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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045919/altered-attentional-control-strategies-but-spared-executive-functioning-in-chronic-cannabis-users
#1
Amy T Nusbaum, Paul Whitney, Carrie Cuttler, Alexander Spradlin, John M Hinson, Ryan J McLaughlin
BACKGROUND: Cannabis use has increased rapidly in recent decades. The increase in cannabis use makes it important to understand the potential influence of chronic use on attentional control and other executive functions (EFs). Because cannabis is often used to reduce stress, and because stress can constrain attentional control and EFs, the primary goal of this study was to determine the joint effect of acute stress and chronic cannabis use on specific EFs. METHODS: Thirty-nine cannabis users and 40 non-users were assigned to either a stress or no stress version of the Maastricht Acute Stress Test...
October 12, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045873/nanoscale-membrane-budding-induced-by-ctxb-and-detected-via-polarized-localization-microscopy
#2
Abir M Kabbani, Christopher V Kelly
For endocytosis and exocytosis, membranes transition among planar, budding, and vesicular topographies through nanoscale reorganization of lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates. However, prior attempts to understand the initial stages of nanoscale bending have been limited by experimental resolution. Through the implementation of polarized localization microscopy, this article reports the inherent membrane bending capability of cholera toxin subunit B (CTxB) in quasi-one-component-supported lipid bilayers. Membrane buds were first detected with <50 nm radius, grew to >200 nm radius, and extended into longer tubules with dependence on the membrane tension and CTxB concentration...
October 17, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045788/the-importance-of-surface-irox-in-stabilizing-ruo2-for-oxygen-evolution
#3
Maria Escudero-Escribano, Anders F Pedersen, Elisa A Paoli, Rasmus Frydendal, Daniel Friebel, Paolo Malacrida, Jan Rossmeisl, Ifan E L Stephens, Ib Chorkendorff
The high precious metal loading and high overpotential of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) prevents the widespread utilization of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) water electrolyzers. Herein we explore the OER activity and stability in acidic electrolyte of a combined IrOx/RuO2 system consisting of RuO2 thin films with sub-monolayer (1, 2 and 4 Å) amounts of IrOx deposited on top. Operando extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) on the Ir L-3 edge revealed a rutile type IrO2 structure with some Ir sites occupied by Ru, IrOx being at the surface of the RuO2 thin film...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045631/implementation-of-advance-care-planning-in-israel-a-convergence-of-top-down-and-bottom-up-processes
#4
Netta Bentur, Shelley Sternberg
Although public health has traditionally been concerned with primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention, more attention needs to be focused on patient-centered care at the end of life. Improved access to quality end-of-life care can be achieved by advance care planning (ACP). In this article, we present an example of the processes of change regarding ACP and preparing advance directives (ADs) that have begun to take place in Israel in recent years. We argue that these processes derive from the synergy between legislation on the one hand, and initiatives and action by health organizations on the other...
October 13, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045500/using-egocentric-analysis-to-investigate-professional-networks-and-productivity-of-graduate-students-and-faculty-in-life-sciences-in-japan-singapore-and-taiwan
#5
Noriko Hara, Hui Chen, Marcus Antonius Ynalvez
Prior studies showed that scientists' professional networks contribute to research productivity, but little work has examined what factors predict the formation of professional networks. This study sought to 1) examine what factors predict the formation of international ties between faculty and graduate students and 2) identify how these international ties would affect publication productivity in three East Asian countries. Face-to-face surveys and in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with a sample of faculty and doctoral students in life sciences at 10 research institutions in Japan, Singapore, and Taiwan...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045498/novel-drug-targets-in-cell-wall-biosynthesis-exploited-by-gene-disruption-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#6
Ayssar A Elamin, Susanne Steinicke, Wulf Oehlmann, Yvonne Braun, Hanaa Wanas, Eduard A Shuralev, Carmen Huck, Marko Maringer, Manfred Rohde, Mahavir Singh
For clinicians, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a nightmare pathogen that is one of the top three causes of opportunistic human infections. Therapy of P. aeruginosa infections is complicated due to its natural high intrinsic resistance to antibiotics. Active efflux and decreased uptake of drugs due to cell wall/membrane permeability appear to be important issues in the acquired antibiotic tolerance mechanisms. Bacterial cell wall biosynthesis enzymes have been shown to be essential for pathogenicity of Gram-negative bacteria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045482/influence-on-number-of-top-ups-after-implementing-patient-controlled-epidural-analgesia-a-cohort-study
#7
Ganapathy van Samkar, Henning Hermanns, Philipp Lirk, Markus W Hollmann, Markus F Stevens
