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Evolutionary psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771097/-mechanical-ventilation-with-explicit-recall-a-concept-analysis
#1
Mylène Suzie Michaud, Marilou Gagnon
Mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit requires the use of medication to reduce pain, discomfort, anxiety, and agitation. An explicit recall refers to the phenomenon where the person remembers the perceptions that occurred under sedation during mechanical ventilation. Severe psychological consequences may occur as a result of an explicit recall. This phenomenon is not well-defined and there is no common language in the literature. A conceptual analysis was carried out using Rodgers' evolutionary method in order to clarify the concept of explicit recall...
March 2018: Recherche en Soins Infirmiers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759889/social-learning-strategies-bridge-building-between-fields
#2
REVIEW
Rachel L Kendal, Neeltje J Boogert, Luke Rendell, Kevin N Laland, Mike Webster, Patricia L Jones
While social learning is widespread, indiscriminate copying of others is rarely beneficial. Theory suggests that individuals should be selective in what, when, and whom they copy, by following 'social learning strategies' (SLSs). The SLS concept has stimulated extensive experimental work, integrated theory, and empirical findings, and created impetus to the social learning and cultural evolution fields. However, the SLS concept needs updating to accommodate recent findings that individuals switch between strategies flexibly, that multiple strategies are deployed simultaneously, and that there is no one-to-one correspondence between psychological heuristics deployed and resulting population-level patterns...
May 11, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755722/implicit-and-explicit-evaluation-of-visual-symmetry-as-a-function-of-art-expertise
#3
Hanna Weichselbaum, Helmut Leder, Ulrich Ansorge
In perception, humans typically prefer symmetrical over asymmetrical patterns. Yet, little is known about differences in symmetry preferences depending on individuals' different past histories of actively reflecting upon pictures and patterns. To address this question, we tested the generality of the symmetry preference for different levels of individual art expertise. The preference for symmetrical versus asymmetrical abstract patterns was measured implicitly, by an Implicit Association Test (IAT), and explicitly, by a rating scale asking participants to evaluate pattern beauty...
March 2018: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752704/university-sports-rivalries-provide-insights-on-coalitional-psychology-territorial-context-influences-reactions-to-vocal-signals-of-allegiance
#4
Daniel J Kruger, Michael Falbo, Sophie Blanchard, Ethan Cole, Camille Gazoul, Noreen Nader, Shannon Murphy
Sports are an excellent venue for demonstrating evolutionary principles to audiences not familiar with academic research. Team sports and sports fandom feature dynamics of in-group loyalty and intergroup competition, influenced by our evolved coalitional psychology. We predicted that reactions to expressions signaling mutual team/group allegiance would vary as a function of the territorial context. Reactions should become more prevalent, positive, and enthusiastic as one moves from the home territory to a contested area, and from a contested area to a rival's territory during active rival engagement...
May 11, 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746217/the-napoleon-complex-when-shorter-men-take-more
#5
Jill E P Knapen, Nancy M Blaker, Mark Van Vugt
Inspired by an evolutionary psychological perspective on the Napoleon complex, we hypothesized that shorter males are more likely to show indirect aggression in resource competitions with taller males. Three studies provide support for our interpretation of the Napoleon complex. Our pilot study shows that men (but not women) keep more resources for themselves when they feel small. When paired with a taller male opponent (Study 1), shorter men keep more resources to themselves in a game in which they have all the power (dictator game) versus a game in which the opponent also has some power (ultimatum game)...
May 1, 2018: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745714/what-do-short-term-and-long-term-relationships-look-like-building-the-relationship-coordination-and-strategic-timing-recast-model
#6
Paul W Eastwick, Elizabeth Keneski, Taylor A Morgan, Meagan A McDonald, Sabrina A Huang
Close relationships research has examined committed couples (e.g., dating relationships, marriages) using intensive methods that plot relationship development over time. But a substantial proportion of people's real-life sexual experiences take place (a) before committed relationships become "official" and (b) in short-term relationships; methods that document the time course of relationships have rarely been applied to these contexts. We adapted a classic relationship trajectory-plotting technique to generate the first empirical comparisons between the features of people's real-life short-term and long-term relationships across their entire timespan...
