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Kava kava

Shamantha Reddy, Pragnyadipta Mishra, Sana Qureshi, Singh Nair, Tracey Straker
Many conventional drugs used today, including isoniazid, dapsone, and acetaminophen, are well recognized culprits of hepatotoxicity. With increasing use of complementary and alternative medical therapies, several herbal medicines, such as Ma-Huang, kava, and chaparral leaf, have been implicated as hepatotoxins. Hepatotoxicity may be the most frequent adverse reaction to these herbal remedies when taken in excessive quantities. A myriad of liver dysfunctions may occur including transient liver enzyme abnormalities due to acute and chronic hepatitis...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Sreekanth C Narayanapillai, Shang-Hsuan Lin, Pablo Leitzman, Pramod Upadhyaya, Carolyn J Baglole, Chengguo Xing
4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is a key carcinogen responsible for tobacco smoke-induced lung carcinogenesis. Among DNA damages caused by NNK and its metabolite 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), O6-methylguanine (O6-mG) is likely the most carcinogenic in A/J mice. Results of our previous studies showed that O6-mG and other NNAL-derived DNA damages were preferentially reduced in the lung of female A/J mice upon the dietary treatment with dihydromethysticin (DHM), a promising lung cancer chemopreventive agent from kava...
October 11, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Viacheslav Iremashvili, Murugesan Manoharan, Bruce R Kava, Dipen J Parekh, Sanoj Punnen
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the performance of different radical prostatectomy-based prognostic tools in predicting the biopsy progression in our active surveillance cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 326 patients with biopsy Gleason grade≤6,≤2 positive biopsy cores,≤20% tumor present in any core, prostate-specific antigen<15ng/dl, and clinical stages T1-T2a all of whom had at least single surveillance biopsy. Probabilities of pathologically relatively aggressive disease were estimated using Partin and Dinh risk tables and Kattan, Truong, and Kulkarni nomograms for each individual patient...
September 27, 2016: Urologic Oncology
Eduardo Henrique Goulin, Daiani Cristina Savi, Desirrê Alexia Lourenço Petters, Vanessa Kava, Lygia Galli-Terasawa, Geraldo José Silva, Chirlei Glienke
Phyllosticta citricarpa is the epidemiological agent of Citrus Black Spot (CBS) disease, which is responsible for large economic losses worldwide. CBS is characterized by the presence of spores (pycnidiospores) in dark lesions of fruit, which are also responsible for short distance dispersal of the disease. The identification of genes involved in asexual reproduction of P. citricarpa can be an alternative for directional disease control. We analyzed a library of mutants obtained through Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation system, looking for alterations in growth and reproductive structure formation...
November 2016: Microbiological Research
Sarah L Nickerson, Shanti Balasubramaniam, Philippa A Dryland, Jennifer M Love, Maina P Kava, Donald R Love, Debra O Prosser
Nonketotic hyperglycinemia, also known as glycine encephalopathy (OMIM #605899), is an autosomal recessive disorder of glycine metabolism resulting from a defect in the glycine cleavage system. We report two novel mutations of the glycine decarboxylase (GLDC) gene observed in a compound heterozygous state in a neonate of mixed Maori and Caucasian parentage: c.395C>T p.(Ser132Leu) in exon 3, and c.256-?_334+?del p.(Ser86Valfs*119), resulting in an out-of-frame deletion of exon 2. Additionally, we describe our experience of implementing the ketogenic diet, alongside standard pharmacological therapy, and highlight its potential therapeutic benefit in severe nonketotic hyperglycinemia, particularly in seizure management...
September 2016: Journal of Pediatric Genetics
Megan E Hardie, Hieronimus W Kava, Vincent Murray
Cisplatin is widely used as a cancer chemotherapeutic agent and this review covers the mechanism of action of cisplatin, cellular resistance to cisplatin, the genomic location of cisplatin adducts and the properties of DNA-targeted Pt complexes. A particular focus of this review is the interaction of Pt compounds with DNA. The technology involved in determining Pt-drug/DNA interactions has advanced and permits clearer views of this process. In particular, molecular biological techniques permit a more accurate and precise determination of the sequence specific preference of Pt adduct formation...
