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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449334/rgc-32-response-gene-to-complement-32-protein-deficiency-protects-endothelial-cells-from-inflammation-and-attenuates-atherosclerosis
#1
Xiao-Bing Cui, Jun-Na Luan, Kun Dong, Sisi Chen, Yongyi Wang, Wendy T Watford, Shi-You Chen
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine the role and underlying mechanisms of RGC-32 (response gene to complement 32 protein) in atherogenesis. APPROACH AND RESULTS: RGC-32 was mainly expressed in endothelial cells of atherosclerotic lesions in both ApoE -/- (apolipoprotein E deficient) mice and human patients. RGC-32 deficiency (Rgc32 -/- ) attenuated the high-fat diet-induced and spontaneously developed atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE -/- mice without affecting serum cholesterol concentration...
February 15, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448251/expression-of-lectin-like-oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-1-in-human-epicardial-and-intramyocardial-coronary-arteries-of-male-patients-undergoing-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting
#2
Andreas Synetos, Antonios Karanasos, Stauros Spyropoulos, Maria Gazouli, George Latsios, Konstantinos Toutouzas, Despina Perrea, Dimitrios Tousoulis, Ioannis A Chloroyiannis
OBJECTIVES: Atherosclerosis is almost absent in intramyocardial coronary arteries, while epicardial coronary arteries may show extensive occlusive disease. Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) expression has been implicated in atherogenesis. We aimed to investigate differences in arterial wall LOX-1 expression between human epicardial and intramyocardial coronary arteries. METHODS: Epicardial and intramyocardial total artery wall specimens were obtained from 13 male patients (aged 61...
February 15, 2018: Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445885/the-interplay-of-lipids-lipoproteins-and-immunity-in-atherosclerosis
#3
REVIEW
Angela Pirillo, Fabrizia Bonacina, Giuseppe Danilo Norata, Alberico Luigi Catapano
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disorder of the arterial wall, in which several players contribute to the onset and progression of the disease. Besides the well-established role of lipids, specifically cholesterol, and immune cell activation, new insights on the molecular mechanisms underlying the atherogenic process have emerged. RECENT FINDINGS: Meta-inflammation, a condition of low-grade immune response caused by metabolic dysregulation, immunological memory of innate immune cells (referred to as "trained immunity"), cholesterol homeostasis in dendritic cells, and immunometabolism, i...
February 14, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431742/transcriptional-regulation-of-macrophage-cholesterol-efflux-and-atherogenesis-by-a-long-noncoding-rna
#4
Tamer Sallam, Marius Jones, Brandon J Thomas, Xiaohui Wu, Thomas Gilliland, Kevin Qian, Ascia Eskin, David Casero, Zhengyi Zhang, Jaspreet Sandhu, David Salisbury, Prashant Rajbhandari, Mete Civelek, Cynthia Hong, Ayaka Ito, Xin Liu, Bence Daniel, Aldons J Lusis, Julian Whitelegge, Laszlo Nagy, Antonio Castrillo, Stephen Smale, Peter Tontonoz
Nuclear receptors regulate gene expression in response to environmental cues, but the molecular events governing the cell type specificity of nuclear receptors remain poorly understood. Here we outline a role for a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) in modulating the cell type-specific actions of liver X receptors (LXRs), sterol-activated nuclear receptors that regulate the expression of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis and that have been causally linked to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We identify the lncRNA MeXis as an amplifier of LXR-dependent transcription of the gene Abca1, which is critical for regulation of cholesterol efflux...
February 12, 2018: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428127/dyslipidemia-steatohepatitis-and-atherogenesis-in-lipodystrophic-apoe-deficient-mice-with-seipin-deletion
#5
Jiawei Liao, Xuejing Liu, Mingming Gao, Mengyu Wang, Yuhui Wang, Feng Wang, Wei Huang, George Liu
SEIPIN is an integral membrane protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum, regulating adipocytes differentiation and lipolysis. Deficiency of Seipin in mice causes severe general lipodystrophy, accompanied by insulin resistance, postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and steatohepatitis. In atherosclerosis-prone Ldlr null (Ldlr -/- ) mice, lipodystrophy caused by Seipin deletion even led to severe hypercholesteremia and accelerated atherogenesis, when challenged with an atherogenic diet. However, whether the phenotypes observed in Seipin -/- Ldlr -/- mice were a common consequence due to lipodystrophy, rather than genetic background restricted or diet dependent, was unknown...
March 30, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425108/neck-adipose-tissue-tying-ties-in-metabolic-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Vlatka Pandzic Jaksic, Danijela Grizelj, Ana Livun, Drago Boscic, Marko Ajduk, Rajko Kusec, Ozren Jaksic
Upper body adipose tissue accumulation has been associated with clustering of metabolic disorders and increased cardiovascular risk. Neck circumference (NC) indicated that subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in that region is an independent pathogenic depot that might account for the additional risk missed by visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Neck adipose tissue (NAT) is not only one more ectopic depot but has several particular features that might modulate its metabolic role. Besides a controversial impact on obstructive apnea syndrome, neck fat encompasses carotid arteries as an important perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) depot...
