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Coronary heart disease

Andrea Avila, Jomme Claes, Kaatje Goetschalckx, Roselien Buys, May Azzawi, Luc Vanhees, Véronique Cornelissen
BACKGROUND: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is an essential part of contemporary coronary heart disease management. However, patients exiting a center-based CR program have difficulty retaining its benefits. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the added benefit of a home-based CR program with telemonitoring guidance on physical fitness in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) completing a phase II ambulatory CR program and to compare the effectiveness of this program in a prolonged center-based CR intervention by means of a randomized controlled trial...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Jean Ferrières, Dominik Lautsch, Baishali M Ambegaonkar, Gaetano M De Ferrari, Ami Vyas, Carl A Baxter, Lori D Bash, Maja Velkovski-Rouyer, Martin Horack, Wael Almahmeed, Fu-Tien Chiang, Kian Keong Poh, Moses Elisaf, Philippe Brudi, Anselm K Gitt
BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend lifestyle modification and medications to control risk factors in coronary heart disease (CHD). Using data from the observational DYSIS II study, we sought to evaluate the use of guideline-recommended treatments at discharge for acute coronary syndromes (ACS) or in the chronic phase for CHD, and participation in rehabilitation/secondary prevention programs. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between 2013 and 2014, 10,661 patients (3867 with ACS, 6794 with stable CHD) were enrolled in 332 primary and secondary care centers in 18 countries (Asia, Europe, Middle East)...
June 6, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Merel L Hartgers, Joost Besseling, Erik S Stroes, Janneke Wittekoek, Joost H W Rutten, Jacqueline de Graaf, Frank L J Visseren, Ben P M Imholz, Jeanine E Roeters van Lennep, Roeland Huijgen, John J P Kastelein, G Kees Hovingh
BACKGROUND: A large proportion of patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (heFH) do not reach low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) levels advocated by international guidelines (<70 mg/dL or <100 mg/dL). OBJECTIVE: We set out to model which proportion of patients reach targets using conventional and novel therapies. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis in a large cohort of genetically identified heFH patients and calculated the proportion reaching treatment targets in four scenarios: (1) after 50% LDL-c reduction (representing maximal dose statin); (2) after 70% LDL-c reduction (maximal dose statin + ezetimibe); (3) additional 40% LDL-c reduction representing cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor (CETPi); and (4) 60% LDL-c reduction (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors [PCSK9i]), on top of scenario 2...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Ramón Rodríguez-Olivares, José López-Menéndez, Laura Varela Barca, Javier Miguelena Hycka, Rosana Hernández-Antolín, Jorge Rodríguez-Roda Stuart, Jose L Zamorano Gómez
BACKGROUND: The optimal management of patients with multivessel coronary artery disease (MVD) admitted with STEMI is under debate. CABG is rarely performed, even on ideal candidates. A provisional PCI without stent implantation may allow complete surgical revascularization (CSR) in a subset of patient that we sought to identify in this study. METHODS: Patients with STEMI from April 2014 to October 2016 were evaluated and those with a TIMI flow <3 in the culprit vessel, and an additional stenosis of >70% in an epicardial vessel or sidebranch >2...
June 13, 2018: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
J M Kröpfl, G Tschakert, I Stelzer, K Pekovits, S Zelzer, G Dohr, S Holasek, T Stojakovic, H Scharnagl, C M Spengler, P Hofmann
BACKGROUND: Exercise-induced circulating haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HPC) number has been discussed in the context of regeneration in heart disease patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this pilot study was to compare the effect of different exercise protocols usually applied in cardiac rehabilitation on the number of acute, exercise-induced HPCs, related to potential mediators, e.g. biomarkers of sympathetic and oxidative stress, and inflammation. METHODS: This is a case series comprising seven patients suffering from coronary heart disease (CHD) undertaken at the Center for Ambulant Cardiac Rehabilitation...
May 14, 2018: Heart, Lung & Circulation
Wei-Xia Li, Shu-Qi Zhang, Yi-Dan Zhao, Jin-Fa Tang, Chun-Xiao Li, Xiao-Yan Wang, Xue-Lin Li
Naoxintong capsule (NXTC) is an oral Chinese preparation produced by modern technology, derived from the classic preparation of Buyang Huanwu decoction which was recorded by WANG Qing-ren (Qing dynasty) in Yilingaicuo Juanxia Tanweilun. NXTC is composed of 16 herbs including insect herbs and some blood circulation herbs, with the effects of supplementing Qi and activating blood circulation, dispersing blood stasis and dredging collaterals. In clinical application, it is mainly used for stroke, cerebral infarction, vascular dementia, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, transient ischemic attack, coronary heart disease, angina pectoris, ischemic cardiomyopathy, diabetic cardiomyopathy, myocardial infarction, chronic heart failure, chronic complications of diabetes, essential hypertension, hyperlipidemia and other cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and has achieved good therapeutic effect on above diseases or their concurrent diseases...
