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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904029/coronary-artery-calcium-and-carotid-artery-intima-media-thickness-and-plaque-clinical-use-in-need-of-clarification
#1
Maryam Zaid, Akira Fujiyoshi, Aya Kadota, Robert D Abbott, Katsuyuki Miura
Atherosclerosis begins in early life and has a long latent period prior to onset of clinical disease. Measures of subclinical atherosclerosis, therefore, may have important implications for research and clinical practice of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). In this review, we focus on coronary artery calcium (CAC) and carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) and plaque as many population-based studies have investigated these measures due to their non-invasive features and ease of administration...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891422/panvascular-disease-in-familial-hypercholesterolaemia-treated-with-endovascular-simultaneous-bilateral-carotid-stenting
#2
Anand Alurkar, Lakshmi Sudha Prasanna Karanam, Shripal Shah, Pandurang Mare
Familial Hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a monogenic autosomal dominant disorder affecting 1 in 500 individuals. We report a case of 32-year-old female with FH, previously not on any treatment, who presented with recurrent bilateral Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA) territory strokes and dyspnoea on exertion due to severe panvascualar disease involving descending aorta, innominate, subclavian, common carotid, internal carotid and coronary vessels. Her complete clinical work up was done and was started on lipid lowering drug treatment and low calorie diet...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882428/progression-of-noncalcified-and-calcified-coronary-plaque-by-ct-angiography-in-sle
#3
Aisha Khan, Armin Arbab-Zadeh, Adnan N Kiani, Laurence S Magder, Michelle Petri
Premature coronary artery disease remains the major cause of late death in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Coronary artery calcium (CAC) represents an advanced stage of atherosclerosis, whereas noncalcified coronary atherosclerotic plaque (NCP) typically is more prone to trigger acute coronary events. The aim of this study was to assess the stability of NCP over time and identify factors associated with changes in NCP in patients with SLE. CT coronary angiography and calcium scanning were performed at baseline and follow-up in thirty-six SLE patients...
November 23, 2016: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872172/urea-a-true-uremic-toxin-the-empire-strikes-back
#4
REVIEW
Wei Ling Lau, Nosratola D Vaziri
Blood levels of urea rise with progressive decline in kidney function. Older studies examining acute urea infusion suggested that urea was well-tolerated at levels 8-10× above normal values. More recent in vitro and in vivo work argue the opposite and demonstrate both direct and indirect toxicities of urea, which probably promote the premature aging phenotype that is pervasive in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Elevated urea at concentrations typically encountered in uremic patients induces disintegration of the gut epithelial barrier, leading to translocation of bacterial toxins into the bloodstream and systemic inflammation...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870764/anti-ro-and-concomitant-anti-la-autoantibodies-strongly-associated-with-anti-oxldl-or-anti-phospholipid-antibody-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#5
Biji Theyilamannil Kurien, James Fesmire, Camille Jean Anderson, Robert Hal Scofield
BACKGROUND: Premature atherosclerosis is observed in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Oxidative modification of LDL is associated with atherosclerotic plaque formation. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that anti-oxidized LDL (oxLDL) and anti-phospholipid (APL) in SLE sera would segregate with specific antibody subsets, and that anti-oxLDL antibodies will linger in circulation over an extended period. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty-seven SLE and control subjects and two SLE subjects with sera collected longitudinally for 13 years were tested for anti-oxLDL and IgG/IgM/IgA APL antibodies...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866019/dysregulated-fatty-acid-metabolism-in-coronary-ectasia-an-extended-lipidomic-analysis
#6
Usama Boles, Rui Climaco Pinto, Santosh David, Abdullah S Abdullah, Michael Y Henein
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery ectasia (CAE) is not an uncommon clinical condition, which could be associated with adverse outcome. The exact pathophysiology of the disease is poorly understood and is commonly interpreted as a variant of atherosclerosis. In this study, we sought to undertake lipidomic profiling of a group of CAE patients in an attempt to achieve better understanding of its disturbed metabolism. METHODS: Untargeted lipid profiling and complementary modelling strategies were employed to compare serum samples from 16 patients with CAE (mean age 63...
November 11, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835952/lipoprotein-cholesterol-fractions-are-related-to-markers-of-inflammation-in-children-and-adolescents-with-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Anna-Helene Bohr, Freddy Karup Pedersen, Claus Henrik Nielsen, Klaus Gottlob Müller
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study is to determine levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density, and high-density lipoprotein fractions of cholesterol (LDLc and HDLc), in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), and relate those to disease activity, overweight, and physical activity (PA), testing the hypothesis that the levels of cholesterol fractions are associated with inflammation as well as with overweight and low PA. METHODS: Two hundred ten patients with JIA were included in this descriptive cross-sectional study...
