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Apolipoprotein B

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429734/neuroprotective-pentapeptide-cn-105-is-associated-with-reduced-sterile-inflammation-and-improved-functional-outcomes-in-a-traumatic-brain-injury-murine-model
#1
Daniel T Laskowitz, Haichen Wang, Tony Chen, David T Lubkin, Viviana Cantillana, Tian Ming Tu, Dawn Kernagis, Guanen Zhou, Gary Macy, Bradley J Kolls, Hana N Dawson
At present, there are no proven pharmacological treatments demonstrated to improve long term functional outcomes following traumatic brain injury(TBI). In the setting of non-penetrating TBI, sterile brain inflammatory responses are associated with the development of cerebral edema, intracranial hypertension, and secondary neuronal injury. There is increasing evidence that endogenous apolipoprotein E(apoE) modifies the neuroinflammatory response through its role in downregulating glial activation, however, the intact apoE holoprotein does not cross the blood-brain barrier due to its size...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428219/deficiency-of-cholesteryl-ester-transfer-protein-protects-against-atherosclerosis-in-rabbits
#2
Jifeng Zhang, Manabu Niimi, Dongshan Yang, Jingyan Liang, Jie Xu, Tokuhide Kimura, Anna V Mattew, Yanhong Guo, Yanbo Fan, Tianqing Zhu, Jun Song, Rose Ackermann, Yui Koike, Anna Schwendeman, Liangxue Lai, Subramaniam Pennathur, Minerva Garcia-Barrio, Jianglin Fan, Y Eugene Chen
OBJECTIVE: CETP (cholesteryl ester transfer protein) plays an important role in lipoprotein metabolism; however, whether inhibition of CETP activity can prevent cardiovascular disease remains controversial. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We generated CETP knockout (KO) rabbits by zinc finger nuclease gene editing and compared their susceptibility to cholesterol diet-induced atherosclerosis to that of wild-type (WT) rabbits. On a chow diet, KO rabbits showed higher plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol than WT controls, and HDL particles of KO rabbits were essentially rich in apolipoprotein AI and apolipoprotein E contents...
April 20, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427397/hvc1-ameliorates-hyperlipidemia-and-inflammation-in-ldlr-mice
#3
Se-Yun Cheon, Kyung-Sook Chung, Kyung-Jin Lee, Ho-Young Choi, In-Hye Ham, Dong-Hoon Jung, Yun-Yeop Cha, Hyo-Jin An
BACKGROUND: HVC1 consists of Coptidis Rhizoma (dried rhizome of Coptischinensis), Scutellariae Radix (root of Scutellariabaicalensis), Rhei Rhizoma (rhizome of Rheum officinale), and Pruni Cortex (cortex of Prunusyedoensis Matsum). Although the components are known to be effective in various conditions such as inflammation, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia, there are no reports of the molecular mechanism of its hypolipidemic effects. METHODS: We investigated the hypolipidemic effect of HVC1 in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLR(-/-)) mice fed a high-cholesterol diet for 13 weeks...
April 20, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421320/hepatocyte-specific-depletion-of-ubiquitin-regulatory-x-domain-containing-protein-8-accelerates-fibrosis-in-a-mouse-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-model
#4
Norihiro Imai, Michitaka Suzuki, Yoji Ishizu, Teiji Kuzuya, Takashi Honda, Kazuhiko Hayashi, Masatoshi Ishigami, Yoshiki Hirooka, Tetsuya Ishikawa, Hidemi Goto, Toyoshi Fujimoto
Ubiquitin regulatory X domain-containing protein 8 (UBXD8) is engaged in the degradation of lipidated apolipoprotein B in hepatocytes. We previously showed that hepatocyte-specific UBXD8-deficient mice (U8-HKO) fed a moderately high-fat diet (31 kcal % fat) showed periportal macrovesicular steatosis along with a decrease in very low-density lipoprotein secretion, but did not develop fibrosis. In the present study, we examined whether U8-HKO mice show NASH-like phenotypes when fed a very high-fat diet (60 kcal % fat)...
