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Diabetes mellitus review

Joseph M Statz, Eric R Wagner, John W Sperling, Robert H Cofield
PURPOSE: Although diabetes mellitus (DM) has an adverse effect on complication rates in orthopaedic surgery, neither the effect of DM nor the association between haemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) and outcomes after shoulder arthroplasty (SA) has been studied. METHODS: A retrospective review of 406 SAs (70 HAs, 188 total shoulder arthroplasties [TSAs], 148 reverse total shoulder arthroplasties [RSAs]) with HbA1Cs within 90 days of surgery was conducted. The average age was 70 years (range 27-97) and 55% were female...
March 18, 2018: International Orthopaedics
Kalyani Raju, Srinivas Murthy Venkataramappa
Hemochromatosis is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder resulting in increased intestinal absorption of iron and eventually to iron overload. The onset of symptoms is usually seen around 40 years of age. Iron overload causes tissue damage in liver, pancreas, skin, joints, heart, and gonads. Approximately 50% of patients diagnosed with hemochromatosis will have either type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) because of selective beta-cell damage due to iron overload and leads to impaired insulin synthesis, release, and insulin resistance...
January 2018: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
Dominique Lombardo, Françoise Silvy, Isabelle Crenon, Emmanuelle Martinez, Aurélie Collignon, Evelyne Beraud, Eric Mas
Pancreatic adenocarcinomas and diabetes mellitus are responsible for the deaths of around two million people each year worldwide. Patients with chronic pancreatitis do not die directly of this disease, except where the pathology is hereditary. Much current literature supports the involvement of bile salt-dependent lipase (BSDL), also known as carboxyl ester lipase (CEL), in the pathophysiology of these pancreatic diseases. The purpose of this review is to shed light on connections between chronic pancreatitis, diabetes, and pancreatic adenocarcinomas by gaining an insight into BSDL and its variants...
February 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Chunmei Xu, Junyu Zhao, Xiaojun Zhou, Rui Zhang, Tianyue Xie, Zhiwei Zou, Lin Liao, Jianjun Dong
Background: Liver enzyme abnormalities are common in patients with type 2 diabetes. Currently, the inverse relationship between elevated liver enzymes and antidiabetics intake may be explained by rigorous treatment and good control. However, few studies have directly explored the influence of antidiabetics on abnormal liver function, especially the comparison between two insulin sensitizers-thiazolidinediones and metformin. Materials And Methods: Databases, including PubMed, Cochrane, CNKI, Wanfang and VIP were searched...
February 23, 2018: Oncotarget
C P Hawkes, S Mostoufi-Moab
The relationship between fat, bone and systemic metabolism is a growing area of scientific interest. Marrow adipose tissue is a well-recognized component of the bone marrow milieu and is metabolically distinct from current established subtypes of adipose tissue. Despite recent advances, the functional significance of marrow adipose tissue is still not clearly delineated. Bone and fat cells share a common mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) within the bone marrow, and hormones and transcription factors such as growth hormone, leptin, and peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor γ influence MSC differentiation into osteoblasts or adipocytes...
March 14, 2018: Bone
Min Li, Jia Liu, Huan Yi, Li Xu, Xiufeng Zhong, Fuhua Peng
BACKGROUND: Wolfram syndrome (WS), caused by mutations of the Wolfram syndrome 1 (WFS1) gene on chromosome 4p16.1, is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by diabetes insipidus (DI), neuro-psychiatric disorders, hearing deficit, and urinary tract anomalies. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we report a 11-year-old Chinese boy who presented with visual loss, was suspected with optic neuritis (ON) or neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and referred to our department for further diagnosis...
March 17, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Hayley E Billingsley, Salvatore Carbone
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading global cause of death. Diet is known to be important in the prevention of CVD. The PREDIMED trial tested a relatively low-fat diet versus a high-fat Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) for the primary prevention of CVD. The resulting reduction of the CV composite outcome resulted in a paradigm shift in CV nutrition. Though many dietary factors likely contributed to this effect, this review focuses on the influence of the MedDiet on endogenous antioxidant systems and the effect of dietary polyphenols...
March 9, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Kai G Kahl, Michael Deuschle, Brendon Stubbs, Ulrich Schweiger
Background Severe mental illnesses (SMIs), i.e. major depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, are associated with an elevated risk for the development of type-2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disorders. Several factors have been associated with increased cardiometabolic morbidity and mortality in SMI, including lifestyle factors (smoking, inactivity, unhealthy diet), endocrine and immunologic alterations; however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully uncovered. It is now well accepted that visceral adipose tissue (VAT) promotes the development of cardiometabolic disorders, at least in part by inflammatory and metabolic functions...
March 16, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Marion Guerrero-Wyss, Samuel Durán Agüero, Lisse Angarita Dávila
The objective of the current research was to review and update evidence on the dietary effect of the consumption of tagatose in type 2 diabetes, as well as to elucidate the current approach that exists on its production and biotechnological utility in functional food for diabetics. Articles published before July 1, 2017, were included in the databases PubMed, EBSCO, Google Scholar, and Scielo, including the terms "Tagatose", "Sweeteners", "Diabetes Mellitus type 2", "Sweeteners", "D-Tag"...
