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Evolutionary psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937233/new-perspectives-in-the-model-of-stress-response
#1
I Tonhajzerova, M Mestanik
The reactions of human organism to changes of internal or external environment termed as stress response have been at the center of interest during recent decades. Several theories were designed to describe the regulatory mechanisms which maintain the stability of vital physiological functions under conditions of threat or other environmental challenges. However, most of the models of stress reactivity were focused on specific aspects of the regulatory outcomes - physiological (e.g. neuroendocrine), psychological or behavioral regulation...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935341/conduct-problems-in-youth-and-the-rdoc-approach-a-developmental-evolutionary-based-view
#2
REVIEW
Peter Fonagy, Patrick Luyten
Problems related to aggression in young people are traditionally subsumed under the header of conduct problems, which include conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder. Such problems in children and adolescents are an important societal and mental health problem. In this paper we present an evolutionarily informed developmental psychopathology view of conduct problems inspired by the NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative. We assume that while there are many pathways to conduct problems, chronic or temporary impairments in the domain of social cognition or mentalizing are a common denominator...
September 8, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916140/an-integrative-interdisciplinary-perspective-on-social-dominance-hierarchies
#3
REVIEW
Chen Qu, Romain Ligneul, Jean-Baptiste Van der Henst, Jean-Claude Dreher
In the course of evolution, social dominance has been a strong force shaping the organization of social systems in many species. Individuals with a better ability to represent social dominance relationships and to adapt their behavior accordingly usually achieve better access to resources, hence providing benefits in terms of reproduction, health, and wellbeing. Understanding how and to what extent our brains are affected by social dominance requires interdisciplinary efforts. Here, we integrate findings from social neuroscience, evolutionary biology, and developmental psychology to highlight how social hierarchies are learned and represented in primates...
September 12, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915361/cultural-change-the-how-and-the-why
#4
Michael E W Varnum, Igor Grossmann
More than half a century of cross-cultural research has demonstrated group-level differences in psychological and behavioral phenomena, from values to attention to neural responses. However, cultures are not static, with several specific changes documented for cultural products, practices, and values. How and why do societies change? Here we juxtapose theory and insights from cultural evolution and social ecology. Evolutionary approaches enable an understanding of the how of cultural change, suggesting transmission mechanisms by which the contents of culture may change...
September 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914143/in-harm-s-way-on-preferential-response-to-threatening-stimuli
#5
David S March, Lowell Gaertner, Michael A Olson
Given the evolutionary significance of survival, the mind might be particularly sensitive (in terms of strength and speed of reaction) to stimuli that pose an immediate threat to physical harm. To rectify limitations in past research, we pilot-tested stimuli to obtain images that are threatening, nonthreatening-negative, positive, or neutral. Three studies revealed that participants (a) were faster to detect a threatening than nonthreatening-negative image when each was embedded among positive or neutral images, (b) oriented their initial gaze more frequently toward threatening than nonthreatening-negative, positive, or neutral images, and (c) evidenced larger startle-eyeblinks to threatening than to nonthreatening-negative, positive, or neutral images...
August 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906068/human-mating-strategies-from-past-causes-to-present-consequences
#6
REVIEW
Daniele Marzoli, Jan Havlíček, S Craig Roberts
In both humans and nonhuman animals, mating strategies represent a set of evolutionary adaptations aimed at promoting individual fitness by means of reproduction with the best possible partners. Given this critical role, mating strategies influence numerous aspects of human life. In particular, between-sex divergence in the intensity of intrasexual competition could account for robust cross-cultural sex differences in psychology and behavior (e.g., personality, psychiatric disorders, social behavior, violence)...
