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Andrea Agostinelli, Davide Carino, Bruno Borrello, Carla Marcato, Annalisa Volpi, Tiziano Gherli, Francesco Nicolini
OBJECTIVES: Blunt thoracic aortic injury can be treated with thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) with excellent short and mid-term outcomes. However, few data are available about the long-term results. Our goal was to report our single-centre, 20-year experience using TEVAR to treat blunt thoracic aortic injury. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed our institutional database to identify all patients treated with TEVAR for traumatic lesions of the aortic isthmus...
July 10, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Esther J van Zuuren, Zbys Fedorowicz, Ton Kuijpers, Hanno Pijl
Background: It remains uncertain which diet is best for people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Objective: We compared the effects of dietary carbohydrate restriction with fat restriction on markers of metabolic syndrome and quality of life in people with T2D. Design: This systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) compares the effects of a low-carbohydrate [≤40% of energy (%)] diet with those of a low-fat (≤30%) diet over a period of ≥4 wk in patients with T2D...
July 11, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Achilleas Attilakos, Argirios Dinopoulos, Maria Paschalidou, Maria Tsirouda, Maria Karalexi, Alexia Prasouli, Anastasia Garoufi
Studies evaluating the effect of Levetiracetam (LEV) on haematological parameters in patients with epilepsy are very limited. Short-term effects on haematological parameters in children with epilepsy, at 2 and 6 months of LEV treatment, have been previously reported in the literature. Purpose of the current study was to further investigate the long-term changes on haematological parameters in children with epilepsy during LEV monotherapy. White blood cell, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and platelets were measured in 20 children (11 females, mean age 6,5 ± 4,4 years, range 2-15 years) with epilepsy, before and after 12 months of LEV monotherapy...
July 6, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Katharina Dorn, Sabine Weinert, Terje Falck-Ytter
Investigating infants' ability to match visual and auditory speech segments presented sequentially allows us to understand more about the type of information they encode in each domain, as well as their ability to relate the information. One previous study found that 4.5- month-old infants' preference for visual French or German speech depended on whether they had previously heard the respective language, suggesting a remarkable ability to encode and relate audio-visual speech cues and to use these to guide their looking behavior...
July 11, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Jian-Wei Zheng, Su-Li Liu, Song-Hui Lu, Hong-Ye Li, Jie-Sheng Liu, Wei-Dong Yang
Blooms of Aureococcus anophagefferens, referred to as brown tides are responsible for massive mortalities and recruitment failure of some bivalves. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the toxicity remain elusive despite its biological significance, and the information currently available on the molecular effects is still insufficient. In this study, to evaluate the toxicity and associated mechanism of A. anophagefferens on bivalves, we analyzed the protein expression profiles in digestive glands of the A...
July 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Callie Federer, Joel Zylberberg
Working memory requires information about external stimuli to be represented in the brain even after those stimuli go away. This information is encoded in the activities of neurons, and neural activities change over timescales of tens of milliseconds. Information in working memory, however, is retained for tens of seconds, suggesting the question of how time-varying neural activities maintain stable representations. Prior work shows that, if the neural dynamics are in the 'null space' of the representation - so that changes to neural activity do not affect the downstream read-out of stimulus information - then information can be retained for periods much longer than the time-scale of individual-neuronal activities...
June 20, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Anna Miró-Padilla, Elisenda Bueichekú, Noelia Ventura-Campos, María-Jesús Flores-Compañ, Maria Antònia Parcet, César Ávila
Neurobehavioral effects of cognitive training have become a popular research issue. Specifically, behavioral studies have demonstrated the long-term efficacy of cognitive training of working memory functions, but the neural basis for this training have been studied only at short-term. Using fMRI, we investigate the cerebral changes produced by brief single n-back training immediately and 5 weeks after finishing the training. We used the data from a sample of 52 participants who were assigned to either an experimental condition (training group) or a no-contact control condition...
July 13, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Yanan Wang, Haijun Deng, Tingyu Mou, Junmeng Li, Hao Liu, Haipeng Zhou, Guoxin Li
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to evaluate the short-term outcomes of single-incision plus one-port surgery (SILS + 1) compared with conventional laparoscopic surgery (CLS) for colonic cancer. BACKGROUND: At present, single-incision laparoscopic colectomy remains technically challenging. The use of SILS + 1 as an alternative has gained increasing attention; however, its safety and efficacy remain controversial. METHODS AND PATIENTS: Between April 2014 and July 2016, 198 patients with clinical stage T1-4aN0-2 M0 rectosigmoid cancer were enrolled...
