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Apolipoprotein B

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350757/hepatoprotective-effects-of-sophoricoside-against-fructose-induced-liver-injury-via-regulating-lipid-metabolism-oxidation-and-inflammation-in-mice
#1
Wenfeng Li, Yalong Lu
The dried fruit of Sophora japonica L. is a traditional Chinese herb tea rich in sophoricoside that is an isoflavone glycoside. The aim of current study was to investigate the hepatic protective effect of sophoricoside in high fructose (HF) diet fed mice. Healthy male mice were fed 30% fructose water and treated 80 and 160 mg/kg·bw sophoricoside continuously for 8 wk. Our data showed that administration of sophoricoside at 80 and 160 mg/kg·bw observably decreased the body weight and liver weight in HF-fed mice...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347817/biochemical-basis-of-apobec3-deoxycytidine-deaminase-activity-on-diverse-dna-substrates
#2
Madison B Adolph, Robin P Love, Linda Chelico
The Apolipoprotein B mRNA editing complex (APOBEC) family of enzymes are single-stranded polynucleotide cytidine deaminases. These enzymes catalyze the deamination of cytidine in RNA or single-stranded DNA, which forms uracil. From this eleven member enzyme family in humans, the deamination of single-stranded DNA by the seven APOBEC3 family members are considered here. The APOBEC3 family has many roles such as, restricting endogenous and exogenous retrovirus replication and retrotransposon insertion events and reducing DNA-induced inflammation...
January 18, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346416/decoding-the-network-of-trypanosoma-brucei-proteins-that-determines-sensitivity-to-apolipoprotein-l1
#3
Rachel B Currier, Anneli Cooper, Hollie Burrell-Saward, Annette MacLeod, Sam Alsford
In contrast to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense (the causative agents of human African trypanosomiasis), T. b. brucei is lysed by apolipoprotein-L1 (apoL1)-containing human serum trypanolytic factors (TLF), rendering it non-infectious to humans. While the mechanisms of TLF1 uptake, apoL1 membrane integration, and T. b. gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense apoL1-resistance have been extensively characterised, our understanding of the range of factors that drive apoL1 action in T. b. brucei is limited...
January 18, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345375/understanding-the-regulation-of-apobec3-expression-current-evidence-and-much-to-learn
#4
REVIEW
Daniela Angela Covino, Maria Cristina Gauzzi, Laura Fantuzzi
The apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) family of cytosine deaminases plays crucial roles in innate immunity through the ability of restricting viral replication by deamination and mutation of viral genomes. The antiviral function of these proteins was first discovered when research in the field of HIV infection revealed that one member of the family, namely APOBEC3G, restricts HIV infection in T lymphocytes and that the viral infectivity factor protein drives the proteosomal degradation of this enzyme, thus overriding its antiviral function...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344841/association-of-d-dimer-with-plaque-characteristics-and-plasma-biomarkers-of-oxidation-specific-epitopes-in-stable-subjects-with-coronary-artery-disease
#5
Hema Kothari, Anh T Nguyen, Xiaohong Yang, Yohei Hisada, Sotirios Tsimikas, Nigel Mackman, Angela Taylor, Coleen A McNamara
D-dimer has emerged as a biomarker of cardiovascular event risk, yet pathophysiological factors associated with plasma D-dimer levels in stable coronary artery disease (CAD) subjects are poorly understood. In 106 stable CAD subjects undergoing intravascular ultrasound with virtual histology (IVUS-VH), we measured D-dimer, lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)), plasminogen, biomarkers reflecting oxidation-specific epitopes (OSE) such as oxidized phospholipids on apolipoprotein B-100 (OxPL-apoB), OxPL on plasminogen (OxPL-PLG), and autoantibodies to phosphorylcholine-BSA [PC-BSA] and a malondialdehyde [MDA] mimotope...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343743/expression-and-subcellular-localisation-of-aid-and-apobec3-in-adenoid-and-palatine-tonsils
#6
