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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231272/vibrio-japonicus-sp-nov-a-novel-member-of-the-nereis-clade-in-the-genus-vibrio-isolated-from-the-coast-of-japan
#1
Hiroyasu Doi, Ikuko Osawa, Hayamitsu Adachi, Manabu Kawada
A novel Vibrio strain, JCM 31412T, was isolated from seawater collected from the Inland Sea (Setonaikai), Japan, and characterized as a Gram-negative, oxidase-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic, motile, ovoid-shaped bacterium with one polar flagellum. Based on 16S rDNA gene identity, strain JCM 31412T showed a close relationship with type strains of Vibrio brasiliensis (LMG 20546T, 98.2% identity), V. harveyi (NBRC 15634T, 98.2%), V. caribbeanicus (ATCC BAA-2122T, 97.8%) and V. proteolyticus (NBRC 13287T, 97...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230084/highly-potent-antimicrobial-peptides-from-n-terminal-membrane-binding-region-of-e-coli-mreb
#2
Karabi Saikia, Yalavarthi Durga Sravani, Vibin Ramakrishnan, Nitin Chaudhary
Microbial pathogenesis is a serious health concern. The threat escalates as the existing conventional antimicrobials are losing their efficacy against the evolving pathogens. Peptides hold promise to be developed into next-generation antibiotics. Antimicrobial peptides adopt amphipathic structures that could selectively bind to and disrupt the microbial membranes. Interaction of proteins with membranes is central to all living systems and we reasoned that the membrane-binding domains in microbial proteins could be developed into efficient antimicrobials...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217108/chemotaxis-without-conventional-two-component-system-based-on-cell-polarity-and-aerobic-conditions-in-helicity-switching-swimming-of-spiroplasma-eriocheiris
#3
Peng Liu, Huajun Zheng, Qingguo Meng, Natsuho Terahara, Wei Gu, Shengyue Wang, Guoping Zhao, Daisuke Nakane, Wen Wang, Makoto Miyata
Spiroplasma eriocheiris is a pathogen that causes mass mortality in Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis. S. eriocheiris causes tremor disease and infects almost all of the artificial breeding crustaceans, resulting in disastrous effects on the aquaculture economy in China. S. eriocheiris is a wall-less helical bacterium, measuring 2.0 to 10.0 μm long, and can swim up to 5 μm per second in a viscous medium without flagella by switching the cell helicity at a kink traveling from the front to the tail. In this study, we showed that S...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164388/exclusion-of-assembled-mreb-by-anionic-phospholipids-at-cell-poles-confers-cell-polarity-for-bidirectional-growth
#4
Takuma Kawazura, Kanon Matsumoto, Koki Kojima, Fumiya Kato, Tomomi Kanai, Hironori Niki, Daisuke Shiomi
Cell polarity determines the direction of cell growth in bacteria. MreB actin spatially regulates peptidoglycan synthesis to enable cells to elongate bidirectionally. MreB densely localizes in the cylindrical part of the rod cell and not in polar regions in Escherichia coli. When treated with A22, which inhibits MreB polymerization, rod-shaped cells became round and MreB was diffusely distributed throughout the cytoplasmic membrane. A22 removal resulted in restoration of the rod shape. Initially, diffuse MreB started to re-assemble, and MreB-free zones were subsequently observed in the cytoplasmic membrane...
