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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440999/-epistemic-injustice-during-the-medical-education-process-in-the-hospital-context
#1
Carolina Consejo-Y Chapela, Carlos Alfonso Viesca-Treviño
BACKGROUND: The educational model adopted by the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) Faculty of Medicine is constructivist; it is a model based on competence development. It aims to provide learning environments that incorporate real activities (it helps the students to develop social negotiation skills, as part of their integral learning; it encourages them to take a critical and reflexive approach; and it is also a student-centered model). However, many challenges arise when this model is implemented in the context of hospital environments...
May 2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433935/distinct-on-off-fluorescence-signals-from-dual-responsive-activatable-nanoprobes-allows-detection-of-inflammation-with-improved-contrast
#2
Mathieu L Viger, Guillaume Collet, Jacques Lux, Viet Anh Nguyen Huu, Monica Guma, Alexandra Foucault-Collet, Jason Olejniczak, Shivanjali Joshi-Barr, Gary S Firestein, Adah Almutairi
Visualization of biochemical changes associated with disease is of great clinical significance, as it should allow earlier, more accurate diagnosis than structural imaging, facilitating timely clinical intervention. Herein, we report combining stimuli-responsive polymers and near-infrared fluorescent dyes (emission max: 790 nm) to create robust activatable fluorescent nanoprobes capable of simultaneously detecting acidosis and oxidative stress associated with inflammatory microenvironments. The spectrally-resolved mechanism of fluorescence activation allows removal of unwanted background signal (up to 20-fold reduction) and isolation of a pure activated signal, which enables sensitive and unambiguous localization of inflamed areas; target-to-background ratios reach 22 as early as 3 h post-injection...
March 28, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380125/-anomalisa-and-teaching-clinical-communication-in-medical-practice
#3
Bruno Pereira Stelet, Luis David Castiel, Danielle Ribeiro de Moraes
Based on reflections on the film Anomalisa and Foucault's concept of biopower, this essay discusses the limits of teaching clinical communication skills in medical training. Communication with patients is not related to the use (or lack thereof) of certain phrases or a given conversational style, but involves the search for a way of interacting with the other in the midst of the world's disorder, the overwhelming wave of suffering, and the frightening lapse of time between life and death. In this scenario featuring biotechnoscience and the reign of scientific evidence, beyond protocols or standardized ways of practicing medicine, the proposal here is for a debate on teaching communication with an emphasis on the production of subjectivities, in order to issue a call for reflection on desirable values for action in the health field...
March 30, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378045/-existence-absence-and-power-of-madness-a%C3%A2-critical-review-of-michel-foucault-s-writings-on-the-history-and-philosophy-of-madness
#4
Burkhart Brückner, Lukas Iwer, Samuel Thoma
This article discusses Michel Foucault's main writings on "madness and psychiatry" from his early works up to the 1970s. On the one hand, we reconstruct the overall theoretical and methodological development of his positions over the course of the different periods in his oeuvre. On the other hand, we also take a closer look at Foucault's philosophical considerations regarding the subjects of his investigations. After an initial introduction of our conceptual approach, we draw on the most recent research on Foucault to show to what extent the phenomenological description of the topic at hand and the historical-critical perspective that are reflected in his early writings of 1954 (the Introduction to Binswanger's Dream and Existence and Mental Illness and Personality) laid the ground for his later work...
April 4, 2017: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344697/learning-by-concordance-lbc-introducing-undergraduate-students-to-the-complexity-and-uncertainty-of-clinical-practice
#5
Nicolas Fernandez, Amélie Foucault, Serge Dubé, Diane Robert, Chantal Lafond, Anne-Marie Vincent, Jeannine Kassis, Driss Kazitani, Bernard Charlin
BACKGROUND: A current challenge in medical education is the steep exposure to the complexity and uncertainty of clinical practice in early clerkship. The gap between pre-clinical courses and the reality of clinical decision-making can be overwhelming for undergraduate students. The Learning-by-Concordance (LbC) approach aims to bridge this gap by embedding complexity and uncertainty by relying on real-life situations and exposure to expert reasoning processes to support learning. LbC provides three forms of support: 1) expert responses that students compare with their own, 2) expert explanations and 3) recognized scholars' key-messages...
