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Evolutionary psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632201/advantageous-developmental-outcomes-of-advancing-paternal-age
#1
M Janecka, F Rijsdijk, D Rai, A Modabbernia, A Reichenberg
Advanced paternal age (APA) at conception has been associated with negative outcomes in offspring, raising concerns about increasing age at fatherhood. Evidence from evolutionary and psychological research, however, suggests possible link between APA and a phenotypic advantage. We defined such advantage as educational success, which is positively associated with future socioeconomic status. We hypothesised that high IQ, strong focus on the subject of interest and little concern about 'fitting in' will be associated with such success...
June 20, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626280/children-s-executive-function-in-a-cps-involved-sample-effects-of-cumulative-adversity-and-specific-types-of-adversity
#2
Leslie E Roos, Hyoun K Kim, Simone Schnabler, Philip A Fisher
Prior research has identified the presence of executive function (EF) deficits in child protective service (CPS) involved (versus non-involved) children but minimal work has examined predictors that might explain individual differences within these CPS-involved children. Here, we sought to characterize EF in a large sample (N=694) of CPS-involved children and examine how specific adversities (physical abuse, neglect, caregiver domestic violence, and caregiver substance dependence) and cumulative adversity (at ages 0-3 and 3-6 years) predict EF (at approximately 5-6 years)...
December 2016: Children and Youth Services Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624821/on-the-social-life-and-motivational-changes-of-aging-monkeys
#3
Julia Fischer
Although nonhuman primates have been used in biomedical research to develop a better understanding of physiological aging processes, their value as models for studying age-related differences in motivation, cognition, and decision-making has only recently been appreciated. This paper reviews the state of the art, with a focus on a recent study on Barbary macaques. A number of studies reported that with increasing age, Old World monkeys spend more time resting, have fewer social partners, and/or spend less time in social interactions, though other studies found no such effects...
June 17, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607061/when-the-appeal-of-a-dominant-leader-is-greater-than-a-prestige-leader
#4
Hemant Kakkar, Niro Sivanathan
Across the globe we witness the rise of populist authoritarian leaders who are overbearing in their narrative, aggressive in behavior, and often exhibit questionable moral character. Drawing on evolutionary theory of leadership emergence, in which dominance and prestige are seen as dual routes to leadership, we provide a situational and psychological account for when and why dominant leaders are preferred over other respected and admired candidates. We test our hypothesis using three studies, encompassing more than 140,000 participants, across 69 countries and spanning the past two decades...
June 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586541/sex-differences-in-telomeres-and-lifespan-in-soay-sheep-from-the-beginning-to-the-end
#5
Ben Dantzer, Michael Garratt
There is tremendous diversity in ageing rates and lifespan not only among taxa but within species, and particularly between the sexes. Women often live longer than men, and considerable research on this topic has revealed some of the potential biological, psychological and cultural causes of sex differences in human ageing and lifespan. However, sex differences in lifespan are widespread in nonhuman animals suggesting biology plays a prominent role in variation in ageing and lifespan. Recently, evolutionary biologists have borrowed techniques from biomedicine to identify whether similar mechanisms causing or contributing to variation in ageing and lifespan in humans and laboratory animals also operate in wild animals...
June 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572777/attractiveness-is-multimodal-beauty-is-also-in-the-nose-and-ear-of-the-beholder
#6
REVIEW
Agata Groyecka, Katarzyna Pisanski, Agnieszka Sorokowska, Jan Havlíček, Maciej Karwowski, David Puts, S Craig Roberts, Piotr Sorokowski
Attractiveness plays a central role in human non-verbal communication and has been broadly examined in diverse subfields of contemporary psychology. Researchers have garnered compelling evidence in support of the evolutionary functions of physical attractiveness and its role in our daily lives, while at the same time, having largely ignored the significant contribution of non-visual modalities and the relationships among them. Acoustic and olfactory cues can, separately or in combination, strongly influence the perceived attractiveness of an individual and therefore attitudes and actions toward that person...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558313/fertility-affects-asymmetry-detection-not-symmetry-preference-in-assessments-of-3d-facial-attractiveness
#7
Michael B Lewis
Consistent with theories from evolutionary psychology, facial symmetry correlates with attractiveness. Further, the preference for symmetrical faces appears to be affected by fertility in women. One limitation of previous research is that faces are often symmetrically lit front-views and so symmetry can be assessed using 2D pictorial information. Another limitation is that two-alternative-forced-choice (2afc) tasks are often used to assess symmetry preference and these cannot distinguish between differences in preference for symmetry and differences in ability of asymmetry detection...
