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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935269/randomized-trial-of-omega-3-for-autism-spectrum-disorders-effect-on-cell-membrane-composition-and-behavior
#1
Mara Parellada, Cloe Llorente, Rosa Calvo, Silvia Gutierrez, Luisa Lázaro, Montserrat Graell, Maria Guisasola, Maria Luisa Dorado, Leticia Boada, Jose Romo, Elena Dulin, Inmaculada Sanz, Celso Arango, Carmen Moreno
A high ω6/ω3 ratio [fatty acid (FA) index] in the cell membrane has been associated with inadequate brain development. It has started to be used as a biomarker of treatment efficacy in human diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate if omega-3 supplementation improves erythrocyte membrane ω6/ω3, plasma antioxidant status (TAS) and autistic behaviors. A randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled study was designed to investigate the effect of 8 weeks of supplementation with ω3 (962mg/d and 1155mg/d for children and adolescents, respectively)...
September 18, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930284/effects-of-intranasal-oxytocin-on-the-blood-oxygenation-level-dependent-signal-in-food-motivation-and-cognitive-control-pathways-in-overweight-and-obese-men
#2
Franziska Plessow, Dean A Marengi, Sylvia K Perry, Julia M Felicione, Rachel Franklin, Tara M Holmes, Laura M Holsen, Nikolaos Makris, Thilo Deckersbach, Elizabeth A Lawson
Recent research indicates that the hypothalamic neuropeptide hormone oxytocin is a key central nervous system factor in the regulation of food intake and weight. However, the mechanisms underlying the anorexigenic effects of oxytocin in humans are unknown and critical to study in order to consider oxytocin as a neurohormonal weight loss treatment. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study with single-dose intranasal oxytocin (24 IU) in ten overweight or obese, otherwise healthy men...
September 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924658/two-photon-sted-microscopy-for-nanoscale-imaging-of-neural-morphology-in-vivo
#3
Mirelle J T Ter Veer, Thomas Pfeiffer, U Valentin Nägerl
The advent of super-resolution microscopy offers to bridge the gap between electron and light microscopy. It has opened up the possibility of visualizing cellular structures and dynamic signaling events on the "mesoscale" well below the classic diffraction barrier of light microscopy (10-200 nm), while essentially retaining the advantages of fluorescence microscopy concerning multicolor labeling, detection sensitivity, signal contrast, live-cell imaging, and temporal resolution.From among the new super-resolution techniques, STED microscopy stands out as a laser-scanning imaging modality, which enables nanoscale volume-metric imaging of cellular morphology...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924013/reward-related-ventral-striatum-activity-buffers-against-the-experience-of-depressive-symptoms-associated-with-sleep-disturbances
#4
Reut Avinun, Adam Nevo, Annchen R Knodt, Maxwell L Elliott, Spenser R Radtke, Bartholomew D Brigidi, Ahmad R Hariri
Sleep disturbances represent one risk factor for depression. Reward-related brain function, particularly the activity of the ventral striatum (VS), has been identified as a potential buffer against stress-related depression. We were therefore interested in testing whether reward-related VS activity would moderate the effect of sleep disturbances on depression in a large cohort of young adults. Data were available from 1129 university students (mean age 19.71 ± 1.25 years; 637 women) who completed a reward-related functional MRI task to assay VS activity and provided self-reports of sleep using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and symptoms of depression using a summation of the General Distress/Depression (GDD) and Anhedonic Depression (AD) subscales of the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire-short form...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923161/comparing-the-cognitive-process-of-circular-causality-in-two-patients-with-strokes-through-qualitative-analysis
#5
Seyed Alireza Derakhshanrad, Emily Piven, Bahareh Zeynalzadeh Ghoochani
Walter J. Freeman pioneered the neurodynamic model of brain activity when he described the brain dynamics for cognitive information transfer as the process of circular causality at intention, meaning, and perception (IMP) levels. This view contributed substantially to establishment of the Intention, Meaning, and Perception Model of Neuro-occupation in occupational therapy. As described by the model, IMP levels are three components of the brain dynamics system, with nonlinear connections that enable cognitive function to be processed in a circular causality fashion, known as Cognitive Process of Circular Causality (CPCC)...
