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Dopamine and motivation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546310/heterozygous-gnal-mice-are-a-novel-animal-model-to-study-dystonia-pathophysiology
#1
Assunta Pelosi, Fabien Menardy, Daniela Popa, Jean-Antoine Girault, Denis Hervé
Dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions. Its pathophysiological mechanisms are still poorly understood. Dominant mutations of the GNAL gene are a cause of isolated dystonia (DYT25) in patients. Some mutations result in a complete loss of function of the encoded protein, Gαolf, an adenylyl-cyclase-stimulatory G protein highly enriched in striatal projection neurons, in which it mediates the actions of dopamine and adenosine. We used male and female heterozygous Gnal knockout mice (Gnal+/-) to study how GNAL haplodeficiency is implicated in dystonia...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539420/a-selective-role-for-dopamine-in-learning-to-maximize-reward-but-not-to-minimize-effort-evidence-from-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Vasilisa Skvortsova, Bertrand Degos, Marie-Laure Welter, Marie Vidailhet, Mathias Pessiglione
Instrumental learning is a fundamental process through which agents optimize their choices, taking into account various dimensions of available options, such as the possible reward or punishment outcomes, and the costs associated with potential actions. While the implication of dopamine in learning from choice outcomes is well established, less is known about its role in learning the action costs such as effort. Here, we tested the ability of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) to maximize monetary rewards and minimize physical efforts in a probabilistic instrumental learning task...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507526/behavioral-and-neural-manifestations-of-reward-memory-in-carriers-of-low-expressing-versus-high-expressing-genetic-variants-of-the-dopamine-d2-receptor
#3
Anni Richter, Adriana Barman, Torsten Wüstenberg, Joram Soch, Denny Schanze, Anna Deibele, Gusalija Behnisch, Anne Assmann, Marieke Klein, Martin Zenker, Constanze Seidenbecher, Björn H Schott
Dopamine is critically important in the neural manifestation of motivated behavior, and alterations in the human dopaminergic system have been implicated in the etiology of motivation-related psychiatric disorders, most prominently addiction. Patients with chronic addiction exhibit reduced dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) availability in the striatum, and the DRD2 TaqIA (rs1800497) and C957T (rs6277) genetic polymorphisms have previously been linked to individual differences in striatal dopamine metabolism and clinical risk for alcohol and nicotine dependence...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506618/the-ptz-kindling-mouse-model-of-epilepsy-exhibits-exploratory-drive-deficits-and-aberrant-vta-dopamine-neuron-activity-in-both-familiar-and-novel-space
#4
Mahboubeh Ahmadi, Jean-Philippe Dufour, Erich Seifritz, Javad Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Bechara J Saab
Recurrent seizures that define epilepsy are often accompanied by psychosocial problems and cognitive deficits with incompletely understood aetiology. We therefore used the pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) kindling model of epilepsy in mice to examine potential seizure-associated neuropathologies, focusing on motivation, memory and novel-environment-induced activation of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. In addition to recurrent seizures, we found that PTZ kindling led to a strong suppression of novelty-driven exploration while largely sparing fear-driven exploration...
May 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506437/association-between-interleukin-6-and-striatal-prediction-error-signals-following-acute-stress-in-healthy-female-participants
#5
Michael T Treadway, Roee Admon, Amanda R Arulpragasam, Malavika Mehta, Samuel Douglas, Gordana Vitaliano, David P Olson, Jessica A Cooper, Diego A Pizzagalli
BACKGROUND: Stress is widely known to alter behavioral responses to rewards and punishments. It is believed that stress may precipitate these changes through modulation of corticostriatal circuitry involved in reinforcement learning and motivation, although the intervening mechanisms remain unclear. One candidate is inflammation, which can rapidly increase following stress and can disrupt dopamine-dependent reward pathways. METHODS: Here, in a sample of 88 healthy female participants, we first assessed the effect of an acute laboratory stress paradigm on levels of plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), a cytokine known to be both responsive to stress and elevated in depression...