July 13, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Masafumi Tomita, Shuji Saito, Shinichiro Makimoto, Shuntaro Yoshida, Hiroyuki Isayama, Tomonori Yamada, Takeaki Matsuzawa, Toshiyuki Enomoto, Rika Kyo, Toshio Kuwai, Nobuto Hirata, Mamoru Shimada, Tomio Hirakawa, Koichi Koizumi, Yoshihisa Saida
BACKGROUND: Self-expandable metallic stenting (SEMS) for malignant colorectal obstruction (MCO) as a bridge to elective surgery (BTS) is a widely used procedure. The aim of this study was to assess short-term outcomes of SEMS for MCO as BTS. METHODS: This study analyzed pooled data from BTS patients who were enrolled in two multicenter prospective single-arm observational clinical studies that used different stent types. Both studies were conducted by the Japan Colonic Stent Safe Procedure Research Group (JCSSPRG)...
July 13, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Zhihui Li, Xin Peng, Wei Xiang, Jiaqi Han, Kun Li
BACKGROUND: Aging is often accompanied by decline in aspects of cognitive function. Cognitive decline has harmful effects on living independence and general health. Resistance training is seen as a promising intervention to prevent or delay cognitive deterioration, yet the evidence from reviews is less consistent. AIM: To assess the effect of resistance training on cognition in the elderly with and without mild cognitive impairment and to provide an up-to-date overview...
July 13, 2018: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Adrien Vaquié, Alizée Sauvain, Claire Jacob
Modeling myelination in vitro allows mechanistic study of developmental myelination and short-term myelin maintenance, but analyses possible to carry out using currently available models are usually limited because of high cell density and the lack of separation between neurons and myelinating cells. Furthermore, regeneration studies of myelinated systems after lesion require compartmentalization of neuronal cell bodies, axons, and myelinating cells. Here we describe a compartmentalized method using microfluidics that allows live-cell imaging at the single-cell level to follow short- and long-term dynamic interactions of neurons and myelinating cells and large-scale analyses, e...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Lisa Martin, Jessica Hopkins, Georgios Malietzis, J T Jenkins, Michael B Sawyer, Ron Brisebois, Anthony MacLean, Gregg Nelson, Leah Gramlich, Vickie E Baracos
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia, visceral obesity (VO), and reduced muscle radiodensity (myosteatosis) are suggested risk factors for postoperative morbidity in colorectal cancer (CRC), but usually are not concurrently assessed. Published thresholds used to define these features are not CRC-specific and are defined in relation to mortality, not postoperative outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate body composition in relation to length of hospital stay (LOS) and postoperative outcomes. METHODS: Pre-surgical computed tomography (CT) images were assessed for total area and radiodensity of skeletal muscle and visceral adipose tissue in a pooled Canadian and UK cohort (n = 2100)...
July 13, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Abdullah Alsuhaibani, Ahmed Elashwah, Rana Mahmood, Alaa Abduljabbar, Samar Alhomoud, Luai Ashari, Shouki Bazarbashi, Ali Aljubran, Ahmed Alzahrani, Muhamed Mohiuddin, Hadeel Almanea, Hussah Alhussaini, Nasser AlSanea
PURPOSE: Assess feasibility-rate of PCR, short-term toxicity after neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiation (NACRT) delivered via simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) technique for locally advanced rectal cancer. METHODS: Retrospective evaluation of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with VMAT-SIB technique preoperatively at an academic tertiary care center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between February 2013 and March 2017...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
Luziwei Leng, Roman Martel, Oliver Breitwieser, Ilja Bytschok, Walter Senn, Johannes Schemmel, Karlheinz Meier, Mihai A Petrovici
Spiking networks that perform probabilistic inference have been proposed both as models of cortical computation and as candidates for solving problems in machine learning. However, the evidence for spike-based computation being in any way superior to non-spiking alternatives remains scarce. We propose that short-term synaptic plasticity can provide spiking networks with distinct computational advantages compared to their classical counterparts. When learning from high-dimensional, diverse datasets, deep attractors in the energy landscape often cause mixing problems to the sampling process...