February 6, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039436/cell-morphology-drives-spatial-patterning-in-microbial-communities
#5
William P J Smith, Yohan Davit, James M Osborne, Wook Kim, Kevin R Foster, Joe M Pitt-Francis
The clearest phenotypic characteristic of microbial cells is their shape, but we do not understand how cell shape affects the dense communities, known as biofilms, where many microbes live. Here, we use individual-based modeling to systematically vary cell shape and study its impact in simulated communities. We compete cells with different cell morphologies under a range of conditions and ask how shape affects the patterning and evolutionary fitness of cells within a community. Our models predict that cell shape will strongly influence the fate of a cell lineage: we describe a mechanism through which coccal (round) cells rise to the upper surface of a community, leading to a strong spatial structuring that can be critical for fitness...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025549/a-spatial-control-for-correct-timing-of-gene-expression-during-the-escherichia-coli-cell-cycle
#6
Yuan Yao, Lifei Fan, Yixin Shi, Ingvild Odsbu, Morigen
Temporal transcriptions of genes are achieved by different mechanisms such as dynamic interaction of activator and repressor proteins with promoters, and accumulation and/or degradation of key regulators as a function of cell cycle. We find that the TorR protein localizes to the old poles of the Escherichia coli cells, forming a functional focus. The TorR focus co-localizes with the nucleoid in a cell-cycle-dependent manner, and consequently regulates transcription of a number of genes. Formation of one TorR focus at the old poles of cells requires interaction with the MreB and DnaK proteins, and ATP, suggesting that TorR delivery requires cytoskeleton organization and ATP...
December 23, 2016: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997718/dynamics-of-the-peptidoglycan-biosynthetic-machinery-in-the-stalked-budding-bacterium-hyphomonas-neptunium
#7
Emöke Cserti, Sabine Rosskopf, Yi-Wei Chang, Sabrina Eisheuer, Lars Selter, Jian Shi, Christina Regh, Ulrich Koert, Grant J Jensen, Martin Thanbichler
Most commonly studied bacteria grow symmetrically and divide by binary fission, generating two siblings of equal morphology. An exception to this rule are budding bacteria, in which new offspring emerges de novo from a morphologically invariant mother cell. Although this mode of proliferation is widespread in diverse bacterial lineages, the underlying mechanisms are still incompletely understood. Here, we report the first molecular-level analysis of growth and morphogenesis in the stalked budding alphaproteobacterium Hyphomonas neptunium...
December 20, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966599/transcriptional-analysis-of-degenerate-strain-clostridium-beijerinckii-dg-8052-reveals-a-pleiotropic-response-to-caco3-associated-recovery-of-solvent-production
#8
Shengyin Jiao, Yan Zhang, Caixia Wan, Jia Lv, Renjia Du, Ruijuan Zhang, Bei Han
Degenerate Clostridium beijerinckii strain (DG-8052) can be partially recovered by supplementing CaCO3 to fermentation media. Genome resequencing of DG-8052 showed no general regulator mutated. This study focused on transcriptional analysis of DG-8052 and its response to CaCO3 treatment via microarray. The expressions of 5168 genes capturing 98.6% of C. beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 genome were examed. The results revealed that with addition of CaCO3 565 and 916 genes were significantly up-regulated, and 704 and 1044 genes significantly down-regulated at acidogenic and solventogenic phase of DG-8052, respectively...
December 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956612/interrogating-the-escherichia-coli-cell-cycle-by-cell-dimension-perturbations
#9
Hai Zheng, Po-Yi Ho, Meiling Jiang, Bin Tang, Weirong Liu, Dengjin Li, Xuefeng Yu, Nancy E Kleckner, Ariel Amir, Chenli Liu
Bacteria tightly regulate and coordinate the various events in their cell cycles to duplicate themselves accurately and to control their cell sizes. Growth of Escherichia coli, in particular, follows a relation known as Schaechter's growth law. This law says that the average cell volume scales exponentially with growth rate, with a scaling exponent equal to the time from initiation of a round of DNA replication to the cell division at which the corresponding sister chromosomes segregate. Here, we sought to test the robustness of the growth law to systematic perturbations in cell dimensions achieved by varying the expression levels of mreB and ftsZ We found that decreasing the mreB level resulted in increased cell width, with little change in cell length, whereas decreasing the ftsZ level resulted in increased cell length...
