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Paolo Tessari
Background: Insulin and age affect leucine (and protein) kinetics in vivo. However, to our knowledge, leucine transamination and the effects of insulin have not been studied in participants of different ages. Objective: The aims of the study were to measure whole-body leucine deamination to α-ketoisocaproate (KIC) and KIC reamination to leucine in middle-aged and younger healthy adults, both in the postabsorptive state and after hyperinsulinemia. Methods: Younger (mean ± SE age: 26 ± 2 y) and middle-aged (54 ± 3 y) healthy men and women were enrolled...
November 2017: Journal of Nutrition
Giacomo Garibotto, Daniela Verzola, Monica Vettore, Paolo Tessari
The first steps of leucine utilization are reversible deamination to α-ketoisocaproic acid (α-KIC) and irreversible oxidation. Recently, the regulatory role of leucine deamination over oxidation was underlined in rodents. Our aim was to measure leucine deamination and reamination in the whole body, in respect to previously determined rates across individual organs, in humans. By leucine and KIC isotope kinetics, we determined whole-body leucine deamination and reamination, and we compared these rates with those already reported across the sampled organs...
April 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Xiaoqing Zheng, Qiuxiang Cheng, Fen Yao, Xiaozheng Wang, Lingxin Kong, Bo Cao, Min Xu, Shuangjun Lin, Zixin Deng, Yit-Heng Chooi, Delin You
The protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin features a unique benzylpyrrolidine system and exhibits diverse biological and pharmacologic activities. Its biosynthetic origin has remained obscure for more than 60 y, however. Here we report the identification of the biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC) of anisomycin in Streptomyces hygrospinosus var. beijingensis by a bioactivity-guided high-throughput screening method. Using a combination of bioinformatic analysis, reverse genetics, chemical analysis, and in vitro biochemical assays, we have identified a core four-gene ensemble responsible for the synthesis of the pyrrolidine system in anisomycin: aniQ, encoding a aminotransferase that catalyzes an initial deamination and a later reamination steps; aniP, encoding a transketolase implicated to bring together an glycolysis intermediate with 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid to form the anisomycin molecular backbone; aniO, encoding a glycosyltransferase that catalyzes a cryptic glycosylation crucial for downstream enzyme processing; and aniN, encoding a bifunctional dehydrogenase that mediates multistep pyrrolidine formation...
April 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jinsoo Yi, Tine A Knudsen, Anne-Louise Nielsen, Lars Duelund, Morten Christensen, Pablo Hervella, David Needham, Ole G Mouritsen
We have quantified the inhibition of intestinal cholesterol transport by pine-derived phytosterols using an HT29-MTX intestine cell model that forms a mucus layer similar to that in the intestine. An artificial intestinal fluid consisting of digested fat, bile salt, cholesterol, and phytosterols was formulated in order to mimic the conditions in the intestine. The apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of the positive control, i.e., 0.1mM of cholesterol solubilized in the artificial intestine fluid, was found to be 0...
October 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Conor Rocks, Somak Mitra, Manuel Macias-Montero, Paul Maguire, Vladimir Svrcek, Igor Levchenko, Kostya Ostrikov, Davide Mariotti
Carbon nanotube (CNT) growth has been demonstrated recently using a number of nonmetallic semiconducting and metal oxide nanoparticles, opening up pathways for direct CNT synthesis from a number of more desirable templates without the need for metallic catalysts. However, CNT growth mechanisms using these nonconventional catalysts has been shown to largely differ and reamins a challenging synthesis route. In this contribution we show CNT growth from partially oxidized silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) that exhibit quantum confinement effects using a microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method...
July 27, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Chen Wang, Yi Shi, Jiong Wang, Jie Pang, Xing-Hua Xia
A micro/nanofluidic enrichment device combined with the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique has been developed for sensitive detection of trace quantities of protein. In this approach, sample protein is first adsorbed on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to occupy part of the AuNP surface. Then, dye-labeled protein is added, which adsorbs to the residual active sites of the AuNP surface, saturating the AuNP surface with protein molecules. The unadsorbed dye-labeled protein remains in a free state in the system...
April 1, 2015: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Qi Zhang, Weiqun Yan, Yang Bai, Hao Xu, Changhao Fu, Wenwen Zheng, Yingqiao Zhu, Jie Ma
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a disease with an adverse outcome and new therapeutic strategies are required to combat this disease. It is well known that tumor‑suppressor microRNA (miRNA) acts as a new potential anticancer agent. Accumulating evidence showed that microRNA-145 (miR-145) is a candidate tumor suppressor miRNA. However, whether miR-145 is involved in the development and progression of MM reamins to be determined. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of synthetic miR-145 against human MM cells in vitro and in vivo...