2018: BioMed Research International
Przemyslaw Rys, Agnieszka H Ludwig-Słomczyńska, Katarzyna Cyganek, Maciej T Malecki
BACKGROUND: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have shown an advantage of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) over multiple daily injections (MDI) in the general type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) population. RCT data on T1DM management in pregnancy remain limited. OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review of both RCTs and non-RCTs evaluating CSII versus MDI in T1DM-complicated pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: Electronic databases were searched for studies comparing CSII with MDI in T1DM-complicated pregnancy...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
E K Yeoh, Martin C S Wong, Eliza L Y Wong, Carrie Yam, C M Poon, Roger Y Chung, Marc Chong, Yuan Fang, Harry H X Wang, Miaoyin Liang, Wilson W L Cheung, Chun Hei Chan, Benny Zee, Andrew J Stewart Coats
BACKGROUND: Chronic Care Model (CCM) has been developed to improve patients' health care by restructuring health systems in a multidimensional manner. This systematic review aims to summarize and analyse programs specifically designed and conducted for the fulfilment of multiple CCM components. We have focused on programs targeting diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. METHOD AND RESULTS: This review was based on a comprehensive literature search of articles in the PubMed database that reported clinical outcomes...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Tinashe Mutize, Zibusiso Mkandla, Bongani B Nkambule
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation (global and gene-specific) has been reported as an epigenetic mechanism that could be involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Furthermore, epigenetic therapy has been suggested as a future possibility for T2DM treatment. Epigenetic changes illustrate the environmental link of the disease. Since some of the epigenetic modifications can be reversed, they could be used as potential therapeutic targets. The aim of the systematic review will be to synthesise the available evidence pertaining to the link between DNA methylation and T2DM...
March 15, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Purva Sharma, Yash Jobanputra, Karen Lewin, Stuart Bagatell, Daniel Lichtstein
BACKGROUND: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious complication of diabetes seen commonly in autoimmune Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM), however patients with Type 2 diabetes are also at risk. Diabetic ketoacidosis may be precipitated by the catabolic stress of acute illness such as trauma, surgery, or infections. Recent studies have suggested that sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors precipitate DKA in Type 2 diabetes. We present a case series of four patients on SGLT-2 inhibitors who presented with DKA...
March 13, 2018: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Kazuaki Negishi
We are now entering the very exciting era of treatment and management of diabetes mellitus (DM) with the emergence of new therapeutic agents, including sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4i). From a cardiology and echocardiography perspective, the existence of diabetic cardiomyopathy has been proven through over four decades of discussion. DM is highly prevalent in patients with heart failure (HF). Independent associations are found after adjusting for hypertension (HTN) and coronary artery disease (CAD)...
February 2018: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
Jie Zhu, Hao Chen, Zhixiu Song, Xudong Wang, Zhenshuang Sun
Objective: This article aims to assess the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and/or components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods: Electronic literature was searched in PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Chinese Biomedical Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang Database from inception of the database to May 19, 2017, and supplemented by browsing reference lists of potentially eligible articles...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Xiaoming Liu, Fumin Pan, Zhaoyu Ba, Shanjin Wang, Desheng Wu
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) and low back pain which is mainly caused by degeneration of the intervertebral discs (IVDs) both are major public health problem worldwide. The present study was designed to investigate the association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and severity of lumbar disc degeneration (LDD). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients with low back pain visiting our spine clinic in 2014. Low back pain patients all have the lumbar MRI imaging and no previous treatment...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
Déa Silvia Moura da Cruz, Neusa Collet, Vanessa Medeiros Nóbrega
This study aimed to analyze the scientific literature on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. This is an integrative review whose inclusion criteria were full-text papers available online in Portuguese, English and Spanish; published and indexed in databases Lilacs, Medline, Adolec, BDENF, in the period 2003-2013 that reflected the theme HRQOL, Type 1 diabetes and adolescents. Twenty-two papers were analyzed, from which the following themes were retrieved: development and validation of tools to measure the HRQOL of diabetic adolescents; HRQOL of adolescents with diabetes; factors affecting the quality of life of adolescents with diabetes and resources used to assist adolescents in diabetes management...
March 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Melanie Li, Swetlana Sirko
Building on the seminal work by Geoffrey Harris in the 1970s, the neuroendocrinology field, having undergone spectacular growth, has endeavored to understand the mechanisms of hormonal connectivity between the brain and the rest of the body. Given the fundamental role of the brain in the orchestration of endocrine processes through interactions among neurohormones, it is thus not surprising that the structural and/or functional alterations following traumatic brain injury (TBI) can lead to endocrine changes affecting the whole organism...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Laura Van den Mooter, Simon Caerels, Chantal Mathieu
There is a clear unmet clinical need in people with Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) considering present day insulin therapy. New insulin analogues and novel technologies allowing more tailored insulin administration have improved the quality of life of people with T1DM, but issues like hypoglycemia, weight gain and variability in glucose profiles remain problematic. Areas covered: In this review, the clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability of dapagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitor, in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is described based on a review of phase 2 and 3 studies to date...
March 14, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Jeny Laskar, Kasturi Bhattacharjee, Mahuya Sengupta, Yashmin Choudhury
Anti-diabetic drugs are an important group of therapeutics used worldwide. Different anti-diabetic drugs lower blood glucose level by different mechanisms. In recent years, numerous investigations have been performed based on both comparative and cohort studies, in order to establish the relationship between anti-diabetic pharmacotherapy and cancer incidence as well as mortality due to cancer. Some anti-diabetic drugs have been found to exhibit anti-cancer activity while others might increase the risk for cancer...
March 13, 2018: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
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