September 14, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894206/caring-cooperators-and-powerful-punishers-differential-effects-of-induced-care-and-power-motivation-on-different-types-of-economic-decision-making
#7
G Chierchia, F H Parianen Lesemann, D Snower, M Vogel, T Singer
Standard economic theory postulates that decisions are driven by stable context-insensitive preferences, while motivation psychology suggests they are driven by distinct context-sensitive motives with distinct evolutionary goals and characteristic psycho-physiological and behavioral patterns. To link these fields and test how distinct motives could differentially predict different types of economic decisions, we experimentally induced participants with either a Care or a Power motive, before having them take part in a suite of classic game theoretical paradigms involving monetary exchange...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886591/predictors-of-early-dropout-in-treatment-for-gambling-disorder-the-role-of-personality-disorders-and-clinical-syndromes
#8
G Maniaci, C La Cascia, F Picone, A Lipari, C Cannizzaro, D La Barbera
Several treatment options for gambling disorder (GD) have been tested in recent years; however dropout levels still remain high. This study aims to evaluate whether the presence of psychiatric comorbidities predicts treatment outcome according to Millon's evolutionary theory, following a six-month therapy for GD. The role of severity, duration of the disorder, typology of gambling (mainly online or offline) and pharmacological treatment were also analysed. The recruitment included 194 pathological gamblers (PGs) to be compared with 78 healthy controls (HCs)...
August 5, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877004/reciprocity-outperforms-conformity-to-promote-cooperation
#9
Angelo Romano, Daniel Balliet
Evolutionary psychologists have proposed two processes that could give rise to the pervasiveness of human cooperation observed among individuals who are not genetically related: reciprocity and conformity. We tested whether reciprocity outperformed conformity in promoting cooperation, especially when these psychological processes would promote a different cooperative or noncooperative response. To do so, across three studies, we observed participants' cooperation with a partner after learning (a) that their partner had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials and (b) that their group members had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials with that same partner...
August 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876999/how-children-solve-the-two-challenges-of-cooperation
#10
Felix Warneken
In this review, I propose a new framework for the psychological origins of human cooperation that harnesses evolutionary theories about the two major problems posed by cooperation: generating and distributing benefits. Children develop skills foundational for identifying and creating opportunities for cooperation with others early: Infants and toddlers already possess basic skills to help others and share resources. Yet mechanisms that solve the free-rider problem-critical for sustaining cooperation as a viable strategy-emerge later in development and are more sensitive to the influence of social norms...
September 6, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876964/flourishing-an-evolutionary-concept-analysis
#11
Christine Agenor, Norma Conner, Karen Aroian
PURPOSE: Mental health is an important measure of public health (WHO, 2004); however, nursing practice and research continues to prioritize mental illness, rather than well-being (Wand, 2011). Flourishing is a recent concept in the field of well-being. The term has been used sparingly in nursing practice and research, and conceptual clarification is needed to promote comprehensive understanding of the phenomenon. The purpose of this study is to critically analyze flourishing, assess the maturity of the concept, and provide recommendations for future research, education, and practice...
September 6, 2017: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870644/how-unpredictable-access-to-food-increases-the-body-fat-of-small-passerines-a-mechanistic-approach
#12
Patrick Anselme, Tobias Otto, Onur Güntürkün
Unpredictable rewards increase the vigor of responses in autoshaping (a Pavlovian conditioning procedure) and are preferred to predictable rewards in free-choice tasks involving fixed- versus variable-delay schedules. The significance those behavioral properties may have in field conditions is currently unknown. However, it is noticeable that when exposed to unpredictable food, small passerines - such as robins, titmice, and starlings - get fatter than when food is abundant. In functional terms, fattening is viewed as an evolutionary strategy acting against the risk of starvation when food is in short supply...
September 1, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866029/similarities-in-smell-and-taste-preferences-in-couples-increase-with-relationship-duration
#13
Agata Groyecka, Agnieszka Sorokowska, Anna Oleszkiewicz, Thomas Hummel, Krystyna Łysenko, Piotr Sorokowski
Numerous studies point to partners' congruence in various domains and note an increase in their compatibility over time. However, none have explored a shift in chemosensory perception related to relationship duration. Here, we examined the relationship between the time heterosexual couples have spent together and the degree to which they share their gustatory and olfactory preferences. Additionally, we investigated whether these preferences are associated with relationship satisfaction. One-hundred couples aged from 18 to 68 years being together for a period between 3 and 540 months rated the pleasantness of a wide variety of olfactory and gustatory stimuli...