May 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736611/men-s-interest-in-allying-with-a-previous-combatant-for-future-group-combat
#7
Nicole Barbaro, Justin K Mogilski, Todd K Shackelford, Michael N Pham
Intra- and intergroup conflict are likely to have been recurrent features of human evolutionary history; however, little research has investigated the factors that affect men's combat alliance decisions. The current study investigated whether features of previous one-on-one combat with an opponent affect men's interest in allying with that opponent for future group combat. Fifty-eight undergraduate men recruited from a psychology department subject pool participated in a one-on-one laboratory fight simulation...
May 8, 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681871/handgrip-strength-as-a-darwinian-fitness-indicator-in-men
#8
REVIEW
Andrew C Gallup, Bernhard Fink
Handgrip strength (HGS) is a robust measure of overall muscular strength and function, and has long been predictive of a multitude of health factors and physical outcomes for both men and women. The fact that HGS represents such a ubiquitous measure of health and vitality may reflect the significance of this trait during human evolution. This trait is also highly sexually dimorphic due to influences of androgenic hormones and fat-free body mass, suggesting that it has been further elaborated through sexual selection...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679052/differential-contribution-of-cis-and-trans-gene-transcription-regulatory-mechanisms-in-amygdala-and-prefrontal-cortex-and-modulation-by-social-stress
#9
Eli Reuveni, Dmitry Getselter, Oded Oron, Evan Elliott
While both individual transcription factors and cis-acting sites have been studied in relation to psychiatric disorders, there is little knowledge of the relative contribution of trans-acting and cis-acting factors to gene transcription in the brain. Using an RNA-seq approach in mice bred from two evolutionary-distinct mice strains, we determined the contribution of cis and trans factors to gene expression in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala, two regions of the brain relevant to the stress response, and the contribution of cis and trans factors in the prefrontal cortex after Chronic Social Defeat (CSD) in mice...
April 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592639/sexual-and-emotional-infidelity-evolved-gender-differences-in-jealousy-prove-robust-and-replicable
#10
David M Buss
Infidelity poses threats to high-investment mating relationships. Because of gender differences in some aspects of reproductive biology, such as internal female fertilization, the nature of these threats differs for men and women. Men, but not women, for example, have recurrently faced the problem of uncertainty in their genetic parenthood. Jealousy is an emotion hypothesized to have evolved to combat these threats. The 1992 article Sex Differences in Jealousy: Evolution, Physiology, and Psychology reported three empirical studies using two different methods, forced-choice and physiological experiments...
March 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574968/predictors-of-childhood-trajectories-of-overt-and-indirect-aggression-an-interdisciplinary-approach
#11
Carla Aimé, Daniel Paquette, Michèle Déry, Pierrette Verlaan
The aim of this study was to advance our understanding of the development of aggression in boys and girls by testing a model combining insights from both evolutionary theory and developmental psychology. A sample of 744 children (348 girls) between six and 13 years old was recruited in schools with high deprivation indices. Half of the sample (N = 372; 40.1% girls) had received special educational services for behavioral and/or socio-emotional problems. Two trajectories for overt aggression and two trajectories for indirect aggression were identified and binomial logistic regressions were used to identify environmental predictors and sex-specific patterns of these trajectories...
March 25, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548301/psychological-issues-and-construction-of-the-mother-child-relationship-in-women-with-cancer-during-pregnancy-a-perspective-on-current-and-future-directions
#12
Federica Ferrari, Flavia Faccio, Fedro Peccatori, Gabriella Pravettoni
BACKGROUND: Cancer during pregnancy is a rare event. However, knowledge about treatment has progressed in recent years with improved maternal and neonatal outcomes. The number of women who decide to continue their pregnancy and undergo cancer treatment is increasing. MAIN BODY: Women face two critical events simultaneously; oncological illness and pregnancy, with different and conflicting emotions. In addition, the last trimester of gestation sets the ground for construction of the mother-child relationship, which is of great importance for the child's development...
March 16, 2018: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537651/predicting-dating-behavior-from-aggression-and-self-perceived-social-status-in-adolescence
#13
Kirsty S Lee, Heather Brittain, Tracy Vaillancourt
We investigated the longitudinal associations between self-reported aggression, self-perceived social status, and dating in adolescence using an intrasexual competition theoretical framework. Participants consisted of 536 students in Grade 9 (age 15), recruited from a community sample, who were assessed on a yearly basis until they were in Grade 11 (age 17). Adolescents self-reported their use of direct and indirect aggression, social status, and number of dating partners. A cross-lagged panel model that controlled for within-time covariance and across-time stability while examining cross-lagged pathways was used to analyze the data...
