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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926559/-from-atherosclerosis-to-atherothrombosis-from-a-silent-chronic-pathology-to-an-acute-critical-event
#1
A J Scheen
Cardiovascular disease still represents, together with cancer, a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Atherosclerosis is a silent progressive process, which can start in early life and usually progresses with advancing age. Besides genetic predisposition, atherosclerosis is accelerated by the presence of several modifiable risk factors such as smoking, dyslipidaemia, arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Asymptomatic atherosclerosis may lead to an acute event, mostly due to plaque rupture and secondary thrombosis...
May 2018: Revue Médicale de Liège
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925433/target-achievement-and-cardiovascular-event-rates-with-lomitapide-in-homozygous-familial-hypercholesterolaemia
#2
Dirk J Blom, Marina Cuchel, Miranda Ager, Helen Phillips
BACKGROUND: Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH) is characterized by a markedly increased risk of premature cardiovascular (CV) events and cardiac death. Lomitapide reduces low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels; however, the probable impact on LDL-C goals and CV events is unknown. METHODS: We used data collected in the first 26 weeks of the lomitapide pivotal phase 3 study (NCT00730236) to evaluate achievement of European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) LDL-C targets...
June 20, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923368/human-electronegative-ldl-induces-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-premature-senescence-of-vascular-cells-in-vivo
#3
Yu-Chen Wang, An-Sheng Lee, Long-Sheng Lu, Liang-Yin Ke, Wei-Yu Chen, Jian-Wen Dong, Jonathan Lu, Zhenping Chen, Chih-Sheng Chu, Hua-Chen Chan, Taha Y Kuzan, Ming-Hsien Tsai, Wen-Li Hsu, Richard A F Dixon, Tatsuya Sawamura, Kuan-Cheng Chang, Chu-Huang Chen
Dysregulation of plasma lipids is associated with age-related cardiovascular diseases. L5, the most electronegative subfraction of chromatographically resolved low-density lipoprotein (LDL), induces endothelial dysfunction, whereas the least electronegative subfraction, L1, does not. In this study, we examined the effects of L5 on endothelial senescence and its underlying mechanisms. C57B6/J mice were intravenously injected with L5 or L1 (2 mg kg-1  day-1 ) from human plasma. After 4 weeks, nuclear γH2AX deposition and senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining indicative of DNA damage and premature senescence, respectively, were increased in the aortic endothelium of L5-treated but not L1-treated mice...
June 19, 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915101/proteomic-architecture-of-human-coronary-and-aortic-atherosclerosis
#4
David M Herrington, Chunhong Mao, Sarah J Parker, Zongming Fu, Guoqiang Yu, Lulu Chen, Vidya Venkatraman, Yi Fu, Yizhi Wang, Timothy D Howard, Goo Jun, Caroline F Zhao, Yongmei Liu, Georgia Saylor, Weston R Spivia, Grace B Athas, Dana Troxclair, James E Hixson, Richard S Vander Heide, Yue Wang, Jennifer E Van Eyk
BACKGOUND: The inability to detect premature atherosclerosis significantly hinders implementation of personalized therapy to prevent coronary heart disease. A comprehensive understanding of arterial protein networks and how they change in early atherosclerosis could identify new biomarkers for disease detection and improved therapeutic targets. METHODS: Here we describe the human arterial proteome and proteomic features strongly associated with early atherosclerosis based on mass spectrometry analysis of coronary artery and aortic specimens from 100 autopsied young adults (200 arterial specimens)...
June 19, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914303/association-between-lp-a-and-small-dense-ldl-in-menopausal-women-without-metabolic-syndrome
#5
Marco Gentile, Gabriella Iannuzzo, Amalia Mattiello, Gennaro Marotta, Fabiana Rubba, Arcangelo Iannuzzi, Salvatore Panico, Paolo Rubba
BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein (a) (Lp [a]) is associated with premature atherosclerosis in menopausal women without metabolic syndrome (MS). MS is the main confounder in the relationship between Lp(a) and atherosclerosis in menopausal women. We have evaluated the relationship between Lp(a) and small dense-low density lipoprotein (sd-LDL) in 228 menopausal women participating to Progetto Atena. METHODS: Lp(a) was measured and LDL particle separation was performed: mean LDL diameter and LDL score (% of sd-LDL) particles calculated...