December 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935943/confined-mobility-of-tonb-and-fepa-in-escherichia-coli-membranes
#10
Yoriko Lill, Lorne D Jordan, Chuck R Smallwood, Salete M Newton, Markus A Lill, Phillip E Klebba, Ken Ritchie
The important process of nutrient uptake in Escherichia coli, in many cases, involves transit of the nutrient through a class of beta-barrel proteins in the outer membrane known as TonB-dependent transporters (TBDTs) and requires interaction with the inner membrane protein TonB. Here we have imaged the mobility of the ferric enterobactin transporter FepA and TonB by tracking them in the membranes of live E. coli with single-molecule resolution at time-scales ranging from milliseconds to seconds. We employed simple simulations to model/analyze the lateral diffusion in the membranes of E...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821762/x-ray-and-cryo-em-structures-of-monomeric-and-filamentous-actin-like-protein-mamk-reveal-changes-associated-with-polymerization
#11
Jan Löwe, Shaoda He, Sjors H W Scheres, Christos G Savva
Magnetotactic bacteria produce iron-rich magnetic nanoparticles that are enclosed by membrane invaginations to form magnetosomes so they are able to sense and act upon Earth's magnetic field. In Magnetospirillum and other magnetotactic bacteria, to combine their magnetic moments, magnetosomes align along filaments formed by a bacterial actin homolog, MamK. Here, we present the crystal structure of a nonpolymerizing mutant of MamK from Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 at 1.8-Å resolution, revealing its close similarity to actin and MreB...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818647/rodz-and-pgsa-play-intertwined-roles-in-membrane-homeostasis-of-bacillus-subtilis-and-resistance-to-weak-organic-acid-stress
#12
Johan van Beilen, Christoph J Blohmke, Hendrik Folkerts, Richard de Boer, Anna Zakrzewska, Wim Kulik, Fred M Vaz, Stanley Brul, Alexander Ter Beek
Weak organic acids like sorbic and acetic acid are widely used to prevent growth of spoilage organisms such as Bacilli. To identify genes involved in weak acid stress tolerance we screened a transposon mutant library of Bacillus subtilis for sorbic acid sensitivity. Mutants of the rodZ (ymfM) gene were found to be hypersensitive to the lipophilic weak organic acid. RodZ is involved in determining the cell's rod-shape and believed to interact with the bacterial actin-like MreB cytoskeleton. Since rodZ lies upstream in the genome of the essential gene pgsA (phosphatidylglycerol phosphate synthase) we hypothesized that expression of the latter might also be affected in rodZ mutants and hence contribute to the phenotype observed...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817177/bacterial-actins-and-their-interactors
#13
Pananghat Gayathri
Bacterial actins polymerize in the presence of nucleotide (preferably ATP), form a common arrangement of monomeric interfaces within a protofilament, and undergo ATP hydrolysis-dependent change in stability of the filament-all of which contribute to performing their respective functions. The relative stability of the filament in the ADP-bound form compared to that of ATP and the rate of addition of monomers at the two ends decide the filament dynamics. One of the major differences between eukaryotic actin and bacterial actins is the variety in protofilament arrangements and dynamics exhibited by the latter...
November 6, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810886/comparative-analysis-of-the-survival-and-gene-expression-of-pathogenic-strains-vibrio-harveyi-after-starvation
#14
Jingjing Sun, Xiaojian Gao, Jiang Qun, Xuedi Du, Keran Bi, Xiaojun Zhang, Li Lin
This study aimed to evaluate the survival and gene expression of Vibrio harveyi under starvation conditions. The microcosms V. harveyi were incubated in sterilized seawater for 4 weeks at room temperature. Overall, the cell numeration declined rapidly about 10(3) CFU/ml during starvation, with a tiny rebound at day 21. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that rod-shaped cells became sphere with a rippled cell surface. By polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, nine genes, named luxR, toxR, vhhB, flaA, topA, fur, rpoS, mreB and ftsZ, were detected in the non-starved cells...
