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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641276/atherosclerosis-and-the-hydrogen-sulfide-signaling-pathway-therapeutic-approaches-to-disease-prevention
#1
Zhi-Jun Wang, Jian Wu, Wei Guo, Yi-Zhun Zhu
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is now admitted as a third gasotransmitter together with nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), albeit it was originally considered as a foul and poisonous gas. Endogenous H2S production in mammalian cells is counting on the three enzymes acting on cysteine. Involvement of H2S in various physiological and pathological processes has been extensively studied in the last fifteen years. Mounting evidence suggests that H2S is able to protect against atherosclerosis development and progression...
June 23, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624131/studying-arterial-stiffness-using-high-frequency-ultrasound-in-mice-with-alzheimer-disease
#2
Chin-Chia Huang, Hsiang-Fan Cheng, Ben-Peng Zhu, Pei-Yu Chen, Suet Theng Beh, Yu-Min Kuo, Chih-Chung Huang
Alzheimer disease (AD) is an irreversible, progressive brain disorder that causes slow loss of memory and thinking skills, normally leading to death in 3-9 y. The etiology of AD is not fully understood but is widely believed to be induced by the production and deposition of amyloid-β peptide in the brain. Recently, a correlation was discovered between amyloid-β deposition and atherosclerosis in the cerebral arteries of postmortem brains, indicating that amyloid-β promotes atherogenesis and that in turn atherosclerosis promotes brain amyloid-β accumulation...
June 14, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623279/divergent-regulation-of-actin-dynamics-and-megakaryoblastic-leukemia-1-and-2-mkl1-2-by-camp-in-endothelial-and-smooth-muscle-cells
#3
Madeleine C Smith, Claire A Hudson, Tomomi E Kimura, Stephen J White, Graciela B Sala-Newby, Andrew C Newby, Mark Bond
Proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) or endothelial cell (ECs) promote or inhibit, respectively, restenosis after angioplasty, vein graft intimal thickening and atherogenesis. Here we investigated the effects of cAMP-induced cytoskeletal remodelling on the serum response factor (SRF) co-factors Megakaryoblastic Leukemia-1 and -2 (MKL1 and MKL2) and their role in controlling VSMC and EC proliferation and migration. Elevation of cAMP using forskolin, dibutyryl-cAMP (db-cAMP), BAY60-6583 or Cicaprost induced rapid cytoskeleton remodelling and inhibited proliferation and migration in VSMCs but not EC...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621675/the-regulation-of-immune-cells-by-lactobacilli-a-potential-therapeutic-target-for-anti-atherosclerosis-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Ya-Hui Ding, Lin-Yan Qian, Jie Pang, Jing-Yang Lin, Qiang Xu, Li-Hong Wang, Dong-Sheng Huang, Hai Zou
Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease regulated by several immune cells including lymphocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. Gut probiotic bacteria like Lactobacilli have been shown immunomodificatory effects in the progression of atherogenesis. Some Lactobacillus stains can upregulate the activity of regulatory T-lymphocytes, suppress T-lymphocyte helper (Th) cells Th1, Th17, alter the Th1/Th2 ratio, influence the subsets ratio of M1/M2 macrophages, inhibit foam cell formation by suppressing macrophage phagocytosis of oxidized low-density lipoprotein, block the activation of the immune system with dendritic cells, which are expected to suppress the atherosclerosis-related inflammation...
June 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620920/diet-induced-early-stage-atherosclerosis-in-baboons-lipoproteins-atherogenesis-and-arterial-compliance
#5
Michael C Mahaney, Genesio M Karere, David L Rainwater, Venkata S Voruganti, Edward J Dick, Michael A Owston, Karen S Rice, Laura A Cox, Anthony G Comuzzie, John L VandeBerg
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine whether dietary manipulation can reliably induce early-stage atherosclerosis and clinically relevant changes in vascular function in an established, well-characterized non-human primate model. METHODS: We fed 112 baboons a high-cholesterol, high-fat challenge diet for two years. We assayed circulating biomarkers of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, at 0, 7, and 104 weeks into the challenge; assessed arterial compliance noninvasively at 104 weeks; and measured atherosclerotic lesions in three major arteries at necropsy...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618986/inflammatory-and-oxidative-stress-markers-as-indicator-of-atherogenesis-in-rats-antioxidants-as-preventive-pharmacological-methods
#6
Maria Del Carmen Baez, Mariana Tarán, María de La Paz Scribano, Ariel Balceda, Carla Buonanotte, Sergio Blencio, Ismael Fonseca, Monica Moya
The oxidative process in atherogenesis generated by proinflammatory induction and response to antioxidants vitamins in an experimental model were analyzed. METHODS: Male rats were used: (A)Control, (B)Control+vitamin E plus C, (C)Hyperfibrinogenemia and (D)Hyperfibrinogenemia+vitamins E plus C. Hyperfibrinogenemia induced by daily injection of adrenaline (0.1mg/day/rat) for 120 days. TREATMENT: 3.42 mg/kg of vitamin E plus 2.14 mg/kg of vitamin C, fifteen days after induction...