October 2016: Canadian Medical Education Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299858/psychoeducation-for-bipolar-disorder-a-discourse-analysis
#6
Lynere Wilson, Marie Crowe, Anne Scott, Cameron Lacey
Psychoeducation has become a common intervention within mental health settings. It aims to increase people's ability to manage a life with a long-term illness. For people with bipolar disorder, psychoeducation is one of a range of psychosocial interventions now considered part of contemporary mental health practice. It has taken on a 'common sense' status that results in little critique of psychoeducation practices. Using a published manual on psychoeducation and bipolar disorder as its data, Foucauldian discourse analysis was used in the present study for a critical perspective on psychoeducation in order to explore the taken-for-granted assumptions on which it is based...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291951/utilisation-of-an-electronic-portfolio-to-engage-rehabilitation-professionals-in-continuing-professional-development-results-of-a-provincial-survey
#7
Marie-Lyse Foucault, Brigitte Vachon, Aliki Thomas, Annie Rochette, Charles-Édouard Giguère
INTRODUCTION: ePortfolios are frequently used to support continuing professional development (CPD) of rehabilitation professionals. Though this tool is now widely implemented in many professions by regulatory organisations, very few studies have investigated the use and impact among rehabilitation professionals. Implementation of comprehensive ePortfolios that are centred on the needs of rehabilitation professionals requires documenting their level of use and perceived outcomes. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to describe how occupational therapists use a mandatory ePortfolio that has been recently implemented by a regulatory organisation in Quebec (Canada) and the perceived outcomes of this requirement on continuing professional development and practice change...
March 14, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284919/nanostructured-monolinolein-miniemulsions-as-delivery-systems-role-of-the-internal-mesophase-on-cytotoxicity-and-cell-internalization
#8
Samuel Guillot, Fabienne Méducin, Kristina Poljak, Virginie Malard, Alexandra Foucault-Collet, Sébastien Serieye, Chantal Pichon
Recent advances in nanoparticle systems for improved drug delivery display a great potential for the administration of active molecules. Here, lipid miniemulsions with various internal nanostructures were loaded with the chemotherapeutic agent Paclitaxel. The goal is to assess the impact of internal structures on their efficiency. Previously the structure, the stability and the physico-chemical properties of those carriers were characterized. Modalities of action were addressed by the evaluation of their effects on the tumor cells viability, their cellular uptake by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy detection of fluorescently labeled nanostructured miniemulsions...
March 8, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260172/the-oblique-perspective-philosophical-diagnostics-of-contemporary-life-sciences-research
#9
Hub Zwart
This paper indicates how continental philosophy may contribute to a diagnostics of contemporary life sciences research, as part of a "diagnostics of the present" (envisioned by continental thinkers, from Hegel up to Foucault). First, I describe (as a "practicing" philosopher) various options for an oblique (or symptomatic) reading of emerging scientific discourse, bent on uncovering the basic "philosophemes" of science (i.e. the guiding ideas, the basic conceptions of nature, life and technology at work in contemporary life sciences research practices)...
December 2017: Life Sciences, Society and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225846/-plato-psychiatrist-foucault-platonic
#10
Nicolás Mathov
This work explores the links between the concepts of "soul", "law" and "word" in Plato's work, in order to highlight the importance and the centrality of the philosophical-therapeutic dimension in the Greek philosopher's thought. In that way, this work pretends to show that "contemporary" problems usually discussed within "Human Sciences" in general, and Psychiatry in particular, should confront their knowledge with Plato's work, mainly due to the profound influence his ideas have had in our Greco-Christian culture...
May 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204950/-unnatural-thoughts-on-moral-enhancement-of-the-human-animal
#11
Norman K Swazo
Recent discussions about moral enhancement presuppose and recommend sets of values that relate to both the Western tradition of moral philosophy and contemporary empirical results of natural and social sciences, including moral psychology. It is argued here that this is a typology of thought that requires a fundamental interrogation. Proponents of moral enhancement do not account for important critical analyses of moral discourse, beginning with that of Friedrich Nietzsche and continuing with more prominent twentieth century thinkers such as the poststructuralist Michel Foucault, the deconstructionist Jacques Derrida, and the moral philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre...
February 15, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194930/representation-archaeology-and-genealogy-three-spatial-metaphors-for-inquiring-into-nursing-phenomena-with%C3%A2-foucauldian-discourse-analysis
#12
Michael E Clinton, Rusla Anne Springer
Foucault used the "Quadrilateral of Language" metaphor to describe how language functioned in what the French called the Classic Age, roughly 1650 to 1800, the period from Descartes to Kant. His purpose was to show how the functions of language changed radically with the arrival of the Modern Age (~1800). Foucault developed his archaeological methods to investigate the impact of this change, but later revised his methods to introduce genealogical strategies to conduct "histories of the present". Our purpose in this paper is to clarify Foucault's thinking about ruptures in the functions of language and to show their implications for analyzing nursing discourse...