October 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923143/validation-of-the-cognition-test-battery-for-spaceflight-in-a-sample-of-highly-educated-adults
#6
Tyler M Moore, Mathias Basner, Jad Nasrini, Emanuel Hermosillo, Sushila Kabadi, David R Roalf, Sarah McGuire, Adrian J Ecker, Kosha Ruparel, Allison M Port, Chad T Jackson, David F Dinges, Ruben C Gur
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychological changes that may occur due to the environmental and psychological stressors of prolonged spaceflight motivated the development of the Cognition Test Battery. The battery was designed to assess multiple domains of neurocognitive functions linked to specific brain systems. Tests included in Cognition have been validated, but not in high-performing samples comparable to astronauts, which is an essential step toward ensuring their usefulness in long-duration space missions...
October 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919371/perinatal-deficiency-in-dietary-omega-3-fatty-acids-potentiates-sucrose-reward-and-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice
#7
Stéphanie Auguste, Sandeep Sharma, Alexandre Fisette, Caroline Daneault, Christine Des Rosiers, Stephanie Fulton
Insufficient dietary intake of essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (N-3), especially during critical stages of development, is well-associated with negative neurological and metabolic consequences. The increased availability and intake of foods rich in saturated fat coincides with reduced N-3 consumption, yet how N-3 dietary deficiency during perinatal development modulates motivation for palatable food and interacts with a high-fat diet to affect body weight and emotional states is not clear. Pregnant C57Bl6 mice and pups were subjected to diets either deficient or adequate (control) in N-3 until postnatal day 21...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918694/brain-metabolic-correlates-of-fatigue-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-pet-study
#8
Li Zhang, Tiannv Li, Yongsheng Yuan, Qing Tong, Siming Jiang, Min Wang, Jianwei Wang, Jian Ding, Qinrong Xu, Kezhong Zhang
The neural bases of fatigue in Parkinson's disease (PD) remain uncertain. We aimed to assess the brain metabolic correlates of fatigue in patients with PD. Twenty-seven PD patients without clinically relevant depression (17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HAMD] score ≥ 14), apathy (Apathy Scale [AS] score ≥ 14) and excessive daytime somnolence (Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS] score ≥ 10) were evaluated with Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). Each patient had an F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET (FDG-PET) scan...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916502/sociability-trait-and-regional-cerebral-oxidative-metabolism-in-rats-predominantly-nonlinear-relations
#9
Margus Kanarik, Jaanus Harro
Deficits in social behaviour are common in psychopathological conditions e.g., depression, autism and schizophrenia. In rats, sociability, defined as the engagement of an animal in non-aggressive social contact with a conspecific in a neutral arena, is as a persistent trait. To elucidate the neuroanatomy of social behaviour in animal models, long term neuronal energy metabolism was studied in rats preselected for sociability levels. Rats were divided into groups with high, medium and low sociability levels (HS, MS and LS) according to the average score of three social interaction tests, and cerebral long-term energy metabolism was assayed with cytochrome oxidase histochemistry...
September 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913349/brain-computer-interface-for-clinical-purposes-cognitive-assessment-and-rehabilitation
#10
REVIEW
Laura Carelli, Federica Solca, Andrea Faini, Paolo Meriggi, Davide Sangalli, Pietro Cipresso, Giuseppe Riva, Nicola Ticozzi, Andrea Ciammola, Vincenzo Silani, Barbara Poletti
Alongside the best-known applications of brain-computer interface (BCI) technology for restoring communication abilities and controlling external devices, we present the state of the art of BCI use for cognitive assessment and training purposes. We first describe some preliminary attempts to develop verbal-motor free BCI-based tests for evaluating specific or multiple cognitive domains in patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, disorders of consciousness, and other neurological diseases. Then we present the more heterogeneous and advanced field of BCI-based cognitive training, which has its roots in the context of neurofeedback therapy and addresses patients with neurological developmental disorders (autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder), stroke patients, and elderly subjects...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910696/tissue-microstructure-estimation-using-a-deep-network-inspired-by-a-dictionary-based-framework
#11
Chuyang Ye
Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) captures the anisotropic pattern of water displacement in the neuronal tissue and allows noninvasive investigation of the complex tissue microstructure. A number of biophysical models have been proposed to relate the tissue organization with the observed diffusion signals, so that the tissue microstructure can be inferred. The Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging (NODDI) model has been a popular choice and has been widely used for many neuroscientific studies...
