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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734127/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-hepatic-encephalopathy-ready-for-prime-time
#1
EDITORIAL
Puneeta Tandon, Karen Madsen, Dina Kao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 22, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723262/the-risk-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-flares-after-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Taha Qazi, Thelina Amaratunga, Edward L Barnes, Monika Fischer, Zain Kassam, Jessica R Allegretti
BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested worsening in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) activity following fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) Aim: We aimed to assess the risk of worsening in IBD activity following FMT. METHODS: An electronic search was conducted using MEDLINE (1946-June 2016), EMBASE (1954-June 2016) and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2016). Studies in which FMT was provided to IBD patients for IBD management or CDI treatment were included...
July 19, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719392/intestinal-microbiome-in-scleroderma-recent-progress
#3
Elizabeth R Volkmann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Our evolving understanding of how gut microbiota affects immune function and homeostasis has led many investigators to explore the potentially pathologic role of gut microbiota in autoimmune diseases. This review will discuss the rapidly advancing field of microbiome research in systemic sclerosis (SSc), an incurable autoimmune disease with significant gastrointestinal morbidity and mortality. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent reports have identified common perturbations in gut microbiota across different SSc cohorts...
July 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714344/going-to-the-bank-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-pediatrics
#4
Elaine Barfield, Lesley Small, Lauren Navallo, Aliza Solomon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714029/involvement-of-gut-microbiota-in-the-association-between-gastrointestinal-motility-and-5%C3%A2-ht-expression-m2-macrophage-abundance-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#5
Mo Yang, Hirokazu Fukui, Hirotsugu Eda, Yoshitaka Kitayama, Ken Hara, Mio Kodani, Toshihiko Tomita, Tadayuki Oshima, Jiro Watari, Hiroto Miwa
Serotonin (5‑hydroxytryptamine; 5‑HT) may be a key player in gastrointestinal (GI) motility and the GI immune system. In the present study, the effect of gut microbiota on the association between GI motility, and 5‑HT expression and macrophage abundance in the GI tract was examined. Germ‑free (GF) mice (6 weeks old) were orally administered a fecal bacterial suspension prepared from specific pathogen‑free mice and their GI tissues were evaluated 4 weeks later. The expression of 5‑HT and mannose receptor (MR) was examined by immunohistochemistry, and GI transit time (GITT) was measured by administration of carmine red solution...
July 12, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702022/preparing-the-gut-with-antibiotics-enhances-gut-microbiota-reprogramming-efficiency-by-promoting-xenomicrobiota-colonization
#6
Shou K Ji, Hui Yan, Tao Jiang, Chun Y Guo, Jing J Liu, Shuang Z Dong, Kai L Yang, Ya J Wang, Zhi J Cao, Sheng L Li
Gut microbiota plays multiple important roles in intestinal and physiological homeostasis, and using fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) to reprogram gut microbiota has demonstrated promise for redressing intestinal and physiological disorders. This study tested the alterations in reprogramming efficiency caused by different gut preparation procedures and explored the associated underlying mechanisms. We prepared the guts of mice for FMT by administering one of the three most-clinically used pretreatments [antibiotics, bowel cleansing (BC) solution, or no pretreatment], and we found that preparing the gut with antibiotics induced a more efficient modification of the gut bacterial community than was induced by either of the other two pretreatment types...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695658/fecal-microbial-transplantation-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-movement-too-big-to-be-ignored
#7
M Laffin, K L Madsen
The development of new therapies for inflammatory bowel disease is plagued by high costs, potential side effects, and variable levels of effectiveness. Fecal microbial transplant in inflammatory bowel diseases can offer an alternative to traditionally developed pharmacologic therapies and has demonstrated the ability to induce disease remission in randomized control trials. However, questions remain about the ultimate role of this therapy in disease management, including long term safety, and the optimal composition of transplanted stool...
July 10, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691996/fecal-microbiota-therapy-with-a-focus-on-c-difficile-infection
#8
Lawrence J Brandt
There has been a paradigm shift in our view of bacteria away from their role as just pathogens. We now have a deepening appreciation of their critical influences in our health maintenance, including energy harvest, metabolism, intestinal development, cell proliferation, nervous system and immune function, as well as their role to protect against intestinal and other infections. A perturbed intestinal microbiome has been associated with an increasing number of gastrointestinal (GI) and non-GI diseases but particularly with C...