November 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703450/first-report-of-vibrio-tubiashii-associated-with-a-massive-larval-mortality-event-in-a-commercial-hatchery-of-scallop-argopecten-purpuratus-in-chile
#15
Rodrigo Rojas, Claudio D Miranda, Javier Santander, Jaime Romero
The VPAP30 strain was isolated as the highly predominant bacteria from an episode of massive larval mortality occurring in a commercial culture of the Chilean scallop Argopecten purpuratus. The main aims of this study were, to characterize and identify the pathogenic strain using biochemical and molecular methods to demonstrate its pathogenic activity on scallop larvae, to characterize its pathogenic properties and to describe the chronology of this pathology. The pathogenic strain was identified as Vibrio tubiashii based on its phenotypic properties and the sequence analysis of its 16S rRNA and housekeeping genes (ftsZ, gapA, gyrB, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA and topA)...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693319/crispri-engineering-e-coli-for-morphology-diversification
#16
Dina Elhadi, Li Lv, Xiao-Ran Jiang, Hong Wu, Guo-Qiang Chen
Microbial morphology engineering has recently become interesting for biotechnology. Genes ftsZ and mreB encoding proteins of bacterial fission ring and skeletons, respectively, are essential for cell growth, they both are the most important genes keeping the bacterial shapes including the cell length and width, respectively. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats interference, abbreviated as CRISPRi, was for the first time used in this study to regulate expression intensities of ftsZ or/and mreB in E...
September 28, 2016: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671364/characterisation-of-pectobacterium-carotovorum-proteins-differentially-expressed-during-infection-of-zantedeschia-elliotiana-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-which-are-essential-for-virulence
#17
Huan Wang, Zhongling Yang, Shuo Du, Lin Ma, Yao Liao, Yujie Wang, Ian Toth, Jiaqin Fan
Identifying phytopathogen proteins that are differentially expressed in the course of establishing an infection is important to better understand the infection process. In vitro approaches, using plant extracts added to culture medium, have been used to identify such proteins but the biological relevance of these findings for in planta infection are often uncertain until confirmed by in vivo studies. Here, we compared proteins of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum strain PccS1 differentially expressed in LB medium supplemented with extracts of the ornamental plant Zantedeschia elliotiana cultivar 'Black magic' (in vitro) and in plant tissues (in vivo) by two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry...
September 27, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602731/mreb-orientation-correlates-with-cell-diameter-in-escherichia-coli
#18
Nikolay Ouzounov, Jeffrey P Nguyen, Benjamin P Bratton, David Jacobowitz, Zemer Gitai, Joshua W Shaevitz
Bacteria have remarkably robust cell shape control mechanisms. For example, cell diameter only varies by a few percent across a given population. The bacterial actin homolog, MreB, is necessary for establishment and maintenance of rod shape although the detailed properties of MreB that are important for shape control remained unknown. In this study, we perturb MreB in two ways: by treating cells with the polymerization-inhibiting drug A22 and by creating point mutants in mreB. These perturbations modify the steady-state diameter of cells over a wide range, from 790 ± 30 nm to 1700 ± 20 nm...
September 6, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600765/exploring-the-a22-bacterial-actin-mreb-interaction-through-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#19
Yaw Awuni, Shimin Jiang, Robert C Robinson, Yuguang Mu
MreB is an actin-like cytoskeleton protein that plays a vital role in the maintenance of the rod-shaped morphology of many bacteria. S-(3,4-Dichlorobenzyl) isothiourea (A22) is an antibiotic-like small molecule that perturbs the rod cell shape and has been suggested to inhibit MreB by targeting ATP hydrolysis. However, without the elucidation of the structure of the ATP-bound state of MreB in the presence of A22, the mechanism of A22 inhibition is still not clear. Here we apply conventional molecular dynamics simulations to explore the dynamics of the active site of MreB in complex with A22 and different nucleotides...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573111/wall-proficient-e-coli-capable-of-sustained-growth-in-the-absence-of-the-z-ring-division-machine
#20
Romain Mercier, Yoshikazu Kawai, Jeff Errington
The peptidoglycan cell wall is a major protective external sheath in bacteria and a key target for antibiotics(1). Peptidoglycan is present in virtually all bacteria, suggesting that it was probably present in the last bacterial common ancestor(2). Cell wall expansion is orchestrated by cytoskeletal proteins related to actin (MreB) and tubulin (FtsZ)(3). FtsZ is a key essential player in a highly organized division machine that directs an invaginating annulus of cell wall peptidoglycan. The recent discovery that cell-wall-less bacteria (L-forms) can grow and divide independently of FtsZ(4,5), provided a means of generating an ftsZ null mutant of Escherichia coli...
2016: Nature Microbiology
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