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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637803/protein-malnutrition-alters-tryptophan-and-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-homeostasis-and-adaptive-immune-responses-in-human-rotavirus-infected-gnotobiotic-pigs-transplanted-with-human-infant-fecal-microbiota
#1
David D Fischer, Sukumar Kandasamy, Francine C Paim, Stephanie N Langel, Moyasar A Alhamo, Lulu Shao, Juliet Chepngeno, Ayako Miyazaki, Huang-Chi Huang, Anand Kumar, Gireesh Rajashekara, Linda J Saif, Anastasia N Vlasova
Malnutrition leads to increased morbidity and is evident in almost half of all deaths in children under the age of five. Mortality due to rotavirus diarrhea is common in developing countries where malnutrition is prevalent; however, the relationship between malnutrition and rotavirus infection remains unclear. In this study, gnotobiotic pigs transplanted with the fecal microbiota of a healthy 2-month-old infant were fed protein-sufficient or -deficient diets with infected with virulent human rotavirus. After human rotavirus infection, protein deficient pigs had decreased human rotavirus antibody titers and total IgA concentrations, systemic T helper (CD3+CD4+) and cytotoxic T (CD3+CD8+) lymphocyte frequencies and serum tryptophan and angiotensin I converting enzyme 2...
June 21, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630433/gut-microbiota-of-liver-transplantation-recipients
#2
Li-Ying Sun, Yun-Sheng Yang, Wei Qu, Zhi-Jun Zhu, Lin Wei, Zhi-Sheng Ye, Jian-Rui Zhang, Xiao-Ye Sun, Zhi-Gui Zeng
The characteristics of intestinal microbial communities may be affected by changes in the pathophysiology of patients with end-stage liver disease. Here, we focused on the characteristics of intestinal fecal microbial communities in post-liver transplantation (LT) patients in comparison with those in the same individuals pre-LT and in healthy individuals. The fecal microbial communities were analyzed via MiSeq-PE250 sequencing of the V4 region of 16S ribosomal RNA and were then compared between groups. We found that the gut microbiota of patients with severe liver disease who were awaiting LT was significantly different from that of healthy controls, as represented by the first principal component (p = 0...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630341/pig-model-mimicking-chronic-hepatitis-e-virus-infection-in-immunocompromised-patients-to-assess-immune-correlates-during-chronicity
#3
Dianjun Cao, Qian M Cao, Sakthivel Subramaniam, Danielle M Yugo, C Lynn Heffron, Adam J Rogers, Scott P Kenney, Debin Tian, Shannon R Matzinger, Christopher Overend, Nicholas Catanzaro, Tanya LeRoith, Heng Wang, Pablo Piñeyro, Nicole Lindstrom, Sherrie Clark-Deener, Lijuan Yuan, Xiang-Jin Meng
Chronic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a significant clinical problem in immunocompromised individuals such as organ transplant recipients, although the mechanism remains unknown because of the lack of an animal model. We successfully developed a pig model of chronic HEV infection and examined immune correlates leading to chronicity. The conditions of immunocompromised patients were mimicked by treating pigs with an immunosuppressive regimen including cyclosporine, azathioprine, and prednisolone. Immunocompromised pigs infected with HEV progressed to chronicity, because 8/10 drug-treated HEV-infected pigs continued fecal virus shedding beyond the acute phase of infection, whereas the majority (7/10) of mock-treated HEV-infected pigs cleared fecal viral shedding at 8 wk postinfection...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628918/bifidobacterium-rich-fecal-donor-may-be-a-positive-predictor-for-successful-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#4
Shinta Mizuno, Tatsuhiro Masaoka, Makoto Naganuma, Taishiro Kishimoto, Momoko Kitazawa, Shunya Kurokawa, Moeko Nakashima, Kozue Takeshita, Wataru Suda, Masaru Mimura, Masahira Hattori, Takanori Kanai
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Dysbiosis is associated with various systemic disorders including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) might restore intestinal microbial balance. The study aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of FMT in IBS patients, as well as also positive predictors for FMT. METHODS: This was a single-arm, open-label study. Eligible patients were diagnosed based on Rome III Diagnostic Criteria. Fecal materials were administered to the patient via colonoscopy...
June 21, 2017: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624575/intestinal-fungal-dysbiosis-associates-with-visceral-hypersensitivity-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-rats
#5
Sara Botschuijver, Guus Roeselers, Evgeni Levin, Daisy M Jonkers, Olaf Welting, Sigrid Em Heinsbroek, Heleen H de Weerd, Teun Boekhout, Matteo Fornai, Ad A Masclee, Frank H J Schuren, Wouter J de Jonge, Jurgen Seppen, Rene M van den Wijngaard
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Visceral hypersensitivity is one feature of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Bacterial dysbiosis might be involved in activation of nociceptive sensory pathways, but there have been few studies of the role of the mycobiome (the fungal microbiome) in development of IBS. We analyzed intestinal mycobiomes of patients with IBS and a rat model of visceral hypersensitivity. METHODS: We used internal transcribed spacer 1-based metabarcoding to compare fecal mycobiomes of 18 healthy volunteers with those of 39 patients with IBS (with visceral hypersensitivity or normal levels of sensitivity)...
