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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049327/characteristics-of-pulsatile-flows-in-curved-stenosed-channels
#1
Hyeonji Hong, Eunseop Yeom, Ho Seong Ji, Hyun Dong Kim, Kyung Chun Kim
Spatial and temporal variations of the hemodynamic features occur under pulsatile conditions in complex vessel geometry. Wall shear stress affected by the disturbed flow can result in endothelial cell dysfunction, which leads to atherogenesis and thrombosis. Therefore, detailed understanding of the hemodynamic characteristics in a curved stenosed channel is highly important when examining the pathological effects of hemodynamic phenomena on the progression of atherosclerosis. The present study measures the velocity fields of pulsatile flows with three different Reynolds numbers in 3D curved vessel models with stenosis using time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045950/leonurine-prevents-atherosclerosis-via-promoting-the-expression-of-abca1-and-abcg1-in-a-ppar%C3%AE-lxr%C3%AE-signaling-pathway-dependent-manner
#2
Ting Jiang, Kun Ren, Qian Chen, Heng Li, Rong Yao, Hu Hu, Yun-Cheng Lv, Guo-Jun Zhao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Previous studies have demonstrated that leonurine, a unique alkaloid compound of Herba leonuri, can exert anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects on the development of atherosclerosis (AS). This study was designed to investigate the effects of leonurine on cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells and development of atherosclerotic lesions in apoE-/- mice, and further determine the potential mechanisms. METHODS: Human THP-1 cells were fully differentiated into foam cells by the pre-treatment with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) and oxidized density lipoproteins (ox-LDL)...
October 18, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045618/cd27-co-stimulation-increases-the-abundance-of-regulatory-t-cells-and-reduces-atherosclerosis-in-hyperlipidaemic-mice
#3
Holger Winkels, Svenja Meiler, Dirk Lievens, David Engel, Charlotte Spitz, Christina Bürger, Linda Beckers, Angelika Dandl, Sigrid Reim, Maiwand Ahmadsei, Helene Hartwig, Lesca M Holdt, Michael Hristov, Remco T A Megens, Martin M Schmitt, Eric A Biessen, Jannie Borst, Alexander Faussner, Christian Weber, Esther Lutgens, Norbert Gerdes
Aims: The co-stimulatory receptor CD27 modulates responses of T cells, B cells, and NK cells. Various T cell subsets participate in atherogenesis. However, the role of CD27 in atherosclerosis remains unexplored. Methods and results: Here we investigated the effect of bone marrow-derived and systemic CD27 deficiency in Apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe-/-) mice in early and advanced stages of atherosclerosis. Lethally-irradiated Apoe-/- mice reconstituted with Cd27-/-Apoe-/- bone marrow and consuming an atherogenic diet displayed a markedly increased plaque size and lesional inflammation compared to mice receiving Cd27+/+Apoe-/- bone marrow...
October 16, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045288/effects-of-anti-inflammatory-medications-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-a-focus-on-losmapimod
#4
Bradley Tun, William H Frishman
Inflammation plays an integral role in atherogenesis and the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). The question remains as to whether targeted inhibition of specific pathways of inflammation will have any clinical benefits in CAD. In this article we will review p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), one of the key sensors of cellular stress that plays an important role in the inflammatory cascade. In addition, we will review losmapimod, a reversible competitive inhibitor of the α and β isoforms of p38 MAPK, and its efficacy when added to standard of care in patients hospitalized with myocardial infarction...
