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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917133/the-salience-of-complex-words-and-their-parts-which-comes-first
#1
REVIEW
Hélène Giraudo, Serena Dal Maso
This paper deals with the impact of the salience of complex words and their constituent parts on lexical access. While almost 40 years of psycholinguistic studies have focused on the relevance of morphological structure for word recognition, little attention has been devoted to the relationship between the word as a whole unit and its constituent morphemes. Depending on the theoretical approach adopted, complex words have been seen either in the light of their paradigmatic environment (i.e., from a paradigmatic view), or in terms of their internal structure (i...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898341/tracking-competition-and-cognitive-control-during-language-comprehension-with-multi-voxel-pattern-analysis
#2
Elizabeth Musz, Sharon L Thompson-Schill
To successfully comprehend a sentence that contains a homonym, readers must select the ambiguous word's context-appropriate meaning. The outcome of this process is influenced both by top-down contextual support and bottom-up, word-specific characteristics. We examined how these factors jointly affect the neural signatures of lexical ambiguity resolution. We measured the similarity between multi-voxel patterns evoked by the same homonym in two distinct linguistic contexts: once after subjects read sentences that biased interpretation toward each homonym's most frequent, dominant meaning, and again after interpretation was biased toward a weaker, subordinate meaning...
November 26, 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859521/using-predictability-for-lexical-segmentation
#3
Çağrı Çöltekin
This study investigates a strategy based on predictability of consecutive sub-lexical units in learning to segment a continuous speech stream into lexical units using computational modeling and simulations. Lexical segmentation is one of the early challenges during language acquisition, and it has been studied extensively through psycholinguistic experiments as well as computational methods. However, despite strong empirical evidence, the explicit use of predictability of basic sub-lexical units in models of segmentation is underexplored...
November 17, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852336/underlying-manifestations-of-developmental-phonological-disorders-in-french-speaking-pre-schoolers
#4
Françoise Brosseau-Lapré, Susan Rvachew
This study examined the psycholinguistic profiles of Quebec French-speaking children with developmental phonological disorders (DPD). The purpose was to determine whether the endophenotypes that have been identified in English-speaking children with DPD are similarly associated with speech impairment in French-speaking children. Seventy-two children with DPD and ten children with normally developing speech, aged four to six years, received a comprehensive assessment battery that included measures at the phenotype level (i...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Child Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849243/moyamoya-disease-impact-on-the-performance-of-oral-and-written-language
#5
Dionísia Aparecida Cusin Lamônica, Camila da Costa Ribeiro, Plínio Marcos Duarte Pinto Ferraz, Maria de Lourdes Merighi Tabaquim
Moyamoya disease is an unusual form of occlusive, cerebrovascular disorder that affects the arteries of the central nervous system, causing acquired language alterations and learning difficulties. The study aim was to describe the oral/written language and cognitive skills in a seven-year-and-seven-month-old girl diagnosed with Moyamoya disease. The assessment consisted of interviews with her parents and application of the following instruments: Observation of Communicative Behavior, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Academic Performance Test, Profile of Phonological Awareness, Raven's Progressive Matrices Test, Special Scale, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test...
September 2016: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837569/syllabo-a-new-tool-to-study-sublexical-phenomena-in-spoken-quebec-french
#6
Pascale Bédard, Anne-Marie Audet, Patrick Drouin, Johanna-Pascale Roy, Julie Rivard, Pascale Tremblay
Sublexical phonotactic regularities in language have a major impact on language development, as well as on speech processing and production throughout the entire lifespan. To understand the impact of phonotactic regularities on speech and language functions at the behavioral and neural levels, it is essential to have access to oral language corpora to study these complex phenomena in different languages. Yet, probably because of their complexity, oral language corpora remain less common than written language corpora...
November 11, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822775/the-director-task-a-test-of-theory-of-mind-use-or-selective-attention
#7
Paula Rubio-Fernández
Over two decades, the director task has increasingly been employed as a test of the use of Theory of Mind in communication, first in psycholinguistics and more recently in social cognition research. A new version of this task was designed to test two independent hypotheses. First, optimal performance in the director task, as established by the standard metrics of interference, is possible by using selective attention alone, and not necessarily Theory of Mind. Second, pragmatic measures of Theory-of-Mind use can reveal that people actively represent the director's mental states, contrary to recent claims that they only use domain-general cognitive processes to perform this task...
