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Joshua D Miller, Chelsea E Sleep, Joanna Lamkin, Colin Vize, W Keith Campbell, Donald R Lynam
Historical conceptualizations have framed personality disorders (PDs) as unchanging and ego-syntonic. However, recent evidence suggests that individuals with PD traits may have some insight into their personality and consider those traits to be somewhat ego-dystonic. To replicate and extend previous findings, participants (N = 328) self-reported their PD trait levels, likability of those traits, impairment, capability for change, and desired trait levels. The results demonstrated that individuals with PD traits tolerate but still dislike those traits, believe that they cause them problems, and are interested in reducing them...
November 9, 2017: Personality Disorders
Matilde M Vaghi, Fabrice Luyckx, Akeem Sule, Naomi A Fineberg, Trevor W Robbins, Benedetto De Martino
Confidence and actions are normally tightly interwoven-if I am sure that it is going to rain, I will take an umbrella-therefore, it is difficult to understand their interplay. Stimulated by the ego-dystonic nature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), where compulsive actions are recognized as disproportionate, we hypothesized that action and confidence might be independently updated during learning. Participants completed a predictive-inference task designed to identify how action and confidence evolve in response to surprising changes in the environment...
October 11, 2017: Neuron
Kristen A Schmidt, Brian A Palmer, Mark A Frye
BACKGROUND: This case chronicles the unique presentation of psychotic mixed mania in a female 5 months after parturition and 1 week following breastfeeding discontinuation, highlighting a rarely recognized mania risk factor that is temporally delayed from parturition: breastfeeding discontinuation. CASE PRESENTATION: A 25-year-old G1P1 female with a past psychiatric history of a depressive episode in adolescence presented to the Emergency Department with her 5-month-old daughter, fiancée, and family 1 week after breastfeeding cessation...
December 2016: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
Giovanni Castellini, Egidia Fanni, Giovanni Corona, Elisa Maseroli, Valdo Ricca, Mario Maggi
INTRODUCTION: Attitudes toward masturbation are extremely varied, and this practice is often perceived with a sense of guilt. AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of ego-dystonic masturbation (EM), defined as masturbation activity followed by a sense of guilt, in a clinical setting of sexual medicine and the impact of EM on psychological and relational well-being. METHODS: A series of 4,211 men attending an andrology and sexual medicine outpatient clinic was studied retrospectively...
September 2016: Sexual Medicine
Richard J Macatee, Nicholas P Allan, Agnieszka Gajewska, Aaron M Norr, Amanda Medley Raines, Brian J Albanese, Joseph W Boffa, Norman B Schmidt, Jesse R Cougle
Generalized anxiety disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder are defined by chronic intrusive thoughts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between cognitive (attentional control) and motivational (negative urgency) mechanisms potentially underlying worry and obsessions. Participants (N = 526) completed an online questionnaire battery consisting of self-report measures of worry, OCD symptoms, attentional control (AC), negative urgency (NU), and trait negative affect. After controlling for trait negative affect, self-reported AC was negatively related to worry, repugnant obsessions, and ordering symptoms...
February 1, 2016: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Heeyeon Kim, Jiwoo Seo, Kee Namkoong, Eun Hee Hwang, Sung Yun Sohn, Se Joo Kim, Jee In Kang
BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence on suicidality and its associated factors in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present study investigated the potential contributing traits such as alexithymia and perfectionism and clinical risk factors including symptom dimensions associated with high suicidality in OCD patients. METHODS: A total of 81 patients with OCD were included (mean age: 28.89 years, SD=7.95 years, 62% men). Suicidal risk was assessed using the Scale for Suicide Ideation and history taking...
March 1, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Pan She, Hongling Zeng, Bingxiang Yang
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to explore the efficacy of structural group therapy on the self-consistency and congruence of inpatient adolescents with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. METHOD: Sixty inpatient adolescents with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n = 30) and a control group (n = 30). The intervention group was provided with a 12-session structural group therapy program for six weeks (1 h, two times per week), while the control group participated in a handicraft group...