May 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Mengmeng Huang, Jingjing Jiao, Pan Zhuang, Xinyu Chen, Jun Wang, Yu Zhang
BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) as possible cardiovascular disrupters are universally detected in humans. However, evidence from epidemiological studies appears insufficient and ambiguous. OBJECTIVES: We aim to examine the serum PFCs levels and their associations with the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and related outcomes in general US population. METHODS: We investigated the serum levels of 12 major PFCs, including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), 2-(N-ethyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido) acetate (EPAH), 2-(N-methyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido) acetate (MPAH), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDE), perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHP), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFSA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUA), and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDO), in 10,859 participants from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2014...
June 19, 2018: Environment International
Patrick H Kee, Delia Danila
Management of patients suffering from myocardial infarction (MI) is based on the extent of coronary artery disease and myocardial scar burden. We have developed a potentially clinically-useful X-ray molecular imaging contrast agent based on gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) functionalized with collagen-binding adhesion protein 35 (CNA35) with the capabilities of achieving prolonged blood pool enhancement for vascular imaging of the coronary arteries and specific targeting of collagen within myocardial scar. At a concentration of ~ 45mg Au/ml, AuNPs maintained a stable blood pool enhancement at 142-160 HU within an hour of intravenous administration...
June 19, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
E Baria, G Nesi, R Santi, V Maio, D Massi, C Pratesi, R Cicchi, F S Pavone
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common type of heart disease, and it's caused by atherosclerosis. In fact, an arterial wall lesion centered on the accumulation of cholesterol-rich lipids and the accompanying inflammatory response generates a plaque, whose rupture may result in a thrombus with fatal consequences. Plaque characterization for assessing the severity of atherosclerosis is generally performed through standard histopathological examination based on haematoxylin/eosin (H&E) staining, which is operator-dependent and requires relatively long procedures...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
Germán A Colareda, Alicia E Consolini
OBJECTIVES: Low-flow ischemia (LFI) is consequent to coronary disease and produces cardiac stunning during reperfusion (R). Energetic performance and mechanisms of Ca2+ handling during LFI/R are not known. Moreover, cardioprotection of the phytoestrogen genistein (Gen) remains to be demonstrated in LFI/R. The aim was to study the mechanisms of the stunning consequent to LFI/R and the effects of Gen on both sexes. METHODS: Rat ventricles were perfused inside a calorimeter to measure maximal pressure development (P) and total heat rate (Ht) before and during exposition to LFI/R...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
M Vafaie, E Giannitsis, H A Katus
Cardiac biomarkers are an integral part of the diagnostic work-up and risk stratification of patients with chest pain. Cardiac troponins are highly sensitive diagnostic biomarkers in patients with acute coronary syndrome and have prognostic value in a multitude of acute and chronic diseases. In patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) D‑dimer can be used together with the Wells score for exclusion of PE. In patients with confirmed PE, B‑type natriuretic peptide (BNP), N‑terminal pro-BNP (NT-proBNP) and heart-type fatty acid binding protein (h-FABP) can be used for risk stratification...
June 21, 2018: Herz
Hisao Kumakura, Hiroyoshi Kanai, Yae Matsuo, Toshiya Iwasaki, Shuichi Ichikawa
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine long-term life expectancy including cerebrovascular events (CVE) and fate of the leg in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) with or without cerebral infarction (CI) detected by CT. Methods and Results: A prospective cohort study was performed in 932 patients with PAD. The endpoints were overall survival (OS); CVE; stroke-free survival (SFS); freedom from major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE); and freedom from major adverse cardiovascular and limb events (MACLE)...