June 14, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617055/new-treatment-strategies-for-ulcerative-colitis
#6
Julian Panés, Ignacio Alfaro
Therapeutic strategies in ulcerative colitis are evolving. A personalized and optimal use of available drugs and the integration of new drug classes are the cornerstones underpinning the new treatment paradigms. Areas covered: A structured literature search in Medline and PubMed, Cochrane meta-analyses, and abstracts of international congresses has been performed to review therapeutic approaches to ulcerative colitis. The primary therapeutic objective of therapy is to achieve clinical remission since persistence of active disease, even if mild, leads to a significant reduction in quality of life...
June 21, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609252/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-metabolic-syndrome-history-present-and-future
#7
P F de Groot, M N Frissen, N C de Clercq, M Nieuwdorp
The history of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) dates back even to ancient China. Recently, scientific studies have been looking into FMT as a promising treatment of various diseases, while in the process teaching us about the interaction between the human host and its resident microbial communities. Current research focuses mainly on Clostridium difficile infections, however interest is rising in other areas such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the metabolic syndrome. With regard to the latter, the intestinal microbiota might be causally related to the progression of insulin resistance and diabetes...
May 4, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609251/intestinal-microbiota-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#8
Alexa R Weingarden, Byron P Vaughn
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex set of diseases that lead to chronic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. Although the etiology of IBD is not fully understood, it is well-known that the intestinal microbiota is associated with the development and maintenance of IBD. Manipulation of the gut microbiota, therefore, may represent a target for IBD therapy. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), where fecal microbiota from a healthy donor is transplanted into a patient's GI tract, is already a successful therapy for Clostridium difficile infection...
May 4, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602517/is-frozen-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-as-effective-as-fresh-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-patients-with-recurrent-or-refractory-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Guihua Tang, Wen Yin, Wenen Liu
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a remarkably efficacious therapy for recurrent or refractory Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), but not standardized. This work is to determine whether frozen FMT is as effective as fresh FMT. Meta-analysis showed that frozen FMT was as effective as fresh FMT, both pooled first effective rate (65.0% (95% CI 57.0-73.0%) vs. 65.0% (95% CI 57.0-73.0%), P=0.962) and pooled second effective rate (95.0% (95% CI 91.0-99.0%) vs. 95.0% (95% CI 92.0-99.0%), P=0.880). In conclusion, among patients with recurrent or refractory CDI, frozen FMT is as effective as fresh FMT...
May 18, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596693/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-cured-epilepsy-in-a-case-with-crohn-s-disease-the-first-report
#10
Zhi He, Bo-Ta Cui, Ting Zhang, Pan Li, Chu-Yan Long, Guo-Zhong Ji, Fa-Ming Zhang
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a promising strategy that involves reconstruction of gut microbiota. Recently, it has been considered as a treatment of Crohn's disease (CD) and certain neurological diseases. Here, to the best of our knowledge, we report the first case that used FMT to achieve remission of intestinal and neurological symptoms in a girl with CD and a 17-year history of epilepsy. During the 20 mo of follow-up, FMT has proved its efficacy in preventing relapse of seizures after withdrawing the antiepileptic drugs...
May 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595295/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-a-new-effective-weapon-to-fight-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-but-harmonization-and-more-data-are-needed
#11
Aurélien Dinh, Clara Duran, Frédérique Bouchand, Jérôme Salomon, Benjamin Davido
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 8, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592766/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-acute-graft-versus-host-disease-of-the-gut
#12
Kazuhiko Kakihana
Advances in microbial analysis have provided new insights into the complex interactions between the host and gut microbiota. An imbalance in the gut microbiota (dysbiosis) is associated with various disorders and their pathogenesis. Furthermore, in allogeneic stem cell transplantation, increasing evidence indicates that the gut microbiota is closely associated with acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and transplant outcomes, suggesting that its manipulation could be a new treatment strategy for this acute condition...
2017: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589214/-individualized-treatment-strategies-for-clostridium-difficile-infections
#13
REVIEW
P Solbach, P Dersch, O Bachmann
Upon hospitalization, up to 15.5% of patients are already colonized with a toxigenic Clostridium difficile strain (TCD). The rate of asymptomatic colonization is 0-3% in healthy adults and up to 20-40% in hospitalized patients. The incidence and mortality of C. difficile infection (CDI) has significantly increased during recent years. Mortality lies between 3 and 14%. CDI is generally caused by intestinal dysbiosis, which can be triggered by various factors, including antibiotics or immune suppressants. If CDI occurs, ongoing antibiotic therapy should be discontinued...
