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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667366/divergent-effects-of-healthy-ageing-on-semantic-knowledge-and-control-evidence-from-novel-comparisons-with-semantically-impaired-patients
#1
Paul Hoffman
Effective use of semantic knowledge requires a set of conceptual representations and control processes which ensure that currently relevant aspects of this knowledge are retrieved and selected. It is well-established that levels of semantic knowledge increase across the lifespan. However, the effects of ageing on semantic control processes have not been assessed. I addressed this issue by comparing the performance profiles of young and older people on a verbal comprehension test. Two sets of variables were used to predict accuracy and RT in each group: (1) the psycholinguistic properties of words probed in each trial and (2) the performance on each trial by two groups of semantically impaired neuropsychological patients...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659592/motor-but-not-auditory-attention-affects-syntactic-choice
#2
Mikhail Pokhoday, Christoph Scheepers, Yury Shtyrov, Andriy Myachykov
Understanding the determinants of syntactic choice in sentence production is a salient topic in psycholinguistics. Existing evidence suggests that syntactic choice results from an interplay between linguistic and non-linguistic factors, and a speaker's attention to the elements of a described event represents one such factor. Whereas multimodal accounts of attention suggest a role for different modalities in this process, existing studies examining attention effects in syntactic choice are primarily based on visual cueing paradigms...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651789/understanding-prosodic-focus-marking-in-mandarin-chinese-data-from-children-and-adults
#3
Hui-Ching Chen, Krista Szendrői, Stephen Crain, Barbara Höhle
This study investigated whether Mandarin speakers interpret prosodic information as focus markers in a sentence-picture verification task. Previous production studies have shown that both Mandarin-speaking adults and Mandarin-speaking children mark focus by prosodic information (Ouyang and Kaiser in Lang Cogn Neurosc 30(1-2):57-72, 2014; Yang and Chen in Prosodic focus marking in Chinese four-and eight-year-olds, 2014). However, while prosodic focus marking did not seem to affect sentence comprehension in adults Mandarin-speaking children showed enhanced sentence comprehension when the sentence focus was marked by prosodic information in a previous study (Chen in Appl Psycholinguist 19(4):553-582, 1998)...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553762/a-cognitive-psychometric-model-for-assessment-of-picture-naming-abilities-in-aphasia
#4
Grant M Walker, Gregory Hickok, Julius Fridriksson
Picture naming impairments are a typical feature of stroke-induced aphasia. Overall accuracy and rates of different error types are used to make inferences about the severity and nature of damage to the brain's language network. Currently available assessment tools for picture naming accuracy treat it as a unidimensional measure, while assessment tools for error types treat items homogenously, contrary to findings from psycholinguistic investigations of word production. We created and tested a new cognitive psychometric model for assessment of picture naming responses, using cognitive theory to specify latent processing decisions during the production of a naming attempt, and using item response theory to separate the effects of item difficulty and participant ability on these internal processing decisions...
March 19, 2018: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524274/information-properties-of-morphologically-complex-words-modulate-brain-activity-during-word-reading
#5
Tero Hakala, Annika Hultén, Minna Lehtonen, Krista Lagus, Riitta Salmelin
Neuroimaging studies of the reading process point to functionally distinct stages in word recognition. Yet, current understanding of the operations linked to those various stages is mainly descriptive in nature. Approaches developed in the field of computational linguistics may offer a more quantitative approach for understanding brain dynamics. Our aim was to evaluate whether a statistical model of morphology, with well-defined computational principles, can capture the neural dynamics of reading, using the concept of surprisal from information theory as the common measure...
March 9, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515502/the-mental-representation-of-polysemy-across-word-classes
#6
Anastasiya Lopukhina, Anna Laurinavichyute, Konstantin Lopukhin, Olga Dragoy
Experimental studies on polysemy have come to contradictory conclusions on whether words with multiple senses are stored as separate or shared mental representations. The present study examined the semantic relatedness and semantic similarity of literal and non-literal (metonymic and metaphorical) senses of three word classes: nouns, verbs, and adjectives. Two methods were used: a psycholinguistic experiment and a distributional analysis of corpus data. In the experiment, participants were presented with 6-12 short phrases containing a polysemous word in literal, metonymic, or metaphorical senses and were asked to classify them so that phrases with the same perceived sense were grouped together...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478997/a-grounded-theory-of-effective-reading-by-profoundly-deaf-adults
#7
Julia A Silvestri, Ye Wang
The purpose of the study was to uncover and describe psycholinguistic and sociocognitive factors facilitating effective reading by signing adults who are profoundly deaf and do not use hearing technology. The sample comprised four groups, each consisting of 15 adults, for a total of 60 participants. The four groups were deaf high-achieving, deaf low-achieving, hearing high-achieving, and hearing low-achieving. Measurements included a language background interview and think-aloud reading discussion. Through the lens of a grounded theory approach, the conditions that facilitate effective reading were uncovered-by coding and categorizing themes, relating the codes and categories, and determining a central theme...
