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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429694/the-rationale-and-design-of-the-national-familial-hypercholesterolemia-registries-in-turkey-a-hit1-and-a-hit2-studies
#1
Meral Kayıkçıoğlu, Lale Tokgözoğlu
OBJECTIVE: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disease characterized by extremely high levels of cholesterol, leading to premature atherosclerosis. Although many countries have already addressed the burden of FH by means of national registries, Turkey has no national FH registry or national screening program to detect FH. Creation of a series of FH registries is planned as part of Turkish FH Initiative endorsed by the Turkish Society of Cardiology to meet this need. This article provides detailed information on the rationale and design of the first 2 FH registries (A-HIT1 and A-HIT2)...
April 2017: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428227/mechanisms-in-endocrinology-the-multiple-facets-of-gh-lessons-from-lifetime-untreated-isolated-gh-deficiency-due-to-ghrh-receptor-mutation
#2
Manuel Aguiar-Oliveira, Anita Ho Souza, Carla R Oliveira, Viviane C Campos, Luiz A Oliveira-Neto, Roberto Salvatori
Twenty years ago, we described a kindred of 105 individuals with isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) in Itabaianinha County, in Brazilian northeast, due to a homozygous mutation in the GH-releasing hormone receptor gene. These subjects exhibit markedly reduced GH responsiveness to stimulatory tests, and anterior pituitary hypoplasia. Serum concentrations of IGF-I, IGF binding protein type 3, and the acid-labile subunit are markedly reduced, with a lesser reduction of IGF-II. The most striking physical findings of these IGHD individuals are the proportionate short stature, doll facies, high-pitched voice, and visceral obesity with reduced fat free mass...
April 20, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415768/interleukin-27-polymorphisms-are-associated-with-premature-coronary-artery-disease-and-metabolic-parameters-in-the-mexican-population-the-genetics-of-atherosclerotic-disease-gea-mexican-study
#3
Rosalinda Posadas-Sánchez, Nonanzit Pérez-Hernández, José Manuel Rodríguez-Pérez, Ramón M Coral-Vázquez, Bladimir Roque-Ramírez, Luis Llorente, Guadalupe Lima, Carmina Flores-Dominguez, Teresa Villarreal-Molina, Carlos Posadas-Romero, Gilberto Vargas-Alarcón
Several studies suggest an important role of Interleukin-27 in the development of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to establish whether the IL-27p28 gene polymorphisms are associated with premature coronary artery disease and/or other cardiovascular risk factors. Four IL-27p28 gene polymorphisms were selected and genotyped in 1162 premature coronary artery disease cases and 1107 controls. rs26528 T and rs40837 A alleles were significantly associated with a lower risk of premature coronary artery disease under different inheritance models (Pdominant = 0...
March 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414714/excess-atherosclerosis-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-matter-of-renal-involvement-case-control-study-of-281-sle-patients-and-281-individually-matched-population-controls
#4
Johanna T Gustafsson, Marie Herlitz Lindberg, Iva Gunnarsson, Susanne Pettersson, Kerstin Elvin, John Öhrvik, Anders Larsson, Kerstin Jensen-Urstad, Elisabet Svenungsson
BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), is a heterogeneous disease which predominantly affects young females (90%). SLE is associated with a shorter life expectancy than in the general population. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) of 2.4 have been reported, which is comparable to diabetes. In modern societies cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of premature mortality. Accelerated atherosclerosis is generally assumed to be the underlying cause for SLE related CVD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396860/aortic-valve-replacement-for-moderate-aortic-stenosis-with-severe-calcification-and-left-ventricualr-dysfunction-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
Nikhil Narang, Roberto M Lang, Vladimir M Liarski, Valluvan Jeevanandam, Marion A Hofmann Bowman
A 55-year-old man with a history of erosive, seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and interstitial lung disease presented with shortness of breath. Echocardiography showed new-onset severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction with an ejection fraction (EF) of 15% and moderately increased mean aortic valve gradient of 20 mmHg in a trileaflet aortic valve with severe sclero-calcific degeneration. Coronary angiography revealed no significant obstructive coronary disease. Invasive hemodynamic studies and dobutamine stress echocardiography were consistent with moderate aortic stenosis...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393620/progressively-worsening-premature-coronary-artery-disease-adding-anticoagulation-stabilizes-reverses-clinical-symptomatic-disease-progression-in-thrombophilic-atherothrombotic-patients-a-pilot-study
#6
Matan Rothschild, Vybhav Jetty, Christopher Mahida, Ping Wang, Marloe Prince, Naila Goldenberg, Charles J Glueck
In 35 patients with 116 severe premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) events (median age: 48 years), 14 having worsening CVD despite maximal intervention, we evaluated thrombophilia and speculated that anticoagulation might arrest-reverse progressive thrombophilic-atherothrombotic CVD. Thrombophilia-hypofibrinolysis in the 35 patients was compared to 110 patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) without CVD and to 110 healthy normal controls. Efficacy-safety of anticoagulation was prospectively assessed in 14 of the 35 patients whose CVD worsened over 2 years despite maximal medical-surgical intervention...
