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Kesaban S Roychoudhuri, Seema G Prasad, Ramesh K Mishra
We examined if iconic pictures belonging to one's native culture interfere with second language production in bilinguals in an object naming task. Bengali-English bilinguals named pictures in both L1 and L2 against iconic cultural images representing Bengali culture or neutral images. Participants named in both "Blocked" and "Mixed" language conditions. In both conditions, participants were significantly slower in naming in English when the background was an iconic Bengali culture picture than a neutral image...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Maria M Piñango, Emily Finn, Cheryl Lacadie, R Todd Constable
In the sentence "The captain who the sailor greeted is tall," the connection between the relative pronoun and the object position of greeted represents a long-distance dependency (LDD), necessary for the interpretation of "the captain" as the individual being greeted. Whereas the lesion-based record shows preferential involvement of only the left inferior frontal (LIF) cortex, associated with Broca's aphasia, during real-time comprehension of LDDs, the neuroimaging record shows additional involvement of the left posterior superior temporal (LPST) and lower parietal cortices, which are associated with Wernicke's aphasia...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Stefan Elmer
Until now, several branches of research have fundamentally contributed to a better understanding of the ramifications of bilingualism, multilingualism, and language expertise on psycholinguistic-, cognitive-, and neural implications. In this context, it is noteworthy to mention that from a cognitive perspective, there is a strong convergence of data pointing to an influence of multilingual speech competence on a variety of cognitive functions, including attention, short-term- and working memory, set shifting, switching, and inhibition...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Larissa de Souza Siqueira, Hosana Alves Gonçalves, Lilian Cristine Hübner, Rochele Paz Fonseca
Introduction: The Hayling Test assesses the components of initiation, inhibition, cognitive flexibility and verbal speed by means of a sentence completion task. This study presents the process of developing the Brazilian version of the Child Hayling Test (CHT) and reports evidence of its content validity. Methods: 139 people took part in the study. The adaptation was performed by seven translators and 12 specialist judges. An initial sample of 92 healthy children was recruited to test a selection of sentences adapted from previous adult and pediatric versions of the instrument, and a sample of 28 healthy children was recruited for pilot testing of the final version...
July 2016: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Judith A Gierut
Research on phonological disorders in children has conventionally emphasized the speech sound in search of causes, diagnoses, treatments, and prevention of the disorder. This article aims to shift the research focus to the word instead. The motivation comes from advances in psycholinguistics that demonstrate the word is central to the perception, production, and acquisition of phonological information. Three strands of potential study are outlined in evaluation of how words might initiate and boost, but perhaps also, interrupt learning for children with phonological disorders...
November 2016: Seminars in Speech and Language
Wan-Yun Yu, Jie-Li Tsai
Previous psycholinguistic studies have demonstrated that people tend to direct fixations toward the visual object to which spoken input refers during language comprehension. However, it is still unclear how the visual scene, especially the semantic consistency between object and background, affects the word-object mapping process during comprehension. Two visual world paradigm experiments were conducted to investigate how the scene consistency dynamically influenced the language-driven eye movements in a speech comprehension and a scene comprehension task...
September 15, 2016: Acta Psychologica
Dolors Girbau
Eleven native Spanish-speaking children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) (8;3-10;11) and 11 typically developing children (8;7-10;8) received a comprehensive psycholinguistic evaluation. Participants listened to either Direct Object (DO) pronoun sentences or filler sentences without any pronoun, and they decided whether a picture on the screen (depicting the antecedent, another noun in the sentence, or an unrelated object) was 'alive'. They answered comprehension questions about pronoun sentences. Children with SLI showed significantly poorer comprehension of DO pronoun sentences when answering comprehension questions than children with Typical Language Development (TLD)...
September 16, 2016: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Sven Hohenstein, Hannes Matuschek, Reinhold Kliegl
The complexity of eye-movement control during reading allows measurement of many dependent variables, the most prominent ones being fixation durations and their locations in words. In current practice, either variable may serve as dependent variable or covariate for the other in linear mixed models (LMMs) featuring also psycholinguistic covariates of word recognition and sentence comprehension. Rather than analyzing fixation location and duration with separate LMMs, we propose linking the two according to their sequential dependency...
September 9, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Richard J Binney, Paul Hoffman, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
A growing body of recent convergent evidence indicates that the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) has connectivity-derived graded differences in semantic function: the ventrolateral region appears to be the transmodal, omni-category center-point of the hub whilst secondary contributions come from the peripheries of the hub in a manner that reflects their differential connectivity to different input/output modalities. One of the key challenges for this neurocognitive theory is how different types of concept, especially those with less reliance upon external sensory experience (such as abstract and social concepts), are coded across the graded ATL hub...
September 6, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Hamad Al-Azary, Lori Buchanan
Previous research suggests that metaphor comprehension is affected both by the concreteness of the topic and vehicle and their semantic neighbours (Kintsch, 2000; Xu, 2010). However, studies have yet to manipulate these 2 variables simultaneously. To that end, we composed novel metaphors manipulated on topic concreteness and semantic neighbourhood density (SND) of topic and vehicle. In Experiment 1, participants rated the metaphors on the suitability (e.g. sensibility) of their topic-vehicle pairings. Topic concreteness interacted with SND such that participants rated metaphors from sparse semantic spaces to be more sensible than those from dense semantic spaces and preferred abstract topics over concrete topics only for metaphors from dense semantic spaces...