January 2015: Oncology Reports
R W Aldag, J L Young
Maize and ryegrass seedlings (2.5 weeks old), the roots of which were dipped into 10(-3)M (14)C-carboxyl-labeled D-leucine and (14)C-ε-labeled D-lysine, readyly absorbed and converted or conjugated within 34 hr some 75-90% of the labeled compound supplied. The metabolic intermediates and products were generally similar for both maize and ryegrass. Radioactive intermediates from the carboxyllabeled D-leucine were L-leucine, N-malonyl-D-leucine (provisionally identified), and α-ketoisocaproic acid. Intermediates from ε-labeled D-lysine were numerous, with greater amounts and numbers detected in roots than in tops...
September 1970: Planta
Chris H P van den Akker, Henk Schierbeek, Gardi Minderman, Andras Vermes, Ernst M Schoonderwaldt, Johannes J Duvekot, Eric A P Steegers, Johannes B van Goudoever
Human fetal metabolism is largely unexplored. Understanding how a healthy fetus achieves its fast growth rates could eventually play a pivotal role in improving future nutritional strategies for premature infants. To quantify specific fetal amino acid kinetics, eight healthy pregnant women received before elective cesarean section at term, continuous stable isotope infusions of the essential amino acids [1-13C,15N]leucine, [U-13C5]valine, and [1-13C]methionine. Umbilical blood was collected after birth and analyzed for enrichments and concentrations using mass spectrometry techniques...
December 2011: Pediatric Research
Susan M Hutson, Mohammad Mainul Islam, Ioannis Zaganas
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) catabolism follows sequential reactions and their metabolites intersect with other metabolic pathways. The initial enzymes in BCAA metabolism, the mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase (BCATm), which deaminates the BCAAs to branched-chain α-keto acids (BCKAs); and the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme complex (BCKDC), which oxidatively decarboxylates the BCKAs, are organized in a supramolecular complex termed metabolon. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH1) is found in the metabolon in rat tissues...
September 2011: Neurochemistry International
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
1945: Biokhimii︠a︡
T Matsunaga, S Nakasono, Y Kitajima, K Horiguchi
A novel electrochemical reactor employing activated carbon fiber (ACF) electrodes was constructed for disinfecting bacteria in drinking water. Escherichia coli adsorbed preferentially onto ACF rather than to carbon-cloth or granular-activated carbon. E. coli cells, which adsorbed onto the ACF, were killed electrochemically when a potential of 0.8 V vs. a saturated calomel electrode (SCE) was applied. Drinking water was passed through the reactor in stop-flow mode: 2mL/min for 12 h, o L/min for 24 h, and 1 mL/min for 6 h...
March 5, 1994: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
R Schoenheimer, S Ratner, D Rittenberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 24, 1939: Science
Satish C Kalhan, Prabhu S Parimi
Kinetics of leucine and its oxidation were determined in human pregnancy and in the newborn infant, using stable isotopic tracers, to quantify the dynamic aspects of protein metabolism. These data show that in human pregnancy there is a decrease in whole-body rate of leucine turnover compared with nonpregnant women. In addition, data in newborn infants show that leucine turnover expressed as per kg body weight is higher compared with adults. The administering of nutrients resulted in a suppression of the whole-body rate of proteolysis...
January 2006: Journal of Nutrition
Marc Yudkoff, Yevgeny Daikhin, Ilana Nissim, Oksana Horyn, Bohdan Luhovyy, Bogdan Luhovyy, Adam Lazarow, Itzhak Nissim
Glutamic acid is an important excitatory neurotransmitter of the brain. Two key goals of brain amino acid handling are to maintain a very low intrasynaptic concentration of glutamic acid and also to provide the system with precursors from which to synthesize glutamate. The intrasynaptic glutamate level must be kept low to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio upon the release of glutamate from nerve terminals and to minimize the risk of excitotoxicity consequent to excessive glutamatergic stimulation of susceptible neurons...
June 2005: Journal of Nutrition
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1950: Comptes Rendus des Séances de la Société de Biologie et de Ses Filiales
Milan Holecek, Roman Safránek, Radana Rysavá, Jana Kadlcíková, Ludek Sprongl
Acidosis is frequently associated with protein wasting and derangements in amino acid metabolism. As its effect on protein metabolism is significantly modulated by other abnormal metabolic conditions caused by specific illnesses, it is difficult to separate out the effects on protein metabolism solely due to acidosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, using a model of isolated perfused rat liver, the direct response of hepatic tissue to acidosis. We have compared hepatic response to perfusion with a solution of pH 7...
August 2003: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1955: Vojnosanitetski Pregled. Military-medical and Pharmaceutical Review
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
1960: Khirurgiia
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