October 17, 2017: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044181/a-novel-%C3%AE-adaptin-c-myc-complex-formation-modulated-by-oxidative-stress-in-the-control-of-the-cell-cycle-in-macrophages-and-its-implication-in-atherogenesis
#5
Victor García-González, Jaime Mas-Oliva
Our study tested the proposal that c-Myc activation in macrophages is differentially carried out dependent on the intracellular oxidative state of cells and potentially associated to the process of atherogenesis. Under our experimental conditions, the generation of reactive oxygen species carried out by the presence of oxidized low density lipoproteins (oxLDL) or Gram negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) modifies the expression of cellular adhesion molecules such as c-Abl, calcium transport proteins such as the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA), CD47, procaspase-7, CASP7, CHOP, transcriptional activators such as c-Jun and c-Myc and molecules that participate in the process of endocytosis like α- and β-adaptin...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042581/immunoproteasome-subunit-%C3%A3-5i-lmp7-deficiency-in-atherosclerosis
#6
Bernd Hewing, Antje Ludwig, Cristian Dan, Max Pötzsch, Carmen Hannemann, Andreas Petry, Dilyara Lauer, Agnes Görlach, Elena Kaschina, Dominik N Müller, Gert Baumann, Verena Stangl, Karl Stangl, Nicola Wilck
Management of protein homeostasis by the ubiquitin-proteasome system is critical for atherosclerosis development. Recent studies showed controversial results on the role of immunoproteasome (IP) subunit β5i/LMP7 in maintenance of protein homeostasis under cytokine induced oxidative stress. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of β5i/LMP7-deficiency on the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis as a chronic inflammatory, immune cell driven disease. LDLR(-/-)LMP7(-/-) and LDLR(-/-) mice were fed a Western-type diet for either 6 or 24 weeks to induce early and advanced stage atherosclerosis, respectively...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041979/methotrexate-and-anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-treatment-improves-endothelial-function-in-patients-with-inflammatory-arthritis
#7
Gia Deyab, Ingrid Hokstad, Jon Elling Whist, Milada Cvancarova Smastuen, Stefan Agewall, Torstein Lyberg, Nicoletta Ronda, Knut Mikkelsen, Gunnbjorg Hjeltnes, Ivana Hollan
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory arthritis (IA), including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA), leads to increased cardiovascular disease occurrence probably due to atherosclerosis. One of the first stages in atherogenesis is endothelial dysfunction (ED). Therefore, we aimed to compare endothelial function (EF) in patients with IA, and to examine the effects of methotrexate (MTX) monotherapy and antitumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) treatment with or without MTX comedication (anti-TNF ± MTX) on EF...
October 17, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036285/relevance-of-low-mir-30c-5p-levels-in-atherogenesis-a-promising-predictive-biomarker-and-potential-therapeutic-target
#8
Gemma Vilahur
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 22, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035781/lack-of-myeloid-fatp1-increases-atherosclerotic-lesion-size-in-ldlr-mice
#9
Liyang Zhao, Alyssa J Cozzo, Amy R Johnson, Taylor Christensen, Alex J Freemerman, James E Bear, Jeremy D Rotty, Brian J Bennett, Liza Makowski
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Altered metabolism is an important regulator of macrophage (MΦ) phenotype, which contributes to inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. Broadly, pro-inflammatory, classically-activated MΦs (CAM) are glycolytic while alternatively-activated MΦs (AAM) oxidize fatty acids, although overlap exists. We previously demonstrated that MΦ fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1, Slc27a1) was necessary to maintain the oxidative and anti-inflammatory AAM phenotype in vivo in a model of diet-induced obesity...
October 7, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032103/mast-cells-in-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease-activators-and-actions
#10
Petri T Kovanen, Ilze Bot
Mast cells are potent actors involved in inflammatory reactions in various tissues, including both in the intimal and the adventitial layers of atherosclerotic arteries. In the arterial intima, the site of atherogenesis, mast cells are activated to degranulate, and thereby triggered to release an abundance of preformed inflammatory mediators, notably histamine, heparin, neutral proteases and cytokines stored in their cytoplasmic secretory granules. Depending on the stimulus, mast cell activation may also launch prolonged synthesis and secretion of single bioactive molecules, such as cytokines and derivatives of arachidonic acid...
October 12, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025558/glycated-apolipoprotein-a-iv-induces-atherogenesis-in-patients-with-cad-in%C3%A2-type-2-diabetes
#11
Yang Dai, Ying Shen, Qing Run Li, Feng Hua Ding, Xiao Qun Wang, Hong Juan Liu, Xiao Xiang Yan, Ling Jie Wang, Ke Yang, Hai Bo Wang, Qiu Jing Chen, Wei Feng Shen, Rui Yan Zhang, Lin Lu
BACKGROUND: Nonenzymatic glycation of apolipoproteins plays a role in the pathogenesis of the vascular complications of diabetes. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether apolipoprotein (apo) A-IV was glycated in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and whether apoA-IV glycation was related to coronary artery disease (CAD). The study also determined the biological effects of glycated apoA-IV. METHODS: The authors consecutively enrolled 204 patients with T2DM without CAD (Group I), 515 patients with T2DM with CAD (Group II), and 176 healthy subjects (control group) in this study...
