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Evolutionary psychology

Andrew V Dane, Zopito A Marini, Anthony A Volk, Tracy Vaillancourt
Taking an evolutionary psychological perspective, we investigated whether involvement in bullying as a perpetrator or victim was more likely if adolescents reported having more dating and sexual partners than their peers, an indication of greater engagement in competition for mates. A total of 334 adolescents (173 boys, 160 girls) between the ages of 12 and 16 years (M = 13.6, SD = 1.3), recruited from community youth organizations, completed self-report measures of physical and relational bullying and victimization, as well as dating and sexual behavior...
October 17, 2016: Aggressive Behavior
Tamra C Mendelson, Courtney L Fitzpatrick, Mark E Hauber, Charles H Pence, Rafael L Rodríguez, Rebecca J Safran, Caitlin A Stern, Jeffrey R Stevens
Despite the clear fitness consequences of animal decisions, the science of animal decision making in evolutionary biology is underdeveloped compared with decision science in human psychology. Specifically, the field lacks a conceptual framework that defines and describes the relevant components of a decision, leading to imprecise language and concepts. The 'judgment and decision-making' (JDM) framework in human psychology is a powerful tool for framing and understanding human decisions, and we apply it here to components of animal decisions, which we refer to as 'cognitive phenotypes'...
September 29, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Bruno Lemaitre
Obesity and metabolic syndromes are major threats to health in both developed and developing countries. This opinion article is a holistic attempt to understand the obesity epidemic, by connecting it to the widespread narcissism in society. The narcissism epidemic refers to an increased prevalence of status-striving individualism and a decreased sense of community, observed in Westerns populations and spreading worldwide. Based on social personality and evolutionary psychology approaches, I speculate that this rise of narcissism underlies a steep social hierarchy resulting in increase of social stress...
October 2016: Medical Hypotheses
N Balagué, C Torrents, R Hristovski, J A S Kelso
The aim of the paper is to point out one way of integrating the supposedly incommensurate disciplines investigated in sports science. General, common principles can be found among apparently unrelated disciplines when the focus is put on the dynamics of sports-related phenomena. Dynamical systems approaches that have recently changed research in biological and social sciences among others, offer key concepts to create a common pluricontextual language in sport science. This common language, far from being homogenising, offers key synthesis between diverse fields, respecting and enabling the theoretical and experimental pluralism...
August 10, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
José María Gómez, Miguel Verdú, Adela González-Megías, Marcos Méndez
The psychological, sociological and evolutionary roots of conspecific violence in humans are still debated, despite attracting the attention of intellectuals for over two millennia. Here we propose a conceptual approach towards understanding these roots based on the assumption that aggression in mammals, including humans, has a significant phylogenetic component. By compiling sources of mortality from a comprehensive sample of mammals, we assessed the percentage of deaths due to conspecifics and, using phylogenetic comparative tools, predicted this value for humans...
September 28, 2016: Nature
Gert Cornelissen, Javier Palacios-Fenech
In this paper we study consumers' interest in acquiring and displaying expensive luxury products. Based on recent insights in consumer psychology, which build on developments in evolutionary biology, we consider luxury products as "costly signals": wasteful and costly goods, whose purpose is to communicate one's biological fitness, and social status, to others. In line with previous research, we show that experiences that trigger mate attraction goals (Study 1: Exposure to others in bathing outfit) or status display goals (Study 2: Experiencing a vicarious victory of one's favorite sports team) can increase people's interest in luxury products...
2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
Harold H Lee, Jessica A Emerson, David M Williams
The low rates of regular exercise and overall physical activity (PA) in the general population represent a significant public health challenge. Previous research suggests that, for many people, exercise leads to a negative affective response and, in turn, reduced likelihood of future exercise. The purpose of this paper is to examine this exercise-affect-adherence relationship from an evolutionary perspective. Specifically, we argue that low rates of physical exercise in the general population are a function of the evolved human tendency to avoid unnecessary physical exertion...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Megan A Owen, Ronald R Swaisgood, Daniel T Blumstein
Survival and successful reproduction require animals to make critical decisions amidst a naturally dynamic environmental and social background (i.e., 'context'). However, human activities have pervasively, and rapidly, extended contextual variation into evolutionarily novel territory, potentially rendering evolved animal decision making mechanisms and strategies maladaptive. We suggest that explicitly focusing on animal decision making (ADM), by integrating and applying findings from studies of sensory ecology, cognitive psychology, behavioral economics and eco-evolutionary strategies, may enhance our understanding of, and our ability to predict how, human driven changes in the environment and population demography will influence animal populations...
September 8, 2016: Integrative Zoology
Hayley Estrem, Britt F Pados, Jinhee Park, Kathleen A Knafl, Suzanne M Thoyre
AIM: To report an analysis of the concept of pediatric feeding problems. BACKGROUND: Reviews of the literature on pediatric feeding problems and disorders repeatedly reference the lack of a shared conceptualization of feeding problems. It is difficult to track etiology, prevalence and incidence of a phenomena when available definitions and diagnoses lack practical utility. DESIGN: An evolutionary concept analysis. DATA SOURCES: A search was conducted in October 2014 of Google Scholar, CINAHL, PubMed and Web of Science databases, with MeSH terms and key words including: failure to thrive, feeding disorder/difficulty/problems, infantile anorexia, oral aversion, mealtime behavior and dysphagia...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Max M Krasnow, Andrew W Delton
As evidence that cultural group selection has occurred, Richerson et al. simply retrodict that humans use language, punish each other, and have religion. This is a meager empirical haul after 30 years. This contrasts sharply with the adaptationist approach to human behavior - evolutionary psychology - which has produced scores of novel, specific, and empirically confirmed predictions.