March 28, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504638/catecholaminergic-challenge-uncovers-distinct-pavlovian-and-instrumental-mechanisms-of-motivated-in-action
#6
Jennifer C Swart, Monja I Froböse, Jennifer L Cook, Dirk Em Geurts, Michael J Frank, Roshan Cools, Hanneke Em den Ouden
Catecholamines modulate the impact of motivational cues on action. Such motivational biases have been proposed to reflect cue-based, 'Pavlovian' effects. Here, we assess whether motivational biases may also arise from asymmetrical instrumental learning of active and passive responses following reward and punishment outcomes. We present a novel paradigm, allowing us to disentangle the impact of reward and punishment on instrumental learning from Pavlovian response biasing. Computational analyses showed that motivational biases reflect both Pavlovian and instrumental effects: reward and punishment cues promoted generalized (in)action in a Pavlovian manner, whereas outcomes enhanced instrumental (un)learning of chosen actions...
May 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501595/corticolimbic-circuitry-in-the-modulation-of-chronic-pain-and-substance-abuse
#7
REVIEW
Anna M W Taylor
The transition from acute to chronic pain is accompanied by increased engagement of emotional and motivational circuits. Adaptations within this corticolimbic circuitry contribute to the cellular and behavioral maladaptations associated with chronic pain. Central regions within the corticolimbic brain include the mesolimbic dopamine system, the amygdala, and the medial prefrontal cortex. The evidence reviewed herein supports the notion that chronic pain induces significant changes within these corticolimbic regions that contribute to the chronicity and intractability of pain...
May 10, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499809/an-emerging-role-for-the-lateral-habenula-in-aggressive-behavior
#8
REVIEW
Meghan Flanigan, Hossein Aleyasin, Aki Takahashi, Sam A Golden, Scott J Russo
Inter-male aggression is an essential component of social behavior in organisms from insects to humans. However, when expressed inappropriately, aggression poses significant threats to the mental and physical health of both the aggressor and the target. Inappropriate aggression is a common feature of numerous neuropsychiatric disorders in humans and has been hypothesized to result from the atypical activation of reward circuitry in response to social targets. The lateral habenula (LHb) has recently been identified as a major node of the classical reward circuitry and inhibits the release of dopamine from the midbrain to signal negative valence...
May 9, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498560/deletion-of-%C3%AE-5-nicotine-receptor-subunits-abolishes-nicotinic-aversive-motivational-effects-in-a-manner-that-phenocopies-dopamine-receptor-antagonism
#9
Taryn E Grieder, Olivier George, Mandy Yee, Michael A Bergamini, Michal Chwalek, Geith Maal-Bared, Hector Vargas-Perez, Derek van der Kooy
Nicotine addiction is a worldwide epidemic that claims millions of lives each year. Genetic deletion of α5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits has been associated with increased nicotine intake, however, it remains unclear whether acute nicotine is less aversive or more rewarding, and whether mice lacking the α5 nAChR subunit can experience withdrawal from chronic nicotine. We used place conditioning and conditioned taste avoidance paradigms to examine the effect of α5 subunit-containing nAChR deletion (α5 -/-) on conditioned approach and avoidance behaviour in nondependent and nicotine-dependent and -withdrawn mice, and compared these motivational effects with those elicited after dopamine receptor antagonism...
May 12, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492670/dietary-krill-oil-enhances-neurocognitive-functions-and-modulates-proteomic-changes-in-brain-tissues-of-d-galactose-induced-aging-mice
#10
Ling-Zhi Cheong, Tingting Sun, Yanyan Li, Jun Zhou, Chenyang Lu, Ye Li, Zhongbai Huang, Xiurong Su
The effects of dietary krill oil on neurocognitive functions and proteomic changes in brain tissues of d-galactose-induced aging mice were evaluated. Dietary krill oil enhanced the neurocognitive functions of aging mice with a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in escape latency and an increase in the number of times of crossing over the hidden platform during the Morris water maze test. Krill oil was also found to protect against oxidative damage, lipid peroxidation and neurodegenerative diseases. Oxidative stress biomarkers of aging mice administered with krill oil showed significant (P < 0...