November 11, 2016: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831903/calciprotein-particles-as-potential-etiologic-agents-of-idiopathic-preterm-birth
#8
Lydia L Shook, Catalin S Buhimschi, Antonette T Dulay, Megan E McCarthy, John T Hardy, Christina M Duzyj Buniak, Guomao Zhao, Irina A Buhimschi
Preterm birth (PTB) is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality and is often preceded by preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM) without an identifiable cause. Pathological calcification, the deposition of hydroxyapatite (HA) in nonskeletal tissues, has been implicated in degenerative diseases including atherosclerosis and aneurism rupture. Among pathogenic mechanisms, the aberrant aggregation of HA into calciprotein particles (CPPs) and the HA-induced differentiation of mesenchymal cells into osteoblasts (ectopic osteogenesis) have been implicated...
November 9, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826173/immunity-and-early-atherosclerosis-in-the-course-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-mixed-connective-tissue-disease-and-antiphospholipid-syndrome
#9
REVIEW
Ewa Haładyj, Agnieszka Paradowska-Gorycka, Anna Felis-Giemza, Marzena Olesińska
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arteries associated with various risk factors that promote lipid abnormalities, development and progression of atherosclerotic lesions, plaque rupture, and vascular thrombosis. Atherosclerosis is accelerated in autoimmune diseases. Non-invasive investigations showed increased intima-media thickness (IMT), carotid plaque, and coronary artery calcifications in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus and mixed connective tissue disease compared to controls...
2016: Reumatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824960/the-effect-of-elevated-lipoprotein-a-on-autologous-platelets-function-a-retrospective-analysis
#10
Linda Brammen, Suzanne Granegger, Helmut Sinzinger
OBJECTIVE: Platelet labeling is used to study platelets in vivo in terms of diagnosing intravascular thrombosis, as well as studying their role and biological activity in atherosclerosis. A low labeling efficiency (LE) can negatively impair testing results. Labeling efficiency depends on various factors, including low-density-lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels in the blood. Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is a lipoprotein subclass that when elevated, is frequently associated with the premature development of cardiovascular disease through activation of different signaling pathways and cell surface receptors...
November 8, 2016: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823691/the-prevalence-and-prognostic-importance-of-possible-familial-hypercholesterolemia-in-patients-with-myocardial-infarction
#11
Sofie Aagaard Rerup, Lia E Bang, Ulrik M Mogensen, Thomas Engstrøm, Erik Jørgensen, Frants Pedersen, Christian Torp-Pedersen, Gunnar Gislason, Stefan James, Emil Hagström, Lars Køber, Emil L Fosbøl
AIMS: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a common genetic disorder causing accelerated atherosclerosis and premature cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and prognostic significance of possible FH in patients with myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS AND RESULTS: By individual-level linkage of data from the Eastern Danish Heart Registry and national administrative registries, a study population of patients referred for coronary angiography due to MI was selected...
November 2016: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799810/novel-treatment-options-for-lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficiency-critical-appraisal-of-sebelipase-alfa
#12
REVIEW
Kim Su, Emma Donaldson, Reena Sharma
Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LAL-D) is a rare disorder of cholesterol metabolism with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. The absence or deficiency of the LAL enzyme gives rise to pathological accumulation of cholesterol esters in various tissues. A severe LAL-D phenotype manifesting in infancy is associated with adrenal calcification and liver and gastrointestinal involvement with characteristic early mortality. LAL-D presenting in childhood and adulthood is associated with hepatomegaly, liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and premature atherosclerosis...
2016: Application of Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790125/a-case-of-turner-syndrome-with-multiple-embolic-infarcts
#13
Cindy W Yoon, Eungseok Lee, Byung-Nam Yoon, Hee-Kwon Park, Joung-Ho Rha
Only a few cases of Turner syndrome (TS) with ischemic stroke have been reported. Various arteriopathies of the cerebral arteries, including fibromuscular dysplasia, congenital hypoplasia, moyamoya syndrome, and premature atherosclerosis have been assumed to be the cause of ischemic stroke in TS. There has been no case report of a TS patient presenting with an embolic stroke pattern without any cerebral arteriopathy. A 28-year-old woman with TS was referred to our hospital because of abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings...