August 31, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857689/genomic-imprinting-is-implicated-in-the-psychology-of-music
#14
Samuel A Mehr, Jennifer Kotler, Rhea M Howard, David Haig, Max M Krasnow
Why do people sing to babies? Human infants are relatively altricial and need their parents' attention to survive. Infant-directed song may constitute a signal of that attention. In Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a rare disorder of genomic imprinting, genes from chromosome 15q11-q13 that are typically paternally expressed are unexpressed, which results in exaggeration of traits that reduce offspring's investment demands on the mother. PWS may thus be associated with a distinctive musical phenotype. We report unusual responses to music in people with PWS...
August 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828887/mating-goals-moderate-power-s-effect-on-conspicuous-consumption-among-women
#15
Taiyang Zhao, Xiaotong Jin, Wei Xu, Xiaomeng Zuo, Hongjing Cui
This study aimed to use evolutionary psychology to explain conspicuous consumption's relationship with mating goals among women. We used experiments to show that power moderates conspicuous consumption's relationship with mating goals among women through an underlying relationship with women's social comparison tendencies. In Study 1, the participants read a passage describing a young woman wearing a coat made by a conspicuous brand (vs. an ordinary brand) who aimed to attract a desired man (vs. aiming to guard against potential competitors' attempts to disrupt her established intimate relationship)...
July 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826604/the-neuroscience-of-body-memory-from-the-self-through-the-space-to-the-others
#16
REVIEW
Giuseppe Riva
Our experience of the body is not direct; rather, it is mediated by perceptual information, influenced by internal information, and recalibrated through stored implicit and explicit body representation (body memory). This paper presents an overview of the current investigations related to body memory by bringing together recent studies from neuropsychology, neuroscience, and evolutionary and cognitive psychology. To do so, in the paper, I explore the origin of representations of human body to elucidate their developmental process and, in particular, their relationship with more explicit concepts of self...
July 25, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821540/investigating-undergraduate-students-use-of-intuitive-reasoning-and-evolutionary-knowledge-in-explanations-of-antibiotic-resistance
#17
Melissa Richard, John D Coley, Kimberly D Tanner
Natural selection is a central concept throughout biology; however, it is a process frequently misunderstood. Bacterial resistance to antibiotic medications provides a contextual example of the relevance of evolutionary theory and is also commonly misunderstood. While research has shed light on student misconceptions of natural selection, minimal study has focused on misconceptions of antibiotic resistance. Additionally, research has focused on the degree to which misconceptions may be based in the complexity of biological information or in pedagogical choices, rather than in deep-seated cognitive patterns...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810429/individual-differences-in-pain-sensitivity-predict-the-experience-of-unfairness
#18
Haixia Wang, Kefeng Li, Xiaofei Xie
Pain has shaped our evolutionary history, and pain-free experiences are critical for our health. There are, however, enormous individual differences in pain sensitivity, and the psychological consequences of this heterogeneity are only poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether individual differences in pain sensitivity predicted the experience of unfairness. We found that the magnitude of pain sensitivity correlated with the extent to which participants experienced unfairness. This association was due to the shared human alarm system of unfairness and pain sensitivity...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793386/sleep-disturbance-in-people-with-diabetes-a-concept-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Bingqian Zhu, Catherine Vincent, Mary C Kapella, Laurie Quinn, Eileen G Collins, Laurie Ruggiero, Chang Park, Cynthia Fritschi
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To clarify the meaning of sleep disturbance in people with diabetes and examine its antecedents, attributes, and consequences through concept analysis. BACKGROUND: Sleep is crucial for health, and people with diabetes are frequently beset with disturbances in their sleep. The concept of sleep disturbance in people with diabetes has not been clearly defined. The inconsistent use of sleep disturbance has created confusion and impeded our understanding of the sleep in people with diabetes...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764599/evolutionary-learning-processes-as-the-foundation-for-behaviour-change
#20
Rik Crutzen, Gjalt-Jorn Ygram Peters
We argue that the active ingredients of behaviour change interventions, often called behaviour change methods or techniques (BCTs), can usefully be placed on a dimension of psychological aggregation. We introduce evolutionary learning processes (ELPs) as fundamental building blocks that are on a lower level of psychological aggregation than behaviour change methods. A better understanding of ELPs is useful to select the appropriate behaviour change methods to target determinants of behaviour, or vice versa, to identify potential determinants targeted by a given behaviour change method (or technique), and to optimally translate behaviour change methods into practical applications...
August 1, 2017: Health Psychology Review
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