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Motivation and brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306164/effects-of-positive-emotion-extraversion-and-dopamine-on-cognitive-stability-flexibility-and-frontal-eeg-asymmetry
#1
Jan Wacker
The influence of positive emotions on the balance between cognitive stability and flexibility has been suggested to (a) differ among various positive emotional/motivational states (e.g., of varying approach motivation intensity), and (b) be mediated by brain dopamine (DA). Frontal EEG alpha asymmetry (ASY) is considered an indicator of approach motivational states and may be modulated by DA. The personality trait of extraversion is strongly linked to positive emotions and is now thought to reflect DA-based individual differences in incentive/approach motivation...
March 17, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303403/hypocretin-orexin-and-plastic-adaptations-associated-with-drug-abuse
#2
Corey Baimel, Stephanie L Borgland
Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are a critical part of the neural circuits that underlie reward learning and motivation. Dopamine neurons send dense projections throughout the brain and recent observations suggest that both the intrinsic properties and the functional output of dopamine neurons are dependent on projection target and are subject to neuromodulatory influences. Lateral hypothalamic hypocretin (also termed orexin) neurons project to the VTA and contain both hypocretin and dynorphin peptides in the same dense core vesicles suggesting they may be co-released...
March 17, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297889/time-varying-coupling-functions-dynamical-inference-and-cause-of-synchronization-transitions
#3
Tomislav Stankovski
Interactions in nature can be described by their coupling strength, direction of coupling, and coupling function. The coupling strength and directionality are relatively well understood and studied, at least for two interacting systems; however, there can be a complexity in the interactions uniquely dependent on the coupling functions. Such a special case is studied here: synchronization transition occurs only due to the time variability of the coupling functions, while the net coupling strength is constant throughout the observation time...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291298/-neurobiology-of-alcohol-dependence-and-implications-on-treatment
#4
Ertuğrul Eşel, Köksal Dinç
The process of alcohol dependence has been conceptualized as a progress from controlled alcohol intake to compulsive alcohol consumption or a shift from alcohol intake for pleasure to compulsory alcohol seeking behavior. Hereditary and physical factors and the interaction of individuals with their environment, as well as permanent changes in the neurotransmitter and neurohormonal systems in the brain due to alcohol use, play the most important role in the etiology of alcohol dependence. The effects of ethanol on the neurotransmitter, neuropeptide and neuroendocrine systems not only account for its acute physiological and euphoric/reinforcing effects but also seem to be responsible for the development of dependence...
2017: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288803/the-relationship-of-approach-avoidance-motivation-and-asymmetric-frontal-cortical-activity-a-review-of-studies-manipulating-frontal-asymmetry
#5
Nicholas J Kelley, Ruud Hortensius, Dennis J L G Schutter, Eddie Harmon-Jones
The balance between activity in the left and right frontal cortex, commonly referred to as asymmetric frontal cortical activity, has served as a proxy for an organism's motivational direction (i.e., approach vs. avoidance). Many studies have examined the influence of the manipulation of motivational direction on asymmetrical frontal cortical activity and found results consistent with the idea that greater relative left (right) frontal cortical activity is associated with approach (avoidance) motivation. We critically review literature employing physical (versus psychological) manipulations of frontal asymmetry using a variety of methodologies including neurofeedback training, muscular contractions, and non-invasive brain stimulation...
March 10, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286503/wnt-tlr-dialog-in-neuroinflammation-relevance-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
Juan M Zolezzi, Nibaldo C Inestrosa
The innate immune system (IIS) represents the first line of defense against exogenous and endogenous harmful stimuli. Different types of pathogens and diverse molecules can activate the IIS via a ligand-receptor mechanism. Cytokine release, recruitment of immunocompetent cells, and inflammation constitute the initial steps in an IIS-mediated response. While balanced IIS activity can resolve a harmful event, an altered response, such as deficient or persistent IIS activity, will have a critical effect on organism homeostasis...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286126/circadian-rhythms-of-hedonic-drinking-behavior-in-mice
#7
Claire Bainier, Maria Mateo, Marie-Paule Felder-Schmittbuhl, Jorge Mendoza
In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus is the site of the main circadian clock, synchronized by the light-dark cycle, which generates behavioral rhythms like feeding, drinking and activity. Notwithstanding, the main role of the SCN clock on the control of all circadian rhythms has been questioned due to the presence of clock activity in many brain areas, including those implicated in the regulation of feeding and reward. Moreover, whether circadian rhythms of particular motivated behaviors exist is unknown...