May 24, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469018/pleasure-junkies-all-around-why-it-matters-and-why-the-arts-might-be-the-answer-a-biopsychological-perspective
#11
Julia F Christensen
Today's society is pleasure seeking. We expect to obtain pleasurable experiences fast and easily. We are used to hyper-palatable foods and drinks, and we can get pornography, games and gadgets whenever we want them. THE PROBLEM: with this type of pleasure-maximizing choice behaviour we may be turning ourselves into mindless pleasure junkies, handing over our free will for the next dopamine shoot. Pleasure-only activities are fun. In excess, however, such activities might have negative effects on our biopsychological health: they provoke a change in the neural mechanisms underlying choice behaviour...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469002/neuropeptide-y-alters-vta-dopamine-neuron-activity-through-both-pre-and-post-synaptic-mechanisms
#12
Katherine Stuhrman West, Aaron G Roseberry
The mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, the brain's reward system, regulates many different behaviors including food intake, food reward, and feeding related behaviors, and there is increasing evidence that hypothalamic feeding-related neuropeptides alter dopamine neuron activity to affect feeding. For example, neuropeptide-Y (NPY), a strong orexigenic hypothalamic neuropeptide, increases motivation for food when injected into the ventral tegmental area (VTA). How NPY affects the activity of VTA dopamine neurons to regulate feeding behavior is unknown, however...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461214/striatal-dopaminergic-modulation-of-reinforcement-learning-predicts-reward-oriented-behavior-in-daily-life
#13
Zuzana Kasanova, Jenny Ceccarini, Michael J Frank, Thérèse van Amelsvoort, Jan Booij, Alexander Heinzel, Felix Mottaghy, Inez Myin-Germeys
Much human behavior is driven by rewards. Preclinical neurophysiological and clinical positron emission tomography (PET) studies have implicated striatal phasic dopamine (DA) release as a primary modulator of reward processing. However, the relationship between experimental reward-induced striatal DA release and responsiveness to naturalistic rewards, and therefore functional relevance of these findings, has been elusive. We therefore combined, for the first time, a DA D2/3 receptor [(18)F]fallypride PET during a probabilistic reinforcement learning (RL) task with a six day ecological momentary assessments (EMA) of reward-related behavior in the everyday life of 16 healthy volunteers...
April 29, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434991/the-control-of-sleep-and-wakefulness-by-mesolimbic-dopamine-systems
#14
REVIEW
Yo Oishi, Michael Lazarus
The mesolimbic dopamine pathway between the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a central role in motivational behaviors. Recent findings indicate that the VTA and NAc are also involved in sleep/wake regulation - the topic of this review. First, we present an overview of the growing evidence from rodent studies revealing a wake-regulatory role of VTA dopamine neurons. We also discuss brain areas and their neurotransmitters or neuromodulators that may regulate the activity of wake-promoting VTA dopamine neurons...
April 20, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433467/modeling-hypohedonia-following-repeated-social-defeat-individual-vulnerability-and-dopaminergic-involvement
#15
Samantha R Spierling, Maegan Mattock, Eric P Zorrilla
Social defeat in rodents putatively can model hypohedonia. The present studies examined models for assessing hypohedonia-like behavior and tested the hypotheses that 1) individual differences in baseline reward sensitivity predict vulnerability, and 2) defeat elicits changes in pharmacological measures of striatal dopaminergic function. Male Wistar rats (n=142) received repeated defeat (3 "triad" blocks of 3 defeats) or control handling. To determine whether defeat influenced consumption of SuperSac (glucose-saccharin) over an isocaloric, less preferred, glucose solution, a 2-choice paradigm was used...