June 19, 2018: Acta Cardiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907817/serum-proteomic-profiling-to-identify-biomarkers-of-premature-carotid-atherosclerosis
#6
Santosh D Bhosale, Robert Moulder, Mikko S Venäläinen, Juhani S Koskinen, Niina Pitkänen, Markus T Juonala, Mika A P Kähönen, Terho J Lehtimäki, Jorma S A Viikari, Laura L Elo, David R Goodlett, Riitta Lahesmaa, Olli T Raitakari
To evaluate the presence of serum protein biomarkers associated with the early phases of formation of carotid atherosclerotic plaques, label-free quantitative proteomics analyses were made for serum samples collected as part of The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Samples from subjects who had an asymptomatic carotid artery plaque detected by ultrasound examination (N = 43, Age = 30-45 years) were compared with plaque free controls (N = 43) (matched for age, sex, body weight and systolic blood pressure)...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877295/guidelines-for-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-familial-hypercholesterolemia-2017
#7
Mariko Harada-Shiba, Hidenori Arai, Yasushi Ishigaki, Shun Ishibashi, Tomonori Okamura, Masatsune Ogura, Kazushige Dobashi, Atsushi Nohara, Hideaki Bujo, Katsumi Miyauchi, Shizuya Yamashita, Koutaro Yokote
Statement1. Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal hereditary disease with the 3 major clinical features of hyper-LDL-cholesterolemia, premature coronary artery disease and tendon and skin xanthomas. As there is a considerably high risk of coronary artery disease, in addition to early diagnosis and intensive treatment, family screening (cascade screening) is required (Recommendation level A)2.For a diagnosis of FH, at least 2 of the following criteria should be satisfied:① LDL-C ≥180 mg/dL, ② Tendon/skin xanthomas, ③ History of FH or premature coronary artery disease (CAD) within 2nd degree blood relatives (Recommendation level A)3...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870498/cardiovascular-disease-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-an-update
#8
Yudong Liu, Mariana J Kaplan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The mechanisms leading to the development of premature atherosclerosis and vascular injury in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) remain to be fully elucidated. This is a comprehensive review of recent research developments related to the understanding of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in lupus. RECENT FINDINGS: SLE patients with lupus nephritis display significantly increased risk of myocardial infarction and CVD mortality than SLE patients without lupus nephritis...
June 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868134/tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-gene-expression-in-pbmcs-of-iranian-azeri-turkish-patients-with-premature-coronary-artery-disease-age-50-years
#9
Mahssa Hassan-Nejhad, Morteza Bagheri, Kamal Khadem-Vatani, Mir Hossein Seyed Mohammad Zad, Isa Abdi Rad, Behzad Rahimi, Ali Rostamzadeh, Amir Rahimlou
Background: Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of disability and mortality in Iran and worldwide. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays a key role in inflammatory cascades and atherosclerosis. It regulates cytokine networks and adhesion molecule expression, and activates several signal transduction pathways, being also known as transducer of cardiovascular diseases, especially premature coronary artery disease. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene expression in Iranian Azeri Turkish patients with premature coronary artery disease (age ≤50 years)...
March 2018: Mædica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866720/risk-factors-and-determinants-of-carotid-intima-media-thickness-in-children-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Adina Mihaela Epure, Magali Leyvraz, Yvan Mivelaz, Stefano Di Bernardo, Bruno R da Costa, Arnaud Chiolero, Nicole Sekarski
INTRODUCTION: Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis that is measured in adults and children to better understand the natural history of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In adults, CIMT is predictive of myocardial infarction and stroke. In children and adolescents, CIMT is used to assess vascular changes in the presence of CVD risk factors (obesity, hypertension, smoking, etc) or clinical conditions associated with a high risk for premature CVD. However, there is no comprehensive overview, in a life-course epidemiology perspective, of the risk factors and determinants of CIMT in children...
