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Laser vaccine

Hun-Jae Jang, Seonggu Yeo, Jack J Yoh
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: For conventional needless injection, there still remain many unresolved issues such as the potential for cross-contamination, poor reliability of targeted delivery dose, and significantly painstaking procedures. As an alternative, the use of microjets generated with Er:YAG laser for delivering small doses with controlled penetration depths has been reported. In this study, a new system with two stages is evaluated for effective transdermal drug delivery. First, the skin is pre-ablated to eliminate the hard outer layer and second, laser-driven microjet penetrates the relatively weaker and freshly exposed epidermis...
October 25, 2016: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Qian Chen, Ligeng Xu, Chao Liang, Chao Wang, Rui Peng, Zhuang Liu
A therapeutic strategy that can eliminate primary tumours, inhibit metastases, and prevent tumour relapses is developed herein by combining adjuvant nanoparticle-based photothermal therapy with checkpoint-blockade immunotherapy. Indocyanine green (ICG), a photothermal agent, and imiquimod (R837), a Toll-like-receptor-7 agonist, are co-encapsulated by poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA). The formed PLGA-ICG-R837 nanoparticles composed purely by three clinically approved components can be used for near-infrared laser-triggered photothermal ablation of primary tumours, generating tumour-associated antigens, which in the presence of R837-containing nanoparticles as the adjuvant can show vaccine-like functions...
October 21, 2016: Nature Communications
(no author information available yet)
Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) is an increasingly common problem, particularly among women in their 40s. Although spontaneous regression has been reported, VIN should be considered a premalignant condition. Immunization with the quadrivalent or 9-valent human papillomavirus vaccine, which is effective against human papillomavirus genotypes 6, 11, 16, and 18, and 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58, respectively, has been shown to decrease the risk of vulvar high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) (VIN usual type) and should be recommended for girls aged 11-12 years with catch-up through age 26 years if not vaccinated in the target age...
October 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
(no author information available yet)
Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) is an increasingly common problem, particularly among women in their 40s. Although spontaneous regression has been reported, VIN should be considered a premalignant condition. Immunization with the quadrivalent or 9-valent human papillomavirus vaccine, which is effective against human papillomavirus genotypes 6, 11, 16, and 18, and 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58, respectively, has been shown to decrease the risk of vulvar high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) (VIN usual type) and should be recommended for girls aged 11-12 years with catch-up through age 26 years if not vaccinated in the target age...
October 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Wei Jiang, Jun-Xin Xue, Ying-Chun Liu, Tao Li, Xian-Gan Han, Shao-Hui Wang, Yong-Jun Chen, Jingjing Qi, Sheng-Qing Yu, Quan Wang
An immunogenic protein, enolase 2, was identified among the secreted excretory/secretory antigens (ESAs) from Toxoplasma gondii strain RH using immunoproteomics based on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Enolase 2 was cloned, sequenced, and heterologously expressed. BLAST analysis revealed 75-96% similarity with enolases from other parasites. Immunoblotting demonstrated good immunoreactivity of recombinant T. gondii enolase (Tg-enolase 2) to T. gondii-infected animal serum...
November 2016: Protein Expression and Purification
Shamsi Yari, Alireza Hadizadeh Tasbiti, Mostafa Ghanei, Mohammad Ali Shokrgozar, Abolfazl Fateh, Reza Mahdian, Fatemeh Yari, Ahmadreza Bahrmand
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a form of TB caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) that do not respond to, at least, isoniazid and rifampicin, the two most powerful, first-line (or standard) anti-TB drugs. Novel intervention strategies for eliminating this disease were based on finding proteins that can be used for designing new drugs or new and reliable kits for diagnosis. The aim of this study was to compare the protein profiles of MDR-TB with sensitive isolates. Proteomic analysis of M...
July 14, 2016: Archives of Microbiology
Charles W Ross, William J Simonsick, Michael J Bogusky, Recep W Celikay, James P Guare, Randall C Newton
Ceramides are a central unit of all sphingolipids which have been identified as sites of biological recognition on cellular membranes mediating cell growth and differentiation. Several glycosphingolipids have been isolated, displaying immunomodulatory and anti-tumor activities. These molecules have generated considerable interest as potential vaccine adjuvants in humans. Accurate analyses of these and related sphingosine analogues are important for the characterization of structure, biological function, and metabolism...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Sandra Scheiblhofer, Yoan Machado, Andrea Feinle, Josef Thalhamer, Nicola Hüsing, Richard Weiss
INTRODUCTION: Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only curative approach for the treatment of allergies. There is an urgent need for improved therapies, which increase both, efficacy and patient compliance. Novel routes of immunization and the use of more advanced vaccine platforms have gained heightened interest in this field. AREAS COVERED: The current status of allergen-specific immunotherapy is summarized and novel routes of immunization and their challenges in the clinics are critically discussed...
