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Psycholinguistics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164725/applying-psycholinguistic-evidence-to-the-construction-of-a-new-test-of-verbal-memory-in-late-life-cognitive-decline
#1
Johannes Baltasar Hessler, David Brieber, Johanna Egle, Georg Mandler, Thomas Jahn
The construction of the German Auditory Wordlist Learning Test (AWLT) for the assessment of verbal memory in late-life cognitive decline was guided by psycholinguistic evidence, which indicates that a word's linguistic characteristics influence its probability of being learned and recalled. The AWLT includes four trials of learning, short and long delayed free recall, and a recognition task. Its words were selected with taking into account their semantic content, orthographic length, frequency in the language, and orthographic neighborhood size (the number of words derived by adding, subtracting, or replacing a single letter at a time)...
February 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130729/the-developmental-lexicon-project-a-behavioral-database-to-investigate-visual-word-recognition-across-the-lifespan
#2
Pauline Schröter, Sascha Schroeder
With the Developmental Lexicon Project (DeveL), we present a large-scale study that was conducted to collect data on visual word recognition in German across the lifespan. A total of 800 children from Grades 1 to 6, as well as two groups of younger and older adults, participated in the study and completed a lexical decision and a naming task. We provide a database for 1,152 German words, comprising behavioral data from seven different stages of reading development, along with sublexical and lexical characteristics for all stimuli...
January 27, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129065/neural-oscillations-and-a-nascent-corticohippocampal-theory-of-reference
#3
Mante S Nieuwland, Andrea E Martin
The ability to use words to refer to the world is vital to the communicative power of human language. In particular, the anaphoric use of words to refer to previously mentioned concepts (antecedents) allows dialogue to be coherent and meaningful. Psycholinguistic theory posits that anaphor comprehension involves reactivating a memory representation of the antecedent. Whereas this implies the involvement of recognition memory or the mnemonic subroutines by which people distinguish old from new, the neural processes for reference resolution are largely unknown...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097835/cognitive-profiles-of-patients-with-early-detected-and-treated-congenital-hypothyroidism
#4
María L Pardo Campos, Mariel Musso, Ana Keselman, Laura Gruñeiro, Ignacio Bergadá, Ana Chiesa
INTRODUCTION: Children with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) detected by newborn screening and adequately treated may have mild cognitive deficits. OBJECTIVES">To assess the intelligence quotient of children with CH and identify the presence of specific cognitive deficits. POPULATION AND METHODS: A group of 60 children with CH detected by newborn screening, who were aged 9-10 years old and received adequate treatment since their first month of life was selected and compared to a control group of 60 children without CH in the same age range...
1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024253/language-use-statistics-and-prototypical-grapheme-colours-predict-synaesthetes-and-non-synaesthetes-word-colour-associations
#5
Stephanie C Goodhew, Evan Kidd
Synaesthesia is the neuropsychological phenomenon in which individuals experience unusual sensory associations, such as experiencing particular colours in response to particular words. While it was once thought the particular pairings between stimuli were arbitrary and idiosyncratic to particular synaesthetes, there is now growing evidence for a systematic psycholinguistic basis to the associations. Here we sought to assess the explanatory value of quantifiable lexical association measures (via latent semantic analysis; LSA) in the pairings observed between words and colours in synaesthesia...
February 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013307/why-almost-always-animals-ranking-fluency-tasks-for-the-detection-of-dementia-based-on-receiver-operating-characteristic-roc-and-quality-roc-analyses
#6
F Javier Moreno-Martínez, Marcos Ruiz, Pedro R Montoro
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Category fluency tasks have been widely used to assess cognitive functioning in both clinical and experimental environments as an index of cognitive and psycholinguistic dysfunctions in dementia. Typically, a reduced group of semantic categories has been selected for neuropsychological assessment (e.g., animals, fruits or vegetables), although empirical support for the prevalence of one category among others is absent in the literature. METHODS: We provide an empirical evaluation of the ability of 14 category fluency tasks to discriminate between subjects with dementia of the Alzheimer type and healthy elderly participants...
