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Benjamin Zeeb, Merve Yavuz-Düzgun, Johannes Dreher, Jacob Evert, Timo Stressler, Lutz Fischer, Beraat Özcelik, Jochen Weiss
The incorporation of novel plant-based proteins into foods is often challenging due to an unacceptable bitter sensation. Typically, a combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic forces contributes to the proteins' bitterness. The current study therefore focuses on the development of electrical properties on cationic plant proteins to reduce their overall bitterness in order to improve the perceived sensorial acceptance. As such, we utilized a simple mixing process to induce complex coacervation of oppositely charged biopolymers under acidic conditions...
March 20, 2018: Food & Function
Bing Wang, Steven M Smith, Jiayang Li
Shoot architecture is determined by the organization and activities of apical, axillary, intercalary, secondary, and inflorescence meristems and by the subsequent development of stems, leaves, shoot branches, and inflorescences. In this review, we discuss the unifying principles of hormonal and genetic control of shoot architecture including advances in our understanding of lateral branch outgrowth; control of stem elongation, thickness, and angle; and regulation of inflorescence development. We focus on recent progress made mainly in Arabidopsis thaliana, rice, pea, maize, and tomato, including the identification of new genes and mechanisms controlling shoot architecture...
March 19, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Rosalia Crupi, Daniela Impellizzeri, Marika Cordaro, Rosalba Siracusa, Giovanna Casili, Maurizio Evangelista, Salvatore Cuzzocrea
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Aging is a major risk factor for idiopathic PD. Several prior studies examined the neuroprotective effects of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), alone or combined with antioxidants, in a model of PD induced by the dopaminergic toxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Here, we analyzed the pretreatment effect of micronized PEA (PEAm) on neuroinflammation and neuronal cell death in the MPTP model...
March 19, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Benedetta Vanini, Valentina Grazioli, Antonio Sciortino, Maurizio Pin, Vera N Merli, Anna Celentano, Ilaria Parisi, Catherine Klersy, Lucia Petrucci, Maurizio Salati, Pierluigi Politi, Andrea M D'Armini
BACKGROUND: In this prospective, single-center, observational study, we investigated the association between repeated short periods of circulatory arrest with moderate hypothermia during pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) and different neuropsychological dimensions. METHODS: We examined 70 patients with CTEPH, >18 to 80 years of age, who had been treated with PEA. Neuropsychological testing was performed...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Garam Park, In-Hwan Oh, J M Sungil Park, Jinyong Jung, Chun-Yeol You, June-Seo Kim, Yonghwan Kim, Jong Hoon Jung, Namjung Hur, Younghak Kim, J-Y Kim, Chang Seop Hong, Ki-Yeon Kim
Two dimensional layered organic-inorganic halide perovskites offer a wide variety of novel functionality such as solar cell and optoelectronics and magnetism. Self-assembly of these materials using solution process (ex. spin coating) makes crystalline thin films synthesized at ambient environment. However, flexibility of organic layer also poses a structure stability issue in perovskite thin films against environment factors (ex. moisture). In this study, we investigate the effect of solvents and moisture on structure and property in the (C6 H5 (CH2 )2 NH3 )2 (Cu, Mn)Cl4 (Cu-PEA, Mn-PEA) perovskite thin films spin-coated on Si wafer using three solvents (H2 O, MeOH, MeOH + H2 O)...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Thomas Tängdén, Pier Giorgio Cojutti, Jason A Roberts, Federico Pea
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Valganciclovir is used as oral prophylaxis for cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in kidney transplant recipients. However, limited pharmacokinetic data exist to guide dosing in this patient group. This study aimed to describe the population pharmacokinetics of valganciclovir in a large sample of kidney transplant recipients and predict optimal dosing based on Monte Carlo simulations. METHODS: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) data from adult kidney transplant recipients who received valganciclovir prophylaxis during a 10-year study period were collected retrospectively...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Heinz-Josef Koch, Kerrin Trimpler, Anna Jacobs, Nicol Stockfisch
In Europe, the framework for sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris L.) production was subject to considerable changes and for the future it is expected that sugar beet cultivation might concentrate around the sugar factories for economic reasons. Based on data from a national sugar beet farmers' survey and multi-year crop rotation trials, the effects of cropping interval (number of years in between two subsequent sugar beet crops) and of preceding crops on sugar yield were elucidated under current Central European management conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Xiaoqun Zhang, Ioannis Mantas, Alexandra Alvarsson, Takashi Yoshitake, Mohammadreza Shariatgorji, Marcela Pereira, Anna Nilsson, Jan Kehr, Per E Andrén, Mark J Millan, Karima Chergui, Per Svenningsson
The trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) is expressed by dopaminergic neurons, but the precise influence of trace amines upon their functional activity remains to be fully characterized. Here, we examined the regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) by tyramine and beta-phenylethylamine (β-PEA) compared to 3-iodothyronamine (T1 AM). Immunoblotting and amperometry were performed in dorsal striatal slices from wild-type (WT) and TAAR1 knockout (KO) mice. T1 AM increased TH phosphorylation at both Ser19 and Ser40 , actions that should promote functional activity of TH...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Xing Chen, Lili Zhao, Yang Kang, Zhiyu He, Fei Xiong, Xiang Ling, Jun Wu
Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for over 85% of clinical lung cancer cases, which is the leading cause of cancer-related death. To develop new therapeutic strategy for NSCLC, a library of L-phenylalanine-based poly(ester amide) (Phe-PEA) polymers was synthesized and assembled with docetaxel (Dtxl) to form Dtxl-loaded Phe-PEA nanoparticles (NPs). The hydrophobic Phe-PEA polymers were able to form NPs by nanoprecipitation method and the characterization results showed that the screened Dtxl-8P4 NPs have small particle size (∼100 nm) and high Dtxl loading (∼20 wt%)...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Hideki Miwa, Nobuhiro Tanabe, Takayuki Jujo, Fumiaki Kato, Rie Anazawa, Keiko Yamamoto, Akira Naito, Hajime Kasai, Rintaro Nishimura, Rika Suda, Toshihiko Sugiura, Seiichiro Sakao, Keiichi Ishida, Masahisa Masuda, Koichiro Tatsumi
BACKGROUND: Several new treatments for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) have appeared in recent years, which have led to changes in the treatment algorithm. Changes in survival rates and prognostic factors, however, have not been estimated so far.Methods and Results:Two hundred and eighty patients were diagnosed with CTEPH at Chiba University Hospital between June 1986 and June 2016. Survival rate was investigated by date of treatment initiation (group 1, 1986-1998; group 2, 1999-2008; group 3, 2009-2016)...
March 13, 2018: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
Brunella Posteraro, Federico Pea, Luca Masucci, Patrizia Posteraro, Maurizio Sanguinetti
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common healthcare-associated infection worldwide. As standard CDI antibiotic therapies can result in unacceptably high recurrence rates, novel therapeutic strategies for CDI are necessary. A recently emerged immunological therapy is a monoclonal antibody against C. difficile toxin B. Areas covered: In this review, the authors summarize the available pharmacological, preclinical, and clinical data for the CDI treatment based on anti-toxin A (actoxumab) and anti-toxin B (bezlotoxumab) human monoclonal antibodies (HuMabs), and discuss about the potentiality of a therapy that includes HuMab combined administration for CDI...
March 15, 2018: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Natalie Niepoth, Jacintha Ellers, Lee M Henry
BACKGROUND: Facultative symbionts are common in eukaryotes and can provide their hosts with significant fitness benefits. Despite the advantage of carrying these microbes, they are typically only found in a fraction of the individuals within a population and are often non-randomly distributed among host populations. It is currently unclear why facultative symbionts are only found in certain host individuals and populations. Here we provide evidence for a mechanism to help explain this phenomenon: that when symbionts interact with non-native host genotypes it can limit the horizontal transfer of symbionts to particular host lineages and populations of related hosts...
March 12, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Eli Muchtar, Morie A Gertz, Shaji K Kumar, Grace Lin, Barry Boilson, Alfredo Clavell, Martha Q Lacy, Francis K Buadi, Suzanne R Hayman, Prashant Kapoor, David Dingli, S Vincent Rajkumar, Angela Dispenzieri, Martha Grogan
AIM: Digoxin is considered contraindicated in light-chain (AL) amyloidosis, given reports of increased toxicity published 30-50 years ago. We sought to determine the frequency of digoxin toxicity in patients with AL. METHODS: We identified 107 patients with AL amyloidosis who received digoxin between 2000 and 2015. RESULTS: The median age was 65 and the median digoxin dose and estimated glomerular filtration rate were 0.125 mg/d and 55 ml/min/1...
March 12, 2018: Amyloid: the International Journal of Experimental and Clinical Investigation
R Skulec, D Astapenko, R Cerna Parizkova, B Furst, M Bilska, T Parizek, T Hovanec, N Pinterova, J Knor, J Dudakova, A Truhlar, V Radochova, Z Zadak, V Cerny
We conducted an experimental study to evaluate the presence of coordinated left ventricular mechanical myocardial activity (LVMA) in two types of experimentally induced cardiac arrest: ventricular fibrillation (VF) and pulseless electrical activity (PEA). Twenty anesthetized domestic pigs were randomized 1:1 either to induction of VF or PEA. They were left in nonresuscitated cardiac arrest until the cessation of LVMA and microcirculation. Surface ECG, presence of LVMA by transthoracic echocardiography and sublingual microcirculation were recorded...
