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Dopamine and motivation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684475/orexin-a-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-enhances-saccharin-induced-conditioned-flavor-preference-the-role-of-d1-receptors-in-central-nucleus-of-amygdala
#1
Severiano Risco, Cristina Mediavilla
In industrialized societies, food intake is largely determined by its hedonic characteristics, which can be modified by our experience via taste learning. In this learning, the hedonic value of a neutral flavor changes after its association with a motivationally significant stimulus. Experiment 1 analyzes the effect of orexin administration (53 and 107 ng) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) on hedonic intake through acquisition of a flavor-taste preference and a flavor-taste aversion. Accordingly, animals underwent four one-bottle acquisition sessions with unilateral application of orexin-A or saline in the VTA at 10 min before a 15-min flavor intake period...
April 20, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680287/dopamine-signalling-in-locusts-and-other-insects
#2
REVIEW
Heleen Verlinden
Dopamine is an important catecholamine neurotransmitter in invertebrates and vertebrates. It is biochemically derived from tyrosine via L-DOPA. It is most abundant in the central nervous system, but can also be produced in e.g. epidermal cells. Dopamine has conserved roles in the control of movement, pleasure, motivation, arousal and memory between invertebrate and vertebrate animals. It is crucial for melanisation and sclerotisation, important processes for the formation of the exoskeleton of insects and immune function...
April 19, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672668/distinct-effects-of-apathy-and-dopamine-on-effort-based-decision-making-in-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Campbell Le Heron, Olivia Plant, Sanjay Manohar, Yuen-Siang Ang, Matthew Jackson, Graham Lennox, Michele T Hu, Masud Husain
Effort-based decision-making is a cognitive process crucial to normal motivated behaviour. Apathy is a common and disabling complication of Parkinson's disease, but its aetiology remains unclear. Intriguingly, the neural substrates associated with apathy also subserve effort-based decision-making in animal models and humans. Furthermore, the dopaminergic system plays a core role in motivating effortful behaviour for reward, and its dysfunction has been proposed to play a crucial role in the aetiology of apathy in Parkinson's disease...
April 17, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628879/dopamine-effort-based-choice-and-behavioral-economics-basic-and-translational-research
#4
REVIEW
John D Salamone, Merce Correa, Jen-Hau Yang, Renee Rotolo, Rose Presby
Operant behavior is not only regulated by factors related to the quality or quantity of reinforcement, but also by the work requirements inherent in performing instrumental actions. Moreover, organisms often make effort-related decisions involving economic choices such as cost/benefit analyses. Effort-based decision making is studied using behavioral procedures that offer choices between high-effort options leading to relatively preferred reinforcers vs. low effort/low reward choices. Several neural systems, including the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system and other brain circuits, are involved in regulating effort-related aspects of motivation...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621813/cushing-s-syndrome-a-historic-review-of-the-treatment-strategies-and-corresponding-outcomes-in-a-single-tertiary-center-over-the-past-half-century
#5
Anelia Nankova, Maria Yaneva, Atanaska Elenkova, Dimitar Tcharaktchiev, Marin Marinov, Asen Hadzhiyanev, Tanyo Sechanov, Georgi Gantchev, Georgi Todorov, Georgi Kirilov, Krasimir Kalinov, Maria Andreeva, Sabina Zacharieva
Cushing's syndrome (CS) is associated with serious comorbidities and an increased mortality rate that could be reduced only if strict biochemical control is achieved. The aim of this study was to show the 50-year experience of a single tertiary center in the management of CS patients - the different treatment modalities used over the years and the corresponding outcomes. It was a retrospective study of a large cohort of patients from the Bulgarian CS database: 613 patients (374 with ACTH-dependent and 239 with ACTH-independent CS)...
April 2018: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608992/central-fatigue-theory-and-endurance-exercise-toward-an-interoceptive-model
#6
REVIEW
Terry McMorris, Martin Barwood, Jo Corbett
We propose a model of exercise-induced central fatigue based on interoception and motivation. Predictions of the expected sensory feedback are fed forward by the dorsolateral (DL) prefrontal cortex (PFC) to the anterior insula cortex (AIC). During exercise, the AIC receives feedback from lamina Ⅰ lateral spinothalamic and nucleus tractus solitarii medullothalamic pathways. The feedback is compared to the predictions in order to generate a current awareness state, which is forwarded to the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), ventromedial (VM)PFC and lateral (L)PFC...
March 30, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607713/association-of-24-h-maternal-deprivation-with-a-saline-injection-in-the-neonatal-period-alters-adult-stress-response-and-brain-monoamines-in-a-sex-dependent-fashion
#7
Rafael Cabbia, Amanda Consoli, Deborah Suchecki
Maternal deprivation (MD) disinhibits the adrenal glands, rendering them responsive to various stressors, including saline injection, and this increased corticosterone (CORT) response can last for as long as 2 h. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that association of MD on day 11 with a saline injection would alter emotional behavior, CORT response, and brain monoamine levels, in male and female adult rats. Rats were submitted to the novelty suppressed feeding (NSF), the sucrose negative contrast test (SNCT), social investigation test (SIT), and the elevated plus maze (EPM)...