June 18, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Michael Lawrence Crichton, David Alexander Muller, Alexandra Christina Isobel Depelsenaire, Frances Elizabeth Pearson, Jonathan Wei, Jacob Coffey, Jin Zhang, Germain J P Fernando, Mark Anthony Fernance Kendall
Micro-device use for vaccination has grown in the past decade, with the promise of ease-of-use, painless application, stable solid formulations and greater immune response generation. However, the designs of the highly immunogenic devices (e.g. the gene gun, Nanopatch or laser adjuvantation) require significant energy to enter the skin (30-90 mJ). Within this study, we explore a way to more effectively use energy for skin penetration and vaccination. These modifications change the Nanopatch projections from cylindrical/conical shapes with a density of 20,000 per cm(2) to flat-shaped protrusions at 8,000 per cm(2), whilst maintaining the surface area and volume that is placed within the skin...
2016: Scientific Reports
Carolina Stenfeldt, Michael Eschbaumer, Steven I Rekant, Juan M Pacheco, George R Smoliga, Ethan J Hartwig, Luis L Rodriguez, Jonathan Arzt
UNLABELLED: The pathogenesis of persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection was investigated in 46 cattle that were either naive or had been vaccinated using a recombinant, adenovirus-vectored vaccine 2 weeks before challenge. The prevalence of FMDV persistence was similar in both groups (62% in vaccinated cattle, 67% in nonvaccinated cattle), despite vaccinated cattle having been protected from clinical disease. Analysis of antemortem infection dynamics demonstrated that the subclinical divergence between FMDV carriers and animals that cleared the infection had occurred by 10 days postinfection (dpi) in vaccinated cattle and by 21 dpi in nonvaccinated animals...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
Andres Garcia-Campos, Alessandra Ravidà, D Linh Nguyen, Krystyna Cwiklinski, John P Dalton, Cornelis H Hokke, Sandra O'Neill, Grace Mulcahy
Recently, the prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in some areas has increased considerably and the availability of a vaccine to protect livestock from infection would represent a major advance in tools available for controlling this disease. To date, most vaccine-target discovery research on this parasite has concentrated on proteomic and transcriptomic approaches whereas little work has been carried out on glycosylation. As the F. hepatica tegument (Teg) may contain glycans potentially relevant to vaccine development and the Newly Excysted Juvenile (NEJ) is the first lifecycle stage in contact with the definitive host, our work has focused on assessing the glycosylation of the NEJTeg and identifying the NEJTeg glycoprotein repertoire...
May 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Yi Chen, Yan Zhang, Yuefang Zhou, Jian Luo, Zhiguo Su
The stabilities of two commercially available virus like particles, CHO-HBsAg expressed by Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and Hans-HBsAg expressed by Hansenula polymorpha (Hans), were compared using AF4-MALLS under different treatment processes. The initial molecular weight and hydrodynamic diameter of CHO-HBsAg measured with AF4-MALLS were 4727kDa and 29.4nm, while those of Hans-HBsAg were 3039kDa and 22.8nm respectively. In salt solution of 2M ammonium sulfate, the molecular weight and size of CHO-HBsAg had little change, and its antigenicity remained 95%, while those of Hans-HBsAg changed greatly, resulting in aggregation and 75% antigenicity loss...
June 8, 2016: Vaccine
Satoshi Kashiwagi, Timothy Brauns, Mark C Poznansky
An immunologic adjuvant, which enhances the magnitude and quality of immune responses to vaccine antigens, has become an essential part of modern vaccine practice. Chemicals and biologicals have been typically used for this purpose, but there are an increasing number of studies that are being conducted on the vaccine adjuvant effect of laser light on the skin. Currently, four different types or classes of laser devices have been shown to systemically enhance immune responses to intradermal vaccination: ultra-short pulsed lasers, non-pulsed lasers, non-ablative fractional lasers and ablative fractional lasers...
