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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434131/knowing-how-and-knowing-why-testing-the-effect-of-instruction-designed-for-cognitive-integration-on-procedural-skills-transfer
#1
Jeffrey J H Cheung, Kulamakan M Kulasegaram, Nicole N Woods, Carol-Anne Moulton, Charlotte V Ringsted, Ryan Brydges
Transfer is a desired outcome of simulation-based training, yet evidence for how instructional design features promote transfer is lacking. In clinical reasoning, transfer is improved when trainees experience instruction integrating basic science explanations with clinical signs and symptoms. To test whether integrated instruction has similar effects in procedural skills (i.e., psychomotor skills) training, we studied the impact of instruction that integrates conceptual (why) and procedural (how) knowledge on the retention and transfer of simulation-based lumbar puncture (LP) skill...
April 22, 2017: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433887/effects-of-clay-art-therapy-on-adults-outpatients-with-major-depressive-disorder-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Joshua K M Nan, Rainbow T H Ho
BACKGROUND: Depression has become a critical global health problem, affecting millions of people. Cost-effective nonpharmacological treatment in community settings has been proposed to complement medical treatment. Short-term clay art therapy (CAT) is an alternative treatment that promotes the enhancement of various aspects of mental health for depressed individuals. METHODS: One-hundred and six adults with depression were randomized into a CAT group or visual art (VA) control group for six 2...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432090/international-variations-in-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-palliative-sedation-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Ebun Abarshi, Judith Rietjens, Lenzo Robijn, Augusto Caraceni, Sheila Payne, Luc Deliens, Lieve Van den Block
OBJECTIVES: Palliative sedation is a highly debated medical practice, particularly regarding its proper use in end-of-life care. Worldwide, guidelines are used to standardise care and regulate this practice. In this review, we identify and compare national/regional clinical practice guidelines on palliative sedation against the European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC) palliative sedation Framework and assess the developmental quality of these guidelines using the Appraisal Guideline Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) instrument...
April 20, 2017: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431065/cha2ds2-vasc-score-and-blood-biomarkers-to-identify-patients-with-atrial-high-rate-episodes-and-paroxysmal-atrial-fibrillation
#4
Paulina Wakula, Benjamin Neumann, Jens Kienemund, Eva Thon-Gutschi, Tatjana Stojakovic, Martin Manninger, Daniel Scherr, Hubert Scharnagl, Martin Kapl, Burkert Pieske, Frank R Heinzel
Aims: Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) is often asymptomatic but nonetheless harmful. We evaluated the performance of disease-related blood biomarkers and CHA2DS2-VASc score to discriminate for PAF in patients with continuous rhythm monitoring. Methods and Results: Clinical data and blood samples were obtained from patients with dual-chamber pacemakers selected according to the absence (no_AHRE) or presence of Atrial High-Rate Episodes (AHRE) >6 min in recent device history (case-control approach)...
April 1, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428252/low-frequency-blood-pressure-oscillations-and-inotrope-treatment-failure-in-premature-infants
#5
Zachary Andrew Vesoulis, Jessica Hao, Christopher McPherson, Nathalie El Ters, Amit M Mathur
BACKGROUND: The underlying mechanism as to why some hypotensive preterm infants do not respond to inotropic medications remains unclear. For these infants, we hypothesize that impaired vasomotor function is a significant factor and is manifested through a decrease in low-frequency blood pressure variability across regulatory components of vascular tone. METHODS: Infants born 28 weeks estimated gestational age underwent prospective recording of mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) for 72h after birth...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426360/pharmaceutical-cognitive-enhancement-in-greek-university-students-differences-between-users-and-non-users-in-social-cognitive-variables-burnout-and-engagement
#6
Lambros Lazuras, Antonia Ypsilanti, Efthymios Lamprou, Christos Kontogiorgis
Pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement (PCE) represents the non-medical use of prescribed medication for the improvement of cognitive functioning and academic performance. Although there are some studies about PCE prevalence, it is less clear how users and non-users of PCE substances differ with respect to their positive and negative student experiences (e.g. academic burnout and engagement with studies) and in social cognitive variables that relate to decision-making and self-regulation of PCE use. The present study assessed whether students with different experiences of PCE substance use displayed differences in academic burnout, study engagement, and social cognitive variables relevant to PCE use...
June 7, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425883/transition-from-secondary-school-to-medical-school-the-role-of-self-study-and-self-regulated-learning-skills-in-freshman-burnout
#7
Joselina Barbosa, Álvaro Silva, Maria Amélia Ferreira, Milton Severo
INTRODUCTION: The transition from secondary to higher education is a challenging and demanding period for medical students. The ability to manage study time effectively and to be a self-regulated learner is essential to cope with the exponential growth of knowledge in medical education. Thus, the purpose of our study was to measure self-regulated learning skills and self-study across secondary higher education transition and to explore its effect on academic burnout in the first year of medical school...
