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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922255/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-treatment-of-active-ulcerative-colitis
#1
Neeraj Narula, Zain Kassam, Yuhong Yuan, Jean-Frederic Colombel, Cyriel Ponsioen, Walter Reinisch, Paul Moayyedi
BACKGROUND: Changes in the colonic microbiota may play a role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC) and restoration of healthy gut microbiota may ameliorate disease. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to assess fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as a treatment for active UC. METHODS: A literature search was conducted to identify high-quality studies of FMT as a treatment for patients with UC. The primary outcome was combined clinical remission and endoscopic remission or response...
August 23, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914862/-liver-diseases-the-pathogenetic-role-of-the-gut-microbiome-and-the-potential-of-treatment-for-its-modulation
#2
K A Aitbaev, I T Murkamilov, V V Fomin
The paper gives an update on the role of the gut microbiome (GM) in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, liver cirrhosis (LC), and its complications, such as hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and discusses the possibilities of its correction with prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). The pathophysiology of the liver diseases in question demonstrates some common features that are characterized by pathogenic changes in the composition of the gastrointestinal tract microflora, by intestinal barrier impairments, by development of endotoxemia, by increased liver expression of proinflammatory factors, and by development of liver inflammation...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906291/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-treatment-of-active-ulcerative-colitis
#3
Neeraj Narula, Zain Kassam, Yuhong Yuan, Jean-Frederic Colombel, Cyriel Ponsioen, Walter Reinisch, Paul Moayyedi
BACKGROUND: Changes in the colonic microbiota may play a role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC) and restoration of healthy gut microbiota may ameliorate disease. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to assess fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as a treatment for active UC. METHODS: A literature search was conducted to identify high-quality studies of FMT as a treatment for patients with UC. The primary outcome was combined clinical remission and endoscopic remission or response...
October 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893994/gut-microbiota-from-multiple-sclerosis-patients-enables-spontaneous-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-in-mice
#4
Kerstin Berer, Lisa Ann Gerdes, Egle Cekanaviciute, Xiaoming Jia, Liang Xiao, Zhongkui Xia, Chuan Liu, Luisa Klotz, Uta Stauffer, Sergio E Baranzini, Tania Kümpfel, Reinhard Hohlfeld, Gurumoorthy Krishnamoorthy, Hartmut Wekerle
There is emerging evidence that the commensal microbiota has a role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), a putative autoimmune disease of the CNS. Here, we compared the gut microbial composition of 34 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for MS. While there were no major differences in the overall microbial profiles, we found a significant increase in some taxa such as Akkermansia in untreated MS twins. Furthermore, most notably, when transplanted to a transgenic mouse model of spontaneous brain autoimmunity, MS twin-derived microbiota induced a significantly higher incidence of autoimmunity than the healthy twin-derived microbiota...
September 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871143/dysbiosis-contributes-to-chronic-constipation-development-via-regulation-of-serotonin-transporter-in-the-intestine
#5
Hailong Cao, Xiang Liu, Yingying An, Guoqiong Zhou, Yanrong Liu, Mengque Xu, Wenxiao Dong, Sinan Wang, Fang Yan, Kui Jiang, Bangmao Wang
Chronic constipation is a prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorder accompanied with intestinal dysbiosis. However, causal relationship between dysbiosis and constipation remains poorly understood. Serotonin transporter (SERT) is a transmembrane transport protein which re-uptakes excessive 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) from effective location to terminate its physiological effects and involves in regulating gastrointestinal motility. In this study, fecal microbiota from patients with constipation and healthy controls were transplanted into the antibiotic depletion mice model...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866242/to-engraft-or-not-to-engraft-an-ecological-framework-for-gut-microbiome-modulation-with-live-microbes
#6
REVIEW
Jens Walter, María X Maldonado-Gómez, Inés Martínez
Strategies aimed at modulating the gut microbiota by using live microbes range from single strains (probiotics or live biotherapeutics) to whole non-defined fecal transplants. Although often clinically efficacious, our understanding on how microbial-based strategies modulate gut microbiome composition and function is vastly incomplete. In this review, we present a framework based on ecological theory that provides mechanistic explanations for the findings obtained in studies that attempted to modulate the gut microbiota of humans and animals using live microbes...