July 7, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685630/the-potential-role-of-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-the-treatment-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#9
Maitham Abbas Khajah
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of an unknown etiology. Its pathogenesis involves an interplay of infectious, genetic, environmental, and immunological factors. The current therapeutic options have various limitations in terms of cost, side effect profile, and the development of drug resistance and dependence. Therefore, there is a need to develop future therapeutic options which are safe and effective to control the inflammatory process. This review focuses in a method for the administration of fecal matters (which contains a mixture of various commensals) from a healthy donor to the inflamed colon called fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) aiming to correct the underlying dysbiosis in the gut as one of the major driving force for the inflammatory process...
July 7, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684935/the-role-of-temporary-fecal-diversion
#10
REVIEW
Amy L Lightner, John H Pemberton
The use of temporary fecal diversion is of great importance to tenuous anastomosis, immunosuppressed patient, or actively infected patient. Its use protects newly constructed intestinal anastomoses from being the culprit of pelvic sepsis or systemic illness. Thus, potential morbidity and mortality can be averted. However, its appropriate or optimal use is often debated. We herein discuss the evidence for when to best use a diverting stoma for colorectal, coloanal, and ileoanal anastomoses. We also discuss the importance of considering a temporary diverting stoma in the setting of high-dose immunosuppression (e...
July 2017: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684845/multiple-fresh-fecal-microbiota-transplants-induces-and-maintains-clinical-remission-in-crohn-s-disease-complicated-with-inflammatory-mass
#11
Zhi He, Pan Li, Jianguo Zhu, Bota Cui, Lijuan Xu, Jie Xiang, Ting Zhang, Chuyan Long, Guangming Huang, Guozhong Ji, Yongzhan Nie, Kaichun Wu, Daiming Fan, Faming Zhang
The ancient Chinese medical literature, as well as our prior clinical experience, suggests that fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) could treat the inflammatory mass. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of multiple fresh FMTs for Crohn's disease (CD) complicated with intraabdominal inflammatory mass. The "one-hour FMT protocol" was followed in all patients. Twenty-five patients were diagnosed with CD and related inflammatory mass by CT or MRI. All patients received the initial FMT followed by repeated FMTs every 3 months...
July 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677158/update-on-intestinal-microbiota-in-crohn-s-disease-2017-mechanisms-clinical-application-adverse-reactions-and-outlook
#12
REVIEW
Zhaohua Shen, Changxin Zhu, Yongsheng Quan, Wei Yuan, Shuai Wu, Zhenyu Yang, Weiwei Luo, Bei Tan, Xiaoyan Wang
The pathogenesis of CD is complex and it is thought to be associated with the environment, immune, hereditary, microbe and other factors. If the balance between the host and the intestinal microbes in CD patients was broken, immune-inflammatory response of susceptible individuals might be triggered. Probiotics could improve the intestinal microbial flora balance and treat human effectively. There are several new mechanisms which might explain the role of probiotics. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is becoming more and more attractive in treating a large amount of digestive system diseases which are related to the dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672320/fecal-microbiota-transplantation
#13
Arjun Gupta, Sahil Khanna
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 4, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672282/increasing-incidence-of-multiply-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-the-united-states-a-cohort-study
#14
Gene K Ma, Colleen M Brensinger, Qufei Wu, James D Lewis
Background: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), the most common health care-associated infection, often recurs. Fecal microbiota transplantation is increasingly used to treat multiply recurrent CDI (mrCDI). Objective: To determine whether the incidence of mrCDI is increasing in proportion to CDI and to identify risk factors for mrCDI. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: United States. Participants: 38 911 718 commercially insured patients in the OptumInsight Clinformatics Database, of whom 45 341 developed CDI...
