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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039436/cell-morphology-drives-spatial-patterning-in-microbial-communities
#1
William P J Smith, Yohan Davit, James M Osborne, Wook Kim, Kevin R Foster, Joe M Pitt-Francis
The clearest phenotypic characteristic of microbial cells is their shape, but we do not understand how cell shape affects the dense communities, known as biofilms, where many microbes live. Here, we use individual-based modeling to systematically vary cell shape and study its impact in simulated communities. We compete cells with different cell morphologies under a range of conditions and ask how shape affects the patterning and evolutionary fitness of cells within a community. Our models predict that cell shape will strongly influence the fate of a cell lineage: we describe a mechanism through which coccal (round) cells rise to the upper surface of a community, leading to a strong spatial structuring that can be critical for fitness...
December 30, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025549/a-spatial-control-for-correct-timing-of-gene-expression-during-the-escherichia-coli-cell-cycle
#2
Yuan Yao, Lifei Fan, Yixin Shi, Ingvild Odsbu, Morigen
Temporal transcriptions of genes are achieved by different mechanisms such as dynamic interaction of activator and repressor proteins with promoters, and accumulation and/or degradation of key regulators as a function of cell cycle. We find that the TorR protein localizes to the old poles of the Escherichia coli cells, forming a functional focus. The TorR focus co-localizes with the nucleoid in a cell-cycle-dependent manner, and consequently regulates transcription of a number of genes. Formation of one TorR focus at the old poles of cells requires interaction with the MreB and DnaK proteins, and ATP, suggesting that TorR delivery requires cytoskeleton organization and ATP...
December 23, 2016: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997718/dynamics-of-the-peptidoglycan-biosynthetic-machinery-in-the-stalked-budding-bacterium-hyphomonas-neptunium
#3
Emöke Cserti, Sabine Rosskopf, Yi-Wei Chang, Sabrina Eisheuer, Lars Selter, Jian Shi, Christina Regh, Ulrich Koert, Grant J Jensen, Martin Thanbichler
Most commonly studied bacteria grow symmetrically and divide by binary fission, generating two siblings of equal morphology. An exception to this rule are budding bacteria, in which new offspring emerges de novo from a morphologically invariant mother cell. Although this mode of proliferation is widespread in diverse bacterial lineages, the underlying mechanisms are still incompletely understood. Here, we perform the first molecular-level analysis of growth and morphogenesis in the stalked budding alphaproteobacterium Hyphomonas neptunium...
December 20, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966599/transcriptional-analysis-of-degenerate-strain-clostridium-beijerinckii-dg-8052-reveals-a-pleiotropic-response-to-caco3-associated-recovery-of-solvent-production
#4
Shengyin Jiao, Yan Zhang, Caixia Wan, Jia Lv, Renjia Du, Ruijuan Zhang, Bei Han
Degenerate Clostridium beijerinckii strain (DG-8052) can be partially recovered by supplementing CaCO3 to fermentation media. Genome resequencing of DG-8052 showed no general regulator mutated. This study focused on transcriptional analysis of DG-8052 and its response to CaCO3 treatment via microarray. The expressions of 5168 genes capturing 98.6% of C. beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 genome were examed. The results revealed that with addition of CaCO3 565 and 916 genes were significantly up-regulated, and 704 and 1044 genes significantly down-regulated at acidogenic and solventogenic phase of DG-8052, respectively...
December 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956612/interrogating-the-escherichia-coli-cell-cycle-by-cell-dimension-perturbations
#5
Hai Zheng, Po-Yi Ho, Meiling Jiang, Bin Tang, Weirong Liu, Dengjin Li, Xuefeng Yu, Nancy E Kleckner, Ariel Amir, Chenli Liu
Bacteria tightly regulate and coordinate the various events in their cell cycles to duplicate themselves accurately and to control their cell sizes. Growth of Escherichia coli, in particular, follows a relation known as Schaechter's growth law. This law says that the average cell volume scales exponentially with growth rate, with a scaling exponent equal to the time from initiation of a round of DNA replication to the cell division at which the corresponding sister chromosomes segregate. Here, we sought to test the robustness of the growth law to systematic perturbations in cell dimensions achieved by varying the expression levels of mreB and ftsZ We found that decreasing the mreB level resulted in increased cell width, with little change in cell length, whereas decreasing the ftsZ level resulted in increased cell length...