September 2016: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784735/homozygous-familial-hypercholesterolemia-in-spain-prevalence-and-phenotype-genotype-relationship
#14
Rosa M Sánchez-Hernández, Fernando Civeira, Marianne Stef, Sofía Perez-Calahorra, Fátima Almagro, Nuria Plana, Francisco J Novoa, Pedro Sáenz-Aranzubía, Daniel Mosquera, Cristina Soler, Francisco J Fuentes, Yeray Brito-Casillas, José T Real, Francisco Blanco-Vaca, Juan F Ascaso, Miguel Pocoví
BACKGROUND: -Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) is a rare disease characterized by elevated plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and extremely high risk of premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). HoFH is caused by mutations in several genes, including LDL receptor (LDLR), apolipoprotein B (APOB), proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), and LDL protein receptor adaptor 1 (LDLRAP1). No epidemiological studies have assessed HoFH prevalence, or the clinical and molecular characteristics of this condition...
October 26, 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754003/js-ish-isn-2-role-of-the-kidney-in-resistant-hypertension-why-so-resistant-to-bp-control-in-ckd-patients
#15
George Bakris
Resistant hypertension is defined as a blood pressure above 140/90 mmHg despite adherence to a combination of at least three optimally dosed antihypertensive medications, one of which is a diuretic. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the more common patient comorbidities associated with resistant hypertension. Recommended low-salt diet and triple antihypertensive drug regimens that include a diuretic, should be complemented by the sequential addition of other antihypertensive drugs. CKD is associated with premature vascular ageing, characterized by accelerated arteriosclerosis or atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747784/cardiovascular-risk-and-disease-among-masters-endurance-athletes-insights-from-the-boston-master-masters-athletes-survey-to-evaluate-risk-initiative
#16
Kayle Shapero, James Deluca, Miranda Contursi, Meagan Wasfy, Rory B Weiner, Gregory D Lewis, Adolph Hutter, Aaron L Baggish
BACKGROUND: Masters athletes (MAs), people over the age of 35 that participate in competitive sports, are a rapidly growing population that may be uniquely at risk for cardiovascular (CV) disease. The objective of this study was to develop a comprehensive clinical CV profile of MA. METHODS: An electronic Internet-based survey (survey response rate = 66 %) was used to characterize a community cohort of MAs residing in Eastern Massachusetts, USA. Clinical and lifestyle factors associated with prevalent CV disease were determined using logistic regression...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743881/estimation-of-cardiovascular-risk-on-routine-chest-ct-ordinal-coronary-artery-calcium-scoring-as-an-accurate-predictor-of-agatston-score-ranges
#17
Lea Azour, Michael A Kadoch, Thomas J Ward, Corey D Eber, Adam H Jacobi
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery calcium (CAC) is often identified on routine chest computed tomography (CT). The purpose of our study was to evaluate whether ordinal scoring of CAC on non-gated, routine chest CT is an accurate predictor of Agatston score ranges in a community-based population, and in particular to determine the accuracy of an ordinal score of zero on routine chest CT. METHODS: Two thoracic radiologists reviewed consecutive same-day ECG-gated and routine non-gated chest CT scans of 222 individuals...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728045/rare-case-of-premature-atherosclerosis
#18
Arijit Ghosh, Arun K Valsan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711959/novel-approaches-for-the-treatment-of-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#19
L Bonanni, A Cutolo, M Dalla Vestra
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal disorder characterized by increased levels of total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol.The extent of underdiagnosis and undertreatment of individuals with FH is largely unknown.The LDL-lowering capacity of statins in combination with other lipid-lowering drugs is maximally around 50-60%. FH patients have a strongly elevated LDL-C and in most cases maximal current treatment is not sufficient to reach the desired LDL targets.Therefore, FH patients have a large residual cardiovascular risk despite the use of statins and there is a medical need for new additional drugs to further lower LDL-C in patients with FH to improve their prognosis...
November 2016: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705756/epicardial-fat-is-associated-with-severity-of-subclinical-coronary-atherosclerosis-in-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#20
Leonardo C Mangili, Otavio C Mangili, Márcio S Bittencourt, Márcio H Miname, Paulo H Harada, Leonardo M Lima, Carlos E Rochitte, Raul D Santos
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a common genetic disorder characterized by elevated blood cholesterol, increased prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis and high risk of premature coronary heart disease. However, this risk is not explained solely by elevated LDL-cholesterol concentrations, and other factors may influence atherosclerosis development. There is evidence that increased adiposity may predispose to atherosclerosis in FH. Epicardial fat has been associated with subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in the general population...
September 9, 2016: Atherosclerosis
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