March 14, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517310/associations-between-perfectionism-cognitions-religiosity-and-desired-number-of-children-in-iranian-women
#14
Mohammad Atari, Razieh Chegeni
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the associations between perfectionism cognitions, religiosity and the desired number of children in young women. BACKGROUND: The desired number of children has been found to correlate with personality and individual difference. METHODS: A sample of 281 women was selected from university settings in Tehran, Iran. Participants ranged in age from 18 to 39 years (M = 23.7, SD = 3.7). All participants responded to a paper-and-pencil survey consisting of measures of perfectionism cognitions, intrinsic religiosity and the desired number of children...
July 2017: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516554/cultural-competence-in-healthcare-in-the-community-a-concept-analysis
#15
Saras Henderson, Maria Horne, Ruth Hills, Elizabeth Kendall
This study aims to conduct a concept analysis on cultural competence in community healthcare. Clarification of the concept of cultural competence is needed to enable clarity in the definition and operation, research and theory development to assist healthcare providers to better understand this evolving concept. Rodgers' evolutionary concept analysis method was used to clarify the concept's context, surrogate terms, antecedents, attributes and consequences and to determine implications for further research...
March 7, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514723/how-foraging-works-uncertainty-magnifies-food-seeking-motivation
#16
Patrick Anselme, Onur Güntürkün
Food uncertainty has the effect of invigorating food-related responses. Psychologists have noted that mammals and birds respond more to a conditioned stimulus that unreliably predicts food delivery, and ecologists have shown that animals (especially small passerines) consume and/or hoard more food and can get fatter when access to that resource is unpredictable. Are these phenomena related? We think they are. Psychologists have proposed several mechanistic interpretations, while ecologists have suggested a functional interpretation: the effect of unpredictability on fat reserves and hoarding behavior is an evolutionary strategy acting against the risk of starvation when food is in short supply...
March 8, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483351/functionality-versus-dimensionality-in-psychological-taxonomies-and-a-puzzle-of-emotional-valence
#17
REVIEW
Irina Trofimova
This paper applies evolutionary and functional constructivism approaches to the discussion of psychological taxonomies, as implemented in the neurochemical model Functional Ensemble of Temperament (FET). FET asserts that neurochemical systems developed in evolution to regulate functional-dynamical aspects of construction of actions: orientation, selection (integration), energetic maintenance, and management of automatic behavioural elements. As an example, the paper reviews the neurochemical mechanisms of interlocking between emotional dispositions and performance capacities...
April 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479655/general-psychological-implications-of-the-human-capacity-for-grief
#18
Svend Brinkmann
Much theorizing in psychology and related disciplines begins with a given model of the mind that is then applied in research projects to study concrete phenomena. Sometimes psychological research can be theory-driven in quite an explicit way, approaching the logic of the hypothetico-deductive method. Others reject this and prefer to work inductively, and, in the extreme case of positivism, perhaps try to avoid theorizing altogether. In this article I shall suggest another way to think of the relationship between psychological theories and psychological phenomena...
June 2018: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471074/do-humans-still-forage-in-an-obesogenic-environment-mechanisms-and-implications-for-weight-maintenance
#19
Jeffrey M Brunstrom, Bobby K Cheon
Many people struggle to control their food intake and bodyweight. This is often interpreted as evidence that humans are generally predisposed to consume food when it is available, because adiposity offered insurance against the threat of starvation in our ancestral environment. In this paper we suggest that modern humans have actually inherited a far broader range of foraging skills that continue to influence our dietary behaviour. To evaluate this idea, we identify three challenges that would need to be addressed to achieve efficient foraging; (1) monitoring the 'procurement cost' of foods, (2) determining the energy content of foods, and (3) proactively adapting to perceived food insecurity...
February 19, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432512/theory-of-drives-and-emotions-from-sigmund-freud-to-jaak-panksepp
#20
REVIEW
Cezary Żechowski
The article discusses the development of psychoanalytic theory in the direction of broadening the reflection on their own based on data derived from empirical studies other than clinical case study. Particularly noteworthy is the convergence that followed between neuroscience and psychoanalysis and the rise of the so-called neuropsychoanalysis. Consequently, this led to eject empirical hypotheses and begin research on defense mechanisms, self, memory, dreams, empathy, dynamic unconscious and emotional-motivational processes (theory of drives)...
December 30, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
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