September 6, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905625/oral-ingestion-and-intraventricular-injection-of-curcumin-attenuates-the-effort-related-effects-of-the-vmat-2-inhibitor-tetrabenazine-implications-for-motivational-symptoms-of-depression
#12
Samantha E Yohn, Dea Gorka, Anisha Mistry, Samantha Collins, Emily Qian, Merce Correa, Arushi Manchanda, Robin H Bogner, John D Salamone
Effort-related choice tasks are used for studying depressive motivational symptoms such as anergia/fatigue. These studies investigated the ability of the dietary supplement curcumin to reverse the low-effort bias induced by the monoamine storage blocker tetrabenazine. Tetrabenazine shifted effort-related choice in rats, decreasing high-effort lever pressing but increasing chow intake. The effects of tetrabenazine were reversed by oral ingestion of curcumin (80.0-160.0 mg/kg) and infusions of curcumin into the cerebral ventricles (2...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900235/neural-correlates-of-ambient-thermal-sensation-an-fmri-study
#13
Hajime Oi, Teruo Hashimoto, Takayuki Nozawa, Akitake Kanno, Natasha Kawata, Kanan Hirano, Yuki Yamamoto, Motoaki Sugiura, Ryuta Kawashima
An increasing number of biometeorological and psychological studies have demonstrated the importance and complexity of the processes involved in environmental thermal perception in humans. However, extant functional imaging data on thermal perception have yet to fully reveal the neural mechanisms underlying these processes because most studies were performed using local thermal stimulation and did not dissociate thermal sensation from comfort. Thus, for the first time, the present study employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and manipulated ambient temperature during brain measurement to independently explore the neural correlates of thermal sensation and comfort...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898569/altered-task-related-modulation-of-long-range-connectivity-in-children-with-autism
#14
Ajay S Pillai, Danielle McAuliffe, Balaji M Lakshmanan, Stewart H Mostofsky, Nathan E Crone, Joshua B Ewen
Functional connectivity differences between children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing children have been described in multiple datasets. However, few studies examine the task-related changes in connectivity in disorder-relevant behavioral paradigms. In this paper, we examined the task-related changes in functional connectivity using EEG and a movement-based paradigm that has behavioral relevance to ASD. Resting-state studies motivated our hypothesis that children with ASD would show a decreased magnitude of functional connectivity during the performance of a motor-control task...
September 12, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895796/prevalence-and-severity-of-fatigue-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-acquired-brain-injury-a-nationwide-study
#15
Anne Norup, Susanne Wulff Svendsen, Karoline Doser, Trine Okkerstrøm Ryttersgaard, Nicole Frandsen, Louise Gade, Hysse Birgitte Forchhammer
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and severity of fatigue in adolescents and young adults with acquired brain injury (ABI) compared with healthy controls (HCs) and to examine associations between fatigue and gender, age and level of education. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 15-30 year old patients with ABI and a convenience sample of 15-30 year old HCs. All participants completed the 20-item Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20). Pathological fatigue was defined as "General Fatigue" ≥12...