December 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935943/confined-mobility-of-tonb-and-fepa-in-escherichia-coli-membranes
#6
Yoriko Lill, Lorne D Jordan, Chuck R Smallwood, Salete M Newton, Markus A Lill, Phillip E Klebba, Ken Ritchie
The important process of nutrient uptake in Escherichia coli, in many cases, involves transit of the nutrient through a class of beta-barrel proteins in the outer membrane known as TonB-dependent transporters (TBDTs) and requires interaction with the inner membrane protein TonB. Here we have imaged the mobility of the ferric enterobactin transporter FepA and TonB by tracking them in the membranes of live E. coli with single-molecule resolution at time-scales ranging from milliseconds to seconds. We employed simple simulations to model/analyze the lateral diffusion in the membranes of E...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821762/x-ray-and-cryo-em-structures-of-monomeric-and-filamentous-actin-like-protein-mamk-reveal-changes-associated-with-polymerization
#7
Jan Löwe, Shaoda He, Sjors H W Scheres, Christos G Savva
Magnetotactic bacteria produce iron-rich magnetic nanoparticles that are enclosed by membrane invaginations to form magnetosomes so they are able to sense and act upon Earth's magnetic field. In Magnetospirillum and other magnetotactic bacteria, to combine their magnetic moments, magnetosomes align along filaments formed by a bacterial actin homolog, MamK. Here, we present the crystal structure of a nonpolymerizing mutant of MamK from Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 at 1.8-Å resolution, revealing its close similarity to actin and MreB...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818647/rodz-and-pgsa-play-intertwined-roles-in-membrane-homeostasis-of-bacillus-subtilis-and-resistance-to-weak-organic-acid-stress
#8
Johan van Beilen, Christoph J Blohmke, Hendrik Folkerts, Richard de Boer, Anna Zakrzewska, Wim Kulik, Fred M Vaz, Stanley Brul, Alexander Ter Beek
Weak organic acids like sorbic and acetic acid are widely used to prevent growth of spoilage organisms such as Bacilli. To identify genes involved in weak acid stress tolerance we screened a transposon mutant library of Bacillus subtilis for sorbic acid sensitivity. Mutants of the rodZ (ymfM) gene were found to be hypersensitive to the lipophilic weak organic acid. RodZ is involved in determining the cell's rod-shape and believed to interact with the bacterial actin-like MreB cytoskeleton. Since rodZ lies upstream in the genome of the essential gene pgsA (phosphatidylglycerol phosphate synthase) we hypothesized that expression of the latter might also be affected in rodZ mutants and hence contribute to the phenotype observed...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817177/bacterial-actins-and-their-interactors
#9
Pananghat Gayathri
Bacterial actins polymerize in the presence of nucleotide (preferably ATP), form a common arrangement of monomeric interfaces within a protofilament, and undergo ATP hydrolysis-dependent change in stability of the filament-all of which contribute to performing their respective functions. The relative stability of the filament in the ADP-bound form compared to that of ATP and the rate of addition of monomers at the two ends decide the filament dynamics. One of the major differences between eukaryotic actin and bacterial actins is the variety in protofilament arrangements and dynamics exhibited by the latter...
November 6, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810886/comparative-analysis-of-the-survival-and-gene-expression-of-pathogenic-strains-vibrio-harveyi-after-starvation
#10
Jingjing Sun, Xiaojian Gao, Jiang Qun, Xuedi Du, Keran Bi, Xiaojun Zhang, Li Lin
This study aimed to evaluate the survival and gene expression of Vibrio harveyi under starvation conditions. The microcosms V. harveyi were incubated in sterilized seawater for 4 weeks at room temperature. Overall, the cell numeration declined rapidly about 10(3) CFU/ml during starvation, with a tiny rebound at day 21. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that rod-shaped cells became sphere with a rippled cell surface. By polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, nine genes, named luxR, toxR, vhhB, flaA, topA, fur, rpoS, mreB and ftsZ, were detected in the non-starved cells...
