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Evolutionary psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308958/medically-unexplained-physical-symptoms-misunderstood-and-wrongly-treated-a-semiotic-perspective-on-chronic-pain
#1
Kari Irene H Busvold, Hilde Bondevik
Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) are a significant and increasing health issue in the western world. Chronic pain constitutes a considerable element of these symptoms, and the lack of a biomedical explanation of their cause challenges the clinical encounter. The limitations of biomedicine become evident in these encounters and expose the need for an expanded understanding of body and symptom. Semiotics, as an anti-dualistic meta-theory, closes the gap between natural science and the humanities and views the human body in an evolutionary and existential perspective...
January 8, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279223/the-roots-of-intimate-partner-violence
#2
REVIEW
David S Chester, C Nathan DeWall
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a paradoxical combination of affection and aggression. So why do people show an all-too-frequent tendency to harm their loved ones? Towards answering this question, we review a broad literature that explicates the ultimate and proximate roots of IPV perpetration. At the ultimate level, IPV perpetration is likely to be the result of evolutionary and socio-structural forces. Theories of aggression are then brought to bear in order to articulate the proximal sequence of psychological processes that magnify and constrain IPV...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244562/learning-to-cooperate-the-evolution-of-social-rewards-in-repeated-interactions
#3
Slimane Dridi, Erol Ak├žay
Understanding the behavioral and psychological mechanisms underlying social behaviors is one of the major goals of social evolutionary theory. In particular, a persistent question about animal cooperation is to what extent it is supported by other-regarding preferences-the motivation to increase the welfare of others. In many situations, animals adjust their behaviors through learning by responding to the rewards they experience as a consequence of their actions. Therefore, we may ask whether learning in social situations can be driven by evolved other-regarding rewards...
January 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241289/-radiology-in-the-light-of-evolutionary-cognitive-theory
#4
Paul Gelinsky
An X-ray photograph is not adapted to the human a priori intuition: it is not colored, it is two-dimensional, has no depth and no perspective. A radiograph is composed by about 100 gradations of grey, of which the human eye cannot resolve more than 30. Projection radiography has a cardinal problem: the superposition of normal and pathological structures. Apart from visual physiology, visual psychology plays an essential role in diagnosis: expectation and stereotyped thinking influence the interpretation of visual perception...
December 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238319/evaluating-distal-and-proximal-explanations-for-withdrawal-a-rejoinder-to-varnum-and-kwon-s-the-ecology-of-withdrawal
#5
Vinai Norasakkunkit, Yukiko Uchida, Kosuke Takemura
In their 2016 commentary on our theorizing about how youth withdrawal from economic and social participation in Japanese society (i.e., NEET and Hikikomori phenomena) stems from generational inequality of economic opportunities, Varnum and Kwon correctly point out that our explanation for withdrawal is yet untested. They then offered an alternative, evolutionary psychological explanation for withdrawal in which they claim that in resource-rich ecologies like Japan, the option to withdraw from participating in society is a possible life strategy, a strategy that would be much more costly in resource-poor ecologies...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237848/looking-for-unity-in-diversity-human-cooperative-childcare-in-comparative-perspective
#6
REVIEW
Judith M Burkart, Carel van Schaik, Michael Griesser
Humans engage in cooperative childcare, which includes some elements not found in other animals, such as the presence of post-reproductive helpers, extensive food sharing among adults and a pervasive sexual division of labour. In animals, cooperative offspring care has typically been studied in two different contexts. The first mainly involves helpers contributing care in cooperatively breeding family groups; the second context is allomaternal care in species usually not categorized as cooperative breeders (e...
December 20, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237297/the-evolutionary-psychology-of-war-offense-and-defense-in-the-adapted-mind
#7
Anthony C Lopez
The study of warfare from an evolutionary perspective has expanded rapidly over the last couple of decades. However, it has tended to focus on the ancestral origins, prevalence, and instruments of war rather than adaptationist analyses of its underlying psychology. I argue that our evolved coalitional psychology may contain a set of distinct evolved heuristics designed specifically for offensive and defensive coalitional aggression. Data from two survey experiments are presented, in which subjects were given scenarios depicting offensive or defensive aggression and were told to make decisions, for example, regarding their willingness to participate in the conflict, their opinions of others who did not choose to participate, and their expectations benefit...