August 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859349/from-expert-protocols-to-standardized-management-of-infectious-diseases
#7
Jean-Christophe Lagier, Camille Aubry, Marion Delord, Pierre Michelet, Hervé Tissot-Dupont, Matthieu Million, Philippe Brouqui, Didier Raoult, Philippe Parola
We report here 4 examples of management of infectious diseases (IDs) at the University Hospital Institute Méditerranée Infection in Marseille, France, to illustrate the value of expert protocols feeding standardized management of IDs. First, we describe our experience on Q fever and Tropheryma whipplei infection management based on in vitro data and clinical outcome. Second, we describe our management-based approach for the treatment of infective endocarditis, leading to a strong reduction of mortality rate...
August 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858073/the-current-landscape-and-lessons-from-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease-past-present-and-future
#8
Jessica Allegretti, Lindsay M Eysenbach, Najwa El-Nachef, Monika Fischer, Colleen Kelly, Zain Kassam
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has changed the standard of care for Clostridium difficile infection. However, there is limited data focusing on efficacy and safety profile of FMT in patients with C. difficile infection with underlying inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including the risk of IBD flare. Recently, there is also emerging evidence supporting the role of FMT to treat IBD including promising randomized trials in ulcerative colitis. However, with heterogeneity across these studies, the clinical application of this emerging therapy has yet to be fully elucidated...
August 29, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852524/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-patients-with-ileal-pouches
#9
Nan Lan, Jean Ashburn, Bo Shen
Background:Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in patients with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) has been increasingly recognized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in patients with pouch and CDI. Methods: All consecutive patients that underwent FMT for CDI from 2012 to 2016 were extracted from our IRB-approved, prospectively maintained Registry of Pouch Disorders. The primary outcome was negative stool tests for Clostridium difficile after FMT and the secondary outcomes were symptomatic and endoscopic responses...
August 2017: Gastroenterology Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28848361/opisthorchiasis-and-cholangiocarcinoma-in-southeast-asia-an-unresolved-problem
#10
REVIEW
Thomas Hughes, Thomas O'Connor, Anchalee Techasen, Nisana Namwat, Watcharin Loilome, Ross H Andrews, Narong Khuntikeo, Puangrat Yongvanit, Paiboon Sithithaworn, Simon D Taylor-Robinson
The prevalence of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) in Southeast Asia is much higher than other areas of the world. Eating raw, fermented, or undercooked cyprinid fish, infected with the liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini sensu lato (sl), results in chronic biliary inflammation, periductal fibrosis, and increased cancer risk. There may be associated glomerulonephritis. The process of infection is difficult to disrupt because eating practices have proven extremely difficult to change, and the life cycle of the fluke cannot be broken due to high prevalence in canine and feline reservoir hosts...
2017: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840809/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-therapeutic-potential-for-a-multitude-of-diseases-beyond-clostridium-difficile
#11
Guido J Bakker, Max Nieuwdorp
The human intestinal tract contains trillions of bacteria, collectively called the gut microbiota. Recent insights have linked the gut microbiota to a plethora of diseases, including Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and metabolic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is currently tested as a therapeutic option in various diseases and can also help to dissect association from causality with respect to gut microbiota and disease...