November 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703450/first-report-of-vibrio-tubiashii-associated-with-a-massive-larval-mortality-event-in-a-commercial-hatchery-of-scallop-argopecten-purpuratus-in-chile
#11
Rodrigo Rojas, Claudio D Miranda, Javier Santander, Jaime Romero
The VPAP30 strain was isolated as the highly predominant bacteria from an episode of massive larval mortality occurring in a commercial culture of the Chilean scallop Argopecten purpuratus. The main aims of this study were, to characterize and identify the pathogenic strain using biochemical and molecular methods to demonstrate its pathogenic activity on scallop larvae, to characterize its pathogenic properties and to describe the chronology of this pathology. The pathogenic strain was identified as Vibrio tubiashii based on its phenotypic properties and the sequence analysis of its 16S rRNA and housekeeping genes (ftsZ, gapA, gyrB, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA and topA)...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693319/crispri-engineering-e-coli-for-morphology-diversification
#12
Dina Elhadi, Li Lv, Xiao-Ran Jiang, Hong Wu, Guo-Qiang Chen
Microbial morphology engineering has recently become interesting for biotechnology. Genes ftsZ and mreB encoding proteins of bacterial fission ring and skeletons, respectively, are essential for cell growth, they both are the most important genes keeping the bacterial shapes including the cell length and width, respectively. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats interference, abbreviated as CRISPRi, was for the first time used in this study to regulate expression intensities of ftsZ or/and mreB in E...
September 28, 2016: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671364/characterisation-of-pectobacterium-carotovorum-proteins-differentially-expressed-during-infection-of-zantedeschia-elliotiana-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-which-are-essential-for-virulence
#13
Huan Wang, Zhongling Yang, Shuo Du, Lin Ma, Yao Liao, Yujie Wang, Ian Toth, Jiaqin Fan
Identifying phytopathogen proteins that are differentially expressed in the course of establishing an infection is important to better understand the infection process. In vitro approaches, using plant extracts added to culture medium, have been used to identify such proteins but the biological relevance of these findings for in planta infection are often uncertain until confirmed by in vivo studies. Here, we compared proteins of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum strain PccS1 differentially expressed in LB medium supplemented with extracts of the ornamental plant Zantedeschia elliotiana cultivar 'Black magic' (in vitro) and in plant tissues (in vivo) by two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry...
September 27, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602731/mreb-orientation-correlates-with-cell-diameter-in-escherichia-coli
#14
Nikolay Ouzounov, Jeffrey P Nguyen, Benjamin P Bratton, David Jacobowitz, Zemer Gitai, Joshua W Shaevitz
Bacteria have remarkably robust cell shape control mechanisms. For example, cell diameter only varies by a few percent across a given population. The bacterial actin homolog, MreB, is necessary for establishment and maintenance of rod shape although the detailed properties of MreB that are important for shape control remained unknown. In this study, we perturb MreB in two ways: by treating cells with the polymerization-inhibiting drug A22 and by creating point mutants in mreB. These perturbations modify the steady-state diameter of cells over a wide range, from 790 ± 30 nm to 1700 ± 20 nm...