August 31, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Hieronimus W Kava, Vincent Murray
This study investigated the effect of CpG methylation on the DNA binding of cisplatin analogues with an attached aminoacridine intercalator. DNA-targeted 9-aminoacridine carboxamide Pt complexes are known to bind at 5'-CpG sequences. Their binding to methylated and non-methylated 5'-CpG sequences was determined and compared with cisplatin. The damage profiles of each platinum compound were quantified via a polymerase stop assay with fluorescently labelled primers and capillary electrophoresis. Methylation at 5'-CpG was shown to significantly increase the binding intensity for the 9-aminoacridine carboxamide compounds, whereas no significant increase was found for cisplatin...
October 1, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Chinni Yalamanchili, Vamshi K Manda, Amar G Chittiboyina, Rebecca L Guernieri, William A Harrell, Robert P Webb, Leonard A Smith, Ikhlas A Khan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ayurveda, an ancient holistic system of health care practiced on the Indian subcontinent, utilizes a number of multi-plant formulations and is considered by many as a potential source for novel treatments, as well as the identification of new drugs. Our aim is to identify novel phytochemicals for the inhibition of bacterial exotoxin, botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) based on Ayurvedic literature. BoNT/A is released by Clostridium species, which when ingested, inhibits the release of acetylcholine by concentrating at the neuromuscular junction and causes flaccid paralysis, resulting in a condition termed as botulism, and may also lead to death due to respiratory arrest...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Georg Fischer, Eli M Sarnat, Evan P Economo
The Fijian islands, a remote archipelago in the southwestern Pacific, are home to a number of spectacular endemic radiations of plants and animals. Unlike most Pacific archipelagos, these evolutionary radiations extend to social insects, including ants. One of the most dramatic examples of ant radiation in Fiji has occurred in the hyperdiverse genus Pheidole. Most of the 17 native Fijian Pheidole belong to one of two species groups that descended from a single colonization, yet have evolved dramatically contrasting morphologies: the spinescent P...
2016: PloS One
Briana A Woods-Jaeger, Christine M Kava, Christopher F Akiba, Leah Lucid, Shannon Dorsey
OBJECTIVE: This study explored the facilitators, barriers, and strategies used to deliver a child mental health evidence-based treatment (EBT), trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT), in a culturally responsive manner. In low- and middle-income countries most individuals with mental health problems do not receive treatment due to a shortage of mental health professionals. One approach to addressing this problem is task-sharing, in which lay counselors are trained to deliver mental health treatment...
July 14, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Amy Christine Brown
BACKGROUND: No current list of potentially life-threatening, hepatotoxic herbs and dietary supplements based on PubMed case studies exists in a summarized tabular form. METHODS: Documented case reports of herbs or dietary supplements appearing to contribute to liver injury were used to create a "Harmful Herb and Dietary Supplement List" of potentially hepatotoxic herbs and dietary supplements (PubMed, 1966 to May, 2015, and cross-referencing). The spectrum of herbal induced liver injuries (HDSILI) researched included elevated liver enzymes, hepatitis, steatosis, cholestasis, hepatic necrosis, hepatic fibrosis, hepatic cirrhosis, veno-occlusive disease, acute liver failure requiring a liver transplant, and death...
July 8, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Harmony Raylen Abejuela, David N Osser
This revision of previous algorithms for the pharmacotherapy of generalized anxiety disorder was developed by the Psychopharmacology Algorithm Project at the Harvard South Shore Program. Algorithms from 1999 and 2010 and associated references were reevaluated. Newer studies and reviews published from 2008-14 were obtained from PubMed and analyzed with a focus on their potential to justify changes in the recommendations. Exceptions to the main algorithm for special patient populations, such as women of childbearing potential, pregnant women, the elderly, and those with common medical and psychiatric comorbidities, were considered...
July 2016: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
Ayşegül Kavas, Dilek Keskin, Korhan Altunbaş, Ayşen Tezcaner
Raloxifene (Ral)- or Ral-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) conjugate-loaded microspheres were prepared with poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) alone or with the blend of PCL and poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) to provide controlled and sustained Ral release systems. Benefits of these formulations were evaluated on bone regeneration. Ral-loaded PCL microspheres had the highest encapsulation efficiency (70.7±5.0%) among all groups owing to high hydrophobic natures of both Ral and PCL. Cumulative amount of Ral released from Ral-PEG (1:2) conjugate-loaded PCL:PLGA (1:1) microspheres (26...
