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Psychosocial problems

B Kleim, R Kalisch
BACKGROUND: Resilience is a complex construct commonly defined as a dynamic process of maintenance or rapid restoration of mental health during and following exposure to stress and trauma. Resilient individuals show no or only minimal disruption in their overall functioning following trauma. Predictors of individual resilience are currently unclear. OBJECTIVE: Are there significant and reliable predictors of resilience? MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis and summary of recent studies on psychosocial and neurobiological resilience predictors derived from longitudinal studies...
June 21, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
Gholamreza Ghassemi Todeshkchuei, Mitra Molaeinezhad, Sare Ghasemi Todeshkchuei
Suicide is one of the public health problems worldwide, but it lacks regular relevant reporting system. This issue is more important among women who play an influential role in the family and society. Therefore, the assessment of recent relevant studies is important to detect suicide-related factors and to help make the decisions about public health. The aim of the current study was to determine socioeconomic and psychological factors of suicide attempts in Iranian women using a descriptive meta-analysis method...
2018: Advanced Biomedical Research
Gaia Sampogna, Andrea Fiorillo, Mario Luciano, Valeria Del Vecchio, Luca Steardo, Benedetta Pocai, Marina Barone, Mario Amore, Francesca Pacitti, Liliana Dell'Osso, Giorgio Di Lorenzo, Mario Maj
Patients with severe mental disorders die on average 20 years prior to the general population. This mortality gap is mainly due to the higher prevalence of physical diseases and the adoption of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors.The LIFESTYLE trial aims to evaluate the efficacy of a new psychosocial group intervention (including psychoeducational, motivational, and problem-solving techniques) focused on healthy lifestyle behavior compared to a brief educational group intervention in a community sample of patients with severe mental disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Kenneth S Kendler, Henrik Ohlsson, Silviu Bacanu, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
Previous high-risk family designs in psychiatry have focused largely on offspring of affected parents. We take a pedigree-based approach and examine the social, psychological, and psychiatric features of offspring from extended pedigrees selected for high-densities of alcohol use disorder (AUD) or drug abuse (DA). We identified, from the Swedish population, 665,715 pedigrees containing a mean of 17.9 parents, aunts/uncles, grandparents, and cousins of a core full-sibship we term the pedigree offspring. We then derived 13 empirical classes of these pedigrees based on the density of cases of AUD and DA...
June 21, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Michael L Thomas, Emily B H Treichler, Andrew Bismark, Alexandra L Shiluk, Melissa Tarasenko, Wen Zhang, Yash B Joshi, Joyce Sprock, Lauren Cardoso, Kristine Tiernan, Gregory A Light
Poor treatment engagement is an enduring problem in the care of patients with schizophrenia. Evidence suggests that targeted cognitive training (TCT) improves cognition and functional outcomes, but this time-consuming intervention might reduce patients' engagement in other treatment activities when implemented in real-world settings. This is especially true of residential care programs which encourage patients to engage in group therapies, self-care, and a wide variety of structured social, work, and other rehabilitation activities...
June 18, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Solveig Glestad Christiansen, Anne Line Bretteville-Jensen
BACKGROUND: There has been an absolute and relative increase in the number of patients with cannabis-related disorders as the principal diagnosis in many countries in recent years. Cannabis is now the most frequently mentioned problem drug reported by new patients in Europe, and cannabis patients constituted one third of all drug treatment patients in 2015. There is limited knowledge with regard to patient characteristics, the extent and types of health and psychosocial problems, as well as their association with long-term outcomes...