August 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827811/long-term-taxonomic-and-functional-divergence-from-donor-bacterial-strains-following-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-immunocompromised-patients
#12
Eli L Moss, Shannon B Falconer, Ekaterina Tkachenko, Mingjie Wang, Hannah Systrom, Jasmin Mahabamunuge, David A Relman, Elizabeth L Hohmann, Ami S Bhatt
Immunocompromised individuals are at high risk of developing Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a highly effective therapy for refractory or recurrent CDAD and, despite safety concerns, has recently been offered to immunocompromised patients. We investigated the genomics of bacterial composition following FMT in immunocompromised patients over a 1-year period. Metagenomic, strain and gene-level bacterial dynamics were characterized in two CDAD-affected hematopoietic stem cell (HCT) recipients following FMT...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811841/bacteriophages-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-and-their-implications
#13
Marzanna Łusiak-Szelachowska, Beata Weber-Dąbrowska, Ewa Jończyk-Matysiak, Renata Wojciechowska, Andrzej Górski
The gut microbiota plays an essential role in health and disease of humans. Bacteriophages are the most abundant members of the gut virobiota and display great diversity. Phages can translocate through the mucosa to lymph and internal organs and play a role as regulators of the bacterial population in the gut. Increasing abundance of phages in the gut mucosa may reduce colonization by bacteria. Moreover, phages may have an immunomodulatory role in the immune response in the human gut. The role of phages in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains unknown...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807067/iterative-fecal-microbiota-transplantations-for-eradicating-digestive-colonization-with-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-is-it-worth-it
#14
Rafael Mahieu, Viviane Cassisa, Diane Sanderink, Rachel Chenouard, Hélène Pailhoriès, Marie Kempf, Vincent Dubée, Matthieu Eveillard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801119/stability-and-efficacy-of-frozen-and-lyophilized-fecal-microbiota-transplant-fmt-product-in-a-mouse-model-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-cdi
#15
Zhi-Dong Jiang, Ashley Alexander, Shi Ke, Evangelia M Valilis, Shaofan Hu, Bingjie Li, Herbert L DuPont
Freezing donor fecal microbiota has simplified fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in the treatment of recurrent C. difficile infection (CDI). However, the optimal storage time for the frozen FMT products remains unknown. Using an established murine model of CDI, stability and efficacy of frozen and lyophilized FMT product was studied at time points from 2 months to 15 months. DNA was extracted from fecal samples from the mice with identification of specific bacterial species by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR)...
August 9, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796069/assessment-of-therapeutic-response-in-crohn-s-disease-using-quantitative-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri-dce-mri-parameters-a-preliminary-study
#16
Jianguo Zhu, Faming Zhang, Jinfa Zhou, Haige Li
The aim of the study was to investigate dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) as a potential marker to assess the therapeutic responses of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and to determine the parameter or combination of parameters most strongly associated with changes in clinical indicators after treatment.In 22 CD patients, DCE-MRI was performed with a 3.0T scanner. Parameters of DCE-MRI (vascular transfer constant [K] and blood volume [BV]) in the terminal ileum were compared between before and day 90 after FMT treatment...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789710/transplanted-human-fecal-microbiota-enhanced-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-autoantibody-responses-after-campylobacter-jejuni-infection-in-c57bl-6-mice
#17
Phillip T Brooks, Kelsey A Brakel, Julia A Bell, Christopher E Bejcek, Trey Gilpin, Jean M Brudvig, Linda S Mansfield
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter jejuni is the leading antecedent infection to the autoimmune neuropathy Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), which is accompanied by an autoimmune anti-ganglioside antibody attack on peripheral nerves. Previously, we showed that contrasting immune responses mediate C. jejuni induced colitis and autoimmunity in interleukin-10 (IL-10)-deficient mice, dependent upon the infecting strain. Strains from colitis patients elicited T helper 1 (TH1)-dependent inflammatory responses while strains from GBS patients elicited TH2-dependent autoantibody production...
August 8, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770495/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-beyond-clostridium-difficile
#18
REVIEW
Braden Millan, Michael Laffin, Karen Madsen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been established as standard of care in the treatment of antibiotic refractory Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI). This review examines the current evidence that exists to support the use of FMT in the treatment of human disease beyond C. difficile infection. RECENT FINDINGS: Beneficial effects of FMT have been described in case series or small prospective trials on a wide spectrum of conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease, functional gastrointestinal disorders, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis, hepatic encephalopathy, and neuropsychiatric conditions, and in limiting antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections...
