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Dopamine and motivation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911992/motivational-valence-is-determined-by-striatal-melanocortin-4-receptors
#1
Anna Mathia Klawonn, Michael Fritz, Anna Nilsson, Jordi Bonaventura, Kiseko Shionoya, Elahe Mirrasekhian, Urban Karlsson, Maarit Jaarola, Björn Granseth, Anders Blomqvist, Michael Michaelides, David Engblom
It is critical for survival to assign positive or negative valence to salient stimuli in a correct manner. Accordingly, harmful stimuli and internal states characterized by perturbed homeostasis are accompanied by discomfort, unease, and aversion. Aversive signaling causes extensive suffering during chronic diseases, including inflammatory conditions, cancer, and depression. Here, we investigated the role of melanocortin 4 receptors (MC4Rs) in aversive processing using genetically modified mice and a behavioral test in which mice avoid an environment that they have learned to associate with aversive stimuli...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910727/caffeine-and-selective-adenosine-receptor-antagonists-as-new-therapeutic-tools-for-the-motivational-symptoms-of-depression
#2
REVIEW
Laura López-Cruz, John D Salamone, Mercè Correa
Major depressive disorder is one of the most common and debilitating psychiatric disorders. Some of the motivational symptoms of depression, such anergia (lack of self-reported energy) and fatigue are relatively resistant to traditional treatments such as serotonin uptake inhibitors. Thus, new pharmacological targets are being investigated. Epidemiological data suggest that caffeine consumption can have an impact on aspects of depressive symptomatology. Caffeine is a non-selective adenosine antagonist for A1 /A2A receptors, and has been demonstrated to modulate behavior in classical animal models of depression...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909760/-epidemiology-etiology-and-treatment-of-patients-with-psychosis-and-co-morbid-substance-use-disorder
#3
Franz Moggi
Epidemiology, etiology and treatment of patients with psychosis and co-morbid substance use disorder Abstract. More than 25 years ago, when the research on the efficacy of treatments for patients with a comorbidity of psychosis and substance use disorder has been systematically started, some authors described the treatment of these patients as a "mission impossible". Approximately half of all individuals with schizophrenia develop substance use disorders in the course of their life; about one third of them a comorbid alcohol use disorder and about one quarter a comorbid substance use disorder with other addictive substances...
June 2018: Therapeutische Umschau. Revue Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896158/prebiotics-supplementation-impact-on-the-reinforcing-and-motivational-aspect-of-feeding
#4
Anne-Sophie Delbès, Julien Castel, Raphaël G P Denis, Chloé Morel, Mar Quiñones, Amandine Everard, Patrice D Cani, Florence Massiera, Serge H Luquet
Energy homeostasis is tightly regulated by the central nervous system which responds to nervous and circulating inputs to adapt food intake and energy expenditure. However, the rewarding and motivational aspect of food is tightly dependent of dopamine (DA) release in mesocorticolimbic (MCL) system and could be operant in uncontrolled caloric intake and obesity. Accumulating evidence indicate that manipulating the microbiota-gut-brain axis through prebiotic supplementation can have beneficial impact of the host appetite and body weight...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891732/cell-type-specific-role-of-%C3%AE-fosb-in-nucleus-accumbens-in-modulating-inter-male-aggression
#5
Hossein Aleyasin, Meghan E Flanigan, Sam A Golden, Aki Takahashi, Caroline Menard, Madeline L Pfau, Jacob Multer, Jacqueline Pina, Kathryn A McCabe, Naemal Bhatti, Georgia E Hodes, Mitra Heshmati, Rachael L Neve, Eric J Nestler, Elizabeth A Heller, Scott J Russo
A growing number of studies implicate the brain's reward circuitry in aggressive behavior. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms within brain reward regions that modulate the intensity of aggression as well as motivation for it have been underexplored. Here, we investigate the cell-type-specific influence of ΔFosB, a transcription factor known to regulate a range of reward and motivated behaviors, acting in the nucleus accumbens (NAc)-a key reward region-in male aggression in mice. We show that ΔFosB is specifically increased in dopamine D1 receptor (Drd1) expressing medium spiny neurons (D1-MSNs) in NAc after repeated aggressive encounters...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875446/chemogenetic-activation-of-ventral-tegmental-area-gaba-neurons-but-not-mesoaccumbal-gaba-terminals-disrupts-responding-to-reward-predictive-cues
#6
Ken T Wakabayashi, Malte Feja, Ajay N Baindur, Michael J Bruno, Rohan V Bhimani, Jinwoo Park, Kathryn Hausknecht, Roh-Yu Shen, Samir Haj-Dahmane, Caroline E Bass
Cues predicting rewards can gain motivational properties and initiate reward-seeking behaviors. Dopamine projections from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) are critical in regulating cue-motivated responding. Although, approximately one third of mesoaccumbal projection neurons are GABAergic, it is unclear how this population influences motivational processes and cue processing. This is largely due to our inability to pharmacologically probe circuit level contributions of VTA-GABA, which arises from diverse sources, including multiple GABA afferents, interneurons, and projection neurons...