April 1, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602278/dark-classics-in-chemical-neuroscience-methamphetamine
#8
Thomas J Abbruscato, Paul C Trippier
Methamphetamine has the second highest prevalence of drug abuse after cannabis, with estimates of 35 million users worldwide. The (S)-(+)-enantiomer is the illicit drug, active neurostimulant and eutomer, while the (R)-(-)-enantiomer is contained in over the counter decongestants. While designated a schedule II drug in 1970, (S)-(+)-methamphetamine is available by prescription for the treatment of attention-deficit disorder and obesity. The illicit use of (S)-(+)-methamphetamine results in the sudden 'rush' of stimulation to the motivation, movement, pleasure and reward centers in the brain, caused by rapid release of dopamine...
March 30, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599444/environmental-complexity-buffers-against-stress-induced-negative-judgement-bias-in-female-chickens
#9
Josefina Zidar, Irene Campderrich, Emelie Jansson, Anette Wichman, Svante Winberg, Linda Keeling, Hanne Løvlie
Cognitive processes are often biased by emotions. In humans, affective disorders are accompanied by pessimistic judgement, while optimistic judgement is linked to emotional stability. Similar to humans, animals tend to interpret ambiguous stimuli negatively after experiencing stressful events, although the long-lasting impact on judgement bias has rarely been investigated. We measure judgement bias in female chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) after exposure to cold stress, and before and after exposure to additional unpredictable stressors...
March 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593596/neural-dynamics-of-autistic-repetitive-behaviors-and-fragile-x-syndrome-basal-ganglia-movement-gating-and-mglur-modulated-adaptively-timed-learning
#10
Stephen Grossberg, Devika Kishnan
This article develops the iSTART neural model that proposes how specific imbalances in cognitive, emotional, timing, and motor processes that involve brain regions like prefrontal cortex, temporal cortex, amygdala, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and cerebellum may interact together to cause behavioral symptoms of autism. These imbalances include underaroused emotional depression in the amygdala/hypothalamus, learning of hyperspecific recognition categories that help to cause narrowly focused attention in temporal and prefrontal cortices, and breakdowns of adaptively timed motivated attention and motor circuits in the hippocampus and cerebellum...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580570/increased-alcohol-seeking-in-mice-lacking-gpr88-involves-dysfunctional-mesocorticolimbic-networks
#11
Sami Ben Hamida, Sueli Mendonça-Netto, Tanzil Mahmud Arefin, Md Taufiq Nasseef, Laura-Joy Boulos, Michael McNicholas, Aliza Toby Ehrlich, Eleanor Clarke, Luc Moquin, Alain Gratton, Emmanuel Darcq, Laura Adela Harsan, Rafael Maldonado, Brigitte Lina Kieffer
BACKGOUND: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is devastating and poorly treated, and innovative targets are actively sought for prevention and treatment. The orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR88 is enriched in mesocorticolimbic pathways, and Gpr88 knockout mice show hyperactivity and risk-taking behavior, but a potential role for this receptor in drug abuse has not been examined. METHODS: We tested Gpr88 knockout mice for alcohol-drinking and -seeking behaviors. To gain system-level understanding of their alcohol endophenotype, we also analyzed whole-brain functional connectivity in naïve mice using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging...
February 9, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573379/dopamine-dysregulation-hypothesis-the-common-basis-for-motivational-anhedonia-in-major-depressive-disorder-and-schizophrenia
#12
Jan Józef Szczypiński, Mateusz Gola
Abnormalities in reward processing are crucial symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD) and schizophrenia (SCH). Recent neuroscientific findings regarding MDD have led to conclusions about two different symptoms related to reward processing: motivational and consummatory anhedonia, corresponding, respectively, to impaired motivation to obtain rewards ('wanting'), and diminished satisfaction from consuming them ('liking'). One can ask: which of these is common for MDD and SCH. In our review of the latest neuroscientific studies, we show that MDD and SCH do not share consummatory anhedonia, as SCH patients usually have unaltered liking...
March 24, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573323/the-interaction-of-the-chrna5-d398n-variant-with-developmental-nicotine-exposure
#13
Heidi C O'Neill, Charles R Wageman, Sarah E Sherman, Sharon R Grady, Michael J Marks, Jerry A Stitzel
A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in CHRNA5 (rs16969968, change from an aspartic acid (D) to asparagine (N) at position 398 of the human α5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit) has been associated with increased risk for nicotine dependence. Consequently, carriers of the risk variant may be at elevated risk for in utero nicotine exposure. To assess whether this gene-environment interaction might impact nicotine intake in developmental nicotine-exposed offspring, we utilized a mouse expressing this human SNP...
March 24, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572651/diazepam-blocks-50-khz-ultrasonic-vocalizations-and-stereotypies-but-not-the-increase-in-locomotor-activity-induced-in-rats-by-amphetamine
#14
Gisele de Oliveira Guaita, Debora Dalla Vecchia, Roberto Andreatini, Donita L Robinson, Rainer K W Schwarting, Claudio Da Cunha
RATIONALE: We have recently shown that the benzodiazepine diazepam inhibits dopamine release in the NAc and blocks the increased release of dopamine induced by DL-amphetamine. Rewarding stimuli and many drugs of abuse can induce dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens as well as 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in rats. OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that diazepam can also block the increase in locomotor activity and USVs elicited by amphetamine...
