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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108018/quit-smoking-to-outsmart-atherogenesis-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-clinical-evidence
#1
EDITORIAL
Jessica Gambardella, Celestino Sardu, Cosimo Sacra, Carmine Del Giudice, Gaetano Santulli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 16, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107707/uremia-modulates-the-phenotype-of-aortic-smooth-muscle-cells
#2
Marie Madsen, Annemarie Aarup, Sebastian Albinsson, Karsten Hartvigsen, Charlotte M Sørensen, Karolina Turczynska, Lars B Nielsen, Tanja Xenia Pedersen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Chronic kidney disease leads to uremia and markedly accelerates atherosclerosis. Phenotypic modulation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the arterial media plays a key role in accelerating atherogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether uremia per se modulates the phenotype of aortic SMCs in vivo. METHODS: Moderate uremia was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE(-/-)) and wildtype C57Bl/6 mice. Plasma analysis, gene expression, histology, and myography were used to determine uremia-mediated changes in the arterial wall...
December 23, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099207/could-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-predict-increased-cardiovascular-risk
#3
Tae Ik Chang, Elani Streja, Hamid Moradi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is considered to be protective against cardiovascular disease. However, there is emerging evidence that under certain conditions the HDL molecule can become dysfunctional and proinflammatory, paradoxically leading to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This review will provide a brief outline of the potential mechanisms by which HDL can become atherogenic and summarize some of the clinical evidence on this topic. RECENT FINDINGS: HDL metabolism, structure, and function in addition to its level can be profoundly altered under conditions of marked oxidative stress and chronic inflammation...
January 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074419/deciphering-the-molecular-mechanisms-involved-in-hiv-associated-lipoatrophy-by-transcriptomics-a-pilot-study
#4
Patricia Pérez-Matute, María Iñiguez, Emma Recio-Fernández, José-Antonio Oteo
HIV-associated lipoatrophy (LA) has considerable implications for risk of metabolic diseases, quality of life, and adherence to treatments. Although it has decreased in high-income countries, it is still very common in resource-limited countries. Understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms of LA can open the possibility to explore new ways to treat or prevent this condition. To identify new markers for an accurate and quick diagnosis will be also of interest. Thus, we aimed to examine functional classes of genes implicated in LA and to identify potential new markers for an accurate/quick diagnosis of LA and future complications...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069704/angiopoietin-1-promotes-atherosclerosis-by-increasing-the-proportion-of-circulating-gr1-monocytes
#5
Takeshi Fujisawa, Keqing Wang, Xi-Lin Niu, Stuart Egginton, Shakil Ahmad, Peter Hewett, Christopher D Kontos, Asif Ahmed
AIMS: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease occurring within the artery wall. A crucial step in atherogenesis is the infiltration and retention of monocytes into the subendothelial space of large arteries induced by chemokines and growth factors. Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) regulates angiogenesis and reduces vascular permeability and has also been reported to promote monocyte migration in vitro. We investigated the role of Ang-1 in atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein-E (Apo-E) knockout mouse...
January 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068281/pathophysiological-role-of-adiponectin-leptin-and-asymmetric-dimethylarginine-in-the-process-of-atherosclerosis
#6
Daniela Iv Koleva, Maria M Orbetzova, Julia G Nikolova, Tanya I Deneva
Adipose tissue is recognized as a rich source of proinflammatory mediators that may directly contribute to vascular injury, insulin resistance, and atherogenesis. Many studies have shown that adiponectin has antiatherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Adiponectin acts not only as a factor increasing insulin sensitivity, and the protective effect may result from its ability to suppress production of proinflammatory cytokines. It negatively regulates the expression of TNF-alpha and C-reactive protein (CRP) in adipose tissue; reduces expression of vascular and intracellular adhesion molecules (VCAM-1, ICAM-1), E-selectin, interleukin-8 (IL-8)...
December 1, 2016: Folia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063350/deficiency-of-scavenger-receptor-class-b-type-1-leads-to-increased-atherogenesis-with-features-of-advanced-fibroatheroma-and-expansive-arterial-remodeling
#7
Jiawei Liao, Xin Guo, Mengyu Wang, Mingming Gao, Qiang Shen, Yuhui Wang, Wei Huang, George Liu
BACKGROUND: Scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-BI) is the main high-density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor in mammalians. Loss of SR-BI has been proven to disturb HDL metabolism and accelerate atherosclerosis. However, little is known about the plaque features and arterial remodeling in the increased atherogenesis caused by SR-BI deficiency. Here, we explored this issue in atherosclerosis-prone low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) knockout (KO) mice deficient of SR-BI. METHODS AND RESULTS: SR-BI/LDL-R double KO (dKO) and control LDL-R KO mice were fed an atherogenic diet for 12 weeks...