June 22, 2018: BMC Public Health
Alain Chamoux, Céline Lambert, Audrey Vilmant, Charlotte Lanhers, Raymond Agius, Mounir Boutaleb, Vincent Bonneterre, Geraldine Naughton, Bruno Pereira, Khalid Djeriri, Eric Ben-Brik, Christine Breton, Caroline De Clavière, Corinne Letheux, Anne-Gaëlle Paolillo, Madeleine Valenty, Odile Vandenberghe, Marie-Pierre Aeschlimann, Gérard Lasfargues, Francois-Xavier Lesage, Frédéric Dutheil
BACKGROUND: Mental disorders in the workplace are a major public health problem. Knowledge of the impact of the psychosocial work environment on mental and behavioral disorders can assist occupational physicians in the identification and description of occupational risk situations, and help to define priority actions. However, no classification for occupational exposure factors is currently available. We aimed to build a thesaurus of "Organizational, Relational, Ethical and other Contributing Factors" (FOREC) linked with the onset of mental and behavioral disorders...
2018: PloS One
David Q Beversdorf, Allen L Carpenter, Jessica K Alexander, Neil T Jenkins, Michael R Tilley, Catherine A White, Ashleigh J Hillier, Ryan M Smith, Howard H Gu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Previous research has shown an effect of various psychosocial stressors on unconstrained cognitive flexibility, such as searching through a large set of potential solutions in the lexical-semantic network during verbal problem-solving. Functional magnetic resonance imaging has shown that the presence of the short (S) allele (lacking a 43-base pair repeat) of the promoter region of the gene (SLC6A4) encoding the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) protein is associated with a greater amygdalar response to emotional stimuli and a greater response to stressors...
June 2018: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
Steven A Safren, Aaron J Blashill, Jasper S Lee, Conall O'Cleirigh, Julia Tomassili, Katie B Biello, Matthew J Mimiaga, Kenneth H Mayer
OBJECTIVE: Among men who have sex with men (MSM), HIV sexual risk and poor self-care behavior is associated with syndemics, or co-occurring psychosocial problems. Though prior research has demonstrated an additive total effect of syndemics on HIV risk behavior and infection, mostly within cross-sectional designs, it is possible that these associations are not direct but rather that syndemics disrupt relevant individual-level mediating psychological variables. One of the more common individual-level psychological variables that predicts health behavior generally, and HIV risk behavior specifically, is self-efficacy...
June 21, 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Natacha Heutte, Moumainn Abouzayd, Laetitia Plisson, Mélanie Trocmé, Mélanie Seillier, Véronique Christophe, Lydia Guittet, Guillaume Grandazzi, Emmanuel Babin
The therapeutic education of patients and their close relations is, as yet, poorly developed in France in the field of oncology. Total laryngectomy is a mutilating surgical procedure having a major impact on the patient's life, due to its physical and functional sequelae. Its psychosocial consequences are also important and alter the quality of life of patients and their close relations. Currently, care for laryngectomised patients consists essentially in informing and educating them on some technical procedures during hospital admission...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
Rosa Michaelis, Venus Tang, Laura H Goldstein, Markus Reuber, William Curt LaFrance, Tobias Lundgren, Avani C Modi, Janelle L Wagner
Given the significant impact that psychosocial factors and epilepsy treatments can have on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of individuals with epilepsy and their families, there is great clinical interest in the role of psychological evaluation and treatments to improve HRQOL and comorbidities. Therefore, the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) charged the Psychology Task Force with the development of recommendations for clinical care based on evaluation of the evidence from their recent Cochrane review of psychological treatments in individuals with epilepsy...
June 19, 2018: Epilepsia
Silvia Rossi Ferrario, Gianluigi Balestroni, Chiara Gattoni, Giovanna Omarini, Pierangela Omarini, Paola Cerutti, Massimo Pistono
OBJECTIVES: Patients implanted with a Left Ventricular Assist Device (LVAD) constitute a new population of chronic heart failure (HF) patients requiring continuous medical support and representing heavy costs - both direct and indirect - for the healthcare system. If there is consensus about the increased survival, the psychosocial outcomes, in terms of psychological wellbeing, behavioral and social functioning of both patients and caregivers, are still unclear. Overall, it is not clear if local health and social services are equipped to support them in their needs...