Postoperative epidural analgesia often needs rate readjustment using top-ups. Patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) is said to reduce the requirement of epidural top-ups when compared to continuous epidural analgesia (CEA). We compared CEA and PCEA in major thoracic and abdominal surgery, in a cohort study. The primary endpoint was the required number of epidural top-ups. Secondary endpoints were pain scores, side effects and workload differences. We analysed 199 patients with CEA and 187 with PCEA. Both groups had similar pain scores...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045451/getting-to-the-heart-of-the-matter-does-aberrant-interoceptive-processing-contribute-towards-emotional-eating
#8
Hayley A Young, Claire Williams, Aimee E Pink, Gary Freegard, Amy Owens, David Benton
According to estimates from Public Health England, by 2034 70% of adults are expected to be overweight or obese, therefore understanding the underpinning aetiology is a priority. Eating in response to negative affect contributes towards obesity, however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Evidence that visceral afferent signals contribute towards the experience of emotion is accumulating rapidly, with the emergence of new influential models of 'active inference'. No longer viewed as a 'bottom up' process, new interoceptive facets based on 'top down' predictions have been proposed, although at present it is unclear which aspects of interoception contribute to aberrant eating behaviour and obesity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045445/occupancy-modeling-reveals-territory-level-effects-of-nest-boxes-on-the-presence-colonization-and-persistence-of-a-declining-raptor-in-a-fruit-growing-region
#9
Megan E Shave, Catherine A Lindell
Nest boxes for predators in agricultural regions are an easily implemented tool to improve local habitat quality with potential benefits for both conservation and agriculture. The potential for nest boxes to increase raptor populations in agricultural regions is of particular interest given their positions as top predators. This study examined the effects of cherry orchard nest boxes on the local breeding population of a declining species, the American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), in a fruit-growing region of Michigan...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044971/drug-nanocrystals-for-cancer-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Xiaoqing Miao, Wuwei Yang, Tao Feng, Jing Lin, Peng Huang
Drug nanocrystals (NCs) with fascinating physicochemical properties have attracted great attention in drug delivery. High drug-loading efficiency, great structural stability, steady dissolution, and long circulation time are a few examples of these properties, which makes drug NCs an excellent formulation for efficient cancer therapy. In the last two decades, there are a lot of hydrophobic or lipophilic drugs, such as paclitaxel (PTX), camptothecin (CPT), thymectacin, busulfan, cyclosporin A, 2-devinyl-2-(1-hexyloxyethyl) pyropheophorbide (HPPH), and so on, which have been formulated into drug NCs for cancer therapy...
October 17, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044928/a-rare-variant-rs933717-at-fbxo31-map1lc3b-in-chinese-is-associated-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#11
Yuan-Yuan Qi, Xu-Jie Zhou, Swapan K Nath, Celi Sun, Yan-Na Wang, Ping Hou, Rong Mu, Chun Li, Jian-Ping Guo, Zhan-Guo Li, Geng Wang, Hu-Ji Xu, Yan-Jie Hao, Zhuo-Li Zhang, Wei-Hua Yue, Huo-Ru Zhang, Ming-Hui Zhao, Hong Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence from genetic, cell biology and model animal studies have suggested a pivotal role of autophagy in mediating systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, the genetic basis has not yet been thoroughly examined. The aim of the present study was therefore to identify additional susceptibility variants in autophagy-related genes, and their functional significance. METHODS: First, we performed a gene family-based genetic association analysis in patients with SLE using ImmunoChip, and selected the top-associated polymorphisms for replication in additional cohorts...
October 17, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044854/targeted-proteomic-analysis-of-habitual-coffee-consumption
#12
Marilyn C Cornelis, Stefan Gustafsson, Johan Ärnlöv, Sölve Elmståhl, Stefan Söderberg, Johan Sundström, Karl Michaëlsson, Lars Lind, Erik Ingelsson
BACKGROUND: Coffee drinking has been implicated in mortality and a variety of diseases but potential mechanisms underlying these associations are unclear. Large-scale systems epidemiological approaches may offer novel insights to mechanisms underlying associations of coffee with health. OBJECTIVE: We performed an analysis of known and novel protein markers linked to cardiovascular disease and their association with habitual coffee intake in the Prospective Study of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS, n=816) and followed-up top proteins in the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM, n=635) and EpiHealth (n=2418)...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044852/firework-related-injury-in-the-top-end-a-16-year-review
#13
David J Read, Richard Bradbury, Edward Yeboah
BACKGROUND: On July 1st on 'Territory Day', the public in the Northern Territory are permitted to purchase and operate consumer fireworks without a licence. Serious permanent injuries from fireworks are well described, leading to their banning in many other jurisdictions. This study describes those seriously injured by fireworks in the Top End of the Northern Territory, with the aim of identifying opportunities for prevention and harm minimization. METHODS: This is a retrospective audit of all admitted patients with an injury from fireworks at the Royal Darwin Hospital between 2000 and 2015...