February 14, 2017: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181003/friendly-tanning-young-adults-engagement-with-friends-around-indoor-tanning
#13
Vivian M Rodríguez, Casey L Daniel, Brooke Foucault Welles, Alan C Geller, Jennifer L Hay
Indoor tanning (IT), particularly during early adulthood, increases risk for melanoma and is exceedingly common among youth. Social influence, including social norms, promotes IT but little is known about young adults' engagement with friends around tanning. We examined IT behaviors and tanning-related communication with friends at three universities. Of 837 participants, 261 (31%) reported ever tanning (90% female, 85% White). Of those, 113 (43%) were former tanners and 148 (57%) current tanners. Current tanners reported more social tanning and discussions with friends about tanning, more frequent outdoor tanning, high propensity to tan, and greater lifetime IT exposure than former tanners...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165286/the-erudite-humility-of-the-historian-the-critical-epistemology-of-georges-lant%C3%A3-ri-laura
#14
Elisabetta Basso Lorini
This paper analyses the historical and epistemological work of the French psychiatrist Georges Lantéri-Laura (1930-2004) within the context of the French 'tradition' of history and philosophy of sciences, with special reference to Georges Canguilhem and Michel Foucault. After an introduction devoted to a critical survey of the most recent works on the history and historiography of psychiatry in French, the paper outlines Lantéri-Laura's approach by focusing especially on the role played by the methodological concept of 'semiology' as regards the relation between medicine and psychiatry...
February 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144835/the-urgent-need-to-ban-youth-indoor-tanning-evidence-from-college-undergraduates
#15
Casey L Daniel, Jennifer L Hay, Brooke Foucault Welles, Alan C Geller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2017: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131022/the-productive-techniques-and-constitutive-effects-of-evidence-based-policy-and-consumer-participation-discourses-in-health-policy-processes
#16
K Lancaster, K Seear, C Treloar, A Ritter
For over twenty years there have been calls for greater 'consumer' participation in health decision-making. While it is recognised by governments and other stakeholders that 'consumer' participation is desirable, barriers to meaningful involvement nonetheless remain. It has been suggested that the reifying of 'evidence-based policy' may be limiting opportunities for participation, through the way this discourse legitimates particular voices to the exclusion of others. Others have suggested that assumptions underpinning the very notion of the 'affected community' or 'consumers' as fixed and bounded 'policy publics' need to be problematised...
January 22, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120766/-complicities-and-ambivalences-of-psychiatry-m%C3%A3-nsterlingen-and-the-1954-feast-of-fools
#17
Elisabetta Basso
In March 1954, Foucault visited the psychiatric asylum of Münsterlingen (Canton Thurgau), on the Swiss side of Lake Constance. Münsterlingen was the chosen place of activity for well-known psychiatrists, including Hermann Rorschach (1910-1913), and it became famous in the history of psychiatry especially through the work of Roland Kuhn, who was active in the asylum from 1939 to 1979. Kuhn was an expert in the Rorschach psycho-diagnostic test, as well as the discoverer of the first antidepressant in the early 1950s...
January 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042338/tumor-stiffening-a-key-determinant-of-tumor-progression-is-reversed-by-nanomaterial-induced-photothermal-therapy
#18
Iris Marangon, Amanda A K Silva, Thomas Guilbert, Jelena Kolosnjaj-Tabi, Carmen Marchiol, Sharuja Natkhunarajah, Foucault Chamming's, Cécilia Ménard-Moyon, Alberto Bianco, Jean-Luc Gennisson, Gilles Renault, Florence Gazeau
Tumor stiffening, stemming from aberrant production and organization of extracellular matrix (ECM), has been considered a predictive marker of tumor malignancy, non-invasively assessed by ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE). Being more than a passive marker, tumor stiffening restricts the delivery of diagnostic and therapeutic agents to the tumor and per se could modulate cellular mechano-signaling, tissue inflammation and tumor progression. Current strategies to modify the tumor extracellular matrix are based on ECM-targeting chemical agents but also showed deleterious systemic effects...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005252/the-biopolitics-of-lifestyle-foucault-ethics-and-healthy-choices-christopher-mayes-2016-routledge-oxford-and-new-york-978-1-138-93386-6-156-pp
#19
Andrew Cooper
Unlike many recent studies on the notion of lifestyle, Christopher Mayes' The Biopolitics of Lifestyle balances theoretical rigour with empirical investigation to problematize the use of lifestyle in public health strategies. Not only does Mayes' book expose the unjustified emphasis on individual autonomy undergirding neoliberal strategies of governance and contemporary ethical theory, it also marks a significant step forward in enhancing our understanding of one of Foucault's most underappreciated concepts, the dispositif...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992050/the-simulators-truth-and-power-in-the-psychiatry-of-jos%C3%A3-ingenieros
#20
Sandra Caponi
Using Michel Foucault's lectures on "Psychiatric power" as its starting point, this article analyzes the book Simulación de la locura (The simulation of madness), published in 1903 by the Argentine psychiatrist José Ingenieros. Foucault argues that the problem of simulation permeates the entire history of modern psychiatry. After initial analysis of José Ingenieros's references to the question of simulation in the struggle for existence, the issue of simulation in pathological states in general is examined, and lastly the simulation of madness and the problem of degeneration...
October 2016: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
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