LC/MS/MS and nano-LC/MS using pooled serum-derived Con A-captured proteins from 9 RA and 9 age-matched HCs...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870551/low-idl-b-and-high-ldl-1-subfraction-levels-in-serum-of-als-patients
#19
J B Delaye, F Patin, E Piver, C Bruno, M Vasse, P Vourc'h, C R Andres, P Corcia, H Blasco
INTRODUCTION: Converging evidence highlights that lipid metabolism plays a key role in ALS pathophysiology. Dyslipidemia has been described in ALS patients and may be protective but peripheral lipoprotein subclasses have never been studied. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We collected sera from 30 ALS patients and 30 gender and age-matched controls. We analyzed 11 distinct lipoprotein subclasses by linear polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Lipoprint, Quantimetrix Corporation, USA)...
September 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870113/advances-in-quantifying-apolipoproteins-using-lc-ms-ms-technology-implications-for-the-clinic
#20
Irene van den Broek, Kimia Sobhani, Jennifer E Van Eyk
Apolipoproteins play a key role in pre-, pro-, and anti-atherosclerotic processes and have become important circulating biomarkers for the prediction of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Whereas currently clinical immunoassays are not available for most apolipoproteins and lack the capacity for multiplexing, liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) allows simultaneous, highly-specific, and precise quantification of multiple apolipoproteins. Areas covered: We discuss LC-MS/MS methods for quantification of apolipoproteins reported in the literature and highlight key requirements for clinical use...
September 5, 2017: Expert Review of Proteomics
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