Noriko Seishima, Satoru Kondo, Kousho Wakae, Naohiro Wakisaka, Eiji Kobayashi, Makoto Kano, Makiko Moriyama-Kita, Yosuke Nakanishi, Kazuhira Endo, Tomoko Imoto, Kazuya Ishikawa, Hisashi Sugimoto, Miyako Hatano, Takayoshi Ueno, Miki Koura, Koichi Kitamura, Masamichi Muramatsu, Tomokazu Yoshizaki
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing catalytic polypeptide 3 (A3) family are cytidine deaminases that play critical roles in B-cell maturation, antiviral immunity and carcinogenesis. Adenoids and palatine tonsils are secondary lymphoid immune organs, in which AID and A3s are thought to have several physiological or pathological roles. However, the expression of AID or A3s in these organs has not been investigated. Therefore, we investigated the expression profiles of AID and A3s, using 67 samples of adenoids and palatine tonsils from patients, with reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemical analyses...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340115/hypermutation-and-microsatellite-instability-in-gastrointestinal-cancers
#7
REVIEW
Kizuki Yuza, Masayuki Nagahashi, Satoshi Watanabe, Kazuaki Takabe, Toshifumi Wakai
Recent progress in cancer genome analysis using next-generation sequencing has revealed a high mutation burden in some tumors. The particularly high rate of somatic mutation in these tumors correlates with the generation of neo-antigens capable of eliciting an immune response. Identification of hypermutated tumors is therefore clinically valuable for selecting patients suitable for immunotherapy treatment. There are several known causes of hypermutation in tumors, such as ultraviolet light in melanoma, tobacco smoke in lung cancer, and excessive APOBEC (apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like) activity in breast and gastric cancer...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336935/update-on-the-laboratory-investigation-of-dyslipidemias
#8
REVIEW
I Ramasamy
The role of the clinical laboratory is evolving to provide more information to clinicians to assess cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and target therapy more effectively. Current routine methods to measure LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), the Friedewald calculation, ultracentrifugation, electrophoresis and homogeneous direct methods have established limitations. Studies suggest that LDL and HDL size or particle concentration are alternative methods to predict future CVD risk. At this time there is no consensus role for lipoprotein particle or subclasses in CVD risk assessment...
January 11, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334727/apob-apoa-i-ratio-is-independently-associated-with-carotid-atherosclerosis-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-with-well-controlled-ldl-cholesterol-levels
#9
Ji Eun Jun, Young Ju Choi, Yong-Ho Lee, Dae Jung Kim, Seok Won Park, Byung Wook Huh, Eun Jig Lee, Sun-Ha Jee, Kyu Yeon Hur, Sung Hee Choi, Kap Bum Huh
BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study aimed to investigate whether the apolipoprotein (Apo) B/ApoA-I ratio is associated with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects with low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels less than 100 mg/dL. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 845 subjects aged with T2DM 40 to 75 years who had visited Huh's Diabetes Center in Seoul, Republic of Korea for CIMT measurement. Traditional fasting lipid profiles, ApoB and ApoA-I levels were examined...
January 2018: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325447/longitudinal-association-of-amyloid-beta-and-anxious-depressive-symptoms-in-cognitively-normal-older-adults
#10
Nancy J Donovan, Joseph J Locascio, Gad A Marshall, Jennifer Gatchel, Bernard J Hanseeuw, Dorene M Rentz, Keith A Johnson, Reisa A Sperling
OBJECTIVE: To understand the role of depressive symptoms in preclinical Alzheimer's disease, it is essential to define their temporal relationship to Alzheimer's proteinopathies in cognitively normal older adults. The study objective was to examine associations of brain amyloid beta and longitudinal measures of depression and depressive symptom clusters in a cognitively normal sample of older adults. METHOD: A total of 270 community-dwelling, cognitively normal elderly individuals underwent baseline Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography (PET) measures of cortical aggregate amyloid beta and annual assessments with the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS)...