July 4, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656322/the-remedy-within-will-the-microbiome-fulfill-its-therapeutic-promise
#15
REVIEW
Christoph A Thaiss, Eran Elinav
The last decade of research has witnessed a tremendous upsurge in our understanding of the intestinal microbiome and its role in a large range of human diseases, which has incited hopes for a rapid clinical utilization of the new insights for the development of microbiome-based therapies. Nonetheless, only a single microbiome-targeted therapy has so far found its way into clinical routine: fecal microbiota transplantation for patients suffering from recurrent Clostridium difficile infections. Herein, we discuss the current hopes, advances, challenges, and obstacles for translating basic microbiome research into therapeutic applications for a larger number of diseases and provide an outline of how such clinical applications might emerge...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652796/the-microbiota-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-current-and-therapeutic-insights
#16
REVIEW
Erin R Lane, Timothy L Zisman, David L Suskind
Inflammatory bowel disease is a heterogeneous group of chronic disorders that result from the interaction of the intestinal immune system with the gut microbiome. Until recently, most investigative efforts and therapeutic breakthroughs were centered on understanding and manipulating the altered mucosal immune response that characterizes these diseases. However, more recent studies have highlighted the important role of environmental factors, and in particular the microbiota, in disease onset and disease exacerbation...
2017: Journal of Inflammation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652664/can-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-cure-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#17
Sofie Ingdam Halkjær, Anders Watt Boolsen, Stig Günther, Alice Højer Christensen, Andreas Munk Petersen
AIM: To verify the utility of treatment with fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: We searched EMBASE, Cochrane Library and PubMed in March, 2017. The reviewed literature was based on two systematic searches in each of the databases. The MeSH terms used were IBS and fecal microbiota transplantation and the abbreviations IBS and FMT. Reference lists from the articles were reviewed to identify additional pertinent articles...
June 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649413/identification-of-donor-microbe-species-that-colonize-and-persist-long-term-in-the-recipient-after-fecal-transplant-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile
#18
Ranjit Kumar, Nengjun Yi, Degui Zhi, Peter Eipers, Kelly T Goldsmith, Paula Dixon, David K Crossman, Michael R Crowley, Elliot J Lefkowitz, J Martin Rodriguez, Casey D Morrow
Fecal microbiota transplantation has been shown to be an effective treatment for patients with recurrent C. difficile colitis. Although fecal microbiota transplantation helps to re-establish a normal gut function in patients, the extent of the repopulation of the recipient microbial community varies. To further understand this variation, it is important to determine the fate of donor microbes in the patients following fecal microbiota transplantation. We have developed a new method that utilizes the unique single nucleotide variants of gut microbes to accurately identify microbes in paired fecal samples from the same individual taken at different times...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646951/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-children
#19
Becky Chen, Vishal Avinashi, Simon Dobson
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a relatively simple, promising treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. While there are a wide variety of approaches including mode of delivery, the results are nonetheless encouraging, even amongst younger children. Experience with FMT in the pediatric population is increasing, showing similar success compared to adults. This article will provide an overview of C. difficile infection along with review of the rationale, methods and complications of FMT including the current experience of FMT in children...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637803/protein-malnutrition-alters-tryptophan-and-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-homeostasis-and-adaptive-immune-responses-in-human-rotavirus-infected-gnotobiotic-pigs-transplanted-with-human-infant-fecal-microbiota
#20
David D Fischer, Sukumar Kandasamy, Francine C Paim, Stephanie N Langel, Moyasar A Alhamo, Lulu Shao, Juliet Chepngeno, Ayako Miyazaki, Huang-Chi Huang, Anand Kumar, Gireesh Rajashekara, Linda J Saif, Anastasia N Vlasova
Malnutrition leads to increased morbidity and is evident in almost half of all deaths in children under the age of five. Mortality due to rotavirus diarrhea is common in developing countries where malnutrition is prevalent; however, the relationship between malnutrition and rotavirus infection remains unclear. In this study, gnotobiotic pigs transplanted with the fecal microbiota of a healthy 2-month-old infant were fed protein-sufficient or -deficient diets with infected with virulent human rotavirus. After human rotavirus infection, protein deficient pigs had decreased human rotavirus antibody titers and total IgA concentrations, systemic T helper (CD3+CD4+) and cytotoxic T (CD3+CD8+) lymphocyte frequencies and serum tryptophan and angiotensin I converting enzyme 2...
June 21, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
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