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Psycholinguistics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813071/content-validation-clarity-relevance-reliability-and-internal-consistency-of-enunciative-signs-of-language-acquisition
#1
Anelise Henrich Crestani, Anaelena Bragança de Moraes, Ana Paula Ramos de Souza
Purpose: To analyze the results of the validation of building enunciative signs of language acquisition for children aged 3 to 12 months. Methods: The signs were built based on mechanisms of language acquisition in an enunciative perspective and on clinical experience with language disorders. The signs were submitted to judgment of clarity and relevance by a sample of six experts, doctors in linguistic in with knowledge of psycholinguistics and language clinic. In the validation of reliability, two judges/evaluators helped to implement the instruments in videos of 20% of the total sample of mother-infant dyads using the inter-evaluator method...
August 10, 2017: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733256/prefrontal-neuromodulation-reverses-spatial-associations-of-non-numerical-sequences-but-not-numbers
#2
Philipp Alexander Schroeder, Hans-Christoph Nuerk, Christian Plewnia
Numerical and non-numerical sequence items interact with spatial responding, pointing towards mental representations that are grounded in space and referred to as SNARC effects (spatial-numerical association of response codes). An ongoing controversy pertains to the universal origin of different SNARC effects and whether their underpinning is a spatial arrangement of cardinal magnitude (mental number line) or a sequential arrangement of ordinal elements in working memory. Recent results from prefrontal neuromodulation with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) were supportive of the unified working memory account...
July 18, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707216/imageability-ratings-across-languages
#3
Adrià Rofes, Lilla Zakariás, Klaudia Ceder, Marianne Lind, Monica Blom Johansson, Vânia de Aguiar, Jovana Bjekić, Valantis Fyndanis, Anna Gavarró, Hanne Gram Simonsen, Carlos Hernández Sacristán, Maria Kambanaros, Jelena Kuvač Kraljević, Silvia Martínez-Ferreiro, İlknur Mavis, Carolina Méndez Orellana, Ingrid Sör, Ágnes Lukács, Müge Tunçer, Jasmina Vuksanović, Amaia Munarriz Ibarrola, Marie Pourquie, Spyridoula Varlokosta, David Howard
Imageability is a psycholinguistic variable that indicates how well a word gives rise to a mental image or sensory experience. Imageability ratings are used extensively in psycholinguistic, neuropsychological, and aphasiological studies. However, little formal knowledge exists about whether and how these ratings are associated between and within languages. Fifteen imageability databases were cross-correlated using nonparametric statistics. Some of these corresponded to unpublished data collected within a European research network-the Collaboration of Aphasia Trialists (COST IS1208)...
July 13, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707215/disentangling-perceptual-and-psycholinguistic-factors-in-syntactic-processing-tone-monitoring-via-erps
#4
David J Lobina, Josep Demestre, José E García-Albea
Franco, Gaillard, Cleeremans, and Destrebecqz (Behavior Research Methods, 47, 1393-1403, 2015), in a study on statistical learning employing the click-detection paradigm, conclude that more needs to be known about how this paradigm interacts with statistical learning and speech perception. Past results with this monitoring technique have pointed to an end-of-clause effect in parsing-a structural effect-but we here show that the issues are a bit more nuanced. Firstly, we report two Experiments (1a and 1b), which show that reaction times (RTs) are affected by two factors: (a) processing load, resulting in a tendency for RTs to decrease across a sentence, and (b) a perceptual effect which adds to this tendency and moreover helps neutralize differences between sentences with slightly different structures...
July 13, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707214/statistical-and-methodological-problems-with-concreteness-and-other-semantic-variables-a-list-memory-experiment-case-study
#5
Lewis Pollock
The purpose of this article is to highlight problems with a range of semantic psycholinguistic variables (concreteness, imageability, individual modality norms, and emotional valence) and to provide a way of avoiding these problems. Focusing on concreteness, I show that for a large class of words in the Brysbaert, Warriner, and Kuperman (Behavior Research Methods 46: 904-911, 2013) concreteness norms, the mean concreteness values do not reflect the judgments that actual participants made. This problem applies to nearly every word in the middle of the concreteness scale...
July 13, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699124/conversation-level-syntax-similarity-metric
#6
Reihane Boghrati, Joe Hoover, Kate M Johnson, Justin Garten, Morteza Dehghani
The syntax and semantics of human language can illuminate many individual psychological differences and important dimensions of social interaction. Accordingly, psychological and psycholinguistic research has begun incorporating sophisticated representations of semantic content to better understand the connection between word choice and psychological processes. In this work we introduce ConversAtion level Syntax SImilarity Metric (CASSIM), a novel method for calculating conversation-level syntax similarity...
