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Evolutionary psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131716/compassion-focused-therapy-as-an-intervention-for-adult-survivors-of-sexual-abuse
#1
Lisa McLean, Stanley R Steindl, Matthew Bambling
Child sexual abuse can have long-term negative impacts across psychological, physical, and interpersonal domains. Some of the common issues for survivors of sexual abuse include shame and self-blame, attachment-based difficulties, avoidant coping strategies, and reduced capacity for self-compassion. Compassion-focused therapy is a transdiagnostic intervention that specifically responds to these concerns. Compassion-focused therapy was originally developed for clients who experience high levels of shame and self-criticism and aims to strengthen the soothing and affiliative system through the cultivation of compassion...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122054/on-the-substantial-contribution-of-contempt-as-a-folk-affect-concept-to-the-history-of-the-european-popular-institution-of-charivari
#2
Bogdan Neagota, Ileana Benga, Oana Benga
The integration of the folk affect concept of "contempt" into the analysis of the complex institution known generally as charivari is mutually beneficial for both ethno-anthropology (which may thus access inner causes for disputed social and collective behaviors) and evolutionary psychology (which may thus study the length of tradition together with the width of the institution spread, serving the same social functions).
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091541/a-multilevel-social-neuroscience-perspective-on-radicalization-and-terrorism
#3
Jean Decety, Clifford I Workman
Why are some people capable of sympathizing with and/or committing acts of political violence, such as attacks aimed at innocent targets? Attempts to construct terrorist profiles based on individual and situational factors, such as clinical, psychological, ethnic, and socio-demographic variables, have largely failed. Although individual and situational factors must be at work, it is clear that they alone cannot explain how certain individuals are radicalized. In this paper, we propose that a comprehensive understanding of radicalization and of how it may lead to political violence requires the integration of information across multiple levels of analysis and interdisciplinary perspectives from evolutionary theory, social, personality and cognitive psychology, political science and neuroscience...
November 1, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083276/women-s-hair-as-a-cue-to-desired-relationship-and-parenting-characteristics
#4
David C Matz, Verlin B Hinsz
We investigated how women's hair color (blond, brown, black) and length (short, medium, long) influences males' judgments about the women's age, health, physical attractiveness, relationship potential and parenting capability. Results, which are generally consistent with evolutionary psychology approaches, indicate that hair color and to a lesser extent length can affect perceptions of personal characteristics. More specifically, we found that lighter hair (blond and brown) compared to darker hair (black) is generally associated with perceptions of youth, health and attractiveness, and generally leads to more positive perceptions of relationship and parenting potential...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080419/the-neuroscience-of-social-class
#5
REVIEW
Michael Ew Varnum, Shinobu Kitayama
Most evidence regarding the mental characteristics of people with different socio-economic status (SES) backgrounds is based on behavioral, implicit, or self-report measures. Recently, however, this literature has been significantly expanded by the application of innovative neuroscience methods to the study of social class (functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalogram). In this paper, we provide an overview of the neuroscience of SES, with a focus on three key sets of findings. First, lower SES is linked to greater attunement to others...
August 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078366/neurobiology-of-culturally-common-maternal-responses-to-infant-cry
#6
Marc H Bornstein, Diane L Putnick, Paola Rigo, Gianluca Esposito, James E Swain, Joan T D Suwalsky, Xueyun Su, Xiaoxia Du, Kaihua Zhang, Linda R Cote, Nicola De Pisapia, Paola Venuti
This report coordinates assessments of five types of behavioral responses in new mothers to their own infants' cries with neurobiological responses in new mothers to their own infants' cries and in experienced mothers and inexperienced nonmothers to infant cries and other emotional and control sounds. We found that 684 new primipara mothers in 11 countries (Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Cameroon, France, Kenya, Israel, Italy, Japan, South Korea, and the United States) preferentially responded to their infants' vocalizing distress by picking up and holding and by talking to their infants, as opposed to displaying affection, distracting, or nurturing...