April 18, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420693/modulation-of-innate-immunity-of-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-by-omega-3-fatty-acids
#5
REVIEW
Milan Fiala, Gijs Kooij, Karen Wagner, Bruce Hammock, Matteo Pellegrini
The innate immune system of patients with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is deregulated with highly increased or decreased transcription of inflammatory genes and consistently depressed phagocytosis of amyloid-β1-42 (Aβ) by monocytes and macrophages. Current immune therapies target single mechanisms in the adaptive immune system but not innate immunity. Here, we summarize recent advances in therapy by ω-3, ω-6, and epoxy fatty acids; specialized proresolving mediators; and vitamin D3 that have proven immune effects and emerging cognitive effects in patients with MCI...
April 18, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419892/plasma-apolipoproteins-and-physical-and-cognitive-health-in-very-old-individuals
#6
Julia Muenchhoff, Fei Song, Anne Poljak, John D Crawford, Karen A Mather, Nicole A Kochan, Zixuan Yang, Julian N Trollor, Simone Reppermund, Kate Maston, Adam Theobald, Susanne Kirchner-Adelhardt, John B Kwok, Robyn L Richmond, Mark McEvoy, John Attia, Peter W Schofield, Henry Brodaty, Perminder S Sachdev
Apolipoproteins play a crucial role in lipid metabolism with implications in cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and longevity. We quantified 7 apolipoproteins in plasma in 1067 individuals aged 56-105 using immunoassays and explored relationships with APOE polymorphism ε2/3/4, vascular health, frailty, and cognition. ApoA1, ApoA2, ApoB, ApoC3, ApoE, ApoH, and ApoJ decreased from mid-life, although ApoE and ApoJ had U-shaped trends. Centenarians had the highest ApoE levels and the lowest frequency of APOE ε4 allele relative to younger groups...
March 1, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413474/obesity-contributes-more-to-increasing-apob-apoa1-ratio-than-hyperandrogenism-in-pcos-women-aged-20-38-years-in-china
#7
Jianhua Zheng, Qianqian Yin, Juanyi Cao, Bei Zhang
We investigated the association between the apolipoprotein B (ApoB)/apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) ratio and insulin resistance (IR), metabolic syndrome (MS) and its components in Chinese polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) adults. We also examined whether hyperandrogenism is involved in obesity-related metabolic abnormalities in a cohort of patients. A clinical cross-sectional study consisting of 532 Chinese PCOS adults aged 20-38 years was designed. Each subject underwent a physical examination and laboratory evaluation...
April 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413315/the-involvement-of-ginseng-berry-extract-in-blood-flow-via-regulation-of-blood-coagulation-in-rats-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#8
Min Hee Kim, Jongsung Lee, Sehyun Jung, Joo Wan Kim, Jae-Ho Shin, Hae-Jeung Lee
BACKGROUND: The present study investigated the effect of ginseng berry hot water extract (GBx) on blood flow via the regulation of lipid metabolites and blood coagulation in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). METHODS: Sixty rats were divided into five groups in descending order of body weight. Except for the control group, the other four groups were fed a HFD containing 45% kcal from fat for 11 wk without GBx. GBx groups were then additionally treated by gastric gavage with GBx dissolved in distilled water at 50 (GBx 50) mg/kg, 100 (GBx 100) mg/kg, or 150 (GBx 150) mg/kg body weight for 6 wk along with the HFD...
April 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408313/preventing-cardiovascular-heart-disease-promising-nutraceutical-and-non-nutraceutical-treatments-for-cholesterol-management
#9
REVIEW
T P Johnston, T A Korolenko, M Pirro, A Sahebkar
Hypercholesterolemia is one of the major risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis resulting from hypercholesterolemia causes many serious cardiovascular diseases. Statins are generally accepted as a treatment of choice for lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, which reduces coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality. Since statin use can be associated with muscle problems and other adverse symptoms, non-adherence and discontinuation of statin therapy often leads to inadequate control of plasma cholesterol levels and increased cardiovascular risk...
April 10, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407176/serum-proteomic-spectral-characteristics-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia-and-their-clinical-significance
#10
R-J Zheng, R-J Wu, X-D Ma
We investigated the differences between the serum proteomic spectral characteristics of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients and those of healthy people. We collected peripheral blood serum samples from 62 AML patients and 15 healthy controls. After removing high-abundance proteins, low-abundance serum proteins were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to identify differences between AML patients and healthy people. We investigated the different protein dots by mass fingerprint analysis, and evaluated the results using the Masort retrieval program provided by the MSDB protein bank...
