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Ananya Tripathi, Yurie Obata, Pavel Ruzankin, Narwan Askaryar, Dan E Berkowitz, Jochen Steppan, Viachaslau Barodka
Background: Constant blood flow despite changes in blood pressure, a phenomenon called autoregulation, has been demonstrated for various organ systems. We hypothesized that by changing hydrostatic pressures in peripheral arteries, we can establish these limits of autoregulation in peripheral arteries based on local pulse wave velocity (PWV). Methods: Electrocardiogram and plethysmograph waveforms were recorded at the left and right index fingers in 18 healthy volunteers. Each subject changed their left arm position, keeping the right arm stationary...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Shizuo Hanya, Kengo Yoshii, Motoaki Sugawara
Objectives: Although pulmonary hypertension (PH) caused by left heart disease (PH-LHD) is more common in PH, little is known about its properties of pulmonary artery (PA) in PH-LHD. The purpose of this study was to measure pulmonary regional pulse wave velocity (PWV) and to quantify the magnitude of reflected waves in patients with PH-LHD by the analysis of the pressure-velocity loops (PU-loop). Methods: High-fidelity PA pressure (Pm) and PA velocity (Vm) were measured in 11 subjects with PH-LHD (mean Pm>25 mmHg), 1 subject with atrial septal defect (ASD) without PH and 12 control subjects, using multisensor catheters...
September 25, 2017: Annals of Vascular Diseases
Hisham Elkenani, Essam Al-Bahkali, Mhamed Souli
The aim of this study is to present a reliable computational scheme to serve in pulse wave velocity (PWV) assessment in large arteries. Clinicians considered it as an indication of human blood vessels' stiffness. The simulation of PWV was conducted using a 3D elastic tube representing an artery. The constitutive material model specific for vascular applications was applied to the tube material. The fluid was defined with an equation of state representing the blood material. The onset of a velocity pulse was applied at the tube inlet to produce wave propagation...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Min Kyung Kang, Jae Myung Yu, Kwang Jin Chun, Jaehuk Choi, Seonghoon Choi, Namho Lee, Jung Rae Cho
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the factors associated with increased arterial stiffness (IAS) measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV) and its clinical implications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). METHODS: This was an observational, cross-sectional study. The ankle-brachial PWV was used to measure arterial stiffness, and 310 patients (mean age, 49±9 years; 180 men) with type 2 DM were divided into two groups according to the results of PWV: Group 1 (IAS; n=214) and Group 2 (normal arterial stiffness; n=96)...
November 2017: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
Kevin S Heffernan, Jacqueline A Augustine, Wesley K Lefferts, Nicole L Spartano, William E Hughes, Randall S Jorgensen, Brooks B Gump
This study examined central artery stiffness and hemodynamic pulsatility during cognitive engagement in younger and older adults. METHODS: Vascular-hemodynamic measures were completed in 19 younger (age 35±1yrs) and 20 older (age 69±2yrs) adults at rest and during a Stroop task. Aortic stiffness (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, PWV) and carotid pulse pressure (PP) were assessed using applanation tonometry. Carotid stiffness was assessed as a single-point PWV using Doppler Ultrasound...
November 10, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
Anna Paini, Maria L Muiesan, Claudia Agabiti-Rosei, Carlo Aggiusti, Carolina De Ciuceis, Fabio Bertacchini, Sarah Duse, Francesco Semeraro, Damiano Rizzoni, Enrico Agabiti-Rosei, Massimo Salvetti
BACKGROUD AND PURPOSE: Wall-to-lumen ratio of retinal arterioles (W/L ratio) might serve as an in-vivo parameter of microvascular damage. No study has investigated the relationship between carotid stiffness and W/L ratio of retinal arteries. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to assess the correlation between local carotid stiffness, as assessed by echotracking technique, and W/L ratio of retinal arterioles, as assessed by noninvasive flowmetry in normotensive patients and in patients with primary hypertension...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
Kevin S Heffernan, Luis Columna, Natalie Russo, Beth A Myers, Christine E Ashby, Michael L Norris, Tiago V Barreira
We examined the association between physical activity (PA), body mass index (BMI) and novel measures of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 15 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (mean age 7 ± 2 years, 2 girls). PA was objectively assessed using accelerometry as time spent in moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Arterial stiffness was measured via aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) and taken as a marker of subclinical CVD risk. MVPA was inversely associated with aortic PWV (r = - 0...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Darae Kim, Chi Young Shim, Geu-Ru Hong, Sungha Park, InJeong Cho, Hyuk-Jae Chang, Jong-Won Ha, Namsik Chung
Background: Arterial stiffness increases pressure load to the left ventricle (LV), leading to LV hypertrophy and subendocardial ischemia. Neurohormones stimulate myocardial fibrosis and LV dysfunction. We aimed to explore the associations of arterial stiffness and plasma aldosterone with multi-directional, layer-specific LV, and left atrial (LA) mechanical function in hypertensive patients. Methods: Layer-specific LV global longitudinal strain (GLS-trans, GLS-endo, GLS-epi), global circumferential strain (GCS-trans, GCS-endo, GCS-epi), LV torsional parameters, and LA global longitudinal strain (LA GLS) were analyzed by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography in 195 hypertensive patients (110 men, mean age 55 years)...