February 9, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422264/perilipin-2-levels-are-increased-in-patients-with-in-stent-neoatherosclerosis-a-clue-to-mechanisms-of-accelerated-plaque-formation-after-drug-eluting-stent-implantation
#7
Giampaolo Niccoli, Domenico D'Amario, Josip A Borovac, Erminio Santangelo, Giancarla Scalone, Francesco Fracassi, Rocco Vergallo, Vincenzo Vetrugno, Giorgia Copponi, Anna Severino, Giovanna Liuzzo, Asiia Imaeva, Andrea Siracusano, Filippo Crea
BACKGROUND: Perilipin 2 (PLIN2) is a protein that potentially facilitates atherogenesis in native coronary arteries or arteries with an implanted drug-eluting stent (DES). The aim of the study was to determine PLIN2 protein levels in peripheral monocytes of enrolled subjects and compare them between patients with native coronary artery disease (CAD) and those with an in-stent restenosis (ISR) due to neoatherosclerosis occurring >1 year after DES implantation. METHODS: Forty-two patients were prospectively enrolled in the study in 3:1 fashion and underwent coronary catheterization...
February 5, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414692/legumain-suppresses-oxldl-induced-macrophage-apoptosis-through-enhancement-of-the-autophagy-pathway
#8
Wenhua Sun, Yingying Lin, Liling Chen, Rong Ma, Jiayu Cao, Jing Yao, Kaihong Chen, Jieqing Wan
OBJECTIVE: Autophagy plays a prominent role in the pathogenesis of plaques formation and progression of atherosclerosis (AS). The cysteine protease legumain is known to participate in atherogenesis, but its function and underlying mechanism in AS macrophages remain unclear. METHODS: The expressions of legumain in plaques isolated from AS patients and in macrophages stimulated with oxLDL were examined. Moreover, we effectively altered legumain expression in macrophages to characterize the effect of legumain on oxLDL-induced macrophage apoptosis...
February 4, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407889/microrna-24-aggravates-atherosclerosis-by-inhibiting-selective-lipid-uptake-from-hdl-cholesterol-via-the-post-transcriptional-repression-of-scavenger-receptor-class-b-type-i
#9
Kun Ren, Xiao Zhu, Zhi Zheng, Zhong-Cheng Mo, Xiao-Shan Peng, Yong-Zhi Zeng, Han-Xiao Ou, Qing-Hai Zhang, Hui-Zhou Qi, Guo-Jun Zhao, Guang-Hui Yi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Liver scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) exerts atheroprotective effects through selective lipid uptake (SLU) from high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Low hepatic SR-BI expression leads to high HDL-C levels in the circulation and an increased risk of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, macrophage SR-BI mediates bidirectional cholesterol flux and may protect against atherogenesis. Previous studies have revealed that miR-24 is closely related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) progression...
January 30, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399895/leucine-supplementation-attenuates-macrophage-foam-cell-formation-studies-in-humans-mice-and-cultured-macrophages
#10
Claudia Grajeda-Iglesias, Oren Rom, Shadi Hamoud, Nina Volkova, Tony Hayek, Niroz Abu-Saleh, Michael Aviram
Whereas atherogenicity of dietary lipids has been largely studied, relatively little is known about the possible contribution of dietary amino acids to macrophage foam-cell formation, a hallmark of early atherogenesis. Recently, we showed that leucine has antiatherogenic properties in the macrophage model system. In this study, an in-depth investigation of the role of leucine in macrophage lipid metabolism was conducted by supplementing humans, mice, or cultured macrophages with leucine. Macrophage incubation with serum obtained from healthy adults supplemented with leucine (5 g/d, 3 weeks) significantly decreased cellular cholesterol mass by inhibiting the rate of cholesterol biosynthesis and increasing cholesterol efflux from macrophages...
February 5, 2018: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396513/pcsk9-induces-a-pro-inflammatory-response-in-macrophages
#11
Chiara Ricci, Massimiliano Ruscica, Marina Camera, Laura Rossetti, Chiara Macchi, Alessandra Colciago, Ilaria Zanotti, Maria Giovanna Lupo, Maria Pia Adorni, Arrigo F G Cicero, Federica Fogacci, Alberto Corsini, Nicola Ferri
Intraplaque release of inflammatory cytokines from macrophages is implicated in atherogenesis by inducing the proliferation and migration of media smooth muscle cells (SMCs). PCSK9 is present and released by SMCs within the atherosclerotic plaque but its function is still unknown. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that PCSK9 could elicit a pro-inflammatory effect on macrophages. THP-1-derived macrophages and human primary macrophages were exposed to different concentrations (0.250 ÷ 2.5 µg/ml) of human recombinant PCSK9 (hPCSK9)...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393918/nanotherapeutics-containing-lithocholic-acid-based-amphiphilic-scorpion-like-macromolecules-reduce-in-vitro-inflammation-in-macrophages-implications-for-atherosclerosis
#12
Alysha Moretti, Qi Li, Rebecca Chmielowski, Laurie B Joseph, Prabhas V Moghe, Kathryn E Uhrich
Previously-designed amphiphilic scorpion-like macromolecule (AScM) nanoparticles (NPs) showed elevated potency to counteract oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) uptake in atherosclerotic macrophages, but failed to ameliorate oxLDL-induced inflammation. We designed a new class of composite AScMs incorporating lithocholic acid (LCA), a natural agonist for the TGR5 receptor that is known to counteract atherosclerotic inflammation, with two complementary goals: to simultaneously decrease lipid uptake and inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion by macrophages...