January 12, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324459/discordance-between-lipoprotein-particle-number-and-cholesterol-content-an-update
#11
Eric P Cantey, John T Wilkins
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The cholesterol content within atherogenic apolipoprotein-B (apoB) containing lipid particles is the center of consensus guidelines and clinicians' focus whenever evaluating a patient's risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The pathobiology of atherosclerosis requires the retention of lipoprotein particles within the vascular intima over time followed by maladaptive inflammation resulting in plaque formation and rupture in some. The cholesterol content is widely variable within each particle creating either cholesterol-deplete or cholesterol-enriched particles...
January 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322089/the-wisconsin-registry-for-alzheimer-s-prevention-a-review-of-findings-and-current-directions
#12
REVIEW
Sterling C Johnson, Rebecca L Koscik, Erin M Jonaitis, Lindsay R Clark, Kimberly D Mueller, Sara E Berman, Barbara B Bendlin, Corinne D Engelman, Ozioma C Okonkwo, Kirk J Hogan, Sanjay Asthana, Cynthia M Carlsson, Bruce P Hermann, Mark A Sager
The Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention is a longitudinal observational cohort study enriched with persons with a parental history (PH) of probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. Since late 2001, Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention has enrolled 1561 people at a mean baseline age of 54 years. Participants return for a second visit 4 years after baseline, and subsequent visits occur every 2 years. Eighty-one percent (1270) of participants remain active in the study at a current mean age of 64 and 9 years of follow-up...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320971/the-effect-of-nutritional-intervention-on-the-lipid-profile-and-dietary-intake-of-adolescents-with-juvenile-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
S G L da Silva, M T Terreri, T T O Abad, D Machado, F L A Fonseca, S Hix, F I Suano-Souza, R O S Sarni, C A Len
Objective This study sought to evaluate the effects of a nutritional intervention on the lipid metabolism biomarkers associated with cardiovascular risk, and their variation over time, in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) patients. This study also investigated the relationships between these biomarkers and dietary intake, nutritional status, disease variables, and medication used. Methods A total of 31 10- to 19-year-old female adolescents with JSLE for at least six months were analyzed. The participants were randomly allocated to two groups: nutritional intervention or control...
January 1, 2018: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316865/effects-of-thyroid-stimulating-hormone-on-peripheral-thyroid-hormone-metabolism-and-serum-lipids
#14
Carolien M Beukhof, Elske Theresia Massolt, Theo J Visser, Tim Korevaar, Marco Medici, Wouter W de Herder, Jeanine Roeters van Lennep, Monique Mulder, Yolanda B de Rijke, Christoph Reiners, Frederik A Verburg, Robin Peeters
BACKGROUND: Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. Whether part of these effects are mediated via direct effects of TSH on peripheral TH metabolism and/or concentrations of serum lipids is not clear. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) has direct effects on peripheral thyroid hormone (TH) metabolism and serum lipids. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 82 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer...
January 9, 2018: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316784/clusterin-induces-muc5ac-expression-via-activation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#15
Chang Hoon Bae, Hyung Gyun Na, Yoon Seok Choi, Si-Youn Song, Yong-Dae Kim
Objectives: Clusterin (CLU) is known as apolipoprotein J, and has three isoforms with different biological functions. CLU is associated with various diseases such as Alzheimer disease, atherosclerosis, and some malignancies. Recent studies report an association of CLU with inflammation and immune response in inflammatory airway diseases. However, the effect of CLU on mucin secretion of airway epithelial cells has not yet been understood. Therefore, the effect and brief signaling pathway of CLU on MUC5AC (as a major secreted mucin) expression were investigated in human airway epithelial cells...