March 23, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567621/diet-matters-glucocorticoid-related-neuroadaptations-associated-with-calorie-intake-in-female-rhesus-monkeys
#15
Jodi R Godfrey, Maylen Perez Diaz, Melanie Pincus, Zsofia Kovacs-Balint, Eric Feczko, Eric Earl, Oscar Miranda-Dominguez, Damien Fair, Mar M Sanchez, Mark E Wilson, Vasiliki Michopoulos
Exposure to psychosocial stressors increases consumption of palatable, calorically dense diets (CDD) and the risk for obesity, especially in females. While consumption of an obesogenic diet and chronic stress have both been shown to decrease dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) binding and alter functional connectivity (FC) within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), it remains uncertain how social experience and dietary environment interact to affect reward pathways critical for the regulation of motivated behavior...
March 14, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551965/the-dopamine-receptor-d4-gene-drd4-and-financial-risk-taking-stimulating-and-instrumental-risk-taking-propensity-and-motivation-to-engage-in-investment-activity
#16
Rafał Muda, Mariusz Kicia, Małgorzata Michalak-Wojnowska, Michał Ginszt, Agata Filip, Piotr Gawda, Piotr Majcher
The Dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) has been previously linked to financial risk-taking propensity. Past works demonstrated that individuals with a specific variant of the DRD4 gene (7R+) are more risk-seeking than people without it (7R-). The most prominent explanation for this effect is the fact that 7R+ individuals are less sensitive to dopamine and thus seek more stimulation to generate "normal" dopaminergic activity and feel pleasure. However, results about this relationship have not been conclusive, and some revealed a lack of the relationship...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544881/reward-sensitivity-in-parkinson-s-patients-with-binge-eating
#17
Damiano Terenzi, Raffaella I Rumiati, Mauro Catalan, Lucia Antonutti, Giovanni Furlanis, Paolo Garlasco, Paola Polverino, Claudio Bertolotti, Paolo Manganotti, Marilena Aiello
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) patients who are treated with dopamine replacement therapy are at risk of developing impulse control disorders (ICDs) (such as gambling, binge eating, and others). According to recent evidence, compulsive reward seeking in ICDs may arise from an excessive attribution of incentive salience (or 'wanting') to rewards. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we tested this hypothesis in patients with PD who developed binge eating (BE). METHODS: Patients with BE, patients without BE, and healthy controls performed different experimental tasks assessing food liking and wanting...
March 9, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540712/accumbens-dopamine-d2-receptors-increase-motivation-by-decreasing-inhibitory-transmission-to-the-ventral-pallidum
#18
Eduardo F Gallo, Jozsef Meszaros, Jeremy D Sherman, Muhammad O Chohan, Eric Teboul, Claire S Choi, Holly Moore, Jonathan A Javitch, Christoph Kellendonk
Dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) regulate motivated behavior, but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain unresolved. Here, we show that selective upregulation of D2Rs in the indirect pathway of the adult NAc enhances the willingness to work for food. Mechanistic studies in brain slices reveal that D2R upregulation attenuates inhibitory transmission at two main output projections of the indirect pathway, the classical long-range projections to the ventral pallidum (VP), as well as local collaterals to direct pathway medium spiny neurons...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527566/dopamine-d2-receptors-in-dopaminergic-neurons-modulate-performance-in-a-reversal-learning-task-in-mice
#19
Jérôme Linden, Alexander S James, Colin McDaniel, J David Jentsch
Neuroimaging studies in animal models and human subjects have each revealed that relatively low striatal dopamine D2-like receptor binding potential is associated with poor impulse control and with vulnerability for addiction-related behaviors. These studies cannot, however, disambiguate the roles for various pools of D2 receptors found in the striatum (e.g., those expressed on medium spiny striato-pallidal neurons vs on dopamine-releasing nerve terminals) in these behavioral outcomes. To clarify the role of the latter pool, namely, D2 autoreceptors, we studied mice carrying a conditional DRD2 gene, with or without Cre-recombinase expressed under the transcriptional control of the dopamine transporter gene locus (autoDrd2-KO, n = 19 and controls, n = 21)...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524644/dopamine-suppresses-persistent-firing-in-layer-iii-lateral-entorhinal-cortex-neurons
#20
Ariel A Batallán-Burrowes, C Andrew Chapman
Persistent firing in layer III entorhinal cortex neurons that can be evoked during muscarinic receptor activation may contribute to mechanisms of working memory. The entorhinal cortex receives strong dopaminergic inputs which may modulate working memory for motivationally significant information. We used whole cell recordings in in vitro rat brain slices to assess the effects of dopamine on persistent firing in layer III neurons initiated by depolarizing current injection. Persistent firing during pharmacological block of ionotropic excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission, and in the presence of the cholinergic agonist carbachol (10 μM), was observed in 39% of layer III pyramidal cells...
March 7, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
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