September 12, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894301/lateral-hypothalamic-glp-1-receptors-are-critical-for-the-control-of-food-reinforcement-ingestive-behavior-and-body-weight
#16
L López-Ferreras, J E Richard, E E Noble, K Eerola, R H Anderberg, K Olandersson, L Taing, S E Kanoski, M R Hayes, K P Skibicka
Increased motivation for highly rewarding food is a major contributing factor to obesity. Most of the literature focuses on the mesolimbic nuclei as the core of reward behavior regulation. However, the lateral hypothalamus (LH) is also a key reward-control locus in the brain. Here we hypothesize that manipulating glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activity selectively in the LH can profoundly affect food reward behavior, ultimately leading to obesity. Progressive ratio operant responding for sucrose was examined in male and female rats, following GLP-1R activation and pharmacological or genetic GLP-1R blockade in the LH...
September 12, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893567/molecular-basis-of-androgen-action-on-human-sexual-desire
#17
REVIEW
Daniele Santi, Giorgia Spaggiari, Lisa Gilioli, Francesco Potì, Manuela Simoni, Livio Casarini
Reproduction is a fundamental process for the species maintenance and the propagation of genetic information. The energy expenditure for mating is overtaken by motivational stimuli, such as orgasm, finely regulated by steroid hormones, gonadotropins, neurotransmitters and molecules acting in the brain and peripheral organs. These functions are often investigated using animal models and translated to humans, where the androgens action is mediated by nuclear and membrane receptors converging in the regulation of both long-term genomic and rapid non-genomic signals...
September 8, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890049/psychological-processes-in-chronic-pain-influences-of-reward-and-fear-learning-as-key-mechanisms-behavioral-evidence-neural-circuits-and-maladaptive-changes
#18
Frauke Nees, Susanne Becker
In the understanding of chronic pain, hypotheses derived from psychological theories, together with insights from physiological assessments and brain imaging, highlight the importance of mechanistically driven approaches. Physical system changes, for example following injury, can result in alterations of psychological processes and are accompanied by changes in corticolimbic circuits, which have been shown to be essential in emotional learning and memory, as well as reward processing and related behavior. In the present review, we thus highlight the importance of motivational, reward/pain relief, and fear learning processes in the context of chronic pain and discuss the potential of a mechanistic understanding of chronic pain within a clinical perspective, for example for the development of therapeutic strategies...
September 7, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885007/stereoselective-differences-between-the-reinforcing-and-motivational-effects-of-cathinone-derived-4-methylmethcathinone-mephedrone-in-self-administering-rats
#19
Helene L Philogene-Khalid, Steven J Simmons, Sunil Nayak, Rose M Martorana, Shu H Su, Yohanka Caro, Brona Ranieri, Kathryn DiFurio, Lili Mo, Taylor A Gentile, Ali Murad, Allen B Reitz, John W Muschamp, Scott M Rawls
Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone (4-MMC)) (MEPH) is a new psychoactive substance (NPS) of the synthetic cathinone class. MEPH has a chiral center and exists as two enantiomers (R-,S-MEPH), yet stereospecific effects of MEPH have not been extensively investigated in preclinical assays. Because significant behavioral and neurochemical differences can exist between enantiomers, probing effects of stereochemistry on biological activity enables separation of adverse and therapeutic effects. Our prior work showed that R-MEPH, relative to S-MEPH, produced greater locomotor activation, place preference and facilitation of brain reward thresholds in rodents...
September 8, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884874/cerebral-dopaminergic-and-glutamatergic-transmission-relate-to-different-subjective-responses-of-acute-alcohol-intake-an-in-vivo-multimodal-imaging-study
#20
Gil Leurquin-Sterk, Jenny Ceccarini, Cleo Lina Crunelle, Akila Weerasekera, Bart de Laat, Uwe Himmelreich, Guy Bormans, Koen Van Laere
Converging preclinical evidence links extrastriatal dopamine release and glutamatergic transmission via the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) to the rewarding properties of alcohol. To date, human evidence is lacking on how and where in the brain these processes occur. Mesocorticolimbic dopamine release upon intravenous alcohol administration and mGluR5 availability were measured in 11 moderate social drinkers by single-session [(18) F]fallypride and [(18) F]FPEB positron emission tomography, respectively...
September 8, 2017: Addiction Biology
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