September 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769880/human-gut-microbiota-toward-an-ecology-of-disease
#19
REVIEW
Susannah Selber-Hnatiw, Belise Rukundo, Masoumeh Ahmadi, Hayfa Akoubi, Hend Al-Bizri, Adelekan F Aliu, Tanyi U Ambeaghen, Lilit Avetisyan, Irmak Bahar, Alexandra Baird, Fatema Begum, Hélène Ben Soussan, Virginie Blondeau-Éthier, Roxane Bordaries, Helene Bramwell, Alicia Briggs, Richard Bui, Matthew Carnevale, Marisa Chancharoen, Talia Chevassus, Jin H Choi, Karyne Coulombe, Florence Couvrette, Samantha D'Abreau, Meghan Davies, Marie-Pier Desbiens, Tamara Di Maulo, Sean-Anthony Di Paolo, Sabrina Do Ponte, Priscyla Dos Santos Ribeiro, Laure-Anne Dubuc-Kanary, Paola K Duncan, Frédérique Dupuis, Sara El-Nounou, Christina N Eyangos, Natasha K Ferguson, Nancy R Flores-Chinchilla, Tanya Fotakis, Mariam Gado Oumarou H D, Metodi Georgiev, Seyedehnazanin Ghiassy, Natalija Glibetic, Julien Grégoire Bouchard, Tazkia Hassan, Iman Huseen, Marlon-Francis Ibuna Quilatan, Tania Iozzo, Safina Islam, Dilan B Jaunky, Aniththa Jeyasegaram, Marc-André Johnston, Matthew R Kahler, Kiranpreet Kaler, Cedric Kamani, Hessam Karimian Rad, Elisavet Konidis, Filip Konieczny, Sandra Kurianowicz, Philippe Lamothe, Karina Legros, Sebastien Leroux, Jun Li, Monica E Lozano Rodriguez, Sean Luponio-Yoffe, Yara Maalouf, Jessica Mantha, Melissa McCormick, Pamela Mondragon, Thivaedee Narayana, Elizaveta Neretin, Thi T T Nguyen, Ian Niu, Romeo B Nkemazem, Martin O'Donovan, Matthew Oueis, Stevens Paquette, Nehal Patel, Emily Pecsi, Jackie Peters, Annie Pettorelli, Cassandra Poirier, Victoria R Pompa, Harshvardhan Rajen, Reginald-Olivier Ralph, Josué Rosales-Vasquez, Daria Rubinshtein, Surya Sakr, Mohammad S Sebai, Lisa Serravalle, Fily Sidibe, Ahnjana Sinnathurai, Dominique Soho, Adithi Sundarakrishnan, Veronika Svistkova, Tsolaye E Ugbeye, Megan S Vasconcelos, Michael Vincelli, Olga Voitovich, Pamela Vrabel, Lu Wang, Maryse Wasfi, Cong Y Zha, Chiara Gamberi
Composed of trillions of individual microbes, the human gut microbiota has adapted to the uniquely diverse environments found in the human intestine. Quickly responding to the variances in the ingested food, the microbiota interacts with the host via reciprocal biochemical signaling to coordinate the exchange of nutrients and proper immune function. Host and microbiota function as a unit which guards its balance against invasion by potential pathogens and which undergoes natural selection. Disturbance of the microbiota composition, or dysbiosis, is often associated with human disease, indicating that, while there seems to be no unique optimal composition of the gut microbiota, a balanced community is crucial for human health...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764868/modeling-new-immunoregulatory-therapeutics-as-antimicrobial-alternatives-for-treating-clostridium-difficile-infection
#20
Andrew Leber, Raquel Hontecillas, Vida Abedi, Nuria Tubau-Juni, Victoria Zoccoli-Rodriguez, Caroline Stewart, Josep Bassaganya-Riera
The current treatment paradigm in Clostridium difficile infection is the administration of antibiotics contributing to the high rates of recurrent infections. Recent alternative strategies, such as fecal microbiome transplantation and anti-toxin antibodies, have shown similar efficacy in the treatment of C. difficile associated disease (CDAD). However, barriers exist for either treatment or other novel treatments to displace antibiotics as the standard of care. To aid in the comparison of these and future treatments in CDAD, we developed an in silico pipeline to predict clinical efficacy with nonclinical results...
May 2017: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
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