2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008553/a-picture-database-for-verbs-and-nouns-with-different-action-content-in-turkish
#7
Ece Bayram, Özgür Aydin, Hacer Iclal Ergenc, Muhittin Cenk Akbostanci
In this study we present a picture database of 160 nouns and 160 verbs. All verbs and nouns are divided into two groups as action and non-action words. Age of acquisition, familiarity, imageability, name agreement and complexity norms are reported alongside frequency, word length and morpheme count for each word. Data were collected from 600 native Turkish adults in total. The results show that although several measures have weak correlations with each other, only age of acquisition had moderate downhill relationships with familiarity and frequency with familiarity and frequency having a rather strong positive correlation with each other...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997952/algorithmic-classification-of-five-characteristic-types-of-paraphasias
#8
Gerasimos Fergadiotis, Kyle Gorman, Steven Bedrick
Purpose: This study was intended to evaluate a series of algorithms developed to perform automatic classification of paraphasic errors (formal, semantic, mixed, neologistic, and unrelated errors). Method: We analyzed 7,111 paraphasias from the Moss Aphasia Psycholinguistics Project Database (Mirman et al., 2010) and evaluated the classification accuracy of 3 automated tools. First, we used frequency norms from the SUBTLEXus database (Brysbaert & New, 2009) to differentiate nonword errors and real-word productions...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917133/the-salience-of-complex-words-and-their-parts-which-comes-first
#9
REVIEW
Hélène Giraudo, Serena Dal Maso
This paper deals with the impact of the salience of complex words and their constituent parts on lexical access. While almost 40 years of psycholinguistic studies have focused on the relevance of morphological structure for word recognition, little attention has been devoted to the relationship between the word as a whole unit and its constituent morphemes. Depending on the theoretical approach adopted, complex words have been seen either in the light of their paradigmatic environment (i.e., from a paradigmatic view), or in terms of their internal structure (i...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898341/tracking-competition-and-cognitive-control-during-language-comprehension-with-multi-voxel-pattern-analysis
#10
Elizabeth Musz, Sharon L Thompson-Schill
To successfully comprehend a sentence that contains a homonym, readers must select the ambiguous word's context-appropriate meaning. The outcome of this process is influenced both by top-down contextual support and bottom-up, word-specific characteristics. We examined how these factors jointly affect the neural signatures of lexical ambiguity resolution. We measured the similarity between multi-voxel patterns evoked by the same homonym in two distinct linguistic contexts: once after subjects read sentences that biased interpretation toward each homonym's most frequent, dominant meaning, and again after interpretation was biased toward a weaker, subordinate meaning...
February 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859521/using-predictability-for-lexical-segmentation
#11
Çağrı Çöltekin
This study investigates a strategy based on predictability of consecutive sub-lexical units in learning to segment a continuous speech stream into lexical units using computational modeling and simulations. Lexical segmentation is one of the early challenges during language acquisition, and it has been studied extensively through psycholinguistic experiments as well as computational methods. However, despite strong empirical evidence, the explicit use of predictability of basic sub-lexical units in models of segmentation is underexplored...
November 17, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852336/underlying-manifestations-of-developmental-phonological-disorders-in-french-speaking-pre-schoolers
#12
Françoise Brosseau-Lapré, Susan Rvachew
This study examined the psycholinguistic profiles of Quebec French-speaking children with developmental phonological disorders (DPD). The purpose was to determine whether the endophenotypes that have been identified in English-speaking children with DPD are similarly associated with speech impairment in French-speaking children. Seventy-two children with DPD and ten children with normally developing speech, aged four to six years, received a comprehensive assessment battery that included measures at the phenotype level (i...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Child Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849243/moyamoya-disease-impact-on-the-performance-of-oral-and-written-language
#13
Dionísia Aparecida Cusin Lamônica, Camila da Costa Ribeiro, Plínio Marcos Duarte Pinto Ferraz, Maria de Lourdes Merighi Tabaquim
Moyamoya disease is an unusual form of occlusive, cerebrovascular disorder that affects the arteries of the central nervous system, causing acquired language alterations and learning difficulties. The study aim was to describe the oral/written language and cognitive skills in a seven-year-and-seven-month-old girl diagnosed with Moyamoya disease. The assessment consisted of interviews with her parents and application of the following instruments: Observation of Communicative Behavior, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Academic Performance Test, Profile of Phonological Awareness, Raven's Progressive Matrices Test, Special Scale, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test...