November 2017: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
Heli Aho, Timo Kauppila, Maija Haanpää
Background and aims Social factors and social environment shape the pain behavior of patients. Social workers support pain treatment in a multidisciplinary pain clinic by altering the social environment of a patient. Even though a social worker in a multi-professional care team contributes to the care of select, severely pain-afflicted patients extensively, neither the patient socio-demographic status nor interventions by social workers have been systematically documented. Only individual case histories have been published...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Berit Björkman, Staffan Arnér, Iréne Lund, Lars-Christer Hydén
Background Phantom phenomena - pain or other sensations appearing to come from amputated body parts - are frequent consequences of amputation and can cause considerable suffering. Also, stump pain, located in the residual limb, is in the literature often related to the phantom phenomena. The condition is not specific to amputated limbs and has, to a lesser extent, been reported to be present after radical surgery in other body parts such as breast, rectum and teeth. Multi-causal theories are used when trying to understand these phenomena, which are recognized as the result of complex interaction among various parts of the central nervous system confirmed in studies using functional brain imaging techniques...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Johanna Thomtén, Steven J Linton
Background and aims The problem of sexual pain is an area that has been shamefully ignored by both the pain community and the health service authorities. Although about 40% of women report such pain and 30% report it during their last intercourse, sexual pain has historically not even been considered a pain problem. The objectives of the present study was to present a background to the problem of female sexual pain, further elaborate on the problem and offer some direction for how advances might be concretely made...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Lotte Nygaard Andersen, Maria Kohberg, Birgit Juul-Kristensen, Lene Gram Herborg, Karen Søgaard, Kirsten Kaya Roessler
Background and objective Chronic pain is a growing phenomenon worldwide. It is considered a medical problem because, besides the socio-economic issues involved, pain is often accompanied by psychosocial problems. Apart from the physical pain, living with chronic pain has many additional consequences. People living with chronic pain generally suffer from other physical and psychological consequences. The impact of chronic pain varies enormously between individuals, but the suffering is frequently pervasive and detrimental...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Engle Angela Chan, Fiona Wong, Man Yin Cheung, Winsome Lam
BACKGROUND: The nursing shortage and its impact on patient care are well-documented global issues. Patients living with cancer as a chronic illness have many psychosocial problems and often lack adequate support as a result of ineffective nurse-patient communication. A review of the literature on factors influencing the delivery of psychosocial care to cancer patients indicates that the delivery of psychosocial care in routine cancer nursing within a biomedical healthcare system has not been widely explored...
2018: PloS One
Sreevatsan Raghavan, Koshi Philip, Puneet Batra, Agneta Marcusson
Objective: To evaluate the influence of dentofacial attractiveness using the 'Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire' (PIDAQ), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) and Aesthetic Component (AC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) in patients with cleft lip/palate (CLP), and non-cleft orthodontic patients (Non-CLP) and their parents. Materials and methods: Eighty patients (aged 11-19 years) comprising 40 CLP and 40 non-CLP were administered the PIDAQ and SWLS questionnaires to be rated individually by the patients, along with IOTN-AC rated by the patients and their parents, respectively...
April 18, 2018: European Journal of Orthodontics
Tapio Ojala, Arja Häkkinen, Jaro Karppinen, Kirsi Sipilä, Timo Suutama, Arja Piirainen
Background Research has emphasised the essential role of psychosocial risk factors in chronic pain. In practice, pain is usually verified by identifying its physical cause. In patients without any distinct pathology, pain is easily defined as imaginary pain. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the invisibility of chronic pain, from the patients' perspective. Methods Thirty-four participants with chronic pain were interviewed. The mean age of the participants was 48 years, and 19 of them were women...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Anastasia Theodoridou
Early detection of psychosis: evidence and perspectives Abstract. Early detection of psychosis, in the sense of preventing psychosis, has become increasingly important in recent years. Especially psychopathological approaches are promising and are reflected in the attenuated and transient positive symptoms ("ultra high risk" criteria) and the basic symptom criterion "cognitive disturbances". According to the recommendation of the European Psychiatric Association (EPA), both risk-criteria sets are currently the most well-tested diagnostic criteria for a psychosis risk syndrome...
June 2018: Therapeutische Umschau. Revue Thérapeutique
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