July 11, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632042/lesions-to-the-left-lateral-prefrontal-cortex-impair-decision-threshold-adjustment-for-lexical-selection
#7
Royce Anders, Stéphanie Riès, Leendert Van Maanen, F-Xavier Alario
Patients with lesions in the left prefrontal cortex (PFC) have been shown to be impaired in lexical selection, especially when interference between semantically related alternatives is increased. To more deeply investigate which computational mechanisms may be impaired following left PFC damage due to stroke, a psychometric modelling approach is employed in which we assess the cognitive parameters of the patients from an evidence accumulation (sequential information sampling) modelling of their response data...
March 1, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628785/looking-at-a-contrast-object-before-speaking-boosts-referential-informativeness-but-is-not-essential
#8
Catherine Davies, Helene Kreysa
Variation in referential form has traditionally been accounted for by theoretical frameworks focusing on linguistic and discourse features. Despite the explosion of interest in eye tracking methods in psycholinguistics, the role of visual scanning behaviour in informative reference production is yet to be comprehensively investigated. Here we examine the relationship between speakers' fixations to relevant referents and the form of the referring expressions they produce. Overall, speakers were fully informative across simple and (to a lesser extent) more complex displays, providing appropriately modified referring expressions to enable their addressee to locate the target object...
July 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621472/the-role-of-multiword-building-blocks-in-explaining-l1-l2-differences
#9
Inbal Arnon, Morten H Christiansen
Why are children better language learners than adults despite being worse at a range of other cognitive tasks? Here, we explore the role of multiword sequences in explaining L1-L2 differences in learning. In particular, we propose that children and adults differ in their reliance on such multiword units (MWUs) in learning, and that this difference affects learning strategies and outcomes, and leads to difficulty in learning certain grammatical relations. In the first part, we review recent findings that suggest that MWUs play a facilitative role in learning...
June 16, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614847/using-network-science-measures-to-predict-the-lexical-decision-performance-of-adults-who-stutter
#10
Nichol Castro, Kristin M Pelczarski, Michael S Vitevitch
Purpose: Methods from network science have examined various aspects of language processing. Clinical populations may also benefit from these novel analyses. Phonological and lexical factors have been examined in adults who stutter (AWS) as potential contributing factors to stuttering, although differences reported are often subtle. We reexamined the performance of AWS and adults who do not stutter (AWNS) from a previously conducted lexical decision task in an attempt to determine if network science measures would provide additional insight into the phonological network of AWS beyond traditional psycholinguistic measures...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597331/inhibition-efficiency-in-highly-proficient-bilinguals-and-simultaneous-interpreters-evidence-from-language-switching-and-stroop-tasks
#11
Xavier Aparicio, Karin Heidlmayr, Frédéric Isel
The present behavioral study aimed to examine the impact of language control expertise on two domain-general control processes, i.e. active inhibition of competing representations and overcoming of inhibition. We compared how Simultaneous Interpreters (SI) and Highly Proficient Bilinguals-two groups assumed to differ in language control capacity-performed executive tasks involving specific inhibition processes. In Experiment 1 (language decision task), both active and overcoming of inhibition processes are involved, while in Experiment 2 (bilingual Stroop task) only interference suppression is supposed to be required...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592830/choice-of-analysis-pathway-dramatically-affects-statistical-outcomes-in-breaking-continuous-flash-suppression
#12
James Allen Kerr, Guido Hesselmann, Romy Räling, Isabell Wartenburger, Philipp Sterzer
Breaking Continuous Flash Suppression (bCFS) has been adopted as an appealing means to study human visual awareness, but the literature is beclouded by inconsistent and contradictory results. Although previous reviews have focused chiefly on design pitfalls and instances of false reasoning, we show in this study that the choice of analysis pathway can have severe effects on the statistical output when applied to bCFS data. Using a representative dataset designed to address a specific controversy in the realm of language processing under bCFS, namely whether psycholinguistic variables affect access to awareness, we present a range of analysis methods based on real instances in the published literature, and indicate how each approach affects the perceived outcome...
June 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578483/sand-a-screening-for-aphasia-in-neurodegeneration-development-and-normative-data
#13
Eleonora Catricalà, Elena Gobbi, Petronilla Battista, Antonio Miozzo, Cristina Polito, Veronica Boschi, Valentina Esposito, Sofia Cuoco, Paolo Barone, Sandro Sorbi, Stefano F Cappa, Peter Garrard
Language assessment has a critical role in the clinical diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases, in particular, in the case of Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA). The current diagnostic criteria (Gorno-Tempini et al., 2011) identify three main variants on the basis of clinical features and patterns of brain atrophy. Widely accepted tools to diagnose, clinically classify, and follow up the heterogeneous language profiles of PPA are still lacking. In this study, we develop a screening battery, composed of nine tests (picture naming, word and sentence comprehension, word and sentence repetition, reading, semantic association, writing and picture description), following the recommendations of current diagnostic guidelines and taking into account recent research on the topic...