February 2016: Journal of Vaccines & Vaccination
Feng Jia, Shengwu Liu, Mei X Wu, Xinyuan Chen
Skin is a highly immunogenic site for vaccine delivery due to its richness of antigen-presenting cells. Several vaccines have been approved for skin delivery and in particular intradermal delivery in the last two decades. Yet intradermal delivery often causes frequent and severe local reactions, preventing the incorporation of adjuvants to further boost skin vaccination. Here we describe a novel skin delivery technology, called micro-fractional epidermal powder delivery or EPD, with minimized local reactions for improved skin vaccination...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Oscar B Torres, Carl R Alving, Gary R Matyas
The ability to prepare hapten-carrier conjugates reproducibly with consistent lot-to-lot hapten densities and protein yields is a critical component of hapten vaccine development. This entails the development of appropriate coupling chemistries that do not cause protein precipitation and the development of methods to quantify hapten density. Recently, extensive efforts have been devoted to design vaccines against drugs of abuse. We describe, herein, a method for conjugation of a morphine-like hapten (MorHap) to tetanus toxoid (TT), which involves conjugation of MorHap to the surface lysines of TT through the N-hydroxysuccinimide portion of a heterobifunctional linker and the subsequent attachment of the thiol on MorHap to the maleimide portion of the cross-linker...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Joon Seok, Chang Taek Oh, Hyun Jung Kwon, Tae Rin Kwon, Eun Ja Choi, Sun Young Choi, Seog Kyun Mun, Seung-Ho Han, Beom Joon Kim, Myeung Nam Kim
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The effectiveness of needle-free injection devices in neocollagenesis for treating extended skin planes is an area of active research. It is anticipated that needle-free injection systems will not only be used to inject vaccines or insulin, but will also greatly aid skin rejuvenation when used to inject aesthetic materials such as hyaluronic acid, botulinum toxin, and placental extracts. There has not been any specific research to date examining how materials penetrate the skin when a needle-free injection device is used...
August 2016: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Paul Kelly, Ellen Besa, Kanekwa Zyambo, John Louis-Auguste, James Lees, Themba Banda, Rose Soko, Rosemary Banda, Beatrice Amadi, Alastair Watson
INTRODUCTION: Environmental enteropathy (EE) is associated with growth failure, micronutrient malabsorption and impaired responses to oral vaccines. We set out to define cellular mechanisms of impaired barrier function in EE and explore protective mechanisms. METHODS: We studied 49 adults with environmental enteropathy in Lusaka, Zambia using confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE); histology, immunohistochemistry and mRNA sequencing of small intestinal biopsies; and correlated these with plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and a zinc uptake test...
April 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
D V Ulshina, D A Kovalev, A M Zhirov, N V Zharinova, A A Khudoleev, O I Kogotkova, V I Efremenko, N I Evchenko, A N Kulichenko
AIM: Carry out comparative analysis using time-of-flight mass-spectrometry with matrix laser desorption/ionization (MALDI-TOF MS) of protein profiles of brucellosis causative agents (Brucella melitensis Rev-1 and Brucella abortus 19BA), cultivated in various nutrient media: Albimi agar, brucellagar and erythrit-agar. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Vaccine,strains: Brucella melitensis Rev-1 and Brucella abortus 19BA. Protein profiling in linear mode on Microflex "Bruker Daltonics" MALDI-TOF mass-spectrometer...
January 2016: Zhurnal Mikrobiologii, Epidemiologii, i Immunobiologii
Tserendorj Munkhjargal, Gabriel Oluga Aboge, Akio Ueno, Mahmoud Aboulaila, Naoaki Yokoyama, Ikuo Igarashi
We have characterized a member of the profilin (PROF) family protein as a common antigen in three pathogens-Babesia bovis (B. bovis), Babesia bigemina (B. bigemina), and Babesia microti (B. microti)-and evaluated its immunogenic and cross-protective properties against a challenge infection with B. microti in BALB/c mice. The recombinant PROF proteins of B. bovis, B. bigemina, and B. microti were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) as soluble GST fusion proteins (rBboPROF, rBbigPROF, and rBmPROF, respectively), and they were found to be antigenic...
July 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Adam Souhail Aldahan, Stephanie Mlacker, Vidhi V Shah, Preetha Kamath, Mohammed Alsaidan, Sahal Samarkandy, Keyvan Nouri
Warts are common epidermal growths caused by human papillomavirus that often cause significant discomfort and embarrassment. Current treatment options include topical therapies, cryotherapy, laser vaporization, and surgical excision. Many of these options are destructive and may result in scarring, while less aggressive approaches can lead to lesion recurrence. Additionally, these local modalities are not practical for patients with a large number of warts. Systemic approaches such as immunotherapy have demonstrated success in treating multiple lesions by combining a targeted approach with upregulation of the host immune system...
May 2016: Dermatologic Therapy
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