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Diabetes mellitus review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923219/nonoperative-versus-operative-treatment-of-displaced-ankle-fractures-in-diabetics
#1
Andrew J Lovy, James Dowdell, Aakash Keswani, Steven Koehler, Jaehon Kim, Steven Weinfeld, David Joseph
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a risk factor for complications related to displaced ankle fractures. Limited literature exists comparing complication rates in nonoperative versus operative treatment of displaced ankle fractures in diabetics. No study has highlighted the natural history of nonoperative treatment of displaced ankle fractures in diabetics. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all adult ankle fractures from September 2011 through December 2014. Inclusion was limited to ambulatory adults (>18 years) with closed, displaced (widened mortise) ankle fractures with diabetes mellitus...
November 14, 2016: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921141/kidney-stones-diseases-and-glycaemic-statuses-focus-on-the-latest-clinical-evidences
#2
REVIEW
Leonardo Spatola, Claudio Angelini, Salvatore Badalamenti, Silvio Maringhini, Giovanni Gambaro
Diabetes and obesity are already recognized as potential risk factors for nephrolithiasis, especially for uric acid stones. Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia actively contribute to impaired ability to excrete an acid load and altered ammonium production, leading to a lower urinary pH compared to non-diabetic controls. All these electrolytic disorders play an important role in stone formation and aggregation, especially in uric acid stones. There are still missing points in scientific evidence if the increased risk in stone formation is already existing even in the prediabetic statuses (isolated impaired glucose tolerance, isolated impaired fasting glucose, and associated impaired glucose tolerance/impaired fasting glucose) as well as it is worth to consider the same level of risk...
December 5, 2016: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921048/surgical-treatment-of-metabolic-syndrome
#3
REVIEW
Norbert Runkel, Rainer Brydniak
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is gastrointestinal surgery for weight control, and metabolic surgery refers to the use of surgery to primarily and purposely treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)/metabolic syndrome mellitus. METHODS: The most recent literature was reviewed for surgery and T2DM in a non-systematic fashion. RESULTS: Roux-Y gastric bypass, biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch, and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) are the dominant procedures today...
October 2016: Visceral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921043/metabolic-vascular-syndrome-new-insights-into-a-multidimensional-network-of-risk-factors-and-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Gerhard H Scholz, Markolf Hanefeld
BACKGROUND: Since 1981, we have used the term metabolic syndrome to describe an association of a dysregulation in lipid metabolism (high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, disturbed glucose homeostasis (enhanced fasting and/or prandial glucose), gout, and hypertension), with android obesity being based on a common soil (overnutrition, reduced physical activity, sociocultural factors, and genetic predisposition). We hypothesized that main traits of the syndrome occur early and are tightly connected with hyperinsulinemia/insulin resistance, procoagulation, and cardiovascular diseases...
October 2016: Visceral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919230/the-association-of-hyperglycaemia-with-prevalent-tuberculosis-a-population-based-cross-sectional-study
#5
Sarah Lou Bailey, Helen Ayles, Nulda Beyers, Peter Godfrey-Faussett, Monde Muyoyeta, Elizabeth du Toit, John S Yudkin, Sian Floyd
BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews suggest that the incidence of diagnosed tuberculosis is two- to- three times higher in those with diabetes mellitus than in those without. Few studies have previously reported the association between diabetes or hyperglycaemia and the prevalence of active tuberculosis and none in a population-based study with microbiologically-defined tuberculosis. Most have instead concentrated on cases of diagnosed tuberculosis that present to health facilities. We had the opportunity to measure glycaemia alongside prevalent tuberculosis...
December 5, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919208/is-metformin-a-therapeutic-paradigm-for-colorectal-cancer-insight-into-the-molecular-pathway
#6
Zar Chii Thent, Nurul Hannim Zaidun, Fairuz Azmi, Mu Izuddin Senin, Haszianaliza Haslan, Ahmad Ruzain Salehuddin
Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains one of the major leading causes of cancer related morbidity and mortality. Apart from the conventional anti-neoplastic agents, metformin, a biguanide anti-diabetic agent, has recently found to have anti-cancer property. Several studies observed the effect of metformin towards its anti-cancer effect on colon or colorectal cancer in diabetic patients. However, only a few studies showed its effect on colorectal cancer in relation to the non-diabetic status. The present review aimed to highlight the insight into the molecular pathway of metformin towards colorectal cancer in the absence of diabetes mellitus...