June 16, 2017: Anti-inflammatory & Anti-allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615615/stat6-upregulation-promotes-m2-macrophage-polarization-to-suppress-atherosclerosis
#7
Min Gong, Xiaozhen Zhuo, Aiqun Ma
BACKGROUND Macrophages are highly heterogeneous and plastic cells that are involved in all stages of atherogenesis. They can undergo polarization by shifting between M1 and M2 functional phenotypes. However, the role of macrophage polarization and the molecular mechanism in modulating atherosclerotic plaque stability remain incompletely understood. Our study investigated the role of STAT6 in regulating macrophage phenotypes to affect atherosclerotic plaque stability. MATERIAL AND METHODS A murine atherosclerosis model with vulnerable plaques was induced with high-cholesterol diet and PCCP surgeries in ApoE-/- mice...
June 15, 2017: Medical Science Monitor Basic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615349/cftr-protects-against-vascular-inflammation-and-atherogenesis-in-apolipoprotein-e-deficient-mice
#8
Zhengzhang Li, Zhe Shen, Haoping Xue, Shi Cheng, Qun Ji, Yutan Liu, Xiangjun Yang
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the vascular wall. Dysfunction of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) has been shown to result in inflammatory responses in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. However, little is known about the role of CFTR in vascular inflammation and atherogenesis. Our results showed that CFTR was dominantly expressed in macrophages of atherosclerotic plaque and reduced in aorta and aortic sinus from atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE-/-) mice...
June 14, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615143/monocyte-macrophage-and-t-cell-activation-markers-are-not-independently-associated-with-mi-risk-in-healthy-individuals-results-from-the-hunt-study
#9
Thor Ueland, Lars E Laugsand, Lars J Vatten, Imre Janszky, Carl Platou, Annika E Michelsen, Jan K Damås, Pål Aukrust, Bjørn O Åsvold
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that circulating markers reflecting monocyte/macrophage and T cell activation are associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in apparently healthy individuals. METHODS: Serum monocyte/macrophage and T cell activation markers soluble (s) CD163, sCD14, Gal3BP, sCD25 and sCD166 were analyzed by enzyme-immunoassay in a case-control study nested within the population-based HUNT2 cohort in Norway. Among 58,761 apparently healthy men and women followed a median 11...