February 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
A Amerio, B Stubbs, A Odone, M Tonna, C Marchesi, S N Ghaemi
BACKGROUND: Although some authors have recently investigated the co-occurrence of anxiety and bipolar disorders, the topic remains insufficiently studied. Defining the prevalence and predictors of BD-OCD comorbidity has important nosological, clinical and therapeutic implications. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted on the prevalence and predictors of comorbid BD-OCD. Relevant papers published through March 30th, 2015 were identified searching the electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library...
November 1, 2015: Journal of Affective Disorders
Magali Purcell Lalonde, Kieron O'Connor, Frederick Aardema, Jennifer S Coelho
Degree of ego-dystonicity in obsessions is clinically relevant to the conceptualization and treatment of eating disorders (EDs). Obsessive-compulsive disorder research has suggested that the transformation of intrusive thoughts into obsessions is linked to the degree to which intrusive thoughts threaten core perceptions of the self. This study aims to explore the relationship between the ego-dystonic nature of obsessions in ED patients and a fear of self, the link between ED symptom severity and ego-dystonicity in obsessions, and differences between non-clinical and individuals with EDs in the presence of ego-dystonic thoughts and a fear of self...
May 2015: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
Luigi Attademo, Francesco Bernardini, Enrico Paolini, Roberto Quartesan
Contemporary psychiatric nomenclature defines schizophrenia (SCZ) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) as distinct disease entities characterized by non-overlapping diagnostic criteria. Nevertheless, a complex association between SCZ and OCD exists on the psychopathological level. And although the relationship between obsessions and delusions has been widely studied and discussed, the relationship between obsessions and hallucinations has not received the same attention. This article presents an historical overview of the studies on the co-occurrence of obsessions and hallucinations...
January 2015: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
Monnica T Williams, Chad Wetterneck, Ghazel Tellawi, Gerardo Duque
Although sexual obsessions in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are not uncommon, obsessions about sexual orientation have not been well studied. These obsessions focus on issues such as the fear of being or becoming gay, fear of being perceived by others as gay, and unwanted mental images involving homosexual acts. Sexual orientation obsessions in OCD are particularly distressing due to the ego-dystonic nature of the obsessions and, often, stigma surrounding a same-sex orientation. The purpose of this study was to better understand distress in people suffering from sexual orientation obsessions in OCD...
April 2015: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Ami Sebastian Maroky, Aswin Ratheesh, Biju Viswanath, Suresh Bada Math, Channapatna R Chandrashekar, Shekhar P Seshadri
BACKGROUND: Homosexual persons are targets of verbal and physical abuse, discrimination and face legal disadvantages in many countries, including India. These external factors could play a role in determining discomfort with their sexuality. AIMS: We ascertained the association between ego-dystonicity of sexual orientation and indices of perceived acceptance, stigma and awareness of possible normative lifestyles. METHODS: Fifty-one self-identified adult homosexual men were assessed using online questionnaires that covered information including their socio-demographic details; a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) that measured their degree of discomfort with their sexuality; Reactions to Homosexuality Scale, Perceived Acceptance Scale, Modified China Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) Stigma scale; and trait version of the Positive and Negative Affect Scale...
June 2015: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
Sang-Bin Baek
The most important defining factor of being human is the use of symbolic language. Language or communication problem occurs during the growth, the child will have a higher risk of social isolation and then the survival will be threatened constantly. Today, adolescents and youths are familiar with computer and smart-phone devices, and communication with others by these devices is easy than face-to-face communication. As adolescents and youths live in the comfortable and familiar cyber-world rather than actively participating real society, so they make social isolation...