October 18, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044823/the-many-characters-of-visual-alpha-oscillations
#14
Michael S Clayton, Nick Yeung, Roi Cohen Kadosh
A central feature of human brain activity is the alpha rhythm: a 7 - 13 Hz oscillation observed most notably over occipitoparietal brain regions during periods of eyes-closed rest. Alpha oscillations covary with changes in visual processing, and have been associated with a broad range of neurocognitive functions. In this article, we review these associations and suggest that alpha oscillations can be thought to exhibit at least five distinct 'characters': those of the inhibitor, perceiver, predictor, communicator, and stabiliser...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044743/variation-in-the-ssurdna-of-the-genus-protostelium-leads-to-a-new-phylogenetic-understanding-of-the-genus-and-of-the-species-concept-for-p-mycophaga-protosteliida-amoebozoa
#15
John D L Shadwick, Jeffery D Silberman, Frederick W Spiegel
Members of the genus Protostelium (including P. mycophaga, P. nocturnum, and P. okumukumu) are protosteloid amoebae commonly found in terrestrial habitats on dead plant matter. They, along with the closely allied nominal genus Planoprotostelium, containing the single species Pl. aurantium, all have an amoeboid trophic stage with acutely pointed subpseudopodia and orange lipid droplets in the granuloplasm. These amoebae form stalked fruiting bodies topped with a single, usually deciduous spore. The species are identified based on their fruiting body morphologies except for Pl...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044715/bayesian-genome-wide-association-analysis-for-body-weight-in-farmed-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l
#16
G M Yoshida, J P Lhorente, R Carvalheiro, J M Yáñez
We performed a genome-wide association study to detect markers associated with growth traits in Atlantic salmon. The analyzed traits included body weight at tagging (BWT) and body weight at 25 months (BW25M). Genotypes of 4662 animals were imputed from the 50K SNP chip to the 200K SNP chip using fimpute software. The markers were simultaneously modeled using Bayes C to identify genomic regions associated with the traits. We identified windows explaining a maximum of 3.71% and 3.61% of the genetic variance for BWT and BW25M respectively...
October 17, 2017: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044240/erratum-gut-microbial-metabolites-limit-the-frequency-of-autoimmune-t-cells-and-protect-against-type-1-diabetes
#17
Eliana Mariño, James L Richards, Keiran H McLeod, Dragana Stanley, Yu Anne Yap, Jacinta Knight, Craig McKenzie, Jan Kranich, Ana Carolina Oliveira, Fernando J Rossello, Balasubramanian Krishnamurthy, Christian M Nefzger, Laurence Macia, Alison Thorburn, Alan G Baxter, Grant Morahan, Lee H Wong, Jose M Polo, Robert J Moore, Trevor J Lockett, Julie M Clarke, David L Topping, Leonard C Harrison, Charles R Mackay
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/ni.3713.
October 18, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044134/impact-of-ocean-warming-on-sustainable-fisheries-management-informs-the-ecosystem-approach-to-fisheries
#18
N Serpetti, A R Baudron, M T Burrows, B L Payne, P Helaouët, P G Fernandes, J J Heymans
An integrated ecosystem model including fishing and the impact of rising temperatures, relative to species' thermal ranges, was used to assess the cumulative effect of future climate change and sustainable levels of fishing pressure on selected target species. Historically, important stocks of cod and whiting showed declining trends caused by high fisheries exploitation and strong top-down control by their main predators (grey seals and saithe). In a no-change climate scenario these stocks recovered under sustainable management scenarios due to the cumulative effect of reduced fishing and predation mortalities cascading through the food-web...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043608/limitations-of-high-throughput-methods-for-mirna-expression-profiles-in-non-functioning-pituitary-adenomas
#19
O Darvasi, P M Szabo, K Nemeth, K Szabo, S Spisak, I Liko, S Czirjak, K Racz, P Igaz, A Patocs, Henriett Butz
Microarray, RT-qPCR based arrays and next-generation-sequencing (NGS) are available high-throughput methods for miRNA profiling (miRNome). Analytical and biological performance of these methods were tested in identification of biologically relevant miRNAs in non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA). miRNome of 4 normal pituitary (NP) and 8 NFPA samples was determined by these platforms and expression of 21 individual miRNAs was measured on 30 (20 NFPA and 10 NP) independent samples. Complex bioinformatics was used...
October 18, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043063/a-survey-of-working-conditions-within-biomedical-research-in-the-united-kingdom
#20
Nick Riddiford
Background: Many recent articles have presented a bleak view of career prospects in biomedical research in the US. Too many PhDs and postdocs are trained for too few research positions, creating a "holding-tank" of experienced senior postdocs who are unable to get a permanent position. Coupled with relatively low salaries and the high levels of pressure to publish in top-tier academic journals, this has created a toxic environment that is perhaps responsible for a recently observed decline in biomedical postdocs in the US, the so-called "postdocalypse"...
2017: F1000Research
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