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Psycholinguistics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933895/individual-variability-in-the-semantic-processing-of-english-compound-words
#1
Daniel Schmidtke, Julie A Van Dyke, Victor Kuperman
Semantic transparency effects during compound word recognition provide critical insight into the organization of semantic knowledge and the nature of semantic processing. The past 25 years of psycholinguistic research on compound semantic transparency has produced discrepant effects, leaving the existence and nature of its influence unresolved. In the present study, we examined the influence of semantic transparency and individual reading experience on eye-movement behavior during sentence reading. Eye-movement data were collected from 138 non-college-bound 16- to 26-year-old speakers of English in a sentence-reading task representing a total of 455 different compound words...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926621/mathematical-values-in-the-processing-of-chinese-numeral-classifiers-and-measure-words
#2
One-Soon Her, Ying-Chun Chen, Nai-Shing Yen
A numeral classifier is required between a numeral and a noun in Chinese, which comes in two varieties, sortal classifer (C) and measural classifier (M), also known as 'classifier' and 'measure word', respectively. Cs categorize objects based on semantic attributes and Cs and Ms both denote quantity in terms of mathematical values. The aim of this study was to conduct a psycholinguistic experiment to examine whether participants process C/Ms based on their mathematical values with a semantic distance comparison task, where participants judged which of the two C/M phrases was semantically closer to the target C/M...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887798/processing-language-in-face-to-face-conversation-questions-with-gestures-get-faster-responses
#3
Judith Holler, Kobin H Kendrick, Stephen C Levinson
The home of human language use is face-to-face interaction, a context in which communicative exchanges are characterised not only by bodily signals accompanying what is being said but also by a pattern of alternating turns at talk. This transition between turns is astonishingly fast-typically a mere 200-ms elapse between a current and a next speaker's contribution-meaning that comprehending, producing, and coordinating conversational contributions in time is a significant challenge. This begs the question of whether the additional information carried by bodily signals facilitates or hinders language processing in this time-pressured environment...
September 8, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875456/phonemes-lexical-access-and-beyond
#4
Nina Kazanina, Jeffrey S Bowers, William Idsardi
Phonemes play a central role in traditional theories as units of speech perception and access codes to lexical representations. Phonemes have two essential properties: they are 'segment-sized' (the size of a consonant or vowel) and abstract (a single phoneme may be have different acoustic realisations). Nevertheless, there is a long history of challenging the phoneme hypothesis, with some theorists arguing for differently sized phonological units (e.g. features or syllables) and others rejecting abstract codes in favour of representations that encode detailed acoustic properties of the stimulus...
September 5, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866301/investigating-the-origin-of-nonfluency-in-aphasia-a%C3%A2-path-modeling-approach-to-neuropsychology
#5
Nazbanou Nozari, Yasmeen Faroqi-Shah
A major challenge in understanding the origin of clinical symptoms in neuropsychological impairments is capturing the complexity of the underlying cognitive structure. This paper presents a practical guide to path modeling, a statistical approach that is well-suited for modeling multivariate outcomes with a multi-factorial origin. We discuss a step-by-step application of such a model to the problem of nonfluency in aphasia. Individuals with aphasia are often classified into fluent and nonfluent groups for both clinical and research purposes, but despite a large body of research on the topic, the origin of nonfluency remains obscure...
August 10, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862710/letter-and-symbol-identification-no-evidence-for-letter-specific-crowding-mechanisms
#6
Eric Castet, Marine Descamps, Ambre Denis-Noël, Pascale Colé
It has been proposed that letters, as opposed to symbols, trigger specialized crowding processes, boosting identification of the first and last letters of words. This hypothesis is based on evidence that single-letter accuracy as a function of within-string position has a W shape (the classic serial position function [SPF] in psycholinguistics) whereas an inverted V shape is obtained when measured with symbols. Our main goal was to test the robustness of the latter result. Our hypothesis was that any letter/symbol difference might result from short-term visual memory processes (due to the partial report [PR] procedures used in SPF studies) rather than from crowding...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858722/comprehension-and-production-of-nouns-and-verbs-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#7
Anna Yurchenko, Alexander Golovteev, Dmitry Kopachev, Olga Dragoy
Previous research on linguistic performance at the single-word level in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) has mostly been limited to the comprehension and production of nouns, and findings have been inconsistent. Results are likewise limited and controversial regarding the lateralization of the epileptogenic focus. The present study investigates comprehension and production of nouns and verbs in patients with left and right TLE (12 in each group). We designed a comprehension (word-picture matching) test and a production (naming) test, matched on a range of psycholinguistic parameters for the two word classes...