October 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213489/in-search-of-the-moral-psychological-and-neuroevolutionary-basis-of-political-partisanship
#8
REVIEW
Vitor Geraldi Haase, Isabella Starling-Alves
In many countries, a radical political divide brings several socially relevant decisions to a standstill. Could cognitive, affective and social (CAS) neuroscience help better understand these questions? The present article reviews the moral-psychological and neuroevolutionary basis of the political partisanship divide. A non-systematic literature review and a conceptual analysis were conducted. Three main points are identified and discussed: 1) Political partisan behavior rests upon deep moral emotions. It is automatically processed and impervious to contradiction...
January 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207393/how-virtue-was-born
#9
Martin A Nowak, Karl Sigmund
This paper summarizes the Opening Lecture of the European Forum Alpbach 2017 in Tyrol/Austria (https://www.alpbach.org/de/). It deals with the evolution of cooperation throughout the history of life on Earth, and in particular human cooperation based on partnership. It emphasizes the role of institutions providing incentives for cooperation, and the role of praise and blame in guiding our actions. This helps for a better understanding of the social contract, based on evolutionary biology and psychology.
December 6, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199090/voluntary-vaccination-dilemma-with-evolving-psychological-perceptions
#10
Xue Feng, Bin Wu, Long Wang
Voluntary vaccination is a universal control protocol for infectious diseases. Yet there exists a social dilemma between individual benefits and public health: non-vaccinators free ride via the herd immunity from adequate vaccinators who bear vaccination cost. This is due to the interplay between disease prevalence and individual vaccinating behavior. To complicate matters further, individual vaccinating behavior depends on the perceived vaccination cost rather than the actual one. The perception of vaccination cost is an individual trait, which varies from person to person, and evolves in response to the disease prevalence and vaccination coverage...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185805/an-optimized-method-for-bayesian-connectivity-change-point-model
#11
Xiuchun Xiao, Bing Liu, Jing Zhang, Xueli Xiao, Yi Pan
The brain undergoes functional dynamic changes at all times. Investigating functional dynamics has been recently verified to be helpful for detecting psychological conditions and powerful for analyzing disease-related abnormalities of the brain. This article aims to detect functional dynamics. Specifically, we focus on how to effectively distinguish corresponding functional connectivity and change points from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. By combining Bayesian connectivity change point model (BCCPM), a modified genetic algorithm (GA) is presented to optimize the evolutionary procedure toward the most probable distributions of real change points in fMRI...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Computational Biology: a Journal of Computational Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184516/chasing-the-rainbow-the-non-conscious-nature-of-being
#12
David A Oakley, Peter W Halligan
Despite the compelling subjective experience of executive self-control, we argue that "consciousness" contains no top-down control processes and that "consciousness" involves no executive, causal, or controlling relationship with any of the familiar psychological processes conventionally attributed to it. In our view, psychological processing and psychological products are not under the control of consciousness. In particular, we argue that all "contents of consciousness" are generated by and within non-conscious brain systems in the form of a continuous self-referential personal narrative that is not directed or influenced in any way by the "experience of consciousness...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131716/compassion-focused-therapy-as-an-intervention-for-adult-survivors-of-sexual-abuse
#13
Lisa McLean, Stanley R Steindl, Matthew Bambling
Child sexual abuse can have long-term negative impacts across psychological, physical, and interpersonal domains. Some of the common issues for survivors of sexual abuse include shame and self-blame, attachment-based difficulties, avoidant coping strategies, and reduced capacity for self-compassion. Compassion-focused therapy is a transdiagnostic intervention that specifically responds to these concerns. Compassion-focused therapy was originally developed for clients who experience high levels of shame and self-criticism and aims to strengthen the soothing and affiliative system through the cultivation of compassion...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122054/on-the-substantial-contribution-of-contempt-as-a-folk-affect-concept-to-the-history-of-the-european-popular-institution-of-charivari
#14
Bogdan Neagota, Ileana Benga, Oana Benga
The integration of the folk affect concept of "contempt" into the analysis of the complex institution known generally as charivari is mutually beneficial for both ethno-anthropology (which may thus access inner causes for disputed social and collective behaviors) and evolutionary psychology (which may thus study the length of tradition together with the width of the institution spread, serving the same social functions).