December 22, 2016: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062501/p2y12-promotes-migration-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-through-cofilin-dephosphorylation-during-atherogenesis
#8
Xuan Niu, Shu-Lan Pi, Suraj Baral, Yuan-Peng Xia, Quan-Wei He, Ya-Nan Li, Hui-Juan Jin, Man Li, Meng-Die Wang, Ling Mao, Bo Hu
OBJECTIVE: P2Y12 is a well-recognized receptor expressed on platelets and the target of thienopyridine-type antiplatelet drugs. However, recent evidence suggests that P2Y12 expressed in vessel wall plays a role in atherogenesis, but the mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanisms of how vessel wall P2Y12 mediates vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) migration and promotes the progression of atherosclerosis. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Using a high-fat diet-fed ApoE knockout mice model, we found that the expression of P2Y12 in VSMCs increased in a time-dependent manner and had a linear relationship with the plaque area...
January 5, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059951/human-genetic-insights-into-lipoproteins-and-risk-of-cardiometabolic-disease
#9
Nathan O Stitziel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Human genetic studies have been successfully used to identify genes and pathways relevant to human biology. Using genetic instruments composed of loci associated with human lipid traits, recent studies have begun to clarify the causal role of major lipid fractions in risk of cardiometabolic disease. RECENT FINDINGS: The causal relationship between LDL cholesterol and coronary disease has been firmly established. Of the remaining two major fractions, recent studies have found that HDL cholesterol is not likely to be a causal particle in atherogenesis, and have instead shifted the causal focus to triglyceride-rich lipoproteins...
January 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059114/cigarette-smoke-extract-profoundly-suppresses-tnf%C3%AE-mediated-proinflammatory-gene-expression-through-upregulation-of-atf3-in-human-coronary-artery-endothelial-cells
#10
Jack E Teasdale, Georgina G J Hazell, Alasdair M G Peachey, Graciela B Sala-Newby, Charles C T Hindmarch, Tristan R McKay, Mark Bond, Andrew C Newby, Stephen J White
Endothelial dysfunction caused by the combined action of disturbed flow, inflammatory mediators and oxidants derived from cigarette smoke is known to promote coronary atherosclerosis and increase the likelihood of myocardial infarctions and strokes. Conversely, laminar flow protects against endothelial dysfunction, at least in the initial phases of atherogenesis. We studied the effects of TNFα and cigarette smoke extract on human coronary artery endothelial cells under oscillatory, normal laminar and elevated laminar shear stress for a period of 72 hours...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053922/adropin-a-novel-biomarker-of-heart-disease-a-systematic-review-article
#11
REVIEW
Somaye Yosaee, Sepideh Soltani, Eghbal Sekhavati, Shima Jazayeri
BACKGROUND: Heart disease is one of the most common chronic disease and leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Adropin, a newly identified protein, is important for energy homeostasis and maintaining insulin sensitivity, and has been referred to as a novel regulator of endothelial cells. Endothelial dysfunction is a key early event in atherogenesis and onset of HD. Therefore, this review gives a systematic overview of studies investigating plasma adropin level in patient with heart disease...
December 2016: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042768/blood-serum-atherogenicity-cellular-test-for-the-development-of-anti-atherosclerotic-therapy
#12
Veronika A Myasoedova, Galina A Ivashinnikova, Igor A Sobenin, Ekaterina A Ivanova, Alexander N Orekhov
Atherosclerosis is one of the main problems in modern medical practice. This multifactorial disease can remain asymptomatic for a long time before manifesting itself in cardiovascular disorders, causing ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction and even sudden death. Many synthetic drugs have been developed to reduce the symptoms of atherosclerosis, however, their efficacy in terms of reduction of atherosclerotic lesions progression is a matter of debate. Adverse effects of the exiting therapy should also be taken into account...
January 2, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039525/flow-signaling-and-atherosclerosis
#13
REVIEW
Nhat-Tu Le, Uday G Sandhu, Raymundo A Quintana-Quezada, Nguyet Minh Hoang, Keigi Fujiwara, Jun-Ichi Abe
Atherosclerosis rarely develops in the region of arteries exposed to undisturbed flow (u-flow, unidirectional flow). Instead, atherogenesis occurs in the area exposed to disturbed flow (d-flow, multidirectional flow). Based on these general pathohistological observations, u-flow is considered to be athero-protective, while d-flow is atherogenic. The fact that u-flow and d-flow induce such clearly different biological responses in the wall of large arteries indicates that these two types of flow activate each distinct intracellular signaling cascade in vascular endothelial cells (ECs), which are directly exposed to blood flow...
December 30, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039493/new-markers-in-atherosclerosis-thrombospondin-2-thbs-2-and-leukocyte-cell-derived-chemotaxin-2-lect-2-an-immunohistochemical-study
#14
Fatma Cavide Sonmez, Pelin Yildiz, Muhammad Salman Akhtar, Cemalettin Aydin, Osman Sonmez, Nuray Ay, Mehmet Akif Vatankulu
BACKGROUND Current research investigating the role of THBS2 and LECT-2 in atherogenesis is very limited. Therefore, we designed this study to demonstrate the role of THBS-2 and LECT-2 in atherosclerosis at the tissue level in fresh specimens. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 32 patients who underwent coronary bypass surgery were enrolled. Aortic wall punch biopsies were obtained at the site of proximal aortosaphenous bypass graft anastomosis. A specimen of left internal mammarian artery (LiMA) was taken from the segment just proximal to its anastomosis...