May 27, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547852/the-comparative-study-of-empathy-sympathetic-concern-and-empathic-perspective-taking-in-non-human-animals
#8
Ana Pérez-Manrique, Antoni Gomila
While empathy is a century-old psychological concept, its study in non-human animals has become the focus of much recent scientific interest, as it promises to provide the clues to understand the evolutionary origins of our social and moral nature. A review of the comparative study of empathy is thus timely to complement and constrain anthropocentric views, and to integrate current findings. However, this is not an easy task. The study of animal empathy has developed using different paradigms, different concepts of the phenomena involved, and the absence of a systematic program...
May 25, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539904/the-neural-systems-of-forgiveness-an-evolutionary-psychological-perspective
#9
REVIEW
Joseph Billingsley, Elizabeth A R Losin
Evolution-minded researchers posit that the suite of human cognitive adaptations may include forgiveness systems. According to these researchers, forgiveness systems regulate interpersonal motivation toward a transgressor in the wake of harm by weighing multiple factors that influence both the potential gains of future interaction with the transgressor and the likelihood of future harm. Although behavioral research generally supports this evolutionary model of forgiveness, the model's claims have not been examined with available neuroscience specifically in mind, nor has recent neuroscientific research on forgiveness generally considered the evolutionary literature...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539512/other-better-versus-self-better-in-baboons-an-evolutionary-approach-of-social-comparison
#10
F Dumas, J Fagot, K Davranche, N Claidière
Comparing oneself with others is an important characteristic of human social life, but the link between human and non-human forms of social comparison remains largely unknown. The present study used a computerized task presented in a social context to explore psychological mechanisms supporting social comparison in baboons and compare major findings with those usually observed in humans. We found that the effects of social comparison on subject's performance were guided both by similarity (same versus different sex) and by task complexity...
May 31, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489015/tracking-the-evolution-of-causal-cognition-in-humans
#11
Marlize Lombard, Peter Gärdenfors
We suggest a seven-grade model for the evolution of causal cognition as a framework that can be used to gauge variation in the complexity of causal reasoning from the panin-hominin split until the appearance of cognitively modern hunter-gatherer communities. The intention is to put forward a cohesive model for the evolution of causal cognition in humans, which can be assessed against increasingly fine-grained empirical data from the palaeoanthropological and archaeological records. We propose that the tracking behaviour (i...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484408/presenting-your-best-self-ie-the-influence-of-gender-on-vertical-orientation-of-selfies-on-tinder
#12
Jennifer R Sedgewick, Meghan E Flath, Lorin J Elias
When taking a self-portrait or "selfie" to display in an online dating profile, individuals may intuitively manipulate the vertical camera angle to embody how they want to be perceived by the opposite sex. Concepts from evolutionary psychology and grounded cognition suggest that this manipulation can provide cues of physical height and impressions of power to the viewer which are qualities found to influence mate-selection. We predicted that men would orient selfies more often from below to appear taller (i...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484013/preferences-for-group-dominance-track-and-mediate-the-effects-of-macro-level-social-inequality-and-violence-across-societies
#13
Jonas R Kunst, Ronald Fischer, Jim Sidanius, Lotte Thomsen
Whether and how societal structures shape individual psychology is a foundational question of the social sciences. Combining insights from evolutionary biology, economy, and the political and psychological sciences, we identify a central psychological process that functions to sustain group-based hierarchies in human societies. In study 1, we demonstrate that macrolevel structural inequality, impaired population outcomes, socio-political instability, and the risk of violence are reflected in the endorsement of group hegemony at the aggregate population level across 27 countries (n = 41,824): The greater the national inequality, the greater is the endorsement of between-group hierarchy within the population...
May 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481587/achieving-a-unified-clinical-science-requires-a-meta-theoretical-solution-comment-on-melchert-2016
#14
Gregg Henriques
Timothy Melchert's vision for a unified clinical science that transcends the specific theoretical orientations and is grounded in the science of human psychology is a laudable goal. However, his solution to achieve this goal via reliance on evolutionary theory, neuroscience, and empirically verifiable research findings is not sufficient. The way forward is to recognize that the field of psychology is fragmented and lacks a clear meta-theoretical perspective. Conceptual work is needed to develop such a perspective, which can then allow for clearly defining the field and effectively integrating and assimilating the key concepts from the various theoretical orientations into a coherent whole...