May 22, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867144/copper-regulates-rest-activity-cycles-through-the-locus-coeruleus-norepinephrine-system
#7
Tong Xiao, Cheri M Ackerman, Elizabeth C Carroll, Shang Jia, Adam Hoagland, Jefferson Chan, Bao Thai, Christine S Liu, Ehud Y Isacoff, Christopher J Chang
The unusually high demand for metals in the brain, along with insufficient understanding of how their dysregulation contributes to neurological diseases, motivates the study of how inorganic chemistry influences neural circuitry. We now report that the transition metal copper is essential for regulating rest-activity cycles and arousal. Copper imaging and gene expression analysis in zebrafish identifies the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system, a vertebrate-specific neuromodulatory circuit critical for regulating sleep, arousal, attention, memory and emotion, as a copper-enriched unit with high levels of copper transporters CTR1 and ATP7A and the copper enzyme dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) that produces NE...
June 4, 2018: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29843129/appetite-related-eating-behaviours-an-overview-of-assessment-methods-determinants-and-effects-on-children-s-weight
#8
REVIEW
Ana Freitas, Gabriela Albuquerque, Cláudia Silva, Andreia Oliveira
Identifying the underlying child-eating behaviours that contribute to weight differences across growth has been a constant challenge. This report reviews the various literature approaches for assessing appetite regulation. In doing so, it attempts to understand how appetite control develops and determines the eating habits in early childhood, and its effects on children's weight status. The interaction between homeostatic and hedonic mechanisms largely explains the appetite regulation process. Homeostatic mechanisms are mediated by the biological need to maintain the body's energy reserves, increasing the motivation to eat...
May 29, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29807065/dopamine-ds3-receptor-partial-agonist-ls-3-134-attenuates-cocaine-motivated-behaviors
#9
Gregory L Powell, John Paul Bonadonna, Annika Vannan, Kuiying Xu, Robert H Mach, Robert R Luedtke, Janet L Neisewander
AIMS: The dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) is a pharmacotherapeutic target for drug dependence. We have successfully imaged human D3Rs using radiolabeled LS-3-134, an arylamide phenylpiperazine with moderate selectivity for the D3R over D2R and low efficacy at the D2 and D3R. In this study, we screened for effects of LS-3-134 as a potential anti-cocaine therapeutic. METHODS: Male rats were pretreated with LS-3-134 (0, 1.0, 3.2, or 5.6 mg/kg, IP) 15 min prior to tests for its effects on spontaneous and cocaine-induced locomotion...
May 25, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29801770/-consequences-of-the-monoaminergic-systems-cross-talk-in-the-antidepressant-activity
#10
L Tritschler, R Gaillard, A M Gardier, D J David, J-P Guilloux
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most prescribed antidepressant treatment for treat major depressive disorders. Despite their effectiveness, only 30% of SSRI-treated patients reach remission of depressive symptoms. SSRIs by inhibiting the serotonin transporter present some limits with residual symptoms. Increasing not only serotonin but also norepinephrine and dopamine levels in limbic areas seems to improve remission. Anatomical relationships across serotoninergic, dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems suggest tight reciprocal regulations among them...