April 13, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405512/high-expression-of-pd-1-ligands-is-associated-with-kataegis-mutational-signature-and-apobec3-alterations
#11
Amélie Boichard, Igor F Tsigelny, Razelle Kurzrock
Immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors, such as antibodies blocking the programmed cell-death receptor-1 (PD-1), has resulted in remarkable responses in patients having traditionally refractory cancers. Although response to PD-1 inhibitors correlates with PD-1 ligand (PD-L1 or PD-L2) expression, PD-1 ligand positivity represents only a part of the predictive model necessary for selecting patients predisposed to respond to immunotherapy. We used all genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and phenotypic data related to 8,475 pan-cancer samples available in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and conducted a logistic regression analysis based on a large set of variables, such as microsatellite instability (MSI-H), mismatch repair (MMR) alterations, polymerase δ (POLD1) and polymerase ε (POLE) mutations, activation-induced/apolipoprotein-B editing cytidine deaminases (AID/APOBEC) alterations, lymphocyte markers and mutation burden estimates to determine independent factors that associate with PD-1 ligand overexpression...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403877/a-comparison-of-effects-of-dpp-4-inhibitor-and-sglt2-inhibitor-on-lipid-profile-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#12
Seon-Ah Cha, Yong-Moon Park, Jae-Seung Yun, Tae-Seok Lim, Ki-Ho Song, Ki-Dong Yoo, Yu-Bae Ahn, Seung-Hyun Ko
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have different effects on the lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated the effects of DPP-4 inhibitors and SGLT2 inhibitors on the lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: From January 2013 to December 2015, a total of 228 patients with type 2 diabetes who were receiving a DPP-4 inhibitor or SGLT2 inhibitor as add-on therapy to metformin and/or a sulfonylurea were consecutively enrolled...
April 13, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400268/genetic-evidence-supporting-the-taxonomic-separation-of-the-arabian-and-northwest-african-subspecies-of-the-desert-hedgehog-paraechinus-aethiopicus
#13
Louiza Derouiche, Paul Vercammen, Rachid Bouhadad, Carlos Fernandes
Traditional subspecies call attention to differences between geographic populations with research potential, but their value is often in need of revision. Genetic data can be useful for evaluating the taxonomic validity of historical species and subspecies designations or for identifying morphologically cryptic divergent lineages worthy of further in-depth taxonomic study. The desert hedgehog (Paraechinus aethiopicus) has a wide but fragmented distribution in arid and semi-arid habitats from the northwest to the northeast of Africa and southwestern Asia, and its taxonomy is still unclear...
April 8, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398248/adar1-and-microrna-a-hidden-crosstalk-in-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Charles J Cho, Seung-Jae Myung, Suhwan Chang
The evolution of cancer cells is believed to be dependent on genetic or epigenetic alterations. However, this concept has recently been challenged by another mode of nucleotide alteration, RNA editing, which is frequently up-regulated in cancer. RNA editing is a biochemical process in which either Adenosine or Cytosine is deaminated by a group of RNA editing enzymes including ADAR (Adenosine deaminase; RNA specific) or APOBEC3B (Apolipoprotein B mRNA Editing Enzyme Catalytic Subunit 3B). The result of RNA editing is usually adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) or cytidine to uridine (C-to-U) transition, which can affect protein coding, RNA stability, splicing and microRNA-target interactions...