April 19, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429835/levodopa-prevents-the-reinstatement-of-cocaine-self-administration-in-rats-via-potentiation-of-dopamine-release-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#16
Silvia Antinori, Liana Fattore, Pierluigi Saba, Walter Fratta, Gian Luigi Gessa, Paola Devoto
Dopamine agonists have been proposed as therapeutic tools for cocaine addiction. We have recently demonstrated that indirect dopamine agonists, including levodopa (L-DOPA), markedly increase cocaine-induced dopamine release in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of rats leading to the suppression of cocaine-seeking behavior. This study was aimed to understand the behavioral and neurochemical effects of L-DOPA on cocaine-taking and cocaine-seeking in rats. After reaching a stable pattern of intravenous cocaine self-administration under a continuous fixed ratio (FR-1) schedule of reinforcement, male rats were treated with L-DOPA at different steps of the self-administration protocol...
April 21, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421658/transcriptional-signatures-of-connectomic-subregions-of-the-human-striatum
#17
Linden Parkes, Ben Fulcher, Murat Yücel, Alex Fornito
Functionally distinct regions of the brain are thought to possess a characteristic connectional fingerprint - a profile of incoming and outgoing connections that defines the function of that area. This observation has motivated efforts to subdivide brain areas using their connectivity patterns. However, it remains unclear whether these connectomically-defined subregions can be distinguished at the molecular level. Here, we combine high-resolution diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with transcriptomic data to show that connectomically-defined subregions of the striatum carry distinct transcriptional signatures...
April 19, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420969/acquisition-maintenance-and-relapse-like-alcohol-drinking-lessons-from-the-uchb-rat-line
#18
REVIEW
Yedy Israel, Eduardo Karahanian, Fernando Ezquer, Paola Morales, Marcelo Ezquer, Mario Rivera-Meza, Mario Herrera-Marschitz, María E Quintanilla
This review article addresses the biological factors that influence: (i) the acquisition of alcohol intake; (ii) the maintenance of chronic alcohol intake; and (iii) alcohol relapse-like drinking behavior in animals bred for their high-ethanol intake. Data from several rat strains/lines strongly suggest that catalase-mediated brain oxidation of ethanol into acetaldehyde is an absolute requirement (up 80%-95%) for rats to display ethanol's reinforcing effects and to initiate chronic ethanol intake. Acetaldehyde binds non-enzymatically to dopamine forming salsolinol, a compound that is self-administered...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419646/suvorexant-an-orexin-hypocretin-receptor-antagonist-attenuates-motivational-and-hedonic-properties-of-cocaine
#19
Taylor A Gentile, Steven J Simmons, David J Barker, Jessica K Shaw, Rodrigo A España, John W Muschamp
Orexins ('hypocretins') are peptides produced by neurons of the hypothalamus that project to structures implicated in reward and emotion processing. Converging evidence demonstrates functional roles of orexin signaling in arousal, sleep/wakefulness and motivated behaviors for natural and drug rewards. Suvorexant, a dual orexin receptor antagonist, recently received approval from the US Food and Drug Administration to treat insomnia. In Experiment 1, rats self-administered cocaine under a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement and the effects of suvorexant on motivation to self-administer cocaine were measured...
April 17, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391535/discriminative-stimulus-properties-of-s-nicotine-a-drug-for-all-seasons
#20
John A Rosecrans, Richard Young
S(-)-Nicotine is the major pharmacologically active substance in tobacco and can function as an effective discriminative stimulus in both experimental animals and humans. In this model, subjects must detect and communicate the nicotine drug state versus the non-drug state. This review describes the usefulness of the procedure to study nicotine, presents a general overview of the model, and provides some relevant methodological details for the establishment of this drug as a stimulus. Once established, the (-)-nicotine stimulus can be characterized for dose response and time course effects...
April 9, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
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