June 11, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614411/focal-induction-of-ros-release-to-trigger-local-vascular-degeneration
#10
Jan-Philipp Minol, Isabella Reinsch, Maximilian Luik, Anne Leferink, Mareike Barth, Alexander Assmann, Artur Lichtenberg, Payam Akhyari
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the process of cardiovascular degeneration. We evaluated the potential of a controlled, local induction of ROS-release by application of rose bengal (RB) and photo energy to induce atherosclerosis-like focal vascular degeneration in vivo. After injection of RB, rats fed with a pro-degenerative diet underwent focal irradiation of the abdominal aorta by a green laser (ROS group), while the controls received irradiation without RB. Aortic tissue was analyzed by histology and immunohistochemistry at 0, 2, 4, 8, 28 and 56 days (n = 5)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611395/shear-stress-induces-endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-via-the-transcription-factor-snail
#11
Marwa M Mahmoud, Jovana Serbanovic-Canic, Shuang Feng, Celine Souilhol, Rouyu Xing, Sarah Hsiao, Akiko Mammoto, Jing Chen, Markus Ariaans, Sheila E Francis, Kim Van der Heiden, Victoria Ridger, Paul C Evans
Blood flow influences atherosclerosis by generating wall shear stress, which alters endothelial cell (EC) physiology. Low shear stress induces dedifferentiation of EC through a process termed endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT). The mechanisms underlying shear stress-regulation of EndMT are uncertain. Here we investigated the role of the transcription factor Snail in low shear stress-induced EndMT. Studies of cultured EC exposed to flow revealed that low shear stress induced Snail expression. Using gene silencing it was demonstrated that Snail positively regulated the expression of EndMT markers (Slug, N-cadherin, α-SMA) in EC exposed to low shear stress...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605287/prdx1-peroxiredoxin-1-deficiency-reduces-cholesterol-efflux-via-impaired-macrophage-lipophagic-flux
#12
Se-Jin Jeong, Sinai Kim, Jong-Gil Park, In-Hyuk Jung, Mi-Ni Lee, Sejin Jeon, Hyae Yon Kweon, Dae-Yeul Yu, Sang-Hak Lee, Yangsoo Jang, Sang Won Kang, Ki-Hwan Han, Yury I Miller, Young Mi Park, Cheolho Cheong, Jae-Hoon Choi, Goo Taeg Oh
Oxidative stress activates macroautophagy/autophagy and contributes to atherogenesis via lipophagic flux, a form of lipid removal by autophagy. However, it is not known exactly how endogenous anti-oxidant enzymes are involved in lipophagic flux. Here, we demonstrate that the anti-oxidant PRDX1 (peroxiredoxin 1) has a crucial role in the maintenance of lipophagic flux in macrophages. PRDX1 is more highly expressed than other anti-oxidant enzymes in monocytes and macrophages. We determined that Prdx1 deficiency induced excessive oxidative stress and impaired maintenance of autophagic flux in macrophages...
June 12, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603627/chronic-treatment-of-r-%C3%AE-lipoic-acid-reduces-blood-glucose-and-lipid-levels-in-high-fat-diet-and-low-dose-streptozotocin-induced-metabolic-syndrome-and-type-2-diabetes-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#13
Hardik Ghelani, Valentina Razmovski-Naumovski, Srinivas Nammi
(R)- α -lipoic acid (ALA), an essential cofactor in mitochondrial respiration and a potential antioxidant, possesses a wide array of metabolic benefits including anti-obesity, glucose lowering, insulin-sensitizing, and lipid-lowering effects. In this study, the curative effects of ALA (100 mg/kg) on a spectrum of conditions related to metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes (T2D) were investigated in a high-fat diet (HFD)-fed and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ)-induced rat model of metabolic syndrome and T2D...
June 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602913/trpv4-calcium-permeable-channel-is-a-novel-regulator-of-oxidized-ldl-induced-macrophage-foam-cell-formation
#14
Rishov Goswami, Michael Merth, Shweta Sharma, Mazen O Alharbi, Helim Aranda-Espinoza, Xiaoping Zhu, Shaik O Rahaman
Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death in United States, and atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory arterial disease, is the most dominant underlying pathology. Macrophages are thought to orchestrate atherosclerosis by generating lipid-laden foam cells and by secreting inflammatory mediators. Emerging data support a role for a mechanical factor, e.g., matrix stiffness, in regulation of macrophage function, vascular elasticity, and atherogenesis. However, the identity of the plasma membrane mechanosensor and the mechanisms by which pro-atherogenic signals are transduced/maintained are unknown...
June 8, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602123/paraoxonase-1-and-myeloperoxidase-correlate-with-vascular-biomarkers-in-overweight-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-untreated-hyperlipidaemia
#15
Anita Szentpéteri, Noémi Zsíros, Viktória E Varga, Hajnalka Lőrincz, Mónika Katkó, Ildikó Seres, Péter Fülöp, György Paragh, Mariann Harangi
BACKGROUND: In hyperlipidaemic state, increased levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and decreased paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity have been reported; however, their relationships with other atherosclerotic biomarkers have not been completely clarified. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Serum concentrations of lipid and inflammatory parameters, MPO levels, and PON1 activities were investigated in 167 untreated hyperlipidaemic patients with and without vascular complications and in 32 healthy controls...