January 1, 2017: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382527/multiple-thrombophilia-mutations-as-a%C3%A2-possible-cause-of-premature-myocardial-infarction
#7
Gabriela Dostálová, Jan Bělohlávek, Zuzana Hlubocká, Kristýna Bayerová, Petra Bobčiková, Tomáš Kvasnička, Jan Kvasnička, Aleš Linhart, Debora Karetová
The incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) increases with clustering of predisposing risk factors. In younger subjects with a positive family history of AMI occurring in relatives under the age of 60 years without obvious risk factors for atherosclerosis, there is a potential for strong inherited traits contributing to the risk of coronary disease. Among them there is increasing evidence that hereditary thrombophilia may play a major role. We present a unique case of a patient developing AMI at the age of 48 years...
April 5, 2017: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379033/screenpro-fh-from-the-czech-medped-to-international-collaboration-screenpro-fh-is-a-participating-project-of-the-eas-fhcs
#8
R Ceska, T Freiberger, M Vaclova, T Aleksicova, L Votavova, M Vrablik
This article describes the evolution of our understanding of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) in the Central, Eastern, and Southern Europe (CESE) region, and the dissemination of this understanding to other countries. Using the ScreenPro FH project as an example, we would like to illustrate the progression from national objectives, to regional networking and, finally, to international collaboration via the Familial Hypercholesterolemia Studies Collaboration (FHSC) project under the leadership of the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS)...
April 5, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365054/lipid-metabolism-and-emerging-targets-for-lipid-lowering-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Daniel Gaudet, Jean-Philippe Drouin-Chartier, Patrick Couture
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and dyslipidemia constitutes a major risk factor for CVD and premature atherosclerosis. Therapies to reduce the plasma levels of atherogenic lipoproteins are well established interventions that decrease CVD risk. However, treatment of dyslipidemia with the most widely used lipid-lowering drugs (ie, statins and ezetimibe) often fails to protect a significant proportion of patients from cardiovascular risk. The development of several novel therapies to treat lipid-related disorders and their associated risks is ongoing and includes the following: (1) reducing plasma levels of atherogenic lipoproteins using proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors, antisense inhibitors of Apolipoprotein (Apo)(a), microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitors, antisense oligonucleotides of ApoB for inhibiting very low-density lipoprotein production, and inhibitors of angiopoietin-like protein 3 or ApoC-III for triglyceride-rich lipoprotein management upstream of low-density lipoprotein production as well as gene replacement therapy to improve low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein clearance; and (2) emerging therapies that target high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and reverse cholesterol transport using cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors, HDL peptide mimetics, and autologous infusion of pre-β HDLs...