November 7, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821213/written-type-and-token-frequency-measures-of-fifty-spanish-derivational-morphemes
#8
Miguel Lázaro, Joana Acha, Víctor Illera, Javier S Sainz
Several databases of written language exist in Spanish that manage important information on the lexical and sublexical characteristics of words. However, there is no database with information on the productivity and frequency of use of derivational suffixes: sublexical units with an essential role in the formation of orthographic representations and lexical access. This work examines these two measures, known as type and token frequencies, for a series of 50 derivational suffixes and their corresponding orthographic endings...
November 8, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814468/a-modular-architecture-for-transparent-computation-in-recurrent-neural-networks
#9
Giovanni S Carmantini, Peter Beim Graben, Mathieu Desroches, Serafim Rodrigues
Computation is classically studied in terms of automata, formal languages and algorithms; yet, the relation between neural dynamics and symbolic representations and operations is still unclear in traditional eliminative connectionism. Therefore, we suggest a unique perspective on this central issue, to which we would like to refer as transparent connectionism, by proposing accounts of how symbolic computation can be implemented in neural substrates. In this study we first introduce a new model of dynamics on a symbolic space, the versatile shift, showing that it supports the real-time simulation of a range of automata...
September 24, 2016: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813182/meg-evidence-for-incremental-sentence-composition-in-the-anterior-temporal-lobe
#10
Jonathan R Brennan, Liina Pylkkänen
Research investigating the brain basis of language comprehension has associated the left anterior temporal lobe (ATL) with sentence-level combinatorics. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we test the parsing strategy implemented in this brain region. The number of incremental parse steps from a predictive left-corner parsing strategy that is supported by psycholinguistic research is compared with those from a less-predictive strategy. We test for a correlation between parse steps and source-localized MEG activity recorded while participants read a story...
November 4, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802112/assessment-of-aphasia-across-the-international-classification-of-functioning-disability-and-health-using-an-ipad-based-application
#11
Yiting Emily Guo, Leanne Togher, Emma Power, Edwin Hutomo, Yi-Fei Yang, Arthur Tay, Shih-Cheng Yen, Gerald Choon-Huat Koh
BACKGROUND: Access2Aphasia™ is an iPad™-based aphasia assessment application that enables real-time audiovisual communication between people with aphasia (PWA) and speech-language pathologists (SLPs), and the use of supported conversation techniques. This study aimed to establish the reliability of aphasia assessment across the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) using Access2Aphasia, and compare it with face-to-face (FTF) assessment. Consumer perspectives of Access2Aphasia were also examined...
November 1, 2016: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766755/explicit-and-emergent-mechanisms-of-information-status
#12
Jennifer E Arnold
It is well established that language production and comprehension are influenced by information status, for example, whether information is given, new, topical, or predictable, and many scholars suggest that an important component of information status is keeping track of what information is in common ground (i.e., what is shared), and what is not. Information status affects both speakers' choices (e.g., word order, pronoun use, prosodic prominence) and how listeners interpret the speaker's meaning (e.g., Chafe, 1994; Prince, 1981)...