February 2, 2018: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393413/suppressive-effects-of-berberine-on-atherosclerosis-via-downregulating-visfatin-expression-and-attenuating-visfatin-induced-endothelial-dysfunction
#13
Qiang Wan, Zhongyong Liu, Yuping Yang, Xiaobing Cui
Berberine (BBR) possesses significant anti-atherosclerosis properties. Visfatin is one of the most promising biomarkers of incoming atherosclerosis. However, research on the effect of BBR on regulating visfatin expression in atherogenesis remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of BBR on visfatin expression and atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE-/-) mice. The effect of BBR on attenuating visfatin-induced endothelial dysfunction was also evaluated in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390507/arterial-stiffness-assessment-in-patients-with-phenylketonuria
#14
Alvaro Hermida-Ameijeiras, Vanesa Crujeiras, Iria Roca, Carlos Calvo, Rosaura Leis, María-Luz Couce
In patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) compliant to diet greater tendency to overweight and higher inflammatory biomarkers levels than controls were reported. Although this could lead to atherogenesis, the elastic properties of large arteries in PKU patients have never been assessed. The aim of this study was to assess arterial stiffness measured by applanation tonometry in PKU patients compared to healthy controls.We carried out a cross-sectional study in 41 PKU patients (range age: 6-50 years old) and 41 age- and gender-matched healthy controls...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384050/polyphenols-potential-use-in-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#15
Rosaria Vincenza Giglio, Angelo Maria Patti, Arrigo Fg Cicero, Giuseppe Lippi, Manfredi Rizzo, Peter P Toth, Maciej Banach
BACKGROUND: Polyphenols are bioactive compounds that can be found mostly in foods like fruits, cereals, vegetables, dry legumes, chocolate and beverages such as coffee, tea and wine. They are extensively used in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) providing protection against many chronic illnesses. Their effects on human health depend on the amount consumed and on their bioavailability. Many studies have demonstrated that polyphenols have also good effects on the vascular system by lowering blood pressure, improving endothelial function, increasing antioxidant defences, inhibiting platelet aggregation and low-density lipoprotein oxidation, and reducing inflammatory responses...
January 29, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370236/ethyl-pyruvate-inhibits-oxidation-of-ldl-in-vitro-and-attenuates-oxldl-toxicity-in-ea-hy926-cells
#16
Christine Rossmann, Christoph Nusshold, Margret Paar, Gerhard Ledinski, Erwin Tafeit, Martin Koestenberger, Eva Maria Bernhart, Wolfgang Sattler, Gerhard Cvirn, Seth Hallström
BACKGROUND: Ethyl pyruvate (EP) exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. The aim of our study was to investigate whether EP is capable of inhibiting the oxidation of LDL, a crucial step in atherogenesis. Additionally, we examined whether EP attenuates the cytotoxic effects of highly oxidized LDL in the human vascular endothelial cell line EA.hy926. METHODS: Native LDL (nLDL) was oxidized using Cu2+ ions in the presence of increasing amounts of EP...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366172/cd40-deficiency-in-smooth-muscle-cells-ameliorates-atherogenesis-and-promotes-a-stable-plaque-phenotype-in-the-aortic-root
#17
Florian Willecke, Mark Colin Gissler, Nathaly Anto Michel, Katharina Pfeiffer, Carmen Härtner, Ingo Hilgendorf, Dennis Wolf, Peter Stachon, Esther Lutgens, Lesca M Holdt, Christoph Bode, Norbert Gerdes, Andreas Zirlik Zirlik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366140/preclinical-evidence-studying-intranasal-hb-atv-8-vaccine-in-a-porcine-model-of-atherosclerosis-shows-high-efficiency-in-the-prevention-of-atherogenesis-and-fatty-liver-disease
#18
Jaime Mas-Oliva, Blanca Delgado-Coello, Kevin Méndez-Acevedo, Roxana Gutiérrez-Vidal, Sandra Calixto-Tlacomulco
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366079/mechanical-induced-intimal-breaches-as-a-driving-force-of-atherogenesis-in-mice
#19
Grégory Franck, Guillaume Even, Francesco Andrea, Alexia Loste, Emanuele Procopio, Julie Vorbe, Antonino Nicoletti, Giuseppina Caligiuri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29365855/glycation-of-apoa-iv-promotes-atherogenesis-through-nuclear-receptor-nr4a3-mediation
#20
Lin Lu, Yang Dai, Xiaoqun Wang, Ying Shen, Jiateng Sun, Ruiyan Zhang, Weifeng Shen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Atherosclerosis
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