September 6, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600765/exploring-the-a22-bacterial-actin-mreb-interaction-through-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#15
Yaw Awuni, Shimin Jiang, Robert C Robinson, Yuguang Mu
MreB is an actin-like cytoskeleton protein that plays a vital role in the maintenance of the rod-shaped morphology of many bacteria. S-(3,4-Dichlorobenzyl) isothiourea (A22) is an antibiotic-like small molecule that perturbs the rod cell shape and has been suggested to inhibit MreB by targeting ATP hydrolysis. However, without the elucidation of the structure of the ATP-bound state of MreB in the presence of A22, the mechanism of A22 inhibition is still not clear. Here we apply conventional molecular dynamics simulations to explore the dynamics of the active site of MreB in complex with A22 and different nucleotides...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573111/wall-proficient-e-coli-capable-of-sustained-growth-in-the-absence-of-the-z-ring-division-machine
#16
Romain Mercier, Yoshikazu Kawai, Jeff Errington
The peptidoglycan cell wall is a major protective external sheath in bacteria and a key target for antibiotics(1). Peptidoglycan is present in virtually all bacteria, suggesting that it was probably present in the last bacterial common ancestor(2). Cell wall expansion is orchestrated by cytoskeletal proteins related to actin (MreB) and tubulin (FtsZ)(3). FtsZ is a key essential player in a highly organized division machine that directs an invaginating annulus of cell wall peptidoglycan. The recent discovery that cell-wall-less bacteria (L-forms) can grow and divide independently of FtsZ(4,5), provided a means of generating an ftsZ null mutant of Escherichia coli...
2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538951/reclassification-of-the-larval-pathogen-for-marine-bivalves-vibrio-tubiashii-subsp-europaeus-as-vibrio-europaeus-sp-nov
#17
Javier Dubert, Jesús L Romalde, Edward J Spinard, David R Nelson, Marta Gomez-Chiarri, Juan L Barja
The Orientalis clade has a relevant significance for bivalve aquaculture since it includes the pathogens Vibrio bivalvicida, Vibrio tubiashii subsp. tubiashii and Vibrio tubiashii subsp. europaeus. However, the previous taxonomic description of the subspecies of V. tubiashii shows some incongruities that should be emended. In the genomic age, the comparison between genome assemblies is the key to clarify the taxonomic position of both subspecies. With this purpose, we have tested the ability of multilocus sequence analysis based on eight housekeeping gene sequences (gapA, gyrB, ftsZ, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA and topA), different in silico genome-to-genome comparisons, chemotaxonomic features and phenotypic traits to reclassify the subspecies V...
November 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498276/systematic-analysis-of-the-lysine-acetylome-of-the-pathogenic-bacterium-spiroplasma-eriocheiris-reveals-acetylated-proteins-related-to-metabolism-and-helical-structure
#18
Qingguo Meng, Peng Liu, Jian Wang, Yinghui Wang, Libo Hou, Wei Gu, Wen Wang
UNLABELLED: Post-translational modifications such as acetylation are an essential regulatory mechanism of protein function. Spiroplasma eriocheiris, with no cell wall and a helical structure, is a novel pathogen of freshwater crustacean. There is no other evidence of acylation (such as succinylation and propionylation) except acetylation genes in S. eriocheiris concise genome. So the acetylation may play an important role in S. eriocheiris. Here, we conducted the first lysine acetylome in S...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465264/enhanced-production-of-polyhydroxybutyrate-by-multiple-dividing-e-coli
#19
Hong Wu, Zhongyun Fan, Xiaoran Jiang, Jinchun Chen, Guo-Qiang Chen
BACKGROUND: Most bacteria are grown in a binary fission way meaning a bacterial cell is equally divided into two. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) can be accumulated as inclusion bodies by bacteria. The cell division way and morphology have been shown to play an important role in regulating the bacterial growth and PHA storages. RESULTS: The common growth pattern of Escherichia coli was changed to multiple fission patterns by deleting fission related genes minC and minD together, allowing the formation of multiple fission rings (Z-rings) in several positions of an elongated cell, thus a bacterial cell was observed to be divided into more than two daughter cells at same time...
July 27, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450542/where-are-things-inside-a-bacterial-cell
#20
Sutharsan Govindarajan, Orna Amster-Choder
Bacterial cells are intricately organized, despite the lack of membrane-bounded organelles. The extremely crowded cytoplasm promotes macromolecular self-assembly and formation of distinct subcellular structures, which perform specialized functions. For example, the cell poles act as hubs for signal transduction complexes, thus providing a platform for the coordination of optimal cellular responses to environmental cues. Distribution of macromolecules is mostly mediated via specialized transport machineries, including the MreB cytoskeleton...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
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