August 20, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Han Chow Chua, Emilie T H Christensen, Kirsten Hoestgaard-Jensen, Leonny Y Hartiadi, Iqbal Ramzan, Anders A Jensen, Nathan L Absalom, Mary Chebib
Extracts of the pepper plant kava (Piper methysticum) are effective in alleviating anxiety in clinical trials. Despite the long-standing therapeutic interest in kava, the molecular target(s) of the pharmacologically active constituents, kavalactones have not been established. γ-Aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAARs) are assumed to be the in vivo molecular target of kavalactones based on data from binding assays, but evidence in support of a direct interaction between kavalactones and GABAARs is scarce and equivocal...
2016: PloS One
Lifeng Niu, Lina Ding, Chunyun Lu, Feifei Zuo, Ke Yao, Shaobo Xu, Wen Li, Donghua Yang, Xia Xu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Flavokawain A, the major chalcone in kava extracts, was served as beverages for informal social occasions and traditional ceremonials in most South Pacific islands. It exhibited strong antiproliferative and apoptotic effects against human prostate and urinary bladder cancer cells. AIM OF THE STUDY: The current study was purposed to investigate the interaction between Flavokawain A and Cytochrome P450, including the inhibitory effects of Flavokawain A on predominant CYP450 isotypes and further clarified the inhibitory mechanism of FKA on CYP450 enzymes...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Volmir Pitt Benedetti, Daiani Cristina Savi, Rodrigo Aluizio, Douglas Adamoski, Vanessa Kava-Cordeiro, Lygia V Galli-Terasawa, Chirlei Glienke
Yeasts of the genus Candida have high genetic variability and are the most common opportunistic pathogenic fungi in humans. In this study, we evaluated the genetic diversity among 120 isolates of Candida spp. obtained from diabetic patients, kidney transplant recipients and patients without any immune deficiencies from Paraná state, Brazil. The analysis was performed using the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and a partial sequence of 28S rDNA. In the phylogenetic analysis, we observed a consistent separation of the species C...
June 7, 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Paulo José Camargo Dos Santos, Daiani Cristina Savi, Renata Rodrigues Gomes, Eduardo Henrique Goulin, Camila Da Costa Senkiv, Francisco André Ossamu Tanaka, Álvaro Manuel Rodrigues Almeida, Lygia Galli-Terasawa, Vanessa Kava, Chirlei Glienke
The citrus industry is severely affected by citrus black spot (CBS), a disease caused by the pathogen Phyllosticta citricarpa. This disease causes loss of production, decrease in the market price of the fruit, and reduction in its export to the European Union. Currently, CBS disease is being treated in orchards with various pesticides and fungicides every year. One alternative to CBS disease control without harming the environment is the use of microorganisms for biological control. Diaporthe endophytica and D...
May 2016: Microbiological Research
Haruhiro Yamashita, Mark J Hoenerhoff, Shyamal D Peddada, Robert C Sills, Arun R Pandiri
Retinal degeneration due to chronic ambient light exposure is a common spontaneous age-related finding in albino rats, but it can also be related to exposures associated with environmental chemicals and drugs. Typically, light-induced retinal degeneration has a central/hemispherical localization whereas chemical-induced retinal degeneration has a diffuse localization. This study was conducted to identify and characterize treatment-related retinal degeneration in National Toxicology Program rodent bioassays...
August 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
Ethan B Russo
Plants have been the predominant source of medicines throughout the vast majority of human history, and remain so today outside of industrialized societies. One of the most versatile in terms of its phytochemistry is cannabis, whose investigation has led directly to the discovery of a unique and widespread homeostatic physiological regulator, the endocannabinoid system. While it had been the conventional wisdom until recently that only cannabis harbored active agents affecting the endocannabinoid system, in recent decades the search has widened and identified numerous additional plants whose components stimulate, antagonize, or modulate different aspects of this system...
July 2016: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
Adalet Gürlek, Kerim Esenboğa, Özgür Ulaş Özcan, Ömer Faruk Çiçek, Pelin Arıbal Ayral, Güzin Özelçi Kavas, Çetin Erol
OBJECTIVE: Serum levels of nitric oxide (NO) are decreased in patients with atherosclerosis and also are a risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. Endothelial dysfunction and diffuse atherosclerosis have been proposed for the etiology of coronary artery ectasia (CAE). The purpose of this clinical trial was to determine the relationship between CAE and serum NO levels. METHODS: This prospective controlled study was conducted between January 2008 and March 2012...
April 25, 2016: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
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