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premature atherosclerosis

Kayle Shapero, James Deluca, Miranda Contursi, Meagan Wasfy, Rory B Weiner, Gregory D Lewis, Adolph Hutter, Aaron L Baggish
BACKGROUND: Masters athletes (MAs), people over the age of 35 that participate in competitive sports, are a rapidly growing population that may be uniquely at risk for cardiovascular (CV) disease. The objective of this study was to develop a comprehensive clinical CV profile of MA. METHODS: An electronic Internet-based survey (survey response rate = 66 %) was used to characterize a community cohort of MAs residing in Eastern Massachusetts, USA. Clinical and lifestyle factors associated with prevalent CV disease were determined using logistic regression...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Lea Azour, Michael A Kadoch, Thomas J Ward, Corey D Eber, Adam H Jacobi
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery calcium (CAC) is often identified on routine chest computed tomography (CT). The purpose of our study was to evaluate whether ordinal scoring of CAC on non-gated, routine chest CT is an accurate predictor of Agatston score ranges in a community-based population, and in particular to determine the accuracy of an ordinal score of zero on routine chest CT. METHODS: Two thoracic radiologists reviewed consecutive same-day ECG-gated and routine non-gated chest CT scans of 222 individuals...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
Arijit Ghosh, Arun K Valsan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
L Bonanni, A Cutolo, M Dalla Vestra
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal disorder characterized by increased levels of total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol.The extent of underdiagnosis and undertreatment of individuals with FH is largely unknown.The LDL-lowering capacity of statins in combination with other lipid-lowering drugs is maximally around 50-60%. FH patients have a strongly elevated LDL-C and in most cases maximal current treatment is not sufficient to reach the desired LDL targets.Therefore, FH patients have a large residual cardiovascular risk despite the use of statins and there is a medical need for new additional drugs to further lower LDL-C in patients with FH to improve their prognosis...
October 6, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Leonardo C Mangili, Otavio C Mangili, Márcio S Bittencourt, Márcio H Miname, Paulo H Harada, Leonardo M Lima, Carlos E Rochitte, Raul D Santos
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a common genetic disorder characterized by elevated blood cholesterol, increased prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis and high risk of premature coronary heart disease. However, this risk is not explained solely by elevated LDL-cholesterol concentrations, and other factors may influence atherosclerosis development. There is evidence that increased adiposity may predispose to atherosclerosis in FH. Epicardial fat has been associated with subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in the general population...
September 9, 2016: Atherosclerosis
Robert Kölm, Monica Schaller, Lubka T Roumenina, Iga Niemiec, Johanna A Kremer Hovinga, Elham Khanicheh, Beat A Kaufmann, Helmut Hopfer, Marten Trendelenburg
Premature atherosclerosis and thrombotic complications are major causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, the high incidence of these complications cannot be explained by traditional risk factors alone, suggesting direct effects of an activated immune system on hemostasis. The unexpected nucleotide sequence homology between SLE patient -: derived autoantibodies against complement C1q (Fab anti-C1q) and von Willebrand factor (VWF) led us to investigate a potential interaction between the complement and hemostatic systems on the level of initiating molecules...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Meghan T Walsh, M Mahmood Hussain
Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) is a polygenic disease arising from defects in the clearance of plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which results in extremely elevated plasma LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and increased risk of atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, and premature death. Conventional lipid-lowering therapies, such as statins and ezetimibe, are ineffective at lowering plasma cholesterol to safe levels in these patients. Other therapeutic options, such as LDL apheresis and liver transplantation, are inconvenient, costly, and not readily available...
October 1, 2016: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Wafa Omer, Abdul K Naveed, Omer J Khan, Dilshad A Khan
AIMS: Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines play a significant role in early atherosclerosis. Linkage disequilibrium patterns differ between ethnic groups pointing toward the need to develop population-specific gene risk scores. Our objective was to investigate the role of a cytokine gene score in the risk prediction of premature coronary artery disease (PCAD). METHODS: A case-control study was performed at the National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST) in collaboration with the Cardiovascular Genetics Institute, University College London, United Kingdom...
September 30, 2016: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
Hamidreza Omrani, Sima Golmohamadi, Yahya Pasdar, Kambiz Jasemi, Afshin Almasi
INTRODUCTION: One of the major causes of mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients on hemodialysis is premature atherosclerosis. Selenium, a trace element involved in important enzymatic activities inside the body, has protective effects against lipid oxidation and inhibits cholesterol accumulation in blood vessels. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of selenium supplementation on lipid profile in hemodialysis patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this double-blinded randomized clinical trial which lasted for 3 months, 84 hemodialysis patients with selenium deficiency were divided into experimental group (received selenium supplementation) or control group (received placebo)...
2016: Journal of Renal Injury Prevention
Rafael Escate, Teresa Padro, Maria Borrell-Pages, Rosa Suades, Rosa Aledo, Pedro Mata, Lina Badimon
Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a major risk for premature coronary heart disease due to severe long-life exposure to high LDL levels. Accumulation of LDL in the vascular wall triggers atherosclerosis with activation of the innate immunity system. Here, we have investigated (i) gene expression of LDLR and LRPs in peripheral blood cells (PBLs) and in differentiated macrophages of young FH-patients; and (ii) whether macrophage from FH patients have a differential response when exposed to high levels of atherogenic LDL...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Stella Bernardi, Andrea Michelli, Giulia Zuolo, Riccardo Candido, Bruno Fabris
Since the advent of insulin, the improvements in diabetes detection and the therapies to treat hyperglycemia have reduced the mortality of acute metabolic emergencies, such that today chronic complications are the major cause of morbidity and mortality among diabetic patients. More than half of the mortality that is seen in the diabetic population can be ascribed to cardiovascular disease (CVD), which includes not only myocardial infarction due to premature atherosclerosis but also diabetic cardiomyopathy. The importance of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) antagonism in the prevention of diabetic CVD has demonstrated the key role that the RAAS plays in diabetic CVD onset and development...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
Nahoko Tanaka, Shotaro Masuoka, Natsuko Kusunoki, Toshihiro Nanki, Shinichi Kawai
Adipokines are important regulators of several processes, including inflammation and atherosclerosis. In patients with systemic autoimmune diseases, atherosclerosis is accelerated with higher cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We prospectively investigated the association of adipokines and glucocorticoid therapy with progression of premature atherosclerosis in 38 patients starting glucocorticoid therapy for systemic autoimmune diseases. To detect premature atherosclerosis, carotid ultrasonography was performed at initiation of glucocorticoid therapy and after a mean three-year follow-up period...