June 2014: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
Osama Shaeer, Kamal Shaeer
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of male homosexuality is difficult to elicit considering the sensitivity of one's sexual orientation. The Global Online Sexuality Survey (GOSS) is an online epidemiologic study of male and female sexuality. The online nature of GOSS allows more confidentiality and wider geographic reach, particularly important in investigating sexual issues within the more conservative societies. AIM: This study aims to determine the prevalence of male homosexuality among Internet users in the Arabic-speaking Middle East and the unique characteristics of this subset of the population...
October 2014: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Anand Pandya
This column reviews the evolution of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) mental health advocacy in relation to modern mental health advocacy efforts. In addition to developments in organized psychiatry (e.g., American Psychiatric Association's LGBT caucus), grassroots LGBT community initiatives are playing an important role (e.g., Trevor Project providing crisis intervention/suicide prevention services to LGBT youth, face-to-face mental health services in LGBT community centers). Studies have found that LGBT individuals are at increased risk for mental health problems (e...
May 2014: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
Natalie L Cuzen, Naomi A Fineberg, Dan J Stein
It may be useful to consider the application of Huang & Bargh's (H&B's) theory of unconscious motivational processes to psychopathology. In disorders of compulsivity and impulsivity, an unconscious habit system may play a key role in explaining ego-dystonic or self-destructive behaviour. H&B's theory may provide some insights into understanding conditions such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and drug addiction; however, additional work is needed to address the neurocircuitry and neurochemistry mediating their abnormal underlying motivational processes...
April 2014: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
Maya Bleich-Cohen, Talma Hendler, Artashes Pashinian, Sarit Faragian, Michael Poyurovsky
Obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) are relatively common and clinically significant phenomena in schizophrenia patients, suggesting the existence of a separate schizo-obsessive subgroup of the disorder. Although a majority of schizo-obsessive patients have typical ego-dystonic OCS, a meaningful proportion exhibits diagnostically challenging psychopathological phenomena, psychotic in content and obsessive in form. We report the clinical and functional magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of a schizophrenia patient who developed auditory hallucinations with musical content and obsessive in form...
July 2011: CNS Spectrums
Borjanka Batinic, Dragana Duisin, Jasmina Barisic
Although obsessive jealousy is a highly disturbing disorder, frequently it goes unrecognized, as most attention is paid to delusional jealousy, being the more prominent clinical phenomenon. In order to distinguish obsessive from delusional jealousy, the basic clinical characteristics of these two types of jealousy are presented, as well as the mechanism of their respective genesis, and the differences which we must be aware of in order to prevent misdiagnosis and consequent wrong treatment choices. The theoretical considerations are supported by case presentations providing a clear picture of the phenomena discussed...
September 2013: Psychiatria Danubina
María Roncero, Amparo Belloch, Conxa Perpiñá, Janet Treasure
The main objective of the present study was to analyse the role of the ego-dystonicity and ego-syntonicity of eating disorder intrusive thoughts (EDITs) in the genesis and maintenance of eating disorders (EDs). Participants were 98 female patients with EDs, 56 Spanish and 42 English (27.19±9.59 years; body mass index (BMI): 18.72±2.87). All of them completed the eating attitudes test, the Eating Attitudes Test, the Eating Intrusive Thoughts Inventory, the Ego-Dystonicity Questionnaire-Reduced version, and the Ego-Syntonicity Questionnaire...
June 30, 2013: Psychiatry Research
Branka Aukst-Margetić, Branimir Margetić, Vlatka Boricević Marsanić
OBJECTIVE: Although numerous reports suggest that different atypical antipsychotics can exacerbate or induce (de novo) obsessive-compulsive symptoms, there is no report of the development of ego-dystonic, suicidal obsessions during treatment with these medications. Here, the authors report the first case of clozapine-induced suicidal obsessions. METHOD: The authors report a case of a patient diagnosed with bipolar disorder and who developed suicidal obsessions in the weeks after the dose of clozapine was increased from 150 mg/day to 300 mg/day...
2011: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
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