June 21, 2018: European Heart Journal. Quality of Care & Clinical Outcomes
James A Greenberg, JoAnn E Manson, Marian L Neuhouser, Lesley Tinker, Charles Eaton, Karen C Johnson, James M Shikany
Background: Three recent meta-analyses found significant prospective inverse associations between chocolate intake and cardiovascular disease risk. Evidence from these meta-analyses suggests that such inverse associations may only apply to elderly individuals or those with pre-existing major chronic disease. Objective: We assessed the association between habitual chocolate intake and subsequent incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke, and the potential effect of modification by age...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Reidun Aarsetøy, Hildegunn Aarsetøy, Tor-Arne Hagve, Heidi Strand, Harry Staines, Dennis W T Nilsen
Aim: Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) secondary to ventricular fibrillation (VF) may be due to different cardiac conditions. We investigated whether copeptin, hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP in addition to clinical assessment may help to identify the etiology of SCA and yield prognostic information. Methods and Results: EDTA-blood was collected prior to or at hospital admission from patients with SCA of assumed cardiac origin. Clinical data were obtained from hospital records...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Gang Liu, Yanping Li, Yang Hu, Geng Zong, Shanshan Li, Eric B Rimm, Frank B Hu, JoAnn E Manson, Kathryn M Rexrode, Hyun Joon Shin, Qi Sun
BACKGROUND: Evidence is limited regarding the impact of healthy lifestyle practices on the risk of subsequent cardiovascular events among patients with diabetes. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of an overall healthy lifestyle, defined by eating a high-quality diet (top two-fifths of Alternative Healthy Eating Index), nonsmoking, engaging in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (≥150 min/week), and drinking alcohol in moderation (5 to 15 g/day for women and 5 to 30 g/day for men), with the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CVD mortality among adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D)...
June 26, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Siwen Liang, Yue Zhang, Xiangyu Gao, Huiqiang Zhao, Beibing Di, Qianqian Sheng, Ruifeng Liu
Coronary artery ectasia (CAE) is a rare disease and a substantial portion of patients with CAE are first diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The question was raised if CAE was a kind of thrombotic disease. We assessed a consecutive series of 119 patients with CAE including 32 patients with AMI (CAE + AMI group) and 87 patients without AMI (CAE group). During the same period, 90 patients with coronary heart disease, 90 patients with normal coronary arteries (control), and 120 AMI patients without CAE (AMI group) were randomly selected and evaluated...
January 1, 2018: Angiology
Xiaoong Liu, Xin Xu, Ruru Shang, Yingjie Chen
Patients with chronic kidney disease have an increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It has been recognized that the traditional cardiovascular risk factors could only partially explain the increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and N-monomethy l-arginine (L-NMMA) are endogenous inhibitors of nitric oxide synthases that attenuate nitric oxide production and enhance reactive oxidative specie generation. Increased plasma ADMA and/or L-NMMA are strong and independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease, and various cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, coronary artery disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and heart failure...
June 18, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Muhammad Imran, Muhammad Nadeem, Syed Amir Gilani, Shaista Khan, Muhammad Wasim Sajid, Rai Muhammad Amir
Olive fruit is a significant and promising source of potential bioactive compounds such as oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol. Oleuropein is the ester of elenolic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl ethanol (HT). It is the main glycoside in olives, the degradation of which results in the formation of hydroxytyrosol in olive oil. Both plays a significant role in the reduction of coronary heart diseases and a certain type of cancers. Both olive oil phenols have an effective role counter to cell proliferation, cell growth, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Rajesh Katare, James T Pearson, Jason Kar-Sheng Lew, Melanie Wei, Hirotsugu Tsuchimouchi, Cheng-Kun Du, Dong-Yun Zhan, Keiji Umetani, Mikiyasu Shirai, Daryl O Schwenke
Background: The causal factors underpinning the onset and progression of diabetic heart disease (DHD) remain to be fully elucidated. Myocardial function is critically dependent on optimal coronary blood flow. Considering vascular disease occurs early in diabetes due to endothelial dysfunction, this study aimed to determine whether impaired coronary perfusion contributes to the origins of myocardial dysfunction in DHD, or whether coronary and cardiac dysfunction are independent pathologies associated with diabetes...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Mohamad I Jarrah, Nizar M Mhaidat, Karem H Alzoubi, Nasr Alrabadi, Enas Alsatari, Yousef Khader, Moath F Bataineh
Background: Decreased levels of vitamin D were associated with increased risk of multiple diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. However, there seem to be some discrepancies among the results obtained from different studies. The aim of the present study was to explore the importance of having sufficient serum levels of vitamin D in reducing the incidence and the progression of coronary artery stenosis and ischemic heart disease (IHD). Methods: Serum levels of vitamin D were measured using radioimmunoassay in 186 Jordanian patients who underwent investigative coronary catheterization...
2018: Vascular Health and Risk Management
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