January 16, 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361180/evaluation-of-endothelial-function-by-flow-mediated-dilation-a-comprehensive-review-in-rheumatic-disease
#10
REVIEW
Luca Moroni, Carlo Selmi, Claudio Angelini, Pier Luigi Meroni
Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) represents a non-invasive marker of endothelial function to evaluate vascular homeostasis, which reflects the effects of several mechanisms, including vessel tone regulation, cell proliferation, and inflammatory responses. Beyond classical atherosclerotic risk factors such as arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, obesity, and dyslipidemia, chronic inflammation contributes to the endothelial dysfunction causing plaque formation and there is growing evidence of a significantly higher cardiovascular morbidity associated with autoimmune diseases...
March 30, 2017: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358592/increased-circulating-oxidised-low-density-lipoprotein-and-antibodies-to-oxidised-low-density-lipoprotein-in-preeclampsia
#11
Rosemawati Arifin, Win Mar Kyi, Che Anuar Che Yaakob, Najib Majdi Yaacob
Enhanced oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction in preeclampsia (PE). Circulating oxidised LDL (oxLDL) and antibodies to oxLDL (Ab-oxLDL) have been found to be associated with atherosclerosis. The objectives of this study were to investigate the association of oxLDL and Ab-oxLDL with PE and to assess the association between oxLDL and Ab-oxLDL. The levels of oxLDL and Ab-oxLDL were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay in 78 women with preeclampsia (PE group) and 78 women with normal pregnancy (control group)...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347738/dna-damage-dependent-mechanisms-of-ageing-and-disease-in-the-macro-and-microvasculature
#12
Aarti V Shah, Martin R Bennett
A decline in the function of the macro- and micro-vasculature occurs with ageing. DNA damage also accumulates with ageing, and thus DNA damage and repair have important roles in physiological ageing. Considerable evidence also supports a crucial role for DNA damage in the development and progression of macrovascular disease such as atherosclerosis. These findings support the concept that prolonged exposure to risk factors is a major stimulus for DNA damage within the vasculature, in part via the generation of reactive oxygen species...
March 24, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343599/presence-characteristics-and-volumes-of-coronary-plaque-determined-by-computed-tomography-angiography-in-young-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#13
Negin Nezarat, Matthew J Budoff, Yanting Luo, Sirous Darabian, Rine Nakanishi, Dong Li, Nasim Sheidaee, Michael Kim, Anas Alani, Suguru Matsumoto, Sina Rahmani, Mitsuru Kanisawa, Indre Ceponiene, Kazuhiro Osawa, Hong Qi, Sajad Hamal, Pieter Kitslaar, Alexander Broersen, Ferdinand Flores, Eli Ipp, Bahram Khazai
Prevention and management of coronary artery disease (CAD) is of great concern in patients with diabetes mellitus. Although the impact of coronary atherosclerosis is described well for subjects older than 40 years, the prevalence and types of coronary atherosclerosis in young patients are not well known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, extent, severity, and volumes of coronary plaque in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) population younger than of 40 years. This prospective study enrolled 181 subjects (25-40 year old) undergoing coronary computed tomography angiography, with 86 T2DM and 95 nondiabetic age/gender-matched subjects...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321150/interleukin-35-polymorphisms-are-associated-with-decreased-risk-of-premature-coronary-artery-disease-metabolic-parameters-and-il-35-levels-the-genetics-of-atherosclerotic-disease-gea-study
#14
Rosalinda Posadas-Sánchez, Nonanzit Pérez-Hernández, Javier Angeles-Martínez, Fabiola López-Bautista, Teresa Villarreal-Molina, José Manuel Rodríguez-Pérez, José Manuel Fragoso, Carlos Posadas-Romero, Gilberto Vargas-Alarcón
Interleukin 35 (IL-35) is a heterodimeric cytokine involved in the development of atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to establish if the polymorphisms of IL-12A and EBI3 genes that encode the IL-35 subunits are associated with the development of premature coronary artery disease (CAD) in Mexican individuals. The IL-12A and EBI3 polymorphisms were determined in 1162 patients with premature CAD and 873 controls. Under different models, the EBI3 rs428253 (OR = 0.831, Padd = 0.036; OR = 0.614, Prec = 0...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302025/the-use-of-plant-sterols-and-stanols-as-lipid-lowering-agents-in-cardiovascular-disease
#15
Jacek Rysz, Beata Franczyk, Robert Olszewski, Maciej Banach, Anna Gluba-Brzózka
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of premature atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is constantly increasing worldwide. It has been proved that LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) plays causal role in the development of coronary atherosclerosis. The fact that atherosclerosis is a chronic and progressive disease which onsets during the first three decades of life bores questions what to do to maintain LDL-C at low levels throughout life and thus to delay and/or prevent the progress this disease...