March 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285127/the-neural-and-behavioral-correlates-of-social-evaluation-in-childhood
#8
Michelle Achterberg, Anna C K van Duijvenvoorde, Mara van der Meulen, Saskia Euser, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg, Eveline A Crone
Being accepted or rejected by peers is highly salient for developing social relations in childhood. We investigated the behavioral and neural correlates of social feedback and subsequent aggression in 7-10-year-old children, using the Social Network Aggression Task (SNAT). Participants viewed pictures of peers that gave positive, neutral or negative feedback to the participant's profile. Next, participants could blast a loud noise towards the peer, as an index of aggression. We included three groups (N=19, N=28 and N=27) and combined the results meta-analytically...
February 27, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284947/behavioral-characterization-of-blocking-the-erbb-signaling-during-adolescent-and-adulthood-in-reward-liking-preference-and-reward-related-learning
#9
Hagar Tadmor, Idit Golani, Eshkar Dvir, Ilana Kremer, Alon Shamir
Adolescence is a critical period in brain development. During this critical period the seeking for hedonic activities is increased, and their activity signals are stronger than the regulatory signals of judgment and reasoning. We recently reported that alteration of ErbB signaling during this period led to elevated striatal dopamine levels and reduced preference for sweetness without affecting locomotor activity and exploratory behavior. In the current study, we extend our findings and explore whether inhibition of the ErbB pathway during adolescence or adulthood also affects alcohol preference (hedonic "liking"), avoidance learning, and motivational reward "wanting"...
March 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284849/attention-to-pain-a-neurocognitive-perspective-on-attentional-modulation-of-pain-in-neuroimaging-studies
#10
REVIEW
D M Torta, V Legrain, A Mouraux, E Valentini
Several studies have used neuroimaging techniques to investigate brain correlates of the attentional modulation of pain. Although these studies have advanced the knowledge in the field, important confounding factors such as imprecise theoretical definitions of attention, incomplete operationalization of the construct under exam, and limitations of techniques relying on measuring regional changes in cerebral blood flow have hampered the potential relevance of the conclusions. Here, we first provide an overview of the major theories of attention and of attention in the study of pain to bridge theory and experimental results...
January 23, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284776/neural-underpinnings-of-prosexual-effects-induced-by-gamma-hydroxybutyrate-in-healthy-male-humans
#11
Oliver G Bosch, Michael M Havranek, Andrea Baumberger, Katrin H Preller, Robin von Rotz, Marcus Herdener, Rainer Kraehenmann, Philipp Staempfli, Milan Scheidegger, Tim Klucken, Erich Seifritz, Boris B Quednow
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a GHB-/GABAB-receptor agonist currently used as treatment for narcolepsy but also as a drug of abuse. Non-medical GHB users have repeatedly reported prosexual effects including libido-enhancement and lowering of attractiveness standards for partner selection. Here, we examined the putative prosexual effects of oral GHB in healthy males in two experiments both employing randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced, and cross-over study designs. In experiment I, subjective effects of 20 and 35mg/kg GHB vs...
March 8, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283882/aquaporin-4-as-a-new-target-against-methamphetamine-induced-brain-alterations-focus-on-the-neurogliovascular-unit-and-motivational-behavior
#12
Ricardo Alexandre Leitão, José Sereno, João Miguel Castelhano, Sónia Isabel Gonçalves, Vanessa Coelho-Santos, Carlos Fontes-Ribeiro, Miguel Castelo-Branco, Ana Paula Silva
Methamphetamine (METH) abuse/misuse is a worldwide problem, and despite extensive characterization of its neurotoxicity over the last years, many questions remain unanswered. Recently, it was shown that METH compromises the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and causes a disturbance in the water homeostasis leading to brain edema. Importantly, water transport at BBB is regulated by water channels, aquaporins (AQPs), with AQP4 being expressed in astrocytic end-feet surrounding brain endothelium. Thus, the main goal of this work was to unravel the role of AQP4 under conditions of METH consumption...
March 10, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283558/gene-expression-profiling-with-cre-conditional-pseudorabies-virus-reveals-a-subset-of-midbrain-neurons-that-participate-in-reward-circuitry
#13
Lisa E Pomeranz, Mats I Ekstrand, Kaamashri N Latcha, Gregory A Smith, Lynn W Enquist, Jeffrey M Friedman
The mesolimbic dopamine pathway receives inputs from numerous regions of the brain as part of a neural system that detects rewarding stimuli and coordinates a behavioral response. The capacity to simultaneously map and molecularly define the components of this complex multisynaptic circuit would thus advance our understanding of the determinants of motivated behavior. To accomplish this, we have constructed pseudorabies virus (PRV) strains in which viral propagation and fluorophore expression are activated only after exposure to Cre recombinase...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283098/from-bugs-to-brains-the-microbiome-in-neurological-health
#14
EDITORIAL
Kyla A McKay, Kaarina Kowalec, Fiona Brinkman, B Brett Finlay, Marc Horwitz, Amee R Manges, Lisa Osborne, Helen Tremlett
Knowledge surrounding the trillions of microbes that inhabit the human gut has bloomed exponentially in recent years, and the emerging concept of a gut-brain axis represents a major shift in how we think about neurological health. A recent workshop at the University of British Columbia, Canada brought together multi-disciplinary leaders in the field of microbiomics and brain health and aimed to serve as a springboard for future combined endeavors in these areas. This article provides the motivation for, and overview of, the workshop, and the next steps in establishing a cross-disciplinary initiative on Brain Health and the Microbiome...