2017: Clinical Hypertension
Alexandra Yannoutsos, Mathieu Ahouah, Céline Dreyfuss Tubiana, Jirar Topouchian, Michel E Safar, Jacques Blacher
Elective coronography has low diagnostic yield for obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). We aim to determine whether non-invasive aortic stiffness assessment improves diagnostic accuracy of CAD screening by reducing the number of false-positive results from the cardiac stress test. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2013 to September 2014 in our medical center. Electrocardiogram (ECG) stress test coupled with nuclear imaging was performed in 367 consecutive patients routinely followed for myocardial ischemia screening...
November 9, 2017: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Marcelo Perim Baldo, Roberto S Cunha, Maria Del Carmen B Molina, Dora Chór, Rosane H Griep, Bruce B Duncan, Maria Inês Schmidt, Antonio L P Ribeiro, Sandhi M Barreto, Paulo A Lotufo, Isabela M Bensenor, Alexandre C Pereira, José Geraldo Mill
BACKGROUND: Aging declines essential physiological functions, and the vascular system is strongly affected by artery stiffening. We intended to define the age- and sex-specific reference values for carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) in a sample free of major risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: The ELSA-Brasil study enrolled 15,105 participants aged 35-74years. The healthy sample was achieved by excluding diabetics, those over the optimal and normal blood pressure levels, body mass index ≤18...
October 22, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
Rafaela G Feresin, Sarah A Johnson, Shirin Pourafshar, Jeremiah C Campbell, Salvador J Jaime, Negin Navaei, Marcus L Elam, Neda S Akhavan, Stacey Alvarez-Alvarado, Gershon Tenenbaum, Kenneth Brummel-Smith, Gloria Salazar, Arturo Figueroa, Bahram H Arjmandi
Growing evidence indicates that strawberries are cardioprotective. We conducted an eight-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel arm clinical trial to investigate the effects of daily consumption of freeze-dried strawberry powder (FDSP) on blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness in pre- and stage 1-hypertensive postmenopausal women. Sixty postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) control, (2) 25 g FDSP and (3) 50 g FDSP (n = 20 per group). Assessments of body weight, BP, arterial stiffness as measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV), and collection of blood samples for analyses of vasoactive and antioxidant molecules were performed at baseline, four and eight weeks...
November 3, 2017: Food & Function
Gang Li, Zhe Cao, Xiao-Wei Wu, Hui-Kun Wu, Yi Ma, Bin Wu, Wei-Qing Wang, Jian Cheng, Zi-Hua Zhou, Yuan-Chao Tu
Objective: Arterial stiffness is an independent indicator of cardiovascular risk. Autoantibodies (AAs) against angiotensin AT1 receptor (AT1-AAs) and α1-Adrenergic receptor (α1-AAs) are important in the pathogenesis of hypertension. We identified the types of AT1-AAs and α1-AAs in normotensive subjects, with the aim of determining whether these antibodies predict aortic stiffness progression. Methods: Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) was used to measure aortic stiffness. Overall, 816 subjects (71% of those invited) underwent a medical examination and evaluation of aortic stiffness...
November 2, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
Yong Kenneth, Gursharan Dogra, Neil C Boudville, Wai H Lim
BACKGROUND: Large epidemiological studies have demonstrated an early survival advantage with the initiation of peritoneal dialysis (PD) compared to haemodialysis (HD). Chronic inflammation may contribute to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality in end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). We hypothesize that the initiation of HD in ESKD patients is associated with a greater inflammatory response compared with PD. AIMS: To examine the effects of initiating HD and PD upon inflammation and CVD risk markers in ESKD patients...