December 5, 2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917777/the-identification-and-treatment-of-women-with-hyperglycaemia-in-pregnancy-an-analysis-of-individual-participant-data-systematic-reviews-meta-analyses-and-an-economic-evaluation
#7
Diane Farrar, Mark Simmonds, Susan Griffin, Ana Duarte, Debbie A Lawlor, Mark Sculpher, Lesley Fairley, Su Golder, Derek Tuffnell, Martin Bland, Fidelma Dunne, Donald Whitelaw, John Wright, Trevor A Sheldon
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with a higher risk of important adverse outcomes. Practice varies and the best strategy for identifying and treating GDM is unclear. AIM: To estimate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of strategies for identifying and treating women with GDM. METHODS: We analysed individual participant data (IPD) from birth cohorts and conducted systematic reviews to estimate the association of maternal glucose levels with adverse perinatal outcomes; GDM prevalence; maternal characteristics/risk factors for GDM; and the effectiveness and costs of treatments...
November 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917721/prognostic-factors-for-idiopathic-sudden-sensorineural-hearing-loss-treated-with-hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-and-intravenous-steroids
#8
S Hosokawa, K Sugiyama, G Takahashi, S Takebayashi, H Mineta
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the prognosis of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss when treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy and intravenous steroids. METHODS: The clinical data for 334 patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss treated by hyperbaric oxygen therapy and intravenous steroids at our hospital were retrospectively reviewed. These data included the initial averaged five-frequency hearing level, patient age, interval between onset of symptoms and treatment, vertigo as a complication, and co-existence of diabetes mellitus...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917712/the-role-of-antiplatelet-therapy-in-primary-prevention-a-review
#9
Lauge Østergaard, Emil L Fosbøl, Matthew T Roe
The efficacy of antiplatelet therapy for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease after an ischemic event is well established. However, the role for antiplatelet therapy for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease is more complex because of the interplay of efficacy vs safety in individuals without established cardiovascular disease who have a relatively low, but linear trajectory of cardiovascular risk. Several large randomized trials have investigated the efficacy and safety of antiplatelet therapy (primarily aspirin) for patients without established cardiovascular disease...
December 5, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917671/-the-role-of-oxidative-stress-in-the-development-of-diabetic-neuropathy
#10
Ferenc Sztanek, Ágnes Molnárné Molnár, Zoltán Balogh
Diabetic neuropathy may be one of the most common and severe complications of diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the development of microvascular complications of diabetes. The majority of related pathways like polyol and hexosamine, advanced glycation end products, poly-ADP-ribose polymerase, and protein kinase-C all originated from initial oxidative stress. In this review, the authors present the current oxidative stress hypothesis in diabetes mellitus and summarize the pathophysiological mechanisms of diabetic neuropathy associated with increased oxidative stress...
December 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917530/visual-complications-in-diabetes-mellitus-beyond-retinopathy
#11
REVIEW
A Khan, I N Petropoulos, G Ponirakis, R A Malik
Diabetic retinopathy is the most common cause of vision loss in people with diabetes mellitus; however, other causes of visual impairment/loss include other retinal and non-retinal visual problems, including glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy and cataracts. Additionally, when a person with diabetes complains of visual disturbance despite a visual acuity of 6/6, abnormalities in refraction, contrast sensitivity, straylight and amplitude of accommodation should be considered...
December 5, 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917299/a-male-with-extreme-subcutaneous-insulin-resistance-a-case-report
#12
Zuhayer Ahmed, Indrajit Prasad, Hafizur Rahman, Jalil Ansari, Khaled Hassan
INTRODUCTION: Though insulin has no upper limit in dosage, we do not encounter very high dose requirements too often. The reported case is the first in Bangladesh to require more than 1000 international units (IU) of subcutaneous insulin per day. CASE PRESENTATION: A 44-year old male diabetic patient from Bangladesh presented with unusually uncontrolled diabetes mellitus due to extreme insulin resistance. Despite dramatic increase in insulin step by step up to 1110 IU of concomitant short and intermediate acting insulin per day by subcutaneous route, his blood glucose remained over 12 mmol/L persistently, in all the fasting, pre-prandial, postprandial and random samples...
June 2016: Rom J Diabetes Nutr Metab Dis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916514/dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors-and-protection-against-stroke-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
F Barkas, M Elisaf, V Tsimihodimos, H Milionis
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with an increased risk of stroke and an unfavourable outcome following stroke. Apart from pioglitazone, glucose-lowering modalities have not been shown to protect against stroke. Nevertheless, there is evidence from experimental studies of potential neuroprotective effects with dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors, especially if treatment starts before stroke. OBJECTIVE: To perform a meta-analysis of available evidence regarding the risk of stroke in individuals taking DPP-4 inhibitors...
December 1, 2016: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916004/sugars-and-health-a-review-of-current-evidence-and-future-policy
#14
Charlotte Elizabeth Louise Evans
The automation of the process of extracting sugars in the 1900s reduced cost and increased availability of sugars leading to a dramatic rise in consumption, which reached a peak in the 1970s. There are different definitions for sugars not naturally available in foods, and free sugars is the term used by WHO. The epidemiological evidence of the associations between sugars and obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus is fairly strong and consistent, particularly for sugar sweetened drinks in adults. The Department of Health in the UK and many other countries have recently updated their recommendations for free sugars as a result of this scientific evidence...