December 30, 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424177/developmental-and-behavioural-associations-of-burns-and-scalds-in-children-a-prospective-population-based-study
#8
Alan Emond, Clare Sheahan, Julie Mytton, Linda Hollén
OBJECTIVE: To investigate child developmental and behavioural characteristics and risk of burns and scalds. DESIGN: Data on burns in children up to 11 years from 12 966 participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were linked to developmental profiles measured before the burn injury. MEASURES: Preinjury profiles of the children derived from maternal questionnaires completed in pregnancy, and at 6, 18, 42, 47 and 54 months...
May 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423507/tgf-%C3%AE-independent-ctgf-induction-regulates-cell-adhesion-mediated-drug-resistance-by-increasing-collagen-i-in-hcc
#9
Yeonhwa Song, Jin-Sun Kim, Eun Kyung Choi, Joon Kim, Kang Mo Kim, Haeng Ran Seo
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is resistant to conventional chemotherapeutic agents and remains an unmet medical need. Here, we demonstrate a mechanism of cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance using a variety of HCC spheroid models to overcome environment-mediated drug resistance in HCC. We classified spheroids into two groups, tightly compacted and loosely compacted aggregates, based on investigation of dynamics of spheroid formation. Our results show that compactness of HCC spheroids correlated with fibroblast-like characteristics, collagen 1A1 (COL1A1) content, and capacity for chemoresistance...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423456/progesterone-resistance-in-endometriosis-origins-consequences-and-interventions
#10
Bansari G Patel, Martin Rudnicki, Jie Yu, Yimin Shu, Robert N Taylor
Endometriosis is a common cause of pelvic pain and affects up to 10% of women of reproductive age. Aberrant progesterone signaling in the endometrium plays a significant role in impaired decidualization and establishment of ectopic endometrial implants. Eutopic endometrial cells from women with endometriosis fail to downregulate genes needed for decidualization, such as those involved in cell cycle regulation, leading to unbridled proliferation. Several causes of progesterone resistance in the endometrium have been postulated, including congenital "preconditioning", whereby the in utero environment renders infants susceptible to neonatal uterine bleeding and endometriosis...
April 19, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422621/historic-leadership-one-courageous-school-nurse-s-heroic-journey-part-3
#11
Ellen F Johnsen, Katherine J Pohlman
School nursing practice establishes itself in the midst of both education and nursing philosophies, ethics, standards, laws, and regulations. Treading these two worlds is difficult at times and requires that a school nurse possess a strong foundational knowledge base, seek professional collaboration, and navigate conflicting professional demands in order to promote student and public safety. This article is Part 3 of a four-part series that recounts the inspiring story of a school nurse, Ellen Johnsen, who did just that back in the 1980s in Broken Arrow, Oklahoma...
May 2017: NASN School Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421894/how-learning-analytics-can-early-predict-under-achieving-students-in-a-blended-medical-education-course
#12
Mohammed Saqr, Uno Fors, Matti Tedre
AIM: Learning analytics (LA) is an emerging discipline that aims at analyzing students' online data in order to improve the learning process and optimize learning environments. It has yet un-explored potential in the field of medical education, which can be particularly helpful in the early prediction and identification of under-achieving students. The aim of this study was to identify quantitative markers collected from students' online activities that may correlate with students' final performance and to investigate the possibility of predicting the potential risk of a student failing or dropping out of a course...
April 19, 2017: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421889/overall-assessment-of-human-research-and-ethics-committees-in-the-united-arab-emirates
#13
Mahera Abdulrahman, Satish Chandrasekhar Nair
Growing demand for human health research in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has prompted the need to develop a robust research ethics oversight. Examination of the structure, function, and practices of the human research ethics committees (HRECs), followed by evaluation of standards for measuring research output, was conducted. Results indicate that among the HRECs, 90% followed International Council for Harmonization-Good Clinical Practice guidelines, 66.6% have been in operation for more than 5 years, 95% reviewed proposals within 8 weeks, and 56% reviewed for scientific merit apart from ethics...
