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Schizotypal personality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625786/development-and-public-release-of-a-computerized-adaptive-cat-version-of-the-schizotypal-personality-questionnaire
#1
Tyler M Moore, Monica E Calkins, Steven P Reise, Ruben C Gur, Raquel E Gur
One of the most widely used measures of psychosis-related symptoms and characteristics is the 74-item Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). Using multidimensional Item Response Theory (bifactor 2-parameter model), we calibrated SPQ items in a sample of 375 youths aged 9-24 years and constructed a fully functional computerized adaptive form of the SPQ on an open-source platform for public use. To assess validity, we used the above parameters to simulate CAT sessions in a separate validation sample (N = 100) using three test-length-based stopping rules: 8 items, 16 items, and 32 items...
February 8, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609984/evaluating-the-role-of-functional-impairment-in-personality-psychopathology
#2
Jennifer K Boland, Tatjana Damnjanovic, Jaime L Anderson
DSM-5's Section III Alternative Model for Personality Disorder (AMPD) