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Dopamine and motivation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044780/-hot-versus-cold-behavioral-cognitive-styles-motivational-dopaminergic-versus-cognitive-cholinergic-processing-of-a-pavlovian-cocaine-cue-in-sign-and-goal-tracking-rats
#1
Kyle K Pitchers, Louisa F Kane, Youngsoo Kim, Terry E Robinson, Martin Sarter
Discrete Pavlovian reward cues acquire more potent incentive motivational properties (incentive salience), in some animals (sign-trackers; STs) compared to others (goal trackers; GTs). Conversely, GTs appear to be better than STs in processing more complex contextual cues, perhaps reflecting their relatively greater bias for goal-directed cue processing. Here we investigated the activity of two major prefrontal neuromodulatory input systems, dopamine (DA) and acetylcholine (ACh), in response to a discrete Pavlovian cue that was previously paired with cocaine administration in STs and GTs...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038598/male-specific-deficits-in-natural-reward-learning-in-a-mouse-model-of-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#2
N M Grissom, S E McKee, H Schoch, N Bowman, R Havekes, W T O'Brien, E Mahrt, S Siegel, K Commons, C Portfors, T Nickl-Jockschat, T M Reyes, T Abel
Neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders, are highly male biased, but the underpinnings of this are unknown. Striatal dysfunction has been strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental disorders, raising the question of whether there are sex differences in how the striatum is impacted by genetic risk factors linked to neurodevelopmental disorders. Here we report male-specific deficits in striatal function important to reward learning in a mouse model of 16p11.2 hemideletion, a genetic mutation that is strongly associated with the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly autism and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder...
October 17, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031913/chronic-pain-and-pain-processing-in-parkinson-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
Pierre J Blanchet, Christine Brefel-Courbon
Pain is experienced by the vast majority of patients living with Parkinson's disease. It is most often of nociceptive origin, but may also be ascribed to neuropathic (radicular or central) or miscellaneous sources. The recently validated King's Parkinson's Disease Pain Scale is based on 7 domains including musculoskeletal pain, chronic body pain (central or visceral), fluctuation-related pain, nocturnal pain, oro-facial pain, pain with discolouration/oedema/swelling, and radicular pain. The basal ganglia integrate incoming nociceptive information and contribute to coordinated motor responses in pain avoidance and nocifensive behaviors...
October 12, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030431/distinctive-modulation-of-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-shell-mediated-by-dopamine-and-acetylcholine-receptors
#4
Jung Hoon Shin, Martin F Adrover, Veronica A Alvarez
Nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell shows unique dopamine (DA) signals in vivo and plays a unique role in DA dependent behaviors, such as reward-motivated learning and the response to drugs of abuse. A di-synaptic mechanism for DA release was reported and shown to require synchronized firing of cholinergic interneurons (CINs) and activation of nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (nAChRs) in DA neuron (DAN) axons. The properties of this di-synaptic mechanism of DA transmission is not well understood in the NAc shell...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024786/neurobiological-correlates-of-pain-avoidance-like-behavior-in-morphine-dependent-and-non-dependent-rats
#5
Amanda R Pahng, Rod I Paulsen, M Adrienne McGinn, Kimberly N Edwards, Scott Edwards
Repeated use of opioids can lead to the development of analgesic tolerance and dependence. Additionally, chronic opioid exposure can cause a paradoxical emergence of heightened pain sensitivity to noxious stimuli, termed hyperalgesia, which may drive continued or escalated use of opioids to manage worsening pain symptoms. Opioid-induced hyperalgesia has traditionally been measured in rodents via reflex-based assays, including the von Frey method. To better model the cognitive/motivational dimension of pain in a state of opioid dependence and withdrawal, we employed a recently developed non-reflex-based method for measuring pain avoidance-like behavior in animals (mechanical conflict avoidance test)...
October 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985327/associations-between-environmental-resources-and-the-wanting-and-liking-of-male-song-in-female-songbirds
#6
Jeremy A Spool, Lauren V Riters
Reproductive success requires animals to adjust social and sexual behaviors in response to changes in environmental resources. In many species, males produce courtship signals to attract females; however, not all females are attracted by these signals. One possible explanation for this is that environmental resources alter neural mechanisms underlying motivation and reward in females so that male courtship is attractive when conditions are most favorable for an individual to breed. Here, we first introduce resource-dependent breeding behaviors of female songbirds...
August 21, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984293/drive-and-reinforcement-circuitry-in-the-brain-origins-neurotransmitters-and-projection-fields
#7
REVIEW
Roy A Wise, Ross A McDevitt
Brain stimulation has identified two central subsets of stimulation sites with motivational relevance. First, there is a large and disperse set of sites where stimulation is reinforcing, increasing the frequency of the responses it follows, and second, a much more restricted set of sites where-along with reinforcement-stimulation also has drive-like effects, instigating feeding, copulation, predation, and other motivated acts in otherwise sated or peaceful animals. From this work a dispersed but synaptically interconnected network of reinforcement circuitry is emerging: it includes afferents to the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra; the dopamine systems themselves; glutamatergic afferents to the striatum; and one of two dopamine-receptor-expressing efferent pathways of the striatum...
October 6, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971565/hypocretin-receptor-1-knockdown-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-attenuates-mesolimbic-dopamine-signaling-and-reduces-motivation-for-cocaine
#8
David L Bernstein, Preeti S Badve, Jessica R Barson, Caroline E Bass, Rodrigo A España
The hypocretin receptor 1 (HCRTr1) is a critical participant in the regulation of motivated behavior. Previous observations demonstrate that acute pharmacological blockade of HCRTr1 disrupts dopamine (DA) signaling and the motivation for cocaine when delivered systemically or directly into the ventral tegmental area (VTA). To further examine the involvement of HCRTr1 in regulating reward and reinforcement processing, we employed an adeno-associated virus to express a short hairpin RNA designed to knock down HCRTr1...
October 2, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964912/functional-coding-variation-in-the-presynaptic-dopamine-transporter-associated-with-neuropsychiatric-disorders-drives-enhanced-motivation-and-context-dependent-impulsivity-in-mice
#9
Gwynne L Davis, Adele Stewart, Gregg D Stanwood, Raajaram Gowrishankar, Maureen K Hahn, Randy D Blakely
Recent genetic analyses have provided evidence that clinical commonalities associated with different psychiatric diagnoses often have shared mechanistic underpinnings. The development of animal models expressing functional genetic variation attributed to multiple disorders offers a salient opportunity to capture molecular, circuit and behavioral alterations underlying this hypothesis. In keeping with studies suggesting dopaminergic contributions to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder (BPD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), subjects with these diagnoses have been found to express a rare, functional coding substitution in the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT), Ala559Val...
January 30, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963038/lateral-septum-stimulation-disinhibits-dopaminergic-neurons-in-the-antero-ventral-region-of-the-ventral-tegmental-area-role-of-gaba-a-alpha-1-receptors
#10
Ignacio Vega-Quiroga, Hector E Yarur, Katia Gysling
The mechanisms commanding the activity of dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the location of these neurons are relevant for the coding and expression of motivated behavior associated to reward-related signals. Anatomical evidence shows that several brain regions modulate VTA dopaminergic neurons activity via multiple mechanisms. However, there is still scarce knowledge of how the lateral septum (LS) modulates VTA activity. We performed in-vivo dual-probe microdialysis to measure VTA dopamine, glutamate and GABA extracellular levels after LS stimulation in the presence or absence of GABAergic antagonists...
September 27, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950781/blockade-of-dopamine-d1-family-receptors-attenuates-the-mania-like-hyperactive-risk-preferring-and-high-motivation-behavioral-profile-of-mice-with-low-dopamine-transporter-levels
#11
Morgane Milienne-Petiot, Lucianne Groenink, Arpi Minassian, Jared W Young
BACKGROUND: Patients with bipolar disorder mania exhibit poor cognition, impulsivity, risk-taking, and goal-directed activity that negatively impact their quality of life. To date, existing treatments for bipolar disorder do not adequately remediate cognitive dysfunction. Reducing dopamine transporter expression recreates many bipolar disorder mania-relevant behaviors (i.e. hyperactivity and risk-taking). The current study investigated whether dopamine D1-family receptor blockade would attenuate the risk-taking, hypermotivation, and hyperactivity of dopamine transporter knockdown mice...
October 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948979/effort-but-not-reward-sensitivity-is-altered-by-acute-sickness-induced-by-experimental-endotoxemia-in-humans
#12
Amelia Draper, Rebecca M Koch, Jos Wm van der Meer, M Apps, Peter Pickkers, Masud Husain, Marieke E van der Schaaf
Sickness behavior in humans is characterized by low mood and fatigue, which have been suggested to reflect changes in motivation involving reorganization of priorities. However, it is unclear which specific processes underlying motivation are altered. We tested whether bacterial endotoxin E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) affected two dissociable constructs of motivational behavior, ie effort and reward sensitivity. After familiarization with 5 effort levels, participants made a series of accept/reject decisions on whether the stake offered (1, 4, 8, 12 or 15 apples)) was 'worth the effort' (10, 27...
September 26, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943284/evaluating-oral-flavorant-effects-on-nicotine-self-administration-behavior-and-phasic-dopamine-signaling
#13
Robert J Wickham, Eric J Nunes, Shannon Hughley, Phillip Silva, Sofia N Walton, Jinwoo Park, Nii A Addy
Understanding how tobacco product flavor additives, such as flavorants in electronic cigarettes, influence smoking behavior and addiction is critical for informing public health policy decisions regarding tobacco product regulation. Here, we developed a combined intraoral (i.o.) and intravenous (i.v.) self-administration paradigm in rats to determine how flavorants influence self-administration behavior. By combining i.o. flavorant delivery with fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) or i.v. nicotine self-administration in adult, male rats, we examined whether flavors alter phasic dopamine (DA) signaling and nicotine self-administration...
September 21, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942046/chronic-ethanol-exposure-increases-inhibition-of-optically-targeted-phasic-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core-and-medial-shell-ex-vivo
#14
James R Melchior, Sara R Jones
Dopamine signaling encodes reward learning and motivated behavior through modulation of synaptic signaling in the nucleus accumbens, and aberrations in these processes are thought to underlie obsessive behaviors associated with alcohol abuse. The nucleus accumbens is divided into core and shell sub-regions with overlapping but also divergent contributions to behavior. Here we optogenetically targeted dopamine projections to the accumbens allowing us to isolate stimulation of dopamine terminals ex vivo. We applied 5 pulse (phasic) light stimulations to probe intrinsic differences in dopamine release parameters across regions...
September 20, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939388/elderly-adults-show-higher-ventral-striatal-activation-in-response-to-motor-performance-related-rewards-than-young-adults
#15
Mario Widmer, Samara Stulz, Andreas R Luft, Kai Lutz
Feedback on motor performance activates the striatum and boosting ventral striatum activation with rewarding feedback during motor training supports the consolidation of the learned skill. Aging is associated with changes of the reward system, including striatal and extrastriatal loss of dopamine receptors. How these changes interact with the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response is, however, not yet fully understood. While it is known that reward prediction and reward-based decision-making differ between young and elderly healthy adults, the influence of age on the processing of rewarding feedback on motor performance have not been investigated so far...
September 20, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902472/the-mushroom-body-d1-dopamine-receptor-controls-innate-courtship-drive
#16
Junghwa Lim, Ana I Fernandez, Samantha J Hinojos, Gissel P Aranda, Jacqueline James, Chang-Soo Seong, Kyung-An Han
Mating is critical for species survival and is profoundly regulated by neuromodulators and neurohormones to accommodate internal states and external factors. To identify the underlying neuromodulatory mechanisms, we investigated the roles of dopamine receptors in various aspects of courtship behavior in Drosophila. Here we report that the D1 dopamine receptor dDA1 regulates courtship drive in naïve males. The wild-type naïve males actively courted females regardless their appearance or mating status. On the contrary, the dDA1 mutant (dumb) males exhibited substantially reduced courtship toward less appealing females including decapitated, leg-less and mated females...
September 13, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895569/the-effects-of-the-monoamine-stabilizer-osu6162-on-binge-like-eating-and-cue-controlled-food-seeking-behavior-in-rats
#17
K Feltmann, C Giuliano, B J Everitt, P Steensland, J Alsiö
Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by recurring episodes of excessive consumption of palatable food and an increased sensitivity to food cues. Patients with BED display an addiction-like symptomatology and the dopamine system might be a potential treatment target. The clinically safe monoamine stabilizer (-)-OSU6162 (OSU6162) restores dopaminergic dysfunction in long-term alcohol drinking rats and shows promise as a novel treatment for alcohol use disorder. Here, the effects of OSU6162 on consummatory (binge-like eating) and appetitive (cue-controlled seeking) behavior motivated by chocolate-flavored sucrose pellets were evaluated in non-food-restricted male Lister Hooded rats...
September 12, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894175/sexual-congruency-in-the-connectome-and-translatome-of-vta-dopamine-neurons
#18
Amanda S Chung, Samara M Miller, Yanjun Sun, Xiangmin Xu, Larry S Zweifel
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine system is important for reward, motivation, emotion, learning, and memory. Dysfunctions in the dopamine system are linked to multiple neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, many of which present with sex differences. Little is known about the extent of heterogeneity in the basic organization of VTA dopamine neurons with regard to sex. Here, we characterized the cell-specific connectivity of VTA dopamine neurons, their mRNA translational profile, and basic electrophysiological characteristics in a common strain of mice...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889722/effects-of-central-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-fgf21-in-energy-balance
#19
L Recinella, S Leone, C Ferrante, A Chiavaroli, C Di Nisio, S Martinotti, M Vacca, L Brunetti, G Orlando
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is known as a major metabolic regulator of glucose and lipid homeostasis. Continuous intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of FGF21 was found to modulate feeding and energy expenditure in rats with diet-induced obesity, suggesting a central effect by the peptide. In this context, in the present work, we studied the effects of a single central FGF21 administration (0.5-5 µg) on feeding and energy expenditure by evaluating locomotor activity, interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) weight, gene expression of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) in BAT and plasma norepinephrine (NE) levels in Sprague-Dawley fed rats...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884874/cerebral-dopaminergic-and-glutamatergic-transmission-relate-to-different-subjective-responses-of-acute-alcohol-intake-an-in-vivo-multimodal-imaging-study
#20
Gil Leurquin-Sterk, Jenny Ceccarini, Cleo Lina Crunelle, Akila Weerasekera, Bart de Laat, Uwe Himmelreich, Guy Bormans, Koen Van Laere
Converging preclinical evidence links extrastriatal dopamine release and glutamatergic transmission via the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) to the rewarding properties of alcohol. To date, human evidence is lacking on how and where in the brain these processes occur. Mesocorticolimbic dopamine release upon intravenous alcohol administration and mGluR5 availability were measured in 11 moderate social drinkers by single-session [(18) F]fallypride and [(18) F]FPEB positron emission tomography, respectively...
September 8, 2017: Addiction Biology
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