2018: American Annals of the Deaf
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478856/electrophysiological-correlates-of-semantic-dissimilarity-reflect-the-comprehension-of-natural-narrative-speech
#8
Michael P Broderick, Andrew J Anderson, Giovanni M Di Liberto, Michael J Crosse, Edmund C Lalor
People routinely hear and understand speech at rates of 120-200 words per minute [1, 2]. Thus, speech comprehension must involve rapid, online neural mechanisms that process words' meanings in an approximately time-locked fashion. However, electrophysiological evidence for such time-locked processing has been lacking for continuous speech. Although valuable insights into semantic processing have been provided by the "N400 component" of the event-related potential [3-6], this literature has been dominated by paradigms using incongruous words within specially constructed sentences, with less emphasis on natural, narrative speech comprehension...
February 21, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468696/i-introduction
#9
Caroline Floccia, Thomas D Sambrook, Claire Delle Luche, Rosa Kwok, Jeremy Goslin, Laurence White, Allegra Cattani, Emily Sullivan, Kirsten Abbot-Smith, Andrea Krott, Debbie Mills, Caroline Rowland, Judit Gervain, Kim Plunkett
The majority of the world's children grow up learning two or more languages. The study of early bilingualism is central to current psycholinguistics, offering insights into issues such as transfer and interference in development. From an applied perspective, it poses a universal challenge to language assessment practices throughout childhood, as typically developing bilingual children usually underperform relative to monolingual norms when assessed in one language only. We measured vocabulary with Communicative Development Inventories for 372 24-month-old toddlers learning British English and one Additional Language out of a diverse set of 13 (Bengali, Cantonese, Dutch, French, German, Greek, Hindi-Urdu, Italian, Mandarin, Polish, Portuguese, Spanish, and Welsh)...
March 2018: Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435912/concreteness-norms-for-1-659-french-words-relationships-with-other-psycholinguistic-variables-and-word-recognition-times
#10
Patrick Bonin, Alain Méot, Aurélia Bugaiska
Words that correspond to a potential sensory experience-concrete words-have long been found to possess a processing advantage over abstract words in various lexical tasks. We collected norms of concreteness for a set of 1,659 French words, together with other psycholinguistic norms that were not available for these words-context availability, emotional valence, and arousal-but which are important if we are to achieve a better understanding of the meaning of concreteness effects. We then investigated the relationships of concreteness with these newly collected variables, together with other psycholinguistic variables that were already available for this set of words (e...
February 12, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435824/psycholinguistic-variables-matter-in-odor-naming
#11
John L A Huisman, Asifa Majid
People from Western societies generally find it difficult to name odors. In trying to explain this, the olfactory literature has proposed several theories that focus heavily on properties of the odor itself but rarely discuss properties of the label used to describe it. However, recent studies show speakers of languages with dedicated smell lexicons can name odors with relative ease. Has the role of the lexicon been overlooked in the olfactory literature? Word production studies show properties of the label, such as word frequency and semantic context, influence naming; but this field of research focuses heavily on the visual domain...
February 12, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426787/direct-object-pronoun-sentence-processing-in-spanish-english-children-with-without-specific-language-impairment-and-adults-a-cross-modal-priming-study
#12
Dolors Girbau
PURPOSE: This paper examines whether bilingual children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) showed limited comprehension of Direct Object (DO) pronoun sentences and/or morphosyntactic priming compared to children with Typical Language Development (TLD) and adults. We analyzed the relation of these morphosyntactic processes to other psycholinguistic abilities, according to the MUC (Memory-Unification-Control) model. METHOD: Ten bilingual native Spanish-speaking children with SLI (8;3-10;6) and 10 age-matched children with TLD (7;6-10;10) received a psycholinguistic evaluation in Spanish-English...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417454/autoregressive-generalized-linear-mixed-effect-models-with-crossed-random-effects-an-application-to-intensive-binary-time-series-eye-tracking-data
#13
Sun-Joo Cho, Sarah Brown-Schmidt, Woo-Yeol Lee
As a method to ascertain person and item effects in psycholinguistics, a generalized linear mixed effect model (GLMM) with crossed random effects has met limitations in handing serial dependence across persons and items. This paper presents an autoregressive GLMM with crossed random effects that accounts for variability in lag effects across persons and items. The model is shown to be applicable to intensive binary time series eye-tracking data when researchers are interested in detecting experimental condition effects while controlling for previous responses...