January 2016: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
Paul Benjamin Badcock, Annemie Ploeger, Nicholas Brian Allen
Anderson (2014) uses an impressive, consolidating review of the literature to argue for major changes in cognitive science. Arguably, however, much of what he proposes is not particularly new. He also neglects important predictive coding approaches that call his perspective of the brain into question, and his misconstrual of evolutionary psychology devalues an influential paradigm that promises to complement his own.
January 2016: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
Michael L Anderson
In this reply to reviewers, I argue that, although reforming the taxonomy of psychology will lead to great insights in the cognitive sciences, it will not result in 1:1 structure-function mappings in the brain; we should expect to see a great deal of irreducible functional diversity in the brain at multiple spatial scales. I further clarify both the promise and the limitations of the analytic techniques for capturing functional diversity and interrogating the taxonomy of psychology; describe the ways in which neural reuse can help us understand human development; further explore the ways in which my proposals for integrating psychology, neuroscience, and evolutionary biology differ from the approach exemplified by contemporary evolutionary psychology; and lay out some new and hopefully interesting avenues for future research...
January 2016: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
Marco Giorgio, Chiara Renzi, Serena Oliveri, Gabriella Pravettoni
Maternal care is an essential early environment in mammals that ensures emotional regulation and adaptive fitness of progeny. Longevity and healthy aging are associated with favorable environmental factors including fitting social and behavioral features. In the present review, we discuss the findings that link rearing conditions and early maternal care with life span and aging from an evolutionary, psychological, and molecular perspective. The quality of maternal care may influence internal adaptation through a variety of parallel mechanisms including emotional regulation, stress sensitivity, coping and other behavioral strategies in response to events requiring adaptation...
April 1, 2016: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
Thomas Wynn, Frederick L Coolidge
How did the human mind evolve? How and when did we come to think in the ways we do? The last thirty years have seen an explosion in research related to the brain and cognition. This research has encompassed a range of biological and social sciences, from epigenetics and cognitive neuroscience to social and developmental psychology. Following naturally on this efflorescence has been a heightened interest in the evolution of the brain and cognition. Evolutionary scholars, including paleoanthropologists, have deployed the standard array of evolutionary methods...
July 2016: Evolutionary Anthropology
Eleni Kanasi, Srinivas Ayilavarapu, Judith Jones
Epidemiologic studies show that 11% of the world's population is over 60 years of age; this is projected to increase, by 2050, to 22% of the population. Oral aging is a current focus of several organizations including the Federation Dentaire Internationale, the World Health Organization and the American and Japanese Dental Associations. In their Tokyo Declaration, the Japanese Association identified the elderly population as one of its main target groups. One of the WHO goals is for each person to retain more than 20 teeth by age 80, despite the fact that the prevalence of periodontal disease is continuously rising as the population is aging...
October 2016: Periodontology 2000
Daniel Balliet, Joshua M Tybur, Paul A M Van Lange
Social interactions are characterized by distinct forms of interdependence, each of which has unique effects on how behavior unfolds within the interaction. Despite this, little is known about the psychological mechanisms that allow people to detect and respond to the nature of interdependence in any given interaction. We propose that interdependence theory provides clues regarding the structure of interdependence in the human ancestral past. In turn, evolutionary psychology offers a framework for understanding the types of information processing mechanisms that could have been shaped under these recurring conditions...
July 26, 2016: Personality and Social Psychology Review
Michael Nehls
The aim of this review is to propose a Unified Theory of Alzheimer's disease (UTAD) that integrates all key behavioural, genetic and environmental risk factors in a causal chain of etiological and pathogenetic events. It is based on three concepts that emanate from human's evolutionary history: (1) The grandmother-hypothesis (GMH), which explains human longevity due to an evolutionary advantage in reproduction by trans-generational transfer of acquired knowledge. Consequently it is argued that mental health at old-age must be the default pathway of humans' genetic program and not development of AD...
2016: Journal of Molecular Psychiatry
Peter Kevern
This article has its origins in a 2013 proposal by the author that the concept of 'spiritual care' in clinical settings might fruitfully be grounded in the findings of the Cognitive Science of Religion (CSR). In a recent paper, John Paley rejects the central arguments and asserts his conviction that a model for 'spiritual care' cannot be derived from the insights of evolutionary psychology. In this article, the author employs a modified form of Fichtean dialectic to examine the contrasting positions and, via a process of analysis and synthesis, identify the key areas for further exploration and research...
July 11, 2016: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
Jussi Palomäki, Jeff Yan, David Modic, Michael Laakasuo
Evolutionary psychology suggests that men are more likely than women to deceive to bolster their status and influence. Also gender perception influences deceptive behavior, which is linked to pervasive gender stereotypes: women are typically viewed as weaker and more gullible than men. We assessed bluffing in an online experiment (N = 502), where participants made decisions to bluff or not in simulated poker tasks against opponents represented by avatars. Participants bluffed on average 6% more frequently at poker tables with female-only avatars than at tables with male-only or gender mixed avatars-a highly significant effect in games involving repeated decisions...
2016: PloS One
Jitka Lindová, Anthony C Little, Jan Havlíček, S Craig Roberts, Anna Rubešová, Jaroslav Flegr
Self-resemblance has been found to have a context-dependent effect when expressing preferences for faces. Whereas dissimilarity preference during mate choice in animals is often explained as an evolutionary adaptation to increase heterozygosity of offspring, self-resemblance can be also favored in humans, reflecting, e.g., preference for kinship cues. We performed two studies, using transformations of facial photographs to manipulate levels of resemblance with the rater, to examine the influence of self-resemblance in single vs...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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