September 2016: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837569/syllabo-a-new-tool-to-study-sublexical-phenomena-in-spoken-quebec-french
#14
Pascale Bédard, Anne-Marie Audet, Patrick Drouin, Johanna-Pascale Roy, Julie Rivard, Pascale Tremblay
Sublexical phonotactic regularities in language have a major impact on language development, as well as on speech processing and production throughout the entire lifespan. To understand the impact of phonotactic regularities on speech and language functions at the behavioral and neural levels, it is essential to have access to oral language corpora to study these complex phenomena in different languages. Yet, probably because of their complexity, oral language corpora remain less common than written language corpora...
November 11, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822775/the-director-task-a-test-of-theory-of-mind-use-or-selective-attention
#15
Paula Rubio-Fernández
Over two decades, the director task has increasingly been employed as a test of the use of Theory of Mind in communication, first in psycholinguistics and more recently in social cognition research. A new version of this task was designed to test two independent hypotheses. First, optimal performance in the director task, as established by the standard metrics of interference, is possible by using selective attention alone, and not necessarily Theory of Mind. Second, pragmatic measures of Theory-of-Mind use can reveal that people actively represent the director's mental states, contrary to recent claims that they only use domain-general cognitive processes to perform this task...
November 7, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821213/written-type-and-token-frequency-measures-of-fifty-spanish-derivational-morphemes
#16
Miguel Lázaro, Joana Acha, Víctor Illera, Javier S Sainz
Several databases of written language exist in Spanish that manage important information on the lexical and sublexical characteristics of words. However, there is no database with information on the productivity and frequency of use of derivational suffixes: sublexical units with an essential role in the formation of orthographic representations and lexical access. This work examines these two measures, known as type and token frequencies, for a series of 50 derivational suffixes and their corresponding orthographic endings...
November 8, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814468/a-modular-architecture-for-transparent-computation-in-recurrent-neural-networks
#17
Giovanni S Carmantini, Peter Beim Graben, Mathieu Desroches, Serafim Rodrigues
Computation is classically studied in terms of automata, formal languages and algorithms; yet, the relation between neural dynamics and symbolic representations and operations is still unclear in traditional eliminative connectionism. Therefore, we suggest a unique perspective on this central issue, to which we would like to refer as transparent connectionism, by proposing accounts of how symbolic computation can be implemented in neural substrates. In this study we first introduce a new model of dynamics on a symbolic space, the versatile shift, showing that it supports the real-time simulation of a range of automata...
January 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813182/meg-evidence-for-incremental-sentence-composition-in-the-anterior-temporal-lobe
#18
Jonathan R Brennan, Liina Pylkkänen
Research investigating the brain basis of language comprehension has associated the left anterior temporal lobe (ATL) with sentence-level combinatorics. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we test the parsing strategy implemented in this brain region. The number of incremental parse steps from a predictive left-corner parsing strategy that is supported by psycholinguistic research is compared with those from a less-predictive strategy. We test for a correlation between parse steps and source-localized MEG activity recorded while participants read a story...
November 4, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802112/assessment-of-aphasia-across-the-international-classification-of-functioning-disability-and-health-using-an-ipad-based-application
#19
Yiting Emily Guo, Leanne Togher, Emma Power, Edwin Hutomo, Yi-Fei Yang, Arthur Tay, Shih-Cheng Yen, Gerald Choon-Huat Koh
BACKGROUND: Access2Aphasia™ is an iPad™-based aphasia assessment application that enables real-time audiovisual communication between people with aphasia (PWA) and speech-language pathologists (SLPs), and the use of supported conversation techniques. This study aimed to establish the reliability of aphasia assessment across the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) using Access2Aphasia, and compare it with face-to-face (FTF) assessment. Consumer perspectives of Access2Aphasia were also examined...
November 1, 2016: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766755/explicit-and-emergent-mechanisms-of-information-status
#20
Jennifer E Arnold
It is well established that language production and comprehension are influenced by information status, for example, whether information is given, new, topical, or predictable, and many scholars suggest that an important component of information status is keeping track of what information is in common ground (i.e., what is shared), and what is not. Information status affects both speakers' choices (e.g., word order, pronoun use, prosodic prominence) and how listeners interpret the speaker's meaning (e.g., Chafe, 1994; Prince, 1981)...
October 2016: Topics in Cognitive Science
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