June 4, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29797058/prognostic-value-of-age-adjusted-segment-involvement-score-as-measured-by-coronary-computed-tomography-a-potential-marker-of-vascular-age
#11
Chadi Ayoub, Leonard Kritharides, Yeung Yam, Li Chen, Alomgir Hossain, Stephan Achenbach, Mouaz H Al-Mallah, Daniele Andreini, Daniel S Berman, Matthew J Budoff, Filippo Cademartiri, Tracy Q Callister, Hyuk-Jae Chang, Kavitha Chinnaiyan, Ricardo C Cury, Augustin Delago, Allison Dunning, Gudrun Feuchtner, Millie Gomez, Heidi Gransar, Martin Hadamitzky, Joerg Hausleiter, Niree Hindoyan, Philipp A Kaufmann, Yong-Jin Kim, Jonathon Leipsic, Erica Maffei, Hugo Marques, Gianluca Pontone, Gilbert Raff, Ronen Rubinshtein, Leslee J Shaw, Todd C Villines, James K Min, Benjamin J W Chow
Extent of coronary atherosclerotic disease (CAD) burden on coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) as measured by segment involvement score (SIS) has a prognostic value. We sought to investigate the incremental prognostic value of 'age adjusted SIS' (aSIS), which may be a marker of premature atherosclerosis and vascular age. Consecutive patients were prospectively enrolled into the CONFIRM (Coronary CT Angiography EvaluatioN For Clinical Outcomes: An InteRnational Multicentre) multinational observational study...
May 24, 2018: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753733/coronary-computed-tomographic-angiography-findings-and-their-therapeutic-implications-in-asymptomatic-patients-with-familial-hypercholesterolemia-lessons-from-the-safeheart-study
#12
Leopoldo Pérez de Isla, Rodrigo Alonso, Ovidio Muñiz-Grijalvo, José Luis Díaz-Díaz, Daniel Zambón, José Pablo Miramontes, Francisco Fuentes, José Juan Gómez de Diego, Aurora González-Estrada, Nelva Mata, Adriana Saltijeral, Manuel Barreiro, Marta Tomás, Raimundo de Andrés, Rosa Argüeso, Maria Pilar Serrano Gotarredona, Silvia Navarro Herrero, Rosario J Perea Palazón, Teresa M de Caralt, Luisa Arrojo Suárez de Centi, Svetlana Zhilina, Simona Espejo Pérez, Teresa Padró, Pedro Mata
BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) confers an increased risk of premature atherosclerotic disease. Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) can assess preclinical coronary atherosclerosis. OBJECTIVES: To describe coronary CTA findings in asymptomatic molecularly defined FH individuals, to identify those factors related to its presence and extension, and to assess the impact of these results in patients' care and estimated risk. METHODS: Four hundred and forty individuals with FH, without clinical cardiovascular disease, were consecutively enrolled and underwent a coronary CTA that was used to analyze coronary atherosclerosis based on coronary calcium score (CCS), sum of stenosis severity, and plaque composition sum (PCS)...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753234/effect-of-short-term-hazelnut-consumption-on-dna-damage-and-oxidized-ldl-in-children-and-adolescents-with-primary-hyperlipidemia-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Federica Guaraldi, Valeria Deon, Cristian Del Bo', Stefano Vendrame, Marisa Porrini, Patrizia Riso, Ornella Guardamagna
Children with primary hyperlipidemia are prone to develop premature atherosclerosis, possibly associated with increased oxidative stress. Nutritional therapy is the primary strategy in the treatment of hyperlipidemia and associated conditions. Dietary interventions with bioactive-rich foods, such as nuts, may contribute to the modulation of both lipid profile and the oxidative/antioxidant status. Our study aimed to assess the impact of a dietary intervention with hazelnuts on selected oxidative stress markers in children and adolescents with primary hyperlipidemia...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730481/age-threshold-for-proper-definition-of-premature-coronary-artery-disease-in-males
#14
REVIEW
Hasan A Abderrahman, Imad M Al-Abdallat, Ahmed K Idhair
BACKGROUND: There is no universally accepted definition for the cut point age before which atherosclerosis is considered "premature." This is a retrospective study aimed to utilize the medico legal autopsy information for finding a proper definition of the age threshold of premature atherosclerosis in males. OBJECTIVES: This work aimed to utilize autopsy reports data that were issued at Jordan University Hospital to evaluate age-related differences in the distribution of coronary atherosclerotic and myocardial lesions and the determination of the age threshold at which such differences became apparent in male deaths...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728459/abcg5-and-abcg8-more-than-a-defense-against-xenosterols
#15
Shailendra B Patel, Gregory Graf, Ryan Temel