November 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072474/resource-scarcity-effort-and-performance-in-physically-demanding-jobs-an-evolutionary-explanation
#7
Marko Pitesa, Stefan Thau
Based on evolutionary theory, we predicted that cues of resource scarcity in the environment (e.g., news of droughts or food shortages) lead people to reduce their effort and performance in physically demanding work. We tested this prediction in a 2-wave field survey among employees and replicated it experimentally in the lab. In Study 1, employees who perceived resources in the environment to be scarce reported exerting less effort when their jobs involved much (but not little) physical work. In Study 2, participants who read that resources in the environment were scarce performed worse on a task demanding more (carrying books) but not less (transcribing book titles) physical work...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059066/transition-to-cancer-survivorship-a-concept-analysis
#8
Sylvia K Wood
Transition to cancer survivorship is frequent lexicon denoting the posttreatment phase of cancer treatment. The concept of being in transition to survivorship is not well defined. To critically analyze this concept, data sources (n = 63) (from 1985 to 2016) from nursing, sociology, medicine, and psychology were evaluated employing Rodgers evolutionary method. Transition to cancer survivorship is a turning point with a variable time period one passes through after treatment. It is an individualized experience with degrees of liminality, changes, and challenging consequences...
October 20, 2017: ANS. Advances in Nursing Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035690/the-psychology-of-music-rhythm-and-movement
#9
Daniel J Levitin, Jessica A Grahn, Justin London
The urge to move to music is universal among humans. Unlike visual art, which is manifest across space, music is manifest across time. When listeners get carried away by the music, either through movement (such as dancing) or through reverie (such as trance), it is usually the temporal qualities of the music- its pulse, tempo, and rhythmic patterns-that put them in this state. In this article, we review studies addressing rhythm, meter, movement, synchronization, entrainment, the perception of groove, and other temporal factors that constitute a first step to understanding how and why music literally moves us...
October 16, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033783/the-mechanisms-of-psychedelic-visionary-experiences-hypotheses-from-evolutionary-psychology
#10
Michael J Winkelman
Neuropharmacological effects of psychedelics have profound cognitive, emotional, and social effects that inspired the development of cultures and religions worldwide. Findings that psychedelics objectively and reliably produce mystical experiences press the question of the neuropharmacological mechanisms by which these highly significant experiences are produced by exogenous neurotransmitter analogs. Humans have a long evolutionary relationship with psychedelics, a consequence of psychedelics' selective effects for human cognitive abilities, exemplified in the information rich visionary experiences...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030410/shame-and-the-vulnerable-self-in-medical-contexts-the-compassionate-solution
#11
Paul Gilbert
Shame is a powerful experience that plays a vital role in a whole range of aspects of the clinical encounter. Shame experiences can have an impact on our psychological and physiological state and on how we experience ourselves, others and our relationships. The medical encounter is an obvious arena for shame because we are presenting (aspects of) our bodies and minds that can be seen as unattractive and undesirable, diseased, decayed and injured with the various excretions that typically might invite disgust...
October 13, 2017: Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022516/folk-economic-beliefs-an-evolutionary-cognitive-model
#12
Pascal Boyer, Michael Bang Petersen
The domain of "folk-economics" consists in explicit beliefs about the economy held by laypeople, untrained in economics, about such topics as e.g., the causes of the wealth of nations, the benefits or drawbacks of markets and international trade, the effects of regulation, the origins of inequality, the connection between work and wages, the economic consequences of immigration, or the possible causes of unemployment. These beliefs are crucial in forming people's political beliefs, and in shaping their reception of different policies...