April 2017: Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics: JERHRE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421883/ctsa-institution-responses-to-proposed-common-rule-changes-did-they-get-what-they-wanted
#14
Suzanne M Rivera, Lisa Nichols, Lois Brako, Genevieve Croft, Toni Russo, Tara Tran
In 2015, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and 15 other federal departments and agencies proposed revisions to the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects. In this Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM), the departments sought to strengthen, modernize, and make more effective human subjects regulations while reducing administrative burden, delay, and ambiguity. We reviewed public comments from National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) institutions on key provisions of the NPRM to understand how the proposed changed were received at research-intensive institutions...
April 2017: Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics: JERHRE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421684/navigating-the-rolling-hills-of-justice-mental-disabilities-employment-and-the-evolving-jurisprudence-of-the-americans-with-disabilities-act
#15
Lauren Wylonis, Nina T Wylonis, Robert Sadoff
Mental illness and disability affect millions of individuals yearly in the U.S. The most important legislation protecting the mentally disabled in the workplace in the U.S. over the last half century has been the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and its associated legislation and guidance. Although the employee should first request reasonable accommodation with the employer, evaluation by a mental health professional is one of the initial steps for individuals who report significant psychiatric symptoms that are impairing their functioning at work in the U...
March 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421681/early-clinical-xenotransplantation-experiences-an-interview-with-thomas-e-starzl-md-phd
#16
REVIEW
David K C Cooper
Dr Thomas E. Starzl, who died on March 4, 2017, was one of the great pioneers of organ transplantation. He was also a pioneer in the field of xenotransplantation. In 1964, he carried out baboon kidney transplants in six patients with terminal renal disease for whom no living or deceased donor became available; graft survival was for 19-60 days, the grafts being lost largely through continuous complement activation. Between 1966 and 1974, he carried out one ex vivo liver perfusion and three orthotopic liver transplants using chimpanzees as sources of organs; graft survival was for <14 days...
March 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421173/cerebral-autoregulation-brain-injury-and-the-transitioning-premature-infant
#17
REVIEW
Zachary A Vesoulis, Amit M Mathur
Improvements in clinical management of the preterm infant have reduced the rates of the two most common forms of brain injury, such as severe intraventricular hemorrhage and white matter injury, both of which are contributory factors in the development of cerebral palsy. Nonetheless, they remain a persistent challenge and are associated with a significant increase in the risk of adverse neurodevelopment outcomes. Repeated episodes of ischemia-reperfusion represent a common pathway for both forms of injury, arising from discordance between systemic blood flow and the innate regulation of cerebral blood flow in the germinal matrix and periventricular white matter...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418341/the-knowledge-level-and-opinions-of-physicians-about-the-medical-and-legal-procedures-related-to-physical-child-abuse
#18
Sema Demirçin, Akın Tütüncüler, Fatmagül Aslan, Sevtap Velipaşaoğlu Güney, Mehmet Atılgan, Hakan Gülkesen
BACKGROUND: In order to diagnose child abuse, physicians need to consider the possibility of abuse in every child they encounter, have sufficient information about the topic and manage the cases according to current law. AIMS: To determine the knowledge level of physicians on child abuse and to learn their opinions about the procedures when they suspect child abuse. STUDY DESIGN: A questionnaire (cross-sectional) study. METHODS: A detailed questionnaire was applied to 390 physicians of whom 233 were general practitioners...
April 5, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418281/programmed-death-ligand-1-pd-l1-expression-in-the-programmed-death-receptor-1-pd-1-pd-l1-blockade-a-key-player-against-various-cancers
#19
Jian Guan, Khin Sandar Lim, Tarek Mekhail, Chung-Che Chang
CONTEXT: - Immune checkpoint pathways, including programmed death receptor-1/programmed death ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1) signaling pathway, which are important in mediating self-tolerance and controlling self-damage, can sometimes be manipulated by cancer cells to evade immune surveillance. Recent clinical trials further demonstrate the efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1-targeted therapy in various cancers and reveal a new era of cancer immunotherapy. OBJECTIVE: - To review the mechanism of the PD-1/PD-L1 signaling pathway, the regulation of this pathway, PD-1/PD-L1 as a predictive and/or prognostic marker in various cancers, and strategies of measuring PD-L1 expression...
April 18, 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417893/equipment-safety-maintenance-and-inspection-what-the-oral-surgeon-needs-to-know
#20
REVIEW
Katherine A Keeley
Many oral and maxillofacial surgical procedures are done in an office-based setting, with many oral and maxillofacial surgeons involved in oversight of equipment maintenance. Goals in equipment management are to prevent harm to patients and staff, stay compliant with current regulations, and increase equipment longevity. This article covers the safety, maintenance, and inspection related to electrical equipment used in the treatment of patients, autoclaves, radiograph machines, nitrous oxide and oxygen medical gases, and required back-up power and lighting...
May 2017: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America
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