September 6, 2016: Memory & Cognition
Juan J Buiza, María José Rodríguez-Parra, Mercedes González-Sánchez, José A Adrián
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of Specific Language Impairment (SLI) is very complex, given the variety of clinical pictures described in this disorder. Knowledge about the linguistic markers of SLI can facilitate its differentiation from the normal profile of language development. These markers can also be used as tools that may improve diagnostic. AIMS: To determine which psycholinguistic markers best discriminate Spanish-speaking children with SLI from children with typical language development...
November 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Max Louwerse, Zhan Qu
It is assumed linguistic symbols must be grounded in perceptual information to attain meaning, because the sound of a word in a language has an arbitrary relation with its referent. This paper demonstrates that a strong arbitrariness claim should be reconsidered. In a computational study, we showed that one phonological feature (nasals in the beginning of a word) predicted negative valence in three European languages (English, Dutch, and German) and positive valence in Chinese. In three experiments, we tested whether participants used this feature in estimating the valence of a word...
August 25, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Marie M Jensen
This paper investigates the salience of vernacular Tyneside forms on the basis of theories of enregisterment and exemplar processing. On one level, exemplar theory provides a psycholinguistic account of how the link between social value and linguistic features is possible. Conversely, integrating the notion of social value into exemplar theory extends the value of this originally cognitive theory to social domains. It is suggested that the association of social value and particular local, linguistic forms may contribute to the salience of these forms among local speakers...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Katie Wolsiefer, Jacob Westfall, Charles M Judd
We explored the consequences of ignoring the sampling variation due to stimuli in the domain of implicit attitudes. A large literature in psycholinguistics has examined the statistical treatment of random stimulus materials, but the recommendations from this literature have not been applied to the social psychological literature on implicit attitudes. This is partly because of inherent complications in applying crossed random-effect models to some of the most common implicit attitude tasks, and partly because no work to date has demonstrated that random stimulus variation is in fact consequential in implicit attitude measurement...
August 12, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
Eugenia Kulakova, Mante S Nieuwland
Cognitive and linguistic theories of counterfactual language comprehension assume that counterfactuals convey a dual meaning. Subjunctive-counterfactual conditionals (e.g., 'If Tom had studied hard, he would have passed the test') express a supposition while implying the factual state of affairs (Tom has not studied hard and failed). The question of how counterfactual dual meaning plays out during language processing is currently gaining interest in psycholinguistics. Whereas numerous studies using offline measures of language processing consistently support counterfactual dual meaning, evidence coming from online studies is less conclusive...
February 2016: Language and Linguistics Compass
Jorge Vivas, Leticia Vivas, Ana Comesaña, Ana García Coni, Agostina Vorano
Semantic feature production norms provide many quantitative measures of different feature and concept variables that are necessary to solve some debates surrounding the nature of the organization, both normal and pathological, of semantic memory. Despite the current existence of norms for different languages, there are still no published norms in Spanish. This article presents a new set of norms collected from 810 participants for 400 living and nonliving concepts among Spanish speakers. These norms consist of empirical collections of features that participants used to describe the concepts...
August 8, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
Kamil K Imbir
In studies that combine understanding of emotions and language, there is growing demand for good-quality experimental materials. To meet this expectation, a large number of 4905 Polish words was assessed by 400 participants in order to provide a well-established research method for everyone interested in emotional word processing. The Affective Norms for Polish Words Reloaded (ANPW_R) is designed as an extension to the previously introduced the ANPW dataset and provides assessments for eight different affective and psycholinguistic measures of Valence, Arousal, Dominance, Origin, Significance, Concreteness, Imageability, and subjective Age of Acquisition...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Edoardo Lombardi Vallauri
Implicit strategies are known to increase persuasion performances. Implicits of content (vagueness, implicatures) and implicits of responsibility (presuppositions, topics) will be compared semiotically to non-linguistic implicits such as images and sounds. The results of psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic experiments will be used to propose that presuppositions and topics arose in language as means to spare addressees processing effort on already known contents, but they were subsequently "exapted" to spare effort on unknown marginal contents, and eventually to reduce the probability for doubtful contents to be processed thoroughly and rejected...
2016: SpringerPlus
Michele Scaltritti, Barbara Arfé, Mark Torrance, Francesca Peressotti
The present study investigated the effect of psycholinguistic variables on measures of response latency and mean interkeystroke interval in a typewritten picture naming task, with the aim to outline the functional organization of the stages of cognitive processing and response execution associated with typewritten word production. Onset latencies were modulated by lexical and semantic variables traditionally linked to lexical retrieval, such as word frequency, age of acquisition, and naming agreement. Orthographic variables, both at the lexical and sublexical level, appear to influence just within-word interkeystroke intervals, suggesting that orthographic information may play a relevant role in controlling actual response execution...
November 2016: Cognition
Martin Kuška, Radek Trnka, Aleš A Kuběna, Jiří Růžička
People construe reality by using words as basic units of meaningful categorization. The present theory-driven study applied the method of a free association task to explore how people express the concepts of the world and the self in words. The respondents were asked to recall any five words relating with the word world. Afterward they were asked to recall any five words relating with the word self. The method of free association provided the respondents with absolute freedom to choose any words they wanted...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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