September 16, 2016: Metabolites
George Bakris
Resistant hypertension is defined as a blood pressure above 140/90 mmHg despite adherence to a combination of at least three optimally dosed antihypertensive medications, one of which is a diuretic. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the more common patient comorbidities associated with resistant hypertension. Recommended low-salt diet and triple antihypertensive drug regimens that include a diuretic, should be complemented by the sequential addition of other antihypertensive drugs. CKD is associated with premature vascular ageing, characterized by accelerated arteriosclerosis or atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Jamshed Dalal, Pradeep Kumar Deb, Sameer Shrivastava, Maddury Srinivas Rao, Jagdish Chander Mohan, Arramraju Sreenivas Kumar
Dyslipidemia is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Atherosclerosis begins early in life as suggested by "fatty streaks" observed in coronaries of healthy organ donors aged 20-29 years. Premature occurrence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in Indians, increases the risk for young individuals. Management of Dyslipidemia in the young Indian poses several challenges. In this article we provide in-depth review of prevalence, guidelines' perspective and expert comments on management of Dyslipidemia in the young (20-40 years) Indian...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Geetha Raghuveer, David A White, Laura L Hayman, Jessica G Woo, Juan Villafane, David Celermajer, Kenneth D Ward, Sarah D de Ferranti, Justin Zachariah
BACKGROUND: Although public health programs have led to a substantial decrease in the prevalence of tobacco smoking, the adverse health effects of tobacco smoke exposure are by no means a thing of the past. In the United States, 4 of 10 school-aged children and 1 of 3 adolescents are involuntarily exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS), with children of minority ethnic backgrounds and those living in low-socioeconomic-status households being disproportionately affected (68% and 43%, respectively)...
October 18, 2016: Circulation
Rosalinda Posadas-Sánchez, Ángel René López-Uribe, Carlos Posadas-Romero, Nonanzit Pérez-Hernández, José Manuel Rodríguez-Pérez, Wendy Angélica Ocampo-Arcos, José Manuel Fragoso, Guillermo Cardoso-Saldaña, Gilberto Vargas-Alarcón
The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential use of the I148M/PNPLA3 (rs738409) gene polymorphism as a susceptibility marker for premature coronary artery disease (pCAD) and/or cardiovascular risk factors in Mexican type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (T2DM). The polymorphism was genotyped by 5' exonuclease TaqMan assays in a group of 2572 subjects (1103 with pCAD and 1469 healthy controls) belonging to the Genetics of Atherosclerotic Disease (GEA) Mexican Study. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were performed in all individuals...
September 3, 2016: Immunobiology
S S Nelson, A K Khan
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality. This excess mortality attributable to cardiovascular events. Endothelial dysfunction represents the earliest stage of atherosclerosis. It can be measured noninvasively by peripheral tests of function, such as pulse wave analysis. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of chronic inflammatory state on endothelial function in patients with RA free of cardiovascular disease or risk factors by measuring endothelial reactivity...
October 2015: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Jing W Hughes, Jennifer A Wyckoff, Abby S Hollander, Colin P Derdeyn, Janet B McGill
CONTEXT: Moyamoya syndrome is an idiopathic brain vasculopathy characterized by stenosis of major intracranial arteries. It often presents in patients with type 1 diabetes or thyroid disease and may have an autoimmune etiology. Moyamoya-related stroke poses a diagnostic challenge as initial symptoms and deficits vary greatly from classic ischemic stroke to encephalopathy, psychiatric, or seizure disorder. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report 4 patients with type 1 diabetes and other autoimmune diseases who developed moyamoya-related stroke at a young age...
November 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Rodrigo Alonso, Jose Luis Díaz-Díaz, Francisco Arrieta, Francisco Fuentes-Jiménez, Raimundo de Andrés, Pedro Saenz, Gema Ariceta, José I Vidal-Pardo, Fatima Almagro, Rosa Argueso, Pablo Prieto-Matos, José P Miramontes, Xavier Pintó, Johana Rodriguez-Urrego, Leopoldo Perez de Isla, Pedro Mata
BACKGROUND: Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) is a rare genetic disorder associated with very high levels of cholesterol, accelerated atherosclerosis and very premature death, often secondary to occlusion of the coronary ostia by supravalvular atheroma in untreated individuals. OBJECTIVE: To describe molecular and clinical characteristics of HoFH enrolled at SAFEHEART registry and to evaluate the role of the type of mutation in clinical expression...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Vasiliki Mollaki, Euridiki Drogari
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a leading cause of premature atherosclerosis. Genetic defects in the LDLR, APOB and PCSK9 genes cause FH, and confirmation of a gene defect is essential for an indisputable diagnosis of the disease. FH is underdiagnosed and we aimed to revise the genetic defects that have been characterized in FH patients of Greek origin and define an effective, future strategy for genetic studies. A literature search was performed in MEDLINE and EMBASE on genetic studies with FH patients of Greek origin...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
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