November 2, 2017: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
Wanda R P Lopes-Vicente, Sara Rodrigues, Felipe X Cepeda, Camila Paixão Jordão, Valéria Costa-Hong, Akothirene C B Dutra-Marques, Jefferson C Carvalho, Maria Janieire N N Alves, Luiz A Bortolotto, Ivani C Trombetta
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with structural and functional vascular abnormalities, which may lead to increased arterial stiffness, more frequent cardiovascular events and higher mortality. However, the role played by clustering of risk factors and the combining pattern of MetS risk factors and their association with the arterial stiffness have yet to be fully understood. Age, hypertension and diabetes mellitus seem to be strongly associated with increased pulse wave velocity (PWV)...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
Lanfranco D'Elia, Ferruccio Galletti, Ersilia La Fata, Paola Sabino, Pasquale Strazzullo
OBJECTIVE: Arterial stiffness is an independent cardiovascular risk factor and sodium intake could be a determinant of arterial stiffness. Nevertheless, the studies that investigated the effect of reducing dietary sodium intake on arterial stiffness in humans provided inconsistent results. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and a meta-analysis of the available randomized controlled trials of salt restriction and arterial stiffness to try and achieve more definitive conclusions...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
Takanori Tokitsu, Eiichiro Yamamoto, Fumi Oike, Yoshihiro Hirata, Kenichi Tsujita, Megumi Yamamuro, Koichi Kaikita, Seiji Hokimoto
BACKGROUND: Although pulse-wave velocity (PWV) is a recognized risk predictor for cardiovascular diseases, its association with cardiovascular outcomes in heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF) is unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: The 502 patients with HFpEF finally enrolled in this study (mean follow-up duration: 1017 days) were divided into those with or without peripheral artery disease (PAD). The latter were further grouped according to brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) quintiles using an ankle-brachial pressure index device...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
Andreas Jekell, Thomas Kahan
PURPOSE: Inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system may have effects on vascular structure and function beyond the effects on blood pressure (BP) reduction. We studied the ability of a single arm cuff oscillometric method (Arteriograph, TensioMed, Hungary) to assess effects of antihypertensive treatment on BP and arterial stiffness. Furthermore, this technique was compared to pulse wave analysis and applanation tonometry (SphygmoCor, AtCor Medical, Australia). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Brachial and aortic BP, augmentation index (AIx), and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) was simultaneously assessed by both techniques in 71 untreated hypertensive patients...
October 26, 2017: Blood Pressure
Abbi D Lane-Cordova, Graziela Z Kalil, Christopher J Wagner, Amy L Sindler, Jess G Fiedorowicz, Tiwaloluwa Ajibewa, William G Haynes, Gary L Pierce
Blunted nocturnal dipping in blood pressure (BP) is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in middle-aged/older adults. The prevalence of blunted nocturnal BP dipping is higher in persons with obesity and diabetes, conditions that are also associated with elevated aortic stiffness and inflammation. Therefore, we hypothesized that elevated glycemia, inflammation and aortic stiffness would be inversely associated with the magnitude of nocturnal systolic BP dipping among middle-aged/older adults with obesity at high CVD risk...
October 26, 2017: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Dai Ato, Toshitami Sawayama
While pulse wave velocity (PWV) correlates with blood pressure (BP), its extent differs between patients, and some cases of high PWV in normotensives are present. Moreover, PWV frequently remains high in hypertensive patients despite adequate BP control. The factors associated with such phenomena are yet to be elucidated. Here, we investigated the factors associated with brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) in 107 patients whose systolic BP was under 140 mmHg at their latest baPWV measurement. There were 64 controlled hypertensives and 43 normotensives...
2017: Vascular Health and Risk Management
P M Nabeel, Srinivasa Karthik, Jayaraj Joseph, Mohanasankar Sivaprakasam
We present a prototype design of dual element photoplethysmograph (PPG) probe along with associated measurement system for carotid local pulse wave velocity (PWV) evaluation in a non-invasive and continuous manner. The PPG probe consists of two identical sensing modules placed 23 mm apart. Simultaneously measured blood pulse waveforms from these arterial sites were processed and the pulse transit time delay was resolved using the developed application-specific software. The ability of developed PPG probe and associated measurement system to detect acute changes in carotid local PWV due to blood pressure (BP) variations was experimentally validated by an in-vivo study...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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