October 20, 2016: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761121/iconic-native-culture-cues-inhibit-second-language-production-in-a-non-immigrant-population-evidence-from-bengali-english-bilinguals
#13
Kesaban S Roychoudhuri, Seema G Prasad, Ramesh K Mishra
We examined if iconic pictures belonging to one's native culture interfere with second language production in bilinguals in an object naming task. Bengali-English bilinguals named pictures in both L1 and L2 against iconic cultural images representing Bengali culture or neutral images. Participants named in both "Blocked" and "Mixed" language conditions. In both conditions, participants were significantly slower in naming in English when the background was an iconic Bengali culture picture than a neutral image...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746748/the-localization-of-long-distance-dependency-components-integrating-the-focal-lesion-and-neuroimaging-record
#14
Maria M Piñango, Emily Finn, Cheryl Lacadie, R Todd Constable
In the sentence "The captain who the sailor greeted is tall," the connection between the relative pronoun and the object position of greeted represents a long-distance dependency (LDD), necessary for the interpretation of "the captain" as the individual being greeted. Whereas the lesion-based record shows preferential involvement of only the left inferior frontal (LIF) cortex, associated with Broca's aphasia, during real-time comprehension of LDDs, the neuroimaging record shows additional involvement of the left posterior superior temporal (LPST) and lower parietal cortices, which are associated with Wernicke's aphasia...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746729/broca-pars-triangularis-constitutes-a-hub-of-the-language-control-network-during-simultaneous-language-translation
#15
Stefan Elmer
Until now, several branches of research have fundamentally contributed to a better understanding of the ramifications of bilingualism, multilingualism, and language expertise on psycholinguistic-, cognitive-, and neural implications. In this context, it is noteworthy to mention that from a cognitive perspective, there is a strong convergence of data pointing to an influence of multilingual speech competence on a variety of cognitive functions, including attention, short-term- and working memory, set shifting, switching, and inhibition...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737310/development-of-the-brazilian-version-of-the-child-hayling-test
#16
Larissa de Souza Siqueira, Hosana Alves Gonçalves, Lilian Cristine Hübner, Rochele Paz Fonseca
Introduction: The Hayling Test assesses the components of initiation, inhibition, cognitive flexibility and verbal speed by means of a sentence completion task. This study presents the process of developing the Brazilian version of the Child Hayling Test (CHT) and reports evidence of its content validity. Methods: 139 people took part in the study. The adaptation was performed by seven translators and 12 specialist judges. An initial sample of 92 healthy children was recruited to test a selection of sentences adapted from previous adult and pediatric versions of the instrument, and a sample of 28 healthy children was recruited for pilot testing of the final version...
July 2016: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701704/nexus-to-lexis-phonological-disorders-in-children
#17
Judith A Gierut
Research on phonological disorders in children has conventionally emphasized the speech sound in search of causes, diagnoses, treatments, and prevention of the disorder. This article aims to shift the research focus to the word instead. The motivation comes from advances in psycholinguistics that demonstrate the word is central to the perception, production, and acquisition of phonological information. Three strands of potential study are outlined in evaluation of how words might initiate and boost, but perhaps also, interrupt learning for children with phonological disorders...
November 2016: Seminars in Speech and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640139/modulation-of-scene-consistency-and-task-demand-on-language-driven-eye-movements-for-audio-visual-integration
#18
Wan-Yun Yu, Jie-Li Tsai
Previous psycholinguistic studies have demonstrated that people tend to direct fixations toward the visual object to which spoken input refers during language comprehension. However, it is still unclear how the visual scene, especially the semantic consistency between object and background, affects the word-object mapping process during comprehension. Two visual world paradigm experiments were conducted to investigate how the scene consistency dynamically influenced the language-driven eye movements in a speech comprehension and a scene comprehension task...
September 15, 2016: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636190/on-line-processing-and-comprehension-of-direct-object-pronoun-sentences-in-spanish-speaking-children-with-specific-language-impairment
#19
Dolors Girbau
Eleven native Spanish-speaking children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) (8;3-10;11) and 11 typically developing children (8;7-10;8) received a comprehensive psycholinguistic evaluation. Participants listened to either Direct Object (DO) pronoun sentences or filler sentences without any pronoun, and they decided whether a picture on the screen (depicting the antecedent, another noun in the sentence, or an unrelated object) was 'alive'. They answered comprehension questions about pronoun sentences. Children with SLI showed significantly poorer comprehension of DO pronoun sentences when answering comprehension questions than children with Typical Language Development (TLD)...
September 16, 2016: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612862/linked-linear-mixed-models-a-joint-analysis-of-fixation-locations-and-fixation-durations-in-natural-reading
#20
Sven Hohenstein, Hannes Matuschek, Reinhold Kliegl
The complexity of eye-movement control during reading allows measurement of many dependent variables, the most prominent ones being fixation durations and their locations in words. In current practice, either variable may serve as dependent variable or covariate for the other in linear mixed models (LMMs) featuring also psycholinguistic covariates of word recognition and sentence comprehension. Rather than analyzing fixation location and duration with separate LMMs, we propose linking the two according to their sequential dependency...
September 9, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
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