October 17, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024865/impaired-kidney-function-is-associated-with-intraplaque-hemorrhage-in-patients-undergoing-carotid-endarterectomy
#12
Marian Wesseling, Ian D van Koeverden, Guus W van Lammeren, Sander W van der Laan, Saskia Haitjema, Jean-Paul P M de Vries, Hester M den Ruijter, Saskia C A de Jager, Imo Hoefer, Peter Blankestijn, Marianne Verhaar, Dominique P V de Kleijn, Gert J de Borst, Gerard Pasterkamp
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Previously, we showed that patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy have an increased risk for major atherosclerotic events in the presence of moderate or poor kidney function. Acceleration of vascular inflammatory responses is considered to be causally involved in progression of atherogenesis and poor outcome in chronic kidney disease patients. The association between kidney function and plaque composition has not been thoroughly investigated yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between kidney function and atherosclerotic plaque composition in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy...
September 22, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024781/the-role-of-androgen-receptors-in-atherosclerosis
#13
REVIEW
Kaloyan Takov, Junxi Wu, Martin A Denvir, Lee B Smith, Patrick W F Hadoke
Male disadvantage in cardiovascular health is well recognised. However, the influence of androgens on atherosclerosis, one of the major causes of many life-threatening cardiovascular events, is not well understood. With the dramatic increase in clinical prescription of testosterone in the past decade, concerns about the cardiovascular side-effects of androgen supplementation or androgen deprivation therapy are increasing. Potential atheroprotective effects of testosterone could be secondary to (aromatase-mediated) conversion into oestradiol or, alternatively, to direct activation of androgen receptors (AR)...
October 9, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022127/genetic-influence-on-femoral-plaque-and-its-relationship-with-carotid-plaque-an-international-twin-study
#14
Pierleone Lucatelli, Corrado Fagnani, Adam Domonkos Tarnoki, David Laszlo Tarnoki, Beatrice Sacconi, Bence Fejer, Maria Antonietta Stazi, Miriam Salemi, Carlo Cirelli, Alessandro d'Adamo, Fabrizio Fanelli, Carlo Catalano, Pal Maurovich-Horvat, Adam L Jermendy, Gyorgy Jermendy, Bela Merkely, Andrea A Molnar, Giacomo Pucci, Giuseppe Schillaci, Filippo Farina, Giorgio Meneghetti, Claudio Baracchini, Emanuela Medda
To disentangle genetic and environmental influences on the development of femoral plaques using a population of adult twins. To evaluate the potential role of shared genetic and environmental factors in the co-occurrence of femoral and carotid plaques. The sample included 566 twins belonging to 164 monozygotic (MZ) and 119 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs, who underwent peripheral arterial assessment by B-mode ultrasound in different centers. The variance in femoral plaques onset was due to genetic factors and the remaining 50% was explained by common (15%) and unique (35%) environmental factors...
October 11, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016810/mir-30c-5p-regulates-macrophage-mediated-inflammation-and-pro-atherosclerosis-pathways
#15
Giulio Ceolotto, Alessandra Giannella, Mattia Albiero, Maniselvan Kuppusamy, Claudia Radu, Paolo Simioni, Katia Garlaschelli, Andrea Baragetti, Alberico Luigi Catapano, Elisabetta Iori, Gian Paolo Fadini, Angelo Avogaro, Saula Vigili de Kreutzenberg
Aims: Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease wherein cholesterol-loaded macrophages play a major role. MicroRNAs and microparticles propagate inflammatory pathways and are involved in cardiovascular disease. We aimed to screen and validate circulating microRNAs correlated with atherosclerosis development in humans, and to dissect the molecular mechanisms associated with atherogenesis using in vitro and in vivo approaches. Methods and results: A panel of 179 secreted microRNAs was screened in plasma samples of patients with and without atherosclerosis, and validated cross-sectionally and prospectively in patients followed for up to 11 years...