December 31, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034277/the-two-faces-of-interleukin-17a-in-atherosclerosis-interleukin-17a-and-atherosclerosis
#15
Mohammadreza Akhavanpoor, Hamidreza Akhavanpoor, Christian A Gleissner, Susanne Wangler, Andreas O Doesch, Hugo A Katus, Christian Erbel
A complex network of different cytokines and chemokines modulate atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease. Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is expressed by different leukocyte subsets such as CD4+IL-17+ T cells (Th17), γδ T cells, natural killer cells, natural killer T cells, and neutrophils. IL-17A plays an important role in host defense and is involved in the pathology of different autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Recent studies demonstrate an association of IL-17A with atherosclerosis. IL-17A seems to have primarily pro-inflammatory effects in atherogenesis, although there are partially controversial results in the literature...
December 29, 2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033544/complement-receptor-1-gene-polymorphisms-are-associated-with-cardiovascular-risk
#16
Marijke A de Vries, Stella Trompet, Simon P Mooijaart, Roelof A J Smit, Stefan Böhringer, Manuel Castro Cabezas, J Wouter Jukema
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Inflammation plays a key role in atherosclerosis. The complement system is involved in atherogenesis, and the complement receptor 1 (CR1) plays a role facilitating the clearance of immune complexes from the circulation. Limited evidence suggests that CR1 may be involved in cardiovascular disease. We investigated the relationship between CR1 gene polymorphisms and cardiovascular risk. METHODS: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the CR1 region (n = 73) on chromosome 1 were assessed in 5244 participants in PROSPER (PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk) (mean age 75...
December 20, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030540/severe-atherosclerosis-and-hypercholesterolemia-in-mice-lacking-both-the-melanocortin-type-4-receptor-and-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor
#17
Vera Lede, Christin Franke, Andrej Meusel, Daniel Teupser, Albert Ricken, Joachim Thiery, Jürgen Schiller, Daniel Huster, Torsten Schöneberg, Angela Schulz
Dysfunction of the melanocortin system can result in severe obesity accompanied with dyslipidemia and symptoms of the metabolic syndrome but the effect on vascular atherogenesis is not known. To study the impact of obesity and dyslipidemia on the cardiovascular system, we generated mice double-deficient for the melanocortin type 4 receptor (Mc4rmut mice) and the LDL receptor (Ldlr-/- mice). Mc4rmut mice develop obesity due to hyperphagia. Double-mutant mice (Mc4rmut;Ldlr-/-) exhibited massive increases in body weight, plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels and developed atherosclerosis...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011954/new-cationically-modified-pullulan-attenuates-atherogenesis-and-influences-lipid-metabolism-in-apoe-knockout-mice
#18
J Stefan, K Kus, A Wisniewska, K Kaminski, K Szczubialka, J Jawien, M Nowakowska, R Korbut
Pullulan is a biocompatible polysaccharide obtained from black, yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. This polymer is used to deliver various substances to the liver because of its specificity for this organ. Pullulan is internalized into hepatocytes in the process of asialoglycoprotein receptor mediated endocytosis. Recently, by reaction with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride (GTMAC) we have successfully synthesized a cationically-modified pullulan (Pull-GTMAC). Pull-GTMAC exhibits some unique beneficial effects not found for its native counterpart...
October 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009484/hsp90-inhibition-suppresses-inflammatory-response-and-reduces-carotid-atherosclerotic-plaque-formation-in-apoe-mice
#19
Hongmei Mu, Liyong Wang, Lei Zhao
AIM: Emerging evidences indicate that heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is associated with atherogenesis. However, the effect of HSP90 on plaque stability is largely unknown. In the present study, we explored the role of HSP90 in plaque development and its regulatory mechanisms on vasculature. METHODS: HSP90-overexpression lentivirus (Lenti-HSP90) was used to transfect apoE(-/-) mice after constrictive collars were planted at the right common carotid arteries. RESULTS: As a result, HSP90 gene overexpression led to reduction in en face plaque area, and increase in unstable plaque with heavier accumulation of lipids...
December 23, 2016: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000856/cyp2j2-participates-in-atherogenesis-by-mediating-cell-proliferation-migration-and-foam-cell-formation
#20
Rui Li, Yuan Zhang, Huacheng Yan, Hua Xiao, Yunjun Ruan, Jian Qiu, Lei Shi
Atherosclerosis (AS) is a common pathological basis for the development of various cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, however, currently, no effective treatment against AS has been established. It has previously been suggested that intravascular cytochrome P450 (CYP) oxidase is involved in the pathogenesis of AS. The present study investigated the role of cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily J, polypeptide 2 (CYP2J2), the most common subtype of CYP oxidase in the human body, in the occurrence and development of AS...
February 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
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