July 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Marco Turco, Sonia Jerez, Francisco J Doblas-Reyes, Amir AghaKouchak, Maria Carmen Llasat, Antonello Provenzale
Societal exposure to large fires has been increasing in recent years. Estimating the expected fire activity a few months in advance would allow reducing environmental and socio-economic impacts through short-term adaptation and response to climate variability and change. However, seasonal prediction of climate-driven fires is still in its infancy. Here, we discuss a strategy for seasonally forecasting burned area anomalies linking seasonal climate predictions with parsimonious empirical climate-fire models using the standardized precipitation index as the climate predictor for burned area...
July 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Kim Eerola, Siru Virtanen, Laura Vähätalo, Liisa Ailanen, Minying Cai, Victor Hruby, Mikko Savontaus, Eriika Savontaus
γ-melanocyte stimulating hormone (γ-MSH) is an endogenous agonist of the melanocortin 3-receptor (MC3R). Genetic disruption of MC3Rs increases adiposity and blunts responses to fasting, suggesting that increased MC3R signaling could be physiologically beneficial in the long-term. Interestingly, several studies have concluded that activation of MC3Rs is orexigenic in the short term. Therefore, we aimed to examine the short- and long-term effects of γ-MSH in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) on energy homeostasis and hypothesized that the effect of MC3R-agonism is dependent on the state of energy balance and nutrition...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Zaid Ali, Sarah R Baker, Shirin Shahrbaf, Nicolas Martin, Mario V Vettore
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Clinicians are currently unable to quantify the psychosocial, functional, and esthetic effects of prosthetic interventions to replace teeth. Understanding the effects of treatment to replace teeth on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is important for informed consent. A systematic review of the evidence of OHRQoL improvements with prosthodontic tooth replacement and a comparison of outcomes between treatment modalities is therefore indicated. PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the OHRQoL of patients with partial edentulism after different dental prosthetic treatments...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Alejandro Maruri, Paula Romina Cruzans, María Soledad Lorenzo, María Fernanda Tello, Gabriela Maia Teplitz, María Clara Carou, Daniel Marcelo Lombardo
The coculture with somatic cells is an alternative to improve suboptimal in vitro culture (IVC) conditions and promote embryo development. Several cell types have been used for this purpose, but there is no information about using luteal cells in short-term coculture with embryos. Consequently, this study aimed to assess the effect of a short-term coculture of early bovine embryos-luteal cells on the in vitro development and embryo quality. Presumptive embryos were cultured from day 0 to day 2 in medium alone (control) or cocultured with bovine luteal cells (BLC-1)...
July 4, 2018: Theriogenology
Dirk J van der Windt, Patrick Bou-Samra, Esmaeel R Dadashzadeh, Xilin Chen, Patrick R Varley, Allan Tsung
BACKGROUND: The Risk Analysis Index (RAI) for frailty is a rapid survey for comorbidities and performance status, which predicts mortality after general surgery. We aimed to validate the RAI in predicting outcomes after hepatopancreatobiliary surgery. METHODS: Associations of RAI, determined in 162 patients prior to undergoing hepatopancreatobiliary surgery, with prospectively collected 30-day post-operative outcomes were analyzed with multivariate logistic and linear regression...
July 10, 2018: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
Darcy A Krueger, Jamie K Capal, Paolo Curatolo, Orrin Devinsky, Kevin Ess, Michal Tzadok, Mary K Koenig, Vinodh Narayanan, Federico Ramos, Sergiusz Jozwiak, Petrus de Vries, Anna C Jansen, Michael Wong, David Mowat, John Lawson, Stephanie Bruns, David Neal Franz
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety of mTOR inhibitors (sirolimus or everolimus) in infants and very young children with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) under two years of age. METHODS: Study design was retrospective to capture medical record data from 52 international TSC Centres who initiated treatment with sirolimus or everolimus in TSC children before the age of two years. Data collection included demographic and clinical information including reason(s) for initiating treatment with mTOR inhibitors, treatment duration, dosing, and corresponding serum trough levels, response to treatment, and adverse events (AE)...
July 4, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
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