May 22, 2018: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29795245/burst-activation-of-dopamine-neurons-produces-prolonged-post-burst-availability-of-actively-released-dopamine
#11
Sweyta Lohani, Adria K Martig, Suzanne M Underhill, Alicia DeFrancesco, Melanie J Roberts, Linda Rinaman, Susan Amara, Bita Moghaddam
Both phasic and tonic modes of neurotransmission are implicated in critical functions assigned to dopamine. In learning, for example, sub-second phasic responses of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons to salient events serve as teaching signals, but learning is also interrupted by dopamine antagonists administered minutes after training. Our findings bridge the multiple timescales of dopamine neurotransmission by demonstrating that burst stimulation of VTA dopamine neurons produces a prolonged post-burst increase (>20 min) of extracellular dopamine in nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex...
May 7, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782941/dopamine-and-serotonin-metabolism-associated-with-morphine-reward-and-its-inhibition-with-buspirone-a-study-in-the-rat-striatum
#12
Darakhshan Jabeen Haleem, Shazia Nawaz, Tabinda Salman
Adaptations within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and caudate nucleus (CN) dopamine neurotransmission are involved in behavioral sensitization and enhanced incentive motivation towards drug paired stimuli which lead to drug addiction. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) can modulate dopamine neurotransmission to reduce rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. A recent study from our laboratory shows that rewarding effects of morphine are inhibited in rats co-treated with buspirone. To understand the neurochemical mechanism involved in morphine addiction and its inhibition with buspirone, present study determines the effects of buspirone, morphine and their co-administration on the metabolism of serotonin and dopamine in the NAc and CN...
May 18, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781560/conditioned-reward-of-opioids-but-not-psychostimulants-is-impaired-in-gaba-a-receptor-%C3%AE-subunit-knockout-mice
#13
Milo S Siivonen, Elena de Miguel, Juho Aaltio, Aino K Manner, Mikko Vahermo, Jari Yli-Kauhaluoma, Anni-Maija Linden, Teemu Aitta-Aho, Esa R Korpi
Extrasynaptic δ subunit-containing γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (δ-GABAA Rs) are emerging as targets for a number of neuropsychopharmacological drugs, including the direct GABA-site agonist gaboxadol and neuroactive steroids. Among other regions, these δ-GABAA Rs are functionally expressed in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), the cell body region of mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) system important for motivated behaviors, and in the target region, the nucleus accumbens. Gaboxadol and neurosteroids induce VTA DA neuron plasticity ex vivo, by inhibiting the VTA GABA neurons, and aversive place conditioning, which are absent in the δ-GABAA R knockout mice (δ-KO)...
May 21, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780881/nucleus-accumbens-microcircuit-underlying-d2-msn-driven-increase-in-motivation
#14
Carina Soares-Cunha, Bárbara Coimbra, Ana Verónica Domingues, Nivaldo Vasconcelos, Nuno Sousa, Ana João Rodrigues
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a central role in reinforcement and motivation. Around 95% of the NAc neurons are medium spiny neurons (MSNs), divided into those expressing dopamine receptor D1 (D1R) or dopamine receptor D2 (D2R). Optogenetic activation of D2-MSNs increased motivation, whereas inhibition of these neurons produced the opposite effect. Yet, it is still unclear how activation of D2-MSNs affects other local neurons/interneurons or input terminals and how this contributes for motivation enhancement...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777165/hiv-1-proteins-dysregulate-motivational-processes-and-dopamine-circuitry
#15
Sarah J Bertrand, Charles F Mactutus, Steven B Harrod, Landhing M Moran, Rosemarie M Booze
Motivational alterations, such as apathy, in HIV-1+ individuals are associated with decreased performance on tasks involving frontal-subcortical circuitry. We used the HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rat to assess effect of long-term HIV-1 protein exposure on motivated behavior using sucrose (1-30%, w/v) and cocaine (0.01-1.0 mg/kg/infusion) maintained responding with fixed-ratio (FR) and progressive-ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement. For sucrose-reinforced responding, HIV-1 Tg rats displayed no change in EC50 relative to controls, suggesting no change in sucrose reinforcement but had a downward shifted concentration-response curves, suggesting a decrease in response vigor...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766048/phasic-stimulation-of-midbrain-dopamine-neuron-activity-reduces-salt-consumption