May 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481582/evolutionary-psychology-a-how-to-guide
#15
David M G Lewis, Laith Al-Shawaf, Daniel Conroy-Beam, Kelly Asao, David M Buss
Researchers in the social and behavioral sciences are increasingly using evolutionary insights to test novel hypotheses about human psychology. Because evolutionary perspectives are relatively new to psychology and most researchers do not receive formal training in this endeavor, there remains ambiguity about "best practices" for implementing evolutionary principles. This article provides researchers with a practical guide for using evolutionary perspectives in their research programs and for avoiding common pitfalls in doing so...
May 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470161/-evolutionary-concept-analysis-of-spirituality
#16
Il Sun Ko, So Young Choi, Jin Sook Kim
PURPOSE: This study was done to clarify attributes, antecedents, and consequences of spirituality. METHODS: Rodgers's evolutionary concept analysis was used to analyze fifty seven studies from the literature related to spirituality as it appears in systematic literature reviews of theology, medicine, counseling & psychology, social welfare, and nursing. RESULTS: Spirituality was found to consist of two dimensions and eight attributes: 1) vertical dimension: 'intimacy and connectedness with God' and 'holy life and belief', 2) horizontal dimension: 'self-transcendence', 'meaning and purpose in life', 'self-integration', and 'self-creativity' in relationship with self, 'connectedness' and 'trust' in relationship with others·neighbors·nature...
April 2017: Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453200/the-meaningful-roles-intervention-an-evolutionary-approach-to-reducing-bullying-and-increasing-prosocial-behavior
#17
REVIEW
Bruce J Ellis, Anthony A Volk, Jose-Michael Gonzalez, Dennis D Embry
Bullying is a problem that affects adolescents worldwide. Efforts to prevent bullying have been moderately successful at best, or iatrogenic at worst. We offer an explanation for this limited success by employing an evolutionary-psychological perspective to analyze antibullying interventions. We argue that bullying is a goal-directed behavior that is sensitive to benefits as well as costs, and that interventions must address these benefits. This perspective led us to develop a novel antibullying intervention, Meaningful Roles, which offers bullies prosocial alternatives-meaningful roles and responsibilities implemented through a school jobs program and reinforced through peer-to-peer praise notes-that effectively meet the same status goals as bullying behavior...
December 2016: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441879/willingness-to-invest-in-children-psychological-kinship-estimates-and-emotional-closeness
#18
Jan Antfolk, Linda C Karlsson, Johanna Söderlund, Anna Szala
In general, adults invest more in related children compared to unrelated children. To test whether this pattern reflects variations in psychological kinship estimates (i.e., putative relatedness weighted by certainty in relatedness), willingness to invest in children belonging to different categories (direct offspring, nieces/nephews, stepchildren, and friends' children) was measured in a population-based sample of 1,012 adults. Respondents reported more willingness to invest in their own biological children, than in other related children (nieces and nephews), or in stepchildren and friends' children...
April 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405338/what-we-have-changed-our-minds-about-part-2-borderline-personality-disorder-epistemic-trust-and-the-developmental-significance-of-social-communication
#19
REVIEW
Peter Fonagy, Patrick Luyten, Elizabeth Allison, Chloe Campbell
In Part 1 of this paper, we discussed emerging evidence suggesting that a general psychopathology or 'p' factor underlying the various forms of psychopathology should be conceptualized in terms of the absence of resilience, that is, the absence of positive reappraisal mechanisms when faced with adversity. These impairments in the capacity for positive reappraisal seem to provide a comprehensive explanation for the association between the p factor and comorbidity, future caseness, and the 'hard-to-reach' character of many patients with severe personality pathology, most notably borderline personality disorder (BPD)...
2017: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401792/assessment-of-long-term-mate-preferences-in-iran
#20
Mohammad Atari
Previous research suggests that assessment of mate preferences has received relatively little psychometric attention from researchers, particularly in non-Western cultures. The current research was designed to (1) extend previous findings on long-term mate preferences by using a qualitative strategy, (2) develop a psychometrically sound scale for assessment of long-term mate preferences in men, and (3) develop a sex-neutral scale for assessment of long-term mate preferences. Six dimensions of mate preferences emerged for men: F = family/domesticity, A = attractiveness/sexuality, K = kindness/dependability, E = education/intelligence, R = religiosity/chastity, and S = status/resources...
April 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
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