March 12, 2018: Physiological Research
Seung Ho Chung, Xiangfeng Jing, Yuan Luo, Angela E Douglas
The growth and reproduction of phloem sap-feeding insects requires the sustained function of intracellular bacteria localized in specialized cells known as bacteriocytes, giving the potential to target the bacterial symbiosis as a novel strategy for controlling sap-feeding insect pests. We focused on two genes in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, amiD and ldcA1, which were acquired horizontally from bacteria and have the annotated function to degrade immunogenic bacterial peptidoglycan. We hypothesized that AmiD and LdcA1 function to eliminate peptidoglycan fragments released by the bacterial symbiont Buchnera inhabiting the bacteriocytes, thereby protecting the Buchnera from host attack...
March 8, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Raffaele Pesavento, Paolo Prandoni
Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is an uncommon and late complication of pulmonary embolism resulting from misguided remodelling of residual pulmonary thromboembolic material and small-vessel arteriopathy. CTEPH is the only form of pulmonary hypertension (PH) potentially curable by pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA). Unfortunately, several patients have either an unacceptable risk-benefit ratio for undergoing the surgical intervention or develop persistent PH after PEA. Novel medical and endovascular therapies can be considered for them...
March 2, 2018: Thrombosis Research
Javed Nawab, Junaid Ghani, Sardar Khan, Wang Xiaoping
Mining activity releases toxic metals (TMs) into the soil ecosystem and creates serious problems for the environment and human beings due to their adverse eco-toxilogical impacts. Currently, several remediation techniques can be used to immobilize TMs within contaminated soil. The present study focuses on the application of different organic amendments biochar (B), farmyard manure (FYM) and peat moss (PTM) - at different application rates (1%, 2% and 5%) in mining-impacted agricultural soil to immobilize TMs (Ni, Cr, As, Zn, Cd and Pb) and minimize their bioaccumulation in pea (Pisum sativum) and chili (Capsicum annuum) and the associated human health risk...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Bianca Braz Mattos, Caroline Montebianco, Elisson Romanel, Tatiane da Franca Silva, Renato Barroso Bernabé, Fernanda Simas-Tosin, Lauro M Souza, Guilherme L Sassaki, Maite F S Vaslin, Eliana Barreto-Bergter
Cladosporium herbarum is a plant pathogen associated with passion fruit scab and mild diseases in pea and soybean. In this study, a peptidogalactomannan (pGM) of C. herbarum mycelium was isolated and structurally characterized, and its role in plant-fungus interactions was evaluated. C. herbarum pGM is composed of carbohydrates (76%) and contains mannose, galactose and glucose as its main monosaccharides (molar ratio, 52:36:12). Methylation and13 C-nuclear magnetic resonance (13 C-NMR) spectroscopy analysis have shown the presence of a main chain containing (1 → 6)-linked α-D-Manp residues, and β-D-Galf residues are present as (1 → 5)-interlinked side chains...
March 2, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Stojan Potrc, Arpad Ivanecz, Vid Pivec, Urska Marolt, Sasa Rudolf, Bojan Iljevec, Tomaz Jagric
Background: The focus of the present study was to reveal any impact factors for perioperative morbidity and mortality as well as repercussion of perioperative morbidity on long-term survival in pancreatic head resection. Patients and methods: In a retrospective study, clinic-pathological factors of 240 patients after pancreatic head (PD) or total resection were analyzed for correlations with morbidity, 30- and 90-day mortality, and long-term survival. According to Clavien-Dindo classification, all complications with grade II and more were defined as overall complications (OAC)...
March 2018: Radiology and Oncology
Anna Caliò, Maria Cecilia Mengoli, Alberto Cavazza, Giulio Rossi, Claudio Ghimenton, Matteo Brunelli, Maurizio Pea, Marco Chilosi, Lisa Marcolini, Guido Martignoni
Clear cell "sugar" tumor is a rare benign neoplasm arising in the lung, considered as a part of the PEComa family. As PEComas of other sites, this tumor expresses melanocytic markers such as HMB45 and Melan-A. Despite cathepsin K, MITF and CD68 staining are known to be positive in a large number of PEComas and TFE3 rearrangement has been reported in a subset of PEComas, no data is available regarding the expression of these markers and the occurrence of TFE3 and TFEB rearrangement in clear cell "sugar" tumor of the lung...
March 7, 2018: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
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