August 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550658/are-subjective-ratings-of-metaphors-a-red-herring-the-big-two-dimensions-of-metaphoric-sentences
#14
Paul H Thibodeau, Les Sikos, Frank H Durgin
What makes some metaphors easier to understand than others? Several psycholinguistic dimensions have been identified as candidate answers to this question, including appeals to familiarity and aptness. One way to operationalize these dimensions is to collect ratings of them from naive participants. In this article, we question the construct validity of this approach. Do ratings of aptness actually reflect the aptness of the metaphors? Are ratings of aptness measuring something different from ratings of familiarity? With two experiments and an analysis of existing datasets, we argue that ratings of metaphoric sentences are confounded by how easily people are able to understand the sentences (processing fluency)...
May 27, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503906/more-than-words-the-role-of-multiword-sequences-in-language-learning-and-use
#15
Morten H Christiansen, Inbal Arnon
The ability to convey our thoughts using an infinite number of linguistic expressions is one of the hallmarks of human language. Understanding the nature of the psychological mechanisms and representations that give rise to this unique productivity is a fundamental goal for the cognitive sciences. A long-standing hypothesis is that single words and rules form the basic building blocks of linguistic productivity, with multiword sequences being treated as units only in peripheral cases such as idioms. The new millennium, however, has seen a shift toward construing multiword linguistic units not as linguistic rarities, but as important building blocks for language acquisition and processing...
May 14, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481476/computational-investigations-of-multiword-chunks-in%C3%A2-language-learning
#16
Stewart M McCauley, Morten H Christiansen
Second-language learners rarely arrive at native proficiency in a number of linguistic domains, including morphological and syntactic processing. Previous approaches to understanding the different outcomes of first- versus second-language learning have focused on cognitive and neural factors. In contrast, we explore the possibility that children and adults may rely on different linguistic units throughout the course of language learning, with specific focus on the granularity of those units. Following recent psycholinguistic evidence for the role of multiword chunks in online language processing, we explore the hypothesis that children rely more heavily on multiword units in language learning than do adults learning a second language...
May 8, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477262/replication-of-psycholinguistic-experiments-and-the-resolution-of-inconsistencies
#17
Csilla Rákosi
Non-exact replications are regarded as effective tools of problem solving in psycholinguistic research because they lead to more plausible experimental results; however, they are also ineffective tools of problem solving because they trigger cumulative contradictions among different replications of an experiment. This paper intends to resolve this paradox by putting forward a metatheoretical model that clarifies the criteria with the help of which various aspects of the effectiveness of the problem solving process can be differentiated and evaluated...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465069/the-role-of-nondeclarative-memory-in-the-skill-for-language-evidence-from-syntactic-priming-in-patients-with-amnesia
#18
Evelien Heyselaar, Katrien Segaert, Serge J W Walvoort, Roy P C Kessels, Peter Hagoort
Syntactic priming, the phenomenon in which participants adopt the linguistic behaviour of their partner, is widely used in psycholinguistics to investigate syntactic operations. Although the phenomenon of syntactic priming is well documented, the memory system that supports the retention of this syntactic information long enough to influence future utterances, is not as widely investigated. We aim to shed light on this issue by assessing patients with Korsakoff's amnesia on an active-passive syntactic priming task and compare their performance to controls matched in age, education, and premorbid intelligence...
April 29, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464656/perceptual-evaluation-of-violins-a-psycholinguistic-analysis-of-preference-verbal-descriptions-by-experienced-musicians
#19
Charalampos Saitis, Claudia Fritz, Gary P Scavone, Catherine Guastavino, Danièle Dubois
In this paper, how the notion of violin quality is conveyed in spontaneous verbalizations by experienced violinists during preference judgments is investigated. The aims of the study were to better understand how musicians conceptualize violin quality, what aspects of the sound and the playing experience are essential, and what associations are formed between perceptual evaluation and physical description. Upon comparing violins of varying make and age, players were interviewed about their preferences using open-ended questions...
April 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448766/cross-linguistic-adaptations-of-the-comprehensive-aphasia-test-challenges-and-solutions
#20
Valantis Fyndanis, Marianne Lind, Spyridoula Varlokosta, Maria Kambanaros, Efstathia Soroli, Klaudia Ceder, Kleanthes K Grohmann, Adrià Rofes, Hanne Gram Simonsen, Jovana Bjekić, Anna Gavarró, Jelena Kuvač Kraljević, Silvia Martínez-Ferreiro, Amaia Munarriz, Marie Pourquie, Jasmina Vuksanović, Lilla Zakariás, David Howard
Comparative research on aphasia and aphasia rehabilitation is challenged by the lack of comparable assessment tools across different languages. In English, a large array of tools is available, while in most other languages, the selection is more limited. Importantly, assessment tools are often simple translations and do not take into consideration specific linguistic and psycholinguistic parameters of the target languages. As a first step in meeting the needs for comparable assessment tools, the Comprehensive Aphasia Test is currently being adapted into a number of languages spoken in Europe...
April 27, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
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