June 6, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588566/gut-bacteria-missing-in-severe-acute-malnutrition-can-we-identify-potential-probiotics-by-culturomics
#14
Maryam Tidjani Alou, Matthieu Million, Sory I Traore, Donia Mouelhi, Saber Khelaifia, Dipankar Bachar, Aurelia Caputo, Jeremy Delerce, Souleymane Brah, Daouda Alhousseini, Cheikh Sokhna, Catherine Robert, Bouli A Diallo, Aldiouma Diallo, Philippe Parola, Michael Golden, Jean-Christophe Lagier, Didier Raoult
Severe acute malnutrition is the world-leading cause of children under-five's death. Recent metagenomics studies have established a link between gut microbiota and severe acute malnutrition, describing an immaturity with a striking depletion in oxygen-sensitive prokaryotes. Amoxicillin and therapeutic diet cure most of the children with severe acute malnutrition but an irreversible disruption of the gut microbiota is suspected in the refractory and most severe cases. In these cases, therapeutic diet may be unable to reverse the microbiota alteration leading to persistent impaired development or death...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586116/fecal-microbiota-transplant-from-a-rational-stool-donor-improves-hepatic-encephalopathy-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#15
Jasmohan S Bajaj, Zain Kassam, Andrew Fagan, Edith A Gavis, Eric Liu, I Jane Cox, Raffi Kheradman, Douglas Heuman, Jessica Wang, Thomas Gurry, Roger Williams, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, Michael Fuchs, Eric Alm, Binu John, Leroy R Thacker, Antonio Riva, Mark Smith, Simon D Taylor-Robinson, Patrick M Gillevet
Recurrent hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a leading cause of readmission despite standard of care (SOC) associated with microbial dysbiosis. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may improve dysbiosis; however, it has not been studied in HE. We aimed to define whether FMT using a rationally-derived stool donor is safe in recurrent HE compared to SOC alone. An open-label, randomized clinical trial with a 5 month follow-up in outpatient cirrhotic men with recurrent HE on SOC was conducted with 1:1 randomization...
June 6, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583769/the-5d-framework-a-clinical-primer-for-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-to-treat-clostridium-difficile-infection
#16
REVIEW
Jessica R Allegretti, Zain Kassam, Majdi Osman, Shrish Budree, Monika Fischer, Colleen R Kelly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576475/gut-microbiota-and-acute-graft-versus-host-disease
#17
REVIEW
Kosuke Yoshioka, Kazuhiko Kakihana, Noriko Doki, Kazuteru Ohashi
Although allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is a potentially curative treatment for various hematological diseases, acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and its management is clinically important. Advances in biological techniques have led to great progress in understanding the complex interactions between the host and the gut microbiota. The gut microbiota clearly modulates the immune response and is associated with the pathogenesis of various disorders...
May 30, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576434/-molecular-epidemiology-and-kinetics-of-early-escherichia-coli-urinary-tract-infections-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#18
Parvine Tashk, Marie Lecronier, Olivier Clermont, Aurélie Renvoisé, Alexandra Aubry, Benoît Barrou, Alexandre Hertig, Mathilde Lescat, Olivier Tenaillon, Erick Denamur, Jérôme Tourret
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli strains causing Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) have a fecal origin. METHODS: A fecal sample was collected before Kidney Transplantation (KT) and concomitantly with urine at each of the 15 E. coli UTIs which occurred in 11 KT recipients. Unique E. coli strains were identified among 25 isolates per feces and 5 isolates per urinary sample by random amplification of polymorphic DNA. Phylogenetic group (which is correlated to virulence in the E...
May 30, 2017: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575220/vancomycin-taper-and-risk-of-failure-of-fecal-microbiota-transplant-in-patients-with-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#19
Roberto L Patron, Carlos A Hartmann, Sorcha Allen, Cheryl L Griesbach, Heidi E Kosiorek, John K DiBaise, Robert Orenstein
We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of 109 subjects treated for rCDI with FMT at tertiary referral center between 2011 and 2014 to determine risk factors for FMT failure.. In a multivariate analysis, failure to use an oral vancomycin taper preceding FMT was associated with a significant risk of FMT failure (odds ratio [95% CI], 0.15 [0.007-0.40]).
June 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572754/functional-amplification-and-preservation-of-human-gut-microbiota
#20
Nadia Gaci, Prem Prashant Chaudhary, William Tottey, Monique Alric, Jean-François Brugère
Background: The availability of fresh stool samples is a prerequisite in most gut microbiota functional studies. Objective: Strategies for amplification and long-term gut microbiota preservation from fecal samples would favor sample sharing, help comparisons and reproducibility over time and between laboratories, and improve the safety and ethical issues surrounding fecal microbiota transplantations. Design: Taking advantage of in vitro gut-simulating systems, we amplified the microbial repertoire of a fresh fecal sample and assessed the viability and resuscitation of microbes after preservation with some common intracellular and extracellular acting cryoprotective agents (CPAs), alone and in different combinations...
2017: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
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