October 12, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021773/the-grand-challenges-for-evolutionary-psychology-survival-challenges-for-a-discipline
#13
EDITORIAL
Peter K Jonason
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970815/the-evolutionary-psychology-of-envy-and-jealousy
#14
Vilayanur S Ramachandran, Baland Jalal
The old dogma has always been that the most complex aspects of human emotions are driven by culture; Germans and English are thought to be straight-laced whereas Italians and Indians are effusive. Yet in the last two decades there has been a growing realization that even though culture plays a major role in the final expression of human nature, there must be a basic scaffolding specified by genes. While this is recognized to be true for simple emotions like anger, fear, and joy, the relevance of evolutionary arguments for more complex nuances of emotion have been inadequately explored...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937233/new-perspectives-in-the-model-of-stress-response
#15
I Tonhajzerova, M Mestanik
The reactions of human organism to changes of internal or external environment termed as stress response have been at the center of interest during recent decades. Several theories were designed to describe the regulatory mechanisms which maintain the stability of vital physiological functions under conditions of threat or other environmental challenges. However, most of the models of stress reactivity were focused on specific aspects of the regulatory outcomes - physiological (e.g. neuroendocrine), psychological or behavioral regulation...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935341/conduct-problems-in-youth-and-the-rdoc-approach-a-developmental-evolutionary-based-view
#16
REVIEW
Peter Fonagy, Patrick Luyten
Problems related to aggression in young people are traditionally subsumed under the header of conduct problems, which include conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder. Such problems in children and adolescents are an important societal and mental health problem. In this paper we present an evolutionarily informed developmental psychopathology view of conduct problems inspired by the NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative. We assume that while there are many pathways to conduct problems, chronic or temporary impairments in the domain of social cognition or mentalizing are a common denominator...
September 8, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916140/an-integrative-interdisciplinary-perspective-on-social-dominance-hierarchies
#17
REVIEW
Chen Qu, Romain Ligneul, Jean-Baptiste Van der Henst, Jean-Claude Dreher
In the course of evolution, social dominance has been a strong force shaping the organization of social systems in many species. Individuals with a better ability to represent social dominance relationships and to adapt their behavior accordingly usually achieve better access to resources, hence providing benefits in terms of reproduction, health, and wellbeing. Understanding how and to what extent our brains are affected by social dominance requires interdisciplinary efforts. Here, we integrate findings from social neuroscience, evolutionary biology, and developmental psychology to highlight how social hierarchies are learned and represented in primates...
September 12, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915361/cultural-change-the-how-and-the-why
#18
Michael E W Varnum, Igor Grossmann
More than half a century of cross-cultural research has demonstrated group-level differences in psychological and behavioral phenomena, from values to attention to neural responses. However, cultures are not static, with several specific changes documented for cultural products, practices, and values. How and why do societies change? Here we juxtapose theory and insights from cultural evolution and social ecology. Evolutionary approaches enable an understanding of the how of cultural change, suggesting transmission mechanisms by which the contents of culture may change...
September 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914143/in-harm-s-way-on-preferential-response-to-threatening-stimuli
#19
David S March, Lowell Gaertner, Michael A Olson
Given the evolutionary significance of survival, the mind might be particularly sensitive (in terms of strength and speed of reaction) to stimuli that pose an immediate threat to physical harm. To rectify limitations in past research, we pilot-tested stimuli to obtain images that are threatening, nonthreatening-negative, positive, or neutral. Three studies revealed that participants (a) were faster to detect a threatening than nonthreatening-negative image when each was embedded among positive or neutral images, (b) oriented their initial gaze more frequently toward threatening than nonthreatening-negative, positive, or neutral images, and (c) evidenced larger startle-eyeblinks to threatening than to nonthreatening-negative, positive, or neutral images...
August 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906068/human-mating-strategies-from-past-causes-to-present-consequences
#20
REVIEW
Daniele Marzoli, Jan Havlíček, S Craig Roberts
In both humans and nonhuman animals, mating strategies represent a set of evolutionary adaptations aimed at promoting individual fitness by means of reproduction with the best possible partners. Given this critical role, mating strategies influence numerous aspects of human life. In particular, between-sex divergence in the intensity of intrasexual competition could account for robust cross-cultural sex differences in psychology and behavior (e.g., personality, psychiatric disorders, social behavior, violence)...
September 14, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
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