February 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278590/evidence-of-altered-pressure-pain-thresholds-in-persons-with-disorders-of-consciousness-as-measured-by-the-nociception-coma-scale-italian-version
#15
Davide Sattin, Caroline Schnakers, Marco Pagani, Francesca Arenare, Guya Devalle, Fabrizio Giunco, GianBattista Guizzetti, Maurizio Lanfranchi, Ambra M Giovannetti, Venusia Covelli, Anna Bersano, Anna Nigri, Ludovico Minati, Davide Rossi Sebastiano, Eugenio Parati, MariaGrazia Bruzzone, Silvana Franceschetti, Matilde Leonardi
Pain assessment in patients with disorders of consciousness (DoC) is a controversial issue for clinicians, who require tools and standardised procedures for testing nociception in non-communicative patients. The aims of the present study were, first, to analyse the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Nociception Coma Scale and, second, to evaluate pressure pain thresholds in a group of patients with DoC. The authors conducted a multi-centre study on 40 healthy participants and 60 DoC patients enrolled from six hospitals in Italy...
February 28, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275359/the-dopamine-prediction-error-contributions-to-associative-models-of-reward-learning
#16
REVIEW
Helen M Nasser, Donna J Calu, Geoffrey Schoenbaum, Melissa J Sharpe
Phasic activity of midbrain dopamine neurons is currently thought to encapsulate the prediction-error signal described in Sutton and Barto's (1981) model-free reinforcement learning algorithm. This phasic signal is thought to contain information about the quantitative value of reward, which transfers to the reward-predictive cue after learning. This is argued to endow the reward-predictive cue with the value inherent in the reward, motivating behavior toward cues signaling the presence of reward. Yet theoretical and empirical research has implicated prediction-error signaling in learning that extends far beyond a transfer of quantitative value to a reward-predictive cue...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274821/the-galanin-3-receptor-antagonist-snap-37889-suppresses-alcohol-drinking-and-morphine-self-administration-in-mice
#17
Karlene J Scheller, Spencer J Williams, Andrew J Lawrence, Elvan Djouma
The neuropeptide, galanin, is widely expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and is involved in a range of different functions including nociception, neurogenesis, hormone release, reproduction, cognitive function and appetite. Given the overlap between galanin expression and reward circuitry in the brain, galanin has been targeted for alcohol use disorder (AUD) and opioid dependency. Furthermore, the galanin-3 receptor (GAL3) specifically regulates emotional states and plays a role in motivation, reward and drug-seeking behaviour...
March 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273158/perceptions-of-physical-activity-and-walking-in-an-early-stage-after-stroke-or-acquired-brain-injury
#18
Karin Törnbom, Katharina S Sunnerhagen, Anna Danielsson
BACKGROUND: Physical activity has been established as being highly beneficial for health after stroke. There are considerable global efforts to find rehabilitation programs that encourage increased physical activity for persons with stroke. However, many persons with stroke or acquired brain injury do not reach recommended levels of physical activity and increased knowledge about why is needed. We aimed to explore views and experiences of physical activity and walking among persons with stroke or acquired brain injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269586/phase-modulation-based-response-inhibition-outcome-prediction-in-translational-scenario-of-stop-signal-task
#19
Rupesh Kumar Chikara, Li-Wei Ko
In this paper, a method is proposed to predict the resting-state outcomes of participants based on their electroencephalogram (EEG) signals recorded before the successful /unsuccessful response inhibition. The motivation of this study is to enhance the shooter performance for shooting the target, when their EEG patterns show that they are ready. This method can be used in brain-computer interface (BCI) system. In this study, multi-channel EEG from twenty participants are collected by the electrodes placed at different scalp locations in resting-state time...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269584/virtual-reality-for-pediatric-neuro-rehabilitation-adaptive-visual-feedback-of-movement-to-engage-the-mirror-neuron-system
#20
Roopeswar Kommalapati, Konstantinos P Michmizos
Sensorimotor therapy gives optimal results when patients are cognitively engaged into highly repetitive tasks, a goal that most children find hard to pursue. This paper presents the key developments of our ongoing effort to design an interactive rehabilitation environment that motivates physically impaired children throughout their therapy. The continuous motivation is achieved by the system adapting fundamental therapeutic components to the performance of each child. The relevant movement is mirrored to an animated character projected in front of the child...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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