August 28, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854811/the-impact-of-perinatal-loss-in-maternity-units-a-psycholinguistic-analysis-of-health-professionals-reactions
#8
Gabriella Gandino, Giulia Di Fini, Antonella Bernaudo, Marcello Paltrinieri, Marco Castiglioni, Fabio Veglia
Perinatal loss has a strong emotional impact on health professionals working in maternity units. We aimed to study the impact of this experience on health professionals' language. We analyzed the answers of 162 health professionals (physicians and non-medical staff) who described their reactions to perinatal loss. A linguistic analysis was performed using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count software. Associations between language and burnout were studied. Words typical of a psychological shock reaction were used more by non-medical staff than by physicians...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853339/tdq-60-a-color-picture-naming-test-for-adults-and-elderly-people-validation-and-normalization-data
#9
Joël Macoir, Catherine Beaudoin, Josée Bluteau, Olivier Potvin, Maximiliano A Wilson
Word-finding difficulties are usually assessed with picture-naming tests. In this article, we present the TDQ-60, a new test designed to assess acquired lexical access deficits, taking into account semantics and psycholinguistic variables. The article includes three studies. Study 1 describes the development phase of the TDQ-60.  In study 2, healthy control participants and individuals with a diagnosis of the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia were assessed to establish the convergent and discriminant validity of the TDQ-60...
August 30, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818790/effects-of-semantic-neighborhood-density-in-abstract-and-concrete-words
#10
Megan Reilly, Rutvik H Desai
Concrete and abstract words are thought to differ along several psycholinguistic variables, such as frequency and emotional content. Here, we consider another variable, semantic neighborhood density, which has received much less attention, likely because semantic neighborhoods of abstract words are difficult to measure. Using a corpus-based method that creates representations of words that emphasize featural information, the current investigation explores the relationship between neighborhood density and concreteness in a large set of English nouns...
December 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813071/content-validation-clarity-relevance-reliability-and-internal-consistency-of-enunciative-signs-of-language-acquisition
#11
Anelise Henrich Crestani, Anaelena Bragança de Moraes, Ana Paula Ramos de Souza
Purpose: To analyze the results of the validation of building enunciative signs of language acquisition for children aged 3 to 12 months. Methods: The signs were built based on mechanisms of language acquisition in an enunciative perspective and on clinical experience with language disorders. The signs were submitted to judgment of clarity and relevance by a sample of six experts, doctors in linguistic in with knowledge of psycholinguistics and language clinic. In the validation of reliability, two judges/evaluators helped to implement the instruments in videos of 20% of the total sample of mother-infant dyads using the inter-evaluator method...
August 10, 2017: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733256/prefrontal-neuromodulation-reverses-spatial-associations-of-non-numerical-sequences-but-not-numbers
#12
Philipp Alexander Schroeder, Hans-Christoph Nuerk, Christian Plewnia
Numerical and non-numerical sequence items interact with spatial responding, pointing towards mental representations that are grounded in space and referred to as SNARC effects (spatial-numerical association of response codes). An ongoing controversy pertains to the universal origin of different SNARC effects and whether their underpinning is a spatial arrangement of cardinal magnitude (mental number line) or a sequential arrangement of ordinal elements in working memory. Recent results from prefrontal neuromodulation with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) were supportive of the unified working memory account...
September 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707216/imageability-ratings-across-languages
#13
Adrià Rofes, Lilla Zakariás, Klaudia Ceder, Marianne Lind, Monica Blom Johansson, Vânia de Aguiar, Jovana Bjekić, Valantis Fyndanis, Anna Gavarró, Hanne Gram Simonsen, Carlos Hernández Sacristán, Maria Kambanaros, Jelena Kuvač Kraljević, Silvia Martínez-Ferreiro, İlknur Mavis, Carolina Méndez Orellana, Ingrid Sör, Ágnes Lukács, Müge Tunçer, Jasmina Vuksanović, Amaia Munarriz Ibarrola, Marie Pourquie, Spyridoula Varlokosta, David Howard
Imageability is a psycholinguistic variable that indicates how well a word gives rise to a mental image or sensory experience. Imageability ratings are used extensively in psycholinguistic, neuropsychological, and aphasiological studies. However, little formal knowledge exists about whether and how these ratings are associated between and within languages. Fifteen imageability databases were cross-correlated using nonparametric statistics. Some of these corresponded to unpublished data collected within a European research network-the Collaboration of Aphasia Trialists (COST IS1208)...