December 5, 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915400/the-pathophysiological-role-of-nox2-in-hypertension-and-organ-damage
#15
REVIEW
Maurizio Forte, Cristina Nocella, Elena De Falco, Silvia Palmerio, Leonardo Schirone, Valentina Valenti, Giacomo Frati, Roberto Carnevale, Sebastiano Sciarretta
NADPH oxidases (NOXs) represent one of the major sources of reactive oxygen species in the vascular district. Reactive oxygen species are responsible for vascular damage that leads to several cardiovascular pathological conditions. Among NOX isoforms, NOX2 is widely expressed in many cells types, such as cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells, confirming its pivotal role in vascular pathophysiology. Studies in mice models with systemic deletion of NOX2, as well as in transgenic mice overexpressing NOX2, have demonstrated the undeniable involvement of NOX2 in the development of hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, cardiac hypertrophy, platelet aggregation, and aging...
December 3, 2016: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914836/perioperative-retinal-artery-occlusion-risk-factors-in-cardiac-surgery-from-the-united-states-national-inpatient-sample-1998-2013
#16
Tyler Calway, Daniel S Rubin, Heather E Moss, Charlotte E Joslin, Katharina Beckmann, Steven Roth
PURPOSE: To study the incidence and risk factors for retinal artery occlusion (RAO) in cardiac surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective study using the National Inpatient Sample (NIS). METHODS: The NIS was searched for cardiac surgery. Retinal artery occlusion was identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes. Postulated risk factors based on literature review were included in multivariate logistic models...
November 30, 2016: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914795/insulin-use-adipokine-profiles-and-breast-cancer-prognosis
#17
Zachary A P Wintrob, Jeffrey P Hammel, Thaer Khoury, George K Nimako, Hsin-Wei Fu, Zahra S Fayazi, Dan P Gaile, Alan Forrest, Alice C Ceacareanu
BACKGROUND: Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and breast cancer (BC) share common cytokine signaling changes resultant from adipose tissue dysfunction. This modified adipokine signaling was shown to be directly associated with changes in the body mass index (BMI) and diet and it is expected to also be influenced by T2DM pharmacotherapy. We evaluated the relationship between pre-existing diabetes treatment, circulating adipokine levels at cancer diagnosis, and long-term outcomes. METHODS: All incident BC cases were reviewed (01/01/2003-12/31/2009, N=2194)...
November 30, 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913313/the-role-of-vitamin-d-and-vdr-in-carcinogenesis-through-epidemiology-and-basic-sciences
#18
REVIEW
Borja Bandera Merchan, Sonsoles Morcillo, Gracias Martin-Nuñez, Francisco José Tinahones, Manuel Macías-González
In the last two decades vitamin D (VD) research has demonstrated new extraskeletal actions of this pre-hormone, suggesting a protective role of this secosteroid in the onset, progression and prognosis of several chronic noncommunicable diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus or cancer. Regarding carcinogenesis, both preclinical and epidemiological evidence available show oncoprotective actions of VD and its receptor, the VDR. However, in late neoplastic stages the VD system (VDS) seems to be less functional, which appears to be due to an epigenetic silencing of the system...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909641/a-case-series-of-complex-recalcitrant-wounds-treated-with-epidermal-grafts-harvested-from-an-automated-device
#19
Stephen S Cai, Arvind U Gowda, Karan Chopra, Rachel Waldman, Ronald P Silverman, Yvonne M Rasko
INTRODUCTION: Epidermal grafting has several advantages over full-thickness or split-thickness grafts in the treatment of complex non-healing wounds. These include the low risk of donor site complications, minimal patient discomfort, and abstention from the operating room. Traditionally, the lack of reliable epidermal harvesting techniques has limited its clinical utilization. The development of an automated suction blister epidermal graft (SBEG) harvesting device may facilitate clinical utilization of this technique...
October 30, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908890/pathology-of-human-coronary-and-carotid-artery-atherosclerosis-and-vascular-calcification-in-diabetes-mellitus
#20
Kazuyuki Yahagi, Frank D Kolodgie, Christoph Lutter, Hiroyoshi Mori, Maria E Romero, Aloke V Finn, Renu Virmani
The continuing increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the general population is predicted to result in a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease. Although the mechanisms of diabetes mellitus-associated progression of atherosclerosis are not fully understood, at clinical and pathological levels, there is an appreciation of increased disease burden and higher levels of arterial calcification in these subjects. Plaques within the coronary arteries of patients with diabetes mellitus generally exhibit larger necrotic cores and significantly greater inflammation consisting mainly of macrophages and T lymphocytes relative to patients without diabetes mellitus...
December 1, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
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