June 12, 2017: VASA. Zeitschrift Für Gefässkrankheiten
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600950/histamine-promotes-the-differentiation-of-macrophages-from-cd11b-myeloid-cells-and-formation-of-foam-cells-through-a-stat6-dependent-pathway
#16
Lili Xu, Dengfeng Cheng, Zheyong Huang, Suling Ding, Weiwei Zhang, Hui Tan, Hongcheng Shi, Ruizhen Chen, Yunzeng Zou, Timothy C Wang, Xiangdong Yang, Junbo Ge
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The enzyme histidine decarboxylase (Hdc), which generates histamine, is highly expressed in CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) myeloid cells that play a critical role in infection, inflammation and tumorigenesis. The aim of this study was to explore the role of Hdc-expressing CD11b(+) myeloid cells or histamine in atherogenesis. METHODS: Hdc-EGFP bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic reporter mice (Hdc-EGFP) were used to track Hdc expression during the development of atherosclerosis...
May 23, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596542/leukocyte-bim-deficiency-does-not-impact-atherogenesis-in-ldlr-mice-despite-a-pronounced-induction-of-autoimmune-inflammation
#17
Lieve Temmerman, Marijke M Westra, Ilze Bot, Bart J M van Vlijmen, Niek Van Bree, Martine Bot, Kim L L Habets, Tom G H Keulers, Johan van der Vlag, Thomas G Cotter, Theo J C van Berkel, Erik A L Biessen
Proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bim is particularly relevant for deletion of autoreactive and activated T and B cells, implicating Bim in autoimmunity. As atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory process with features of autoimmune disease, we investigated the impact of hematopoietic Bim deficiency on plaque formation and parameters of plaque stability. Bim (-/-) or wild type bone marrow transplanted ldlr (-/-) mice were fed a Western type diet (WTD) for 5 or 10 weeks, after which they were immunophenotyped and atherosclerotic lesions were analyzed...
June 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592707/endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-independent-pleiotropic-effects-of-pitavastatin-against-atherogenesis-and-limb-ischemia-in-mice
#18
Takeshi Mitsuhashi, Ryoko Uemoto, Kazue Ishikawa, Sumiko Yoshida, Yasumasa Ikeda, Shusuke Yagi, Toshio Matsumoto, Masashi Akaike, Ken-Ichi Aihara
AIM: Statins have a protective impact against cardiovascular diseases through not only lipid-lowering effects but also pleiotropic effects, including activation of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) system. We aimed to clarify the protective effects of a statin against atherogenesis and ischemia in eNOS(-/-) mice. METHODS: Study 1. eNOS(-/-) Apolipoprotein E (ApoE)(-/-) mice were treated with a vehicle or pitavastatin (0.3 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592134/circulating-annexin-a5-levels-are-associated-with-carotid-intima-media-thickness-but-not-coronary-plaque-composition
#19
Mathias Burgmaier, Sebastian Reith, Leon Schurgers, Florian Kahles, Nikolaus Marx, Chris Reutelingsperger
BACKGROUND: Annexin A5 (anxA5) is involved in processes which are crucial in atherogenesis. However, anxA5's relationship with atherosclerotic lesion extension and plaque composition in high-risk patients with type 2 diabetes remains unclear. Thus, we characterized the association between circulating anxA5 levels with atherosclerotic burden and coronary plaque composition in diabetes mellitus patients. METHODS: Intima-media thickness was determined in 96 diabetes mellitus patients with stable coronary artery disease...
June 1, 2017: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578476/lipopolysaccharide-downregulates-kruppel-like-factor-2-klf2-via-inducing-dnmt1-mediated-hypermethylation-in-endothelial-cells
#20
Zhonghai Yan, Yan Deng, Fei Jiao, Junqi Guo, Hailong Ou
KLF2 plays a protective role in antiinflammation and endothelial function, and can be regulated by promoter methylation alteration. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a mediator of inflammatory responses, which causes epigenetic change of certain genes in host cells. We thus aimed to determine whether LPS could control the KLF2 expression by inducing methylation in promoter region. DNA methylation of 16 CpG sites within KLF2 promoter region was detected by bisulfite sequencing PCR. Results showed that methylation at 12 CpG sites were significantly increased in HUVECs after exposure to LPS among the total 16 sites, and the average level was increased by 57%...
June 3, 2017: Inflammation
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