#16
Eleanor C Sandhu, Anushka B P Fernando, Elaine E Irvine, Kyoko Tossell, Michelle Kokkinou, Justyna Glegola, Mark A Smith, Oliver D Howes, Dominic J Withers, Mark A Ungless
Salt intake is an essential dietary requirement, but excessive consumption is implicated in hypertension and associated conditions. Little is known about the neural circuit mechanisms that control motivation to consume salt, although the midbrain dopamine system, which plays a key role in other reward-related behaviors, has been implicated. We, therefore, examined the effects on salt consumption of either optogenetic excitation or chemogenetic inhibition of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons in male mice...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760527/prefrontal-cortex-as-a-meta-reinforcement-learning-system
#17
Jane X Wang, Zeb Kurth-Nelson, Dharshan Kumaran, Dhruva Tirumala, Hubert Soyer, Joel Z Leibo, Demis Hassabis, Matthew Botvinick
Over the past 20 years, neuroscience research on reward-based learning has converged on a canonical model, under which the neurotransmitter dopamine 'stamps in' associations between situations, actions and rewards by modulating the strength of synaptic connections between neurons. However, a growing number of recent findings have placed this standard model under strain. We now draw on recent advances in artificial intelligence to introduce a new theory of reward-based learning. Here, the dopamine system trains another part of the brain, the prefrontal cortex, to operate as its own free-standing learning system...
May 14, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760524/what-does-dopamine-mean
#18
REVIEW
Joshua D Berke
Dopamine is a critical modulator of both learning and motivation. This presents a problem: how can target cells know whether increased dopamine is a signal to learn or to move? It is often presumed that motivation involves slow ('tonic') dopamine changes, while fast ('phasic') dopamine fluctuations convey reward prediction errors for learning. Yet recent studies have shown that dopamine conveys motivational value and promotes movement even on subsecond timescales. Here I describe an alternative account of how dopamine regulates ongoing behavior...
May 14, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757478/varying-the-rate-of-intravenous-cocaine-infusion-influences-the-temporal-dynamics-of-both-drug-and-dopamine-concentrations-in-the-striatum
#19
Ellie-Anna Minogianis, Waqqas M Shams, Omar S Mabrouk, Jenny-Marie T Wong, Wayne G Brake, Robert T Kennedy, Patrick du Souich, Anne-Noël Samaha
The faster drugs of abuse reach the brain, the greater is the risk of addiction. Even small differences in the rate of drug delivery can influence outcome. Infusing cocaine intravenously over 5 versus 90-100 seconds promotes sensitization to the psychomotor and incentive motivational effects of the drug and preferentially recruits mesocorticolimbic regions. It remains unclear whether these effects are due to differences in how fast and/or how much drug reaches the brain. Here, we predicted that varying the rate of intravenous cocaine infusion between 5-90 seconds produces different rates of rise of brain drug concentrations, while producing similar peak concentrations...
May 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740277/hedonic-eating-and-the-delicious-circle-from-lipid-derived-mediators-to-brain-dopamine-and-back
#20
REVIEW
Roberto Coccurello, Mauro Maccarrone
Palatable food can be seductive and hedonic eating can become irresistible beyond hunger and negative consequences. This is witnessed by the subtle equilibrium between eating to provide energy intake for homeostatic functions, and reward-induced overeating. In recent years, considerable efforts have been devoted to study neural circuits, and to identify potential factors responsible for the derangement of homeostatic eating toward hedonic eating and addiction-like feeding behavior. Here, we examined recent literature on "old" and "new" players accountable for reward-induced overeating and possible liability to eating addiction...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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