August 14, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994792/the-rabbit-model-of-accelerated-atherosclerosis-a-methodological-perspective-of-the-iliac-artery-balloon-injury
#16
Manish Jain, Aurélien Frobert, Jérémy Valentin, Stéphane Cook, Marie-Noëlle Giraud
Acute coronary syndrome resulting from coronary occlusion following atherosclerotic plaque development and rupture is the leading cause of death in the industrialized world. New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits are widely used as an animal model for the study of atherosclerosis. They develop spontaneous lesions when fed with atherogenic diet; however, this requires long time of 4 - 8 months. To further enhance and accelerate atherogenesis, a combination of atherogenic diet and mechanical endothelial injury is often employed...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981605/osteoclast-stimulatory-transmembrane-protein-induces-a-phenotypic-switch-in-macrophage-polarization-suppressing-an-m1-pro-inflammatory-state
#17
Huimin Yuan, Jiangping He, Guangya Zhang, Dandan Zhang, Xiangxin Kong, Fengling Chen
Macrophages are the key cells in metabolic syndrome and are also a risk factor for metabolic disease. Macrophages have different functions and transcriptional profiles, but all are required for maintaining homeostasis. It is well known that macrophages play a key role in inflammation and early atherogenesis, and are present in two phenotypes: pro-inflammatory (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2). Osteoclast stimulatory transmembrane protein (oc-stamp) is a multiple-pass transmembrane protein; however, its function remains unclear...
October 1, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977841/tim-3-inhibits-low-density-lipoprotein-induced-atherogenic-responses-in-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#18
Ming-Ke Qiu, Song-Cun Wang, Yong Tang, Chang Pan, Yang Wang, Shu-Qing Wang, Zhi-Wei Quan, Jing-Min Ou
Endothelial injury and dysfunction followed by endothelial activation and inflammatory cell recruitment are factors contributing to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) promotes inflammation during atherogenesis and lipid deposition in the arterial wall. We observed that stimulation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with ox-LDL activated pro-inflammatory cytokine production and apoptosis, inhibited cell migration, and upregulated T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (Tim-3) expression...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976221/dapagliflozin-attenuates-human-vascular-endothelial-cell-activation-and-induces-vasorelaxation-a-potential-mechanism-for-inhibition-of-atherogenesis
#19
Tracey Gaspari, Iressa Spizzo, HongBin Liu, Yunshan Hu, Richard W Simpson, Robert E Widdop, Anthony E Dear
BACKGROUND: Sodium glucose transporter type 2 inhibitors may reduce cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes. Our study aimed to determine the effect of the sodium glucose transporter type 2 inhibitor dapagliflozin on endothelial cell activation, vasoreactivity and atherogenesis using in vitro and in vivo models and identify associated molecular mechanisms. METHODS: In vitro studies utilised human vascular endothelial cells stimulated with tumour necrosis factor α or hyperglycaemic conditions...
October 1, 2017: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970293/mitochondrial-respiration-is-reduced-in-atherosclerosis-promoting-necrotic-core-formation-and-reducing-relative-fibrous-cap-thickness
#20
Emma P K Yu, Johannes Reinhold, Haixiang Yu, Lakshi Starks, Anna K Uryga, Kirsty Foote, Alison Finigan, Nichola Figg, Yuh-Fen Pung, Angela Logan, Michael P Murphy, Martin Bennett
OBJECTIVE: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage is present in murine and human atherosclerotic plaques. However, whether endogenous levels of mtDNA damage are sufficient to cause mitochondrial dysfunction and whether decreasing mtDNA damage and improving mitochondrial respiration affects plaque burden or composition are unclear. We examined mitochondrial respiration in human atherosclerotic plaques and whether augmenting mitochondrial respiration affects atherogenesis. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Human atherosclerotic plaques showed marked mitochondrial dysfunction, manifested as reduced mtDNA copy number and oxygen consumption rate in fibrous cap and core regions...
September 28, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
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