April 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391915/plasma-pcsk9-concentrations-during-the-course-of-nondiabetic-chronic-kidney-disease-relationship-with-glomerular-filtration-rate-and-lipid-metabolism
#15
Marion Morena, Cédric Le May, Leila Chenine, Lucie Arnaud, Anne-Marie Dupuy, Matthieu Pichelin, Hélène Leray-Moragues, Lotfi Chalabi, Bernard Canaud, Jean-Paul Cristol, Bertrand Cariou
BACKGROUND: The association between proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), a critical regulator of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) metabolism, and kidney function is a matter of debate. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the association of circulating PCSK9 concentrations with both glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and serum lipid parameters in nondiabetic patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: Fasting plasma PCSK9 concentrations were measured by ELISA in 94 nondiabetic nondialysis CKD (ND-CKD) patients not receiving statins, at different stages of CKD...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391875/effects-of-mat9001-containing-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-docosapentaenoic-acid-compared-to-eicosapentaenoic-acid-ethyl-esters-on-triglycerides-lipoprotein-cholesterol-and-related-variables
#16
Kevin C Maki, George Bobotas, Mary R Dicklin, Margie Huebner, William F Keane
BACKGROUND: Long-chain omega-3 fatty acid concentrate pharmaceuticals are used in the United States for treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia (≥500 mg/dL) and are under investigation as adjuncts to statins for lowering cardiovascular risk in patients with high triglycerides (TGs; 200-499 mg/dL). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate MAT9001, an investigational prescription-only omega-3 fatty acid agent containing predominantly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosapentaenoic acid, in 42 men and women with fasting TG 200 to 400 mg/dL...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388428/a-drug-screen-using-human-ipsc-derived-hepatocyte-like-cells-reveals-cardiac-glycosides-as-a-potential-treatment-for-hypercholesterolemia
#17
Max A Cayo, Sunil K Mallanna, Francesca Di Furio, Ran Jing, Lauren B Tolliver, Matthew Bures, Amanda Urick, Fallon K Noto, Evanthia E Pashos, Matthew D Greseth, Maciej Czarnecki, Paula Traktman, Wenli Yang, Edward E Morrisey, Markus Grompe, Daniel J Rader, Stephen A Duncan
Efforts to identify pharmaceuticals to treat heritable metabolic liver diseases have been hampered by the lack of models. However, cells with hepatocyte characteristics can be produced from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Here, we have used hepatocyte-like cells generated from homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (hoFH) iPSCs to identify drugs that can potentially be repurposed to lower serum LDL-C. We found that cardiac glycosides reduce the production of apolipoprotein B (apoB) from human hepatocytes in culture and the serum of avatar mice harboring humanized livers...
April 6, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385702/a-shift-in-apom-s1p-between-hdl-particles-in-women-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-is-associated-with-impaired-anti-inflammatory-effects-of-the-apom-s1p-complex
#18
Cecilia Frej, Armando J Mendez, Mario Ruiz, Melanie Castillo, Thomas A Hughes, Björn Dahlbäck, Ronald B Goldberg
OBJECTIVE: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) patients have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease despite high levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL). Apolipoprotein M (apoM) and its ligand sphingosine 1-phospate (S1P) exert many of the anti-inflammatory effects of HDL. We investigated whether apoM and S1P are altered in T1D and whether apoM and S1P are important for HDL functionality in T1D. APPROACH AND RESULTS: ApoM and S1P were quantified in plasma from 42 healthy controls and 89 T1D patients...
April 6, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382703/rationally-designed-ligand-independent-peptide-inhibitors-of-trem-1-ameliorate-collagen-induced-arthritis
#19
Zu T Shen, Alexander B Sigalov
Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM-1) is critically involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In contrast to cytokine blockers, therapeutic blockade of TREM-1 can blunt excessive inflammation while preserving the capacity for microbial control. However, the nature of the TREM-1 ligand(s) and mechanisms of TREM-1 signalling are still not yet well understood, impeding the development of clinically relevant inhibitors of TREM-1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-arthritic activity of a novel, ligand-independent TREM-1 inhibitory nonapeptide GF9 that was rationally designed using the signalling chain homo oligomerization (SCHOOL) model of cell signalling...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381766/recent-advances-in-fluorescent-angioscopy-for-molecular-imaging-of-human-atherosclerotic-coronary-plaque
#20
Yasumi Uchida
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In vivo imaging of the native substances, including lipoproteins, that comprise human atherosclerotic plaques is currently beyond the scope of any available imaging techniques. Color and near-infrared fluorescent angioscopy (CFA and NIRFA, respectively) systems have been recently developed for molecular imaging of lipoproteins within the human coronary arterial wall ex vivo and/or in vivo. The author reviews recent findings on lipoprotein deposition in human coronary plaques obtained by these imaging techniques...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
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