February 7, 2018: Psychometrika
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411408/exploratory-and-confirmatory-analyses-in-sentence-processing-a-case-study-of-number-interference-in-german
#14
Bruno Nicenboim, Shravan Vasishth, Felix Engelmann, Katja Suckow
Given the replication crisis in cognitive science, it is important to consider what researchers need to do in order to report results that are reliable. We consider three changes in current practice that have the potential to deliver more realistic and robust claims. First, the planned experiment should be divided into two stages, an exploratory stage and a confirmatory stage. This clear separation allows the researcher to check whether any results found in the exploratory stage are robust. The second change is to carry out adequately powered studies...
February 7, 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404914/from-corpora-to-experiments-methodological-triangulation-in-the-study-of-word-order-at-the-interfaces-in-adult-late-bilinguals-l2-learners
#15
Amaya Mendikoetxea, Cristóbal Lozano
This paper shows the need to triangulate different approaches in Bilingualism and Second Language Acquisition (SLA) research to fully understand late bilinguals' interlanguage grammars. Methodologically, we show how experimental and corpus data can be (and should be) triangulated by reporting on a corpus study (Lozano and Mendikoetxea in Biling Lang Cognit 13(4):475-497, 2010) and a new follow-up offline experiment investigating Subject-Verb inversion (Subject-Verb/Verb-Subject order) in L1 Spanish-L2 English (n = 417)...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396497/multiplex-model-of-mental-lexicon-reveals-explosive-learning-in-humans
#16
Massimo Stella, Nicole M Beckage, Markus Brede, Manlio De Domenico
Word similarities affect language acquisition and use in a multi-relational way barely accounted for in the literature. We propose a multiplex network representation of this mental lexicon of word similarities as a natural framework for investigating large-scale cognitive patterns. Our representation accounts for semantic, taxonomic, and phonological interactions and it identifies a cluster of words which are used with greater frequency, are identified, memorised, and learned more easily, and have more meanings than expected at random...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393697/context-processing-during-irony-comprehension-in-right-frontal-brain-damaged-individuals
#17
Maud Champagne-Lavau, Natacha Cordonier, Anne Bellmann, Marion Fossard
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the degree of incongruity between contextual information and a target sentence influences the extent to which irony is understood in individuals with right-frontal-hemisphere damage (RHD). A psycholinguistic paradigm was used, allowing us to assess whether impairment in irony understanding is likely to be due to insensitivity (i.e. difficulty in capturing or detecting relevant contextual information) to relevant contextual information or to difficulties in integrating contextual information...
February 2, 2018: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383571/variation-in-the-speech-signal-as-a-window-into-the-cognitive-architecture-of-language-production
#18
Audrey Bürki
The pronunciation of words is highly variable. This variation provides crucial information about the cognitive architecture of the language production system. This review summarizes key empirical findings about variation phenomena, integrating corpus, acoustic, articulatory, and chronometric data from phonetic and psycholinguistic studies. It examines how these data constrain our current understanding of word production processes and highlights major challenges and open issues that should be addressed in future research...
January 30, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380301/aligntool-the-automatic-temporal-alignment-of-spoken-utterances-in-german-dutch-and-british-english-for-psycholinguistic-purposes
#19
Lars Schillingmann, Jessica Ernst, Verena Keite, Britta Wrede, Antje S Meyer, Eva Belke
In language production research, the latency with which speakers produce a spoken response to a stimulus and the onset and offset times of words in longer utterances are key dependent variables. Measuring these variables automatically often yields partially incorrect results. However, exact measurements through the visual inspection of the recordings are extremely time-consuming. We present AlignTool, an open-source alignment tool that establishes preliminarily the onset and offset times of words and phonemes in spoken utterances using Praat, and subsequently performs a forced alignment of the spoken utterances and their orthographic transcriptions in the automatic speech recognition system MAUS...
January 29, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372490/a-database-of-orthography-semantics-consistency-osc-estimates-for-15-017-english-words
#20
Marco Marelli, Simona Amenta
Orthography-semantics consistency (OSC) is a measure that quantifies the degree of semantic relatedness between a word and its orthographic relatives. OSC is computed as the frequency-weighted average semantic similarity between the meaning of a given word and the meanings of all the words containing that very same orthographic string, as captured by distributional semantic models. We present a resource including optimized estimates of OSC for 15,017 English words. In a series of analyses, we provide a progressive optimization of the OSC variable...
January 25, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
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