July 13, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707215/disentangling-perceptual-and-psycholinguistic-factors-in-syntactic-processing-tone-monitoring-via-erps
#14
David J Lobina, Josep Demestre, José E García-Albea
Franco, Gaillard, Cleeremans, and Destrebecqz (Behavior Research Methods, 47, 1393-1403, 2015), in a study on statistical learning employing the click-detection paradigm, conclude that more needs to be known about how this paradigm interacts with statistical learning and speech perception. Past results with this monitoring technique have pointed to an end-of-clause effect in parsing-a structural effect-but we here show that the issues are a bit more nuanced. Firstly, we report two Experiments (1a and 1b), which show that reaction times (RTs) are affected by two factors: (a) processing load, resulting in a tendency for RTs to decrease across a sentence, and (b) a perceptual effect which adds to this tendency and moreover helps neutralize differences between sentences with slightly different structures...
July 13, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707214/statistical-and-methodological-problems-with-concreteness-and-other-semantic-variables-a-list-memory-experiment-case-study
#15
Lewis Pollock
The purpose of this article is to highlight problems with a range of semantic psycholinguistic variables (concreteness, imageability, individual modality norms, and emotional valence) and to provide a way of avoiding these problems. Focusing on concreteness, I show that for a large class of words in the Brysbaert, Warriner, and Kuperman (Behavior Research Methods 46: 904-911, 2013) concreteness norms, the mean concreteness values do not reflect the judgments that actual participants made. This problem applies to nearly every word in the middle of the concreteness scale...
July 13, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699124/conversation-level-syntax-similarity-metric
#16
Reihane Boghrati, Joe Hoover, Kate M Johnson, Justin Garten, Morteza Dehghani
The syntax and semantics of human language can illuminate many individual psychological differences and important dimensions of social interaction. Accordingly, psychological and psycholinguistic research has begun incorporating sophisticated representations of semantic content to better understand the connection between word choice and psychological processes. In this work we introduce ConversAtion level Syntax SImilarity Metric (CASSIM), a novel method for calculating conversation-level syntax similarity...
July 11, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632042/lesions-to-the-left-lateral-prefrontal-cortex-impair-decision-threshold-adjustment-for-lexical-selection
#17
Royce Anders, Stéphanie Riès, Leendert Van Maanen, F-Xavier Alario
Patients with lesions in the left prefrontal cortex (PFC) have been shown to be impaired in lexical selection, especially when interference between semantically related alternatives is increased. To more deeply investigate which computational mechanisms may be impaired following left PFC damage due to stroke, a psychometric modelling approach is employed in which we assess the cognitive parameters of the patients from an evidence accumulation (sequential information sampling) modelling of their response data...
March 1, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628785/looking-at-a-contrast-object-before-speaking-boosts-referential-informativeness-but-is-not-essential
#18
Catherine Davies, Helene Kreysa
Variation in referential form has traditionally been accounted for by theoretical frameworks focusing on linguistic and discourse features. Despite the explosion of interest in eye tracking methods in psycholinguistics, the role of visual scanning behaviour in informative reference production is yet to be comprehensively investigated. Here we examine the relationship between speakers' fixations to relevant referents and the form of the referring expressions they produce. Overall, speakers were fully informative across simple and (to a lesser extent) more complex displays, providing appropriately modified referring expressions to enable their addressee to locate the target object...
July 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621472/the-role-of-multiword-building-blocks-in-explaining-l1-l2-differences
#19
Inbal Arnon, Morten H Christiansen
Why are children better language learners than adults despite being worse at a range of other cognitive tasks? Here, we explore the role of multiword sequences in explaining L1-L2 differences in learning. In particular, we propose that children and adults differ in their reliance on such multiword units (MWUs) in learning, and that this difference affects learning strategies and outcomes, and leads to difficulty in learning certain grammatical relations. In the first part, we review recent findings that suggest that MWUs play a facilitative role in learning...
June 16, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614847/using-network-science-measures-to-predict-the-lexical-decision-performance-of-adults-who-stutter
#20
Nichol Castro, Kristin M Pelczarski, Michael S Vitevitch
Purpose: Methods from network science have examined various aspects of language processing. Clinical populations may also benefit from these novel analyses. Phonological and lexical factors have been examined in adults who stutter (AWS) as potential contributing factors to stuttering, although differences reported are often subtle. We reexamined the performance of AWS and adults who do not stutter (AWNS) from a previously conducted lexical decision task in an attempt to determine if network science measures would provide additional insight into the phonological network of AWS beyond traditional psycholinguistic measures...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
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