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091541/a-multilevel-social-neuroscience-perspective-on-radicalization-and-terrorism
#15
Jean Decety, Clifford I Workman
Why are some people capable of sympathizing with and/or committing acts of political violence, such as attacks aimed at innocent targets? Attempts to construct terrorist profiles based on individual and situational factors, such as clinical, psychological, ethnic, and socio-demographic variables, have largely failed. Although individual and situational factors must be at work, it is clear that they alone cannot explain how certain individuals are radicalized. In this paper, we propose that a comprehensive understanding of radicalization and of how it may lead to political violence requires the integration of information across multiple levels of analysis and interdisciplinary perspectives from evolutionary theory, social, personality and cognitive psychology, political science and neuroscience...
November 1, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083276/women-s-hair-as-a-cue-to-desired-relationship-and-parenting-characteristics
#16
David C Matz, Verlin B Hinsz
We investigated how women's hair color (blond, brown, black) and length (short, medium, long) influences males' judgments about the women's age, health, physical attractiveness, relationship potential and parenting capability. Results, which are generally consistent with evolutionary psychology approaches, indicate that hair color and to a lesser extent length can affect perceptions of personal characteristics. More specifically, we found that lighter hair (blond and brown) compared to darker hair (black) is generally associated with perceptions of youth, health and attractiveness, and generally leads to more positive perceptions of relationship and parenting potential...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080419/the-neuroscience-of-social-class
#17
REVIEW
Michael Ew Varnum, Shinobu Kitayama
Most evidence regarding the mental characteristics of people with different socio-economic status (SES) backgrounds is based on behavioral, implicit, or self-report measures. Recently, however, this literature has been significantly expanded by the application of innovative neuroscience methods to the study of social class (functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalogram). In this paper, we provide an overview of the neuroscience of SES, with a focus on three key sets of findings. First, lower SES is linked to greater attunement to others...
August 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078366/neurobiology-of-culturally-common-maternal-responses-to-infant-cry
#18
Marc H Bornstein, Diane L Putnick, Paola Rigo, Gianluca Esposito, James E Swain, Joan T D Suwalsky, Xueyun Su, Xiaoxia Du, Kaihua Zhang, Linda R Cote, Nicola De Pisapia, Paola Venuti
This report coordinates assessments of five types of behavioral responses in new mothers to their own infants' cries with neurobiological responses in new mothers to their own infants' cries and in experienced mothers and inexperienced nonmothers to infant cries and other emotional and control sounds. We found that 684 new primipara mothers in 11 countries (Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Cameroon, France, Kenya, Israel, Italy, Japan, South Korea, and the United States) preferentially responded to their infants' vocalizing distress by picking up and holding and by talking to their infants, as opposed to displaying affection, distracting, or nurturing...
November 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072474/resource-scarcity-effort-and-performance-in-physically-demanding-jobs-an-evolutionary-explanation
#19
Marko Pitesa, Stefan Thau
Based on evolutionary theory, we predicted that cues of resource scarcity in the environment (e.g., news of droughts or food shortages) lead people to reduce their effort and performance in physically demanding work. We tested this prediction in a 2-wave field survey among employees and replicated it experimentally in the lab. In Study 1, employees who perceived resources in the environment to be scarce reported exerting less effort when their jobs involved much (but not little) physical work. In Study 2, participants who read that resources in the environment were scarce performed worse on a task demanding more (carrying books) but not less (transcribing book titles) physical work...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059066/transition-to-cancer-survivorship-a-concept-analysis
#20
Sylvia K Wood
Transition to cancer survivorship is frequent lexicon denoting the posttreatment phase of cancer treatment. The concept of being in transition to survivorship is not well defined. To critically analyze this concept, data sources (n = 63) (from 1985 to 2016) from nursing, sociology, medicine, and psychology were evaluated employing Rodgers evolutionary method. Transition to cancer survivorship is a turning point with a variable time period one passes through after treatment. It is an individualized experience with degrees of liminality, changes, and challenging consequences...
October 20, 2017: ANS. Advances in Nursing Science
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