January 11, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312456/association-of-sleep-duration-with-apolipoproteins-and-the-apolipoprotein-b-a1-ratio-the-china-health-and-nutrition-survey
#16
Huihui Ren, Zhelong Liu, Xinrong Zhou, Gang Yuan
Background: Short sleep duration has been related to established cardiovascular risk factors, likely obesity, diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. However, to the best of our knowledge, the associations between sleep duration and apolipoprotein concentrations and their ratios have not been investigated to date. This study aimed to explore the independent relationship of sleep duration with apolipoprotein (apo) A1, apoB and the apoB/apoA1 ratio in a Chinese adult population. Methods: Data from 7381 participants, aged 18 to 75 years, from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2009 were analysed in this cross-sectional study...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311405/worsening-of-serum-lipid-profile-after-direct-acting-antiviral-treatment
#17
Stefano Gitto, Arrigo F G Cicero, Elisabetta Loggi, Marina Giovannini, Fabio Conti, Elena Grandini, Valeria Guarneri, Alessandra Scuteri, Giovanni Vitale, Carmela Cursaro, Claudio Borghi, Pietro Andreone
INTRODUCTION: Host lipid metabolism influences viral replication and lifecycle of hepatitis C virus. Our aim was to evaluate changes in glucose and lipid metabolism of patients with chronic hepatitis C after therapy with direct acting antivirals (DAA). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We considered patients consecutively treated between January and November 2015 recording clinical data at baseline and week 24 of follow-up. Frozen serum samples were used for apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1), apolipoprotein B (apoB) and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)]...
December 27, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310455/association-between-serum-ldl-c-and-apob-and-syntax-score-in-patients-with-stable-coronary-artery-disease
#18
Taiwu Lin, Luzhao Wang, Jingbin Guo, Peng Liu, Liheng Chen, Mengqiu Wei, Gongxin Li
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels and the SYNergy between percutaneous coronary intervention with TAXus and cardiac surgery (SYNTAX) score (SS) in patients with stable angina pectoris. We enrolled 594 patients who were suspected to have coronary heart disease (CHD) and who underwent coronary angiography. Patients were divided into 4 groups based on the SS: normal (SS = 0, n = 154), low SS (SS ≤ 22, n = 210), intermediate SS (22 < SS < 32, n = 122), and high SS (SS ≥ 33, n = 63)...
January 1, 2018: Angiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309795/lipase-inhibitor-orlistat-prevents-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-by-targeting-an-early-step-in-the-virus-life-cycle
#19
Knud Esser, Julie Lucifora, Jochen Wettengel, Katrin Singethan, Almut Glinzer, Alma Zernecke, Ulrike Protzer
Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is a strictly hepatotropic pathogen which is very efficiently targeted to the liver and into its host cell, the hepatocyte. The sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) has been identified as a key virus entry receptor, but the early steps in the virus life cycle are still only barely understood. Here, we investigated the effect of lipase inhibition and lipoprotein uptake on HBV infection using differentiated HepaRG cells and primary human hepatocytes. We found that an excess of triglyceride rich lipoprotein particles in vitro diminished HBV infection and a reduced hepatic virus uptake in vivo if apolipoprotein E is lacking indicating virus transport along with lipoproteins to target hepatocytes...
January 5, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308443/relationship-between-adiponectin-and-apob-in-individuals-with-diabetes-in-the-atlantic-path-cohort
#20
Vanessa DeClercq, Yunsong Cui, Trevor J B Dummer, Cynthia Forbes, Scott A Grandy, Melanie Keats, Louise Parker, Ellen Sweeney, Zhijie Michael Yu, Roger S McLeod
Context: The increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes greatly influences the risk for cardiovascular (CV) comorbidities and affects the quality of life of many people. However, the relationship among diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular risk is complex and requires further investigation to understand the biological milieu connecting these conditions. Objective: The aim of the current study was to explore the relationship between biological markers of adipose tissue function (adiponectin) and CV risk (apolipoprotein B) in body mass index (BMI)-matched participants with and without diabetes...
December 1, 2017: Journal of the Endocrine Society
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