March 16, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290995/uses-of-polypills-for-cardiovascular-disease-and-evidence-to-date
#16
REVIEW
Mark D Huffman, Denis Xavier, Pablo Perel
Polypills have been approved in more than 30 countries, but worldwide experience with and availability of polypills remain limited, unlike fixed-dose combinations in other diseases such as HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria. In this Series review, we aim to propose a guide for the use of polypills in future research and clinical activities and to synthesise contemporary evidence supporting the use of polypills for prevention of atherosclerosis. Polypill uses can be categorised by population and indication, both of which influence the balance between benefits and risks...
March 11, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279217/hypofibrinolysis-in-diabetes-a-therapeutic-target-for-the-reduction-of-cardiovascular-risk
#17
REVIEW
Katherine Kearney, Darren Tomlinson, Kerrie Smith, Ramzi Ajjan
An enhanced thrombotic environment and premature atherosclerosis are key factors for the increased cardiovascular risk in diabetes. The occlusive vascular thrombus, formed secondary to interactions between platelets and coagulation proteins, is composed of a skeleton of fibrin fibres with cellular elements embedded in this network. Diabetes is characterised by quantitative and qualitative changes in coagulation proteins, which collectively increase resistance to fibrinolysis, consequently augmenting thrombosis risk...
March 9, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279156/premature-atherosclerosis-in-children-with-beta-thalassemia-major-new-diagnostic-marker
#18
Laila M Sherief, Osama Dawood, Adel Ali, Hanan S Sherbiny, Naglaa M Kamal, Mohamed Elshanshory, Osama Abd Alazez, Mohamed Abd Alhady, Mohamed Nour, Wesam A Mokhtar
BACKGROUND: Early vascular alteration, atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease have emerged as important cardiovascular complications among beta-thalassemia major (B-TM) patients. The aims of the current study were to assess the prevalence of premature atherosclerosis among our B-TM patients, and to investigate the diagnostic value of serum Osteoprotegerin assay as an early biomarker for atherosclerosis. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Hematology unit - Pediatric Department, Zagazig University Children Hospital- Egypt in the period from March 2014 to March 2015...
March 9, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249844/cardiovascular-disease-and-patterns-of-change-in-functional-status-over-15%C3%A2-years-findings-from-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-aric-study
#19
Anna Kucharska-Newton, Michael Griswold, Zhihao Howard Yao, Randi Foraker, Kathryn Rose, Wayne Rosamond, Lynne Wagenknecht, Silvia Koton, Lisa Pompeii, B Gwen Windham
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of premature disability, yet few prospective studies have examined functional status (FS) among persons with CVD. Our aim was to examine patterns of change in FS prior to and after hospitalization for nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure among members of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: FS was assessed using a modified Rosow-Breslau questionnaire administered during routine annual telephone interviews conducted from 1993 through 2007 among 15 277 ARIC study participants...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205331/new-insights-to-the-mechanisms-underlying-atherosclerosis-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#20
REVIEW
Mahdi Mahmoudi, Saeed Aslani, Reza Fadaei, Ahmad Reza Jamshidi
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory circumstance, which has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although RA management has been promoted, mortality rate due to CVD remains remarkable. Approximately, 50% of premature death cases in RA are attributable to CVD. RA patients develop atherosclerosis in a greater amount than the general population. Moreover, atherosclerotic lesions develop rapidly in RA patients and might be more susceptible to rupture. The inflammatory condition of RA, such as cytokines, abnormally activated immune cells, play a role in the initiation, perpetuation and exacerbation of atherosclerosis...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
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