The elucidation of the molecular basis of the rare disease Sitosterolemia has revolutionized our mechanistic understanding of how dietary sterols are excreted and how cholesterol is eliminated from the body. Two proteins ABCG5 and ABCG8, encoded by the Sitosterolemia locus, work as obligate dimers to pump sterols out of hepatocytes and enterocytes. ABCG5/ABCG8 are key in regulating whole-body sterol trafficking, by eliminating sterols via the biliary tree, as well as the intestinal tract. Importantly, these transporters keep xenosterols from accumulating in the body...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682164/defective-autophagy-in-atherosclerosis-to-die-or-to-senesce
#16
REVIEW
Mandy O J Grootaert, Lynn Roth, Dorien M Schrijvers, Guido R Y De Meyer, Wim Martinet
Autophagy is a subcellular process that plays an important role in the degradation of proteins and damaged organelles such as mitochondria (a process termed "mitophagy") via lysosomes. It is crucial for regulating protein and mitochondrial quality control and maintaining cellular homeostasis, whereas dysregulation of autophagy has been implicated in a wide range of diseases including atherosclerosis. Recent evidence has shown that the autophagic process becomes dysfunctional during the progression of atherosclerosis, regardless of whether there are many autophagy-stimulating factors (e...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665863/effect-of-combined-treatment-with-bisphosphonate-and-vitamin-d-on-atherosclerosis-in-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-propensity-score-based-analysis
#17
Kazumasa Ohmura, Masaru Kato, Toshiyuki Watanabe, Kenji Oku, Toshiyuki Bohgaki, Tetsuya Horita, Shinsuke Yasuda, Yoichi M Ito, Norihiro Sato, Tatsuya Atsumi
BACKGROUND: Premature atherosclerosis is one of the major complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Recently, the biological linkage between atherosclerosis and osteoporosis has garnered much attention. The aim of this study is to explore correlation between the development of atherosclerosis and anti-osteoporotic treatment. METHODS: Consecutive patients with SLE (n = 117) who underwent carotid ultrasonography were retrospectively analyzed using propensity scoring...
April 17, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615006/selected-risk-factors-for-atherosclerosis-in-children-and-their-parents-with-positive-family-history-of-premature-cardiovascular-diseases-a-prospective-study
#18
Elzbieta Pac-Kozuchowska, Paulina Krawiec, Ewelina Grywalska
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to evaluate serum parameters of lipid metabolism, homocysteine, soluble adhesion molecules and common carotid artery wall thickness in children from families with early symptoms of atherosclerosis. METHODS: The first stage included 137 pairs of mothers and newborns, and the second 18 children from the same group (age 18-30 months) and their parents (age 21-46 years) with a history of premature coronary artery disease (CAD), as well as 12 age- and sex-matched controls...
April 3, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614967/cardiovascular-outcomes-of-nephrotic-syndrome-in-childhood-cvons-study-a-protocol-for-prospective-cohort-study
#19
S K Patnaik, P Kumar, M Bamal, S Patel, M P Yadav, V Kumar, A Sinha, A Bagga, M Kanitkar
BACKGROUND: Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is characterized by dyslipidemia which is a well-known risk factor for atherogenesis. Atherosclerosis in childhood is mostly subclinical and endothelial dysfunction is known to precede this. Evidence for screening for endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk factors and early identification of premature onset of atherosclerosis in childhood NS remains tenuous in the absence of well-designed prospective studies addressing cardiovascular comorbidity in NS...
April 3, 2018: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609748/impact-of-lipoproteins-on-atherobiology-emerging-insights
#20
REVIEW
Ma Feng, Fabiana Rached, Anatol Kontush, M John Chapman
Apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins and low-density lipoprotein play a key role in atherosclerotic vascular disease. Modified forms of low-density lipoprotein drive inflammation, an integral aspect of plaque progression. High-density lipoprotein particles are equipped to protect low-density lipoprotein from enzymatic and nonenzymatic modification. Under normal conditions, high-density lipoproteins facilitate cholesterol efflux from tissues, preventing its accumulation with deleterious consequences. However, the high-density lipoprotein particles characteristic of dyslipidemic states associated with premature atherosclerosis are typically dysfunctional as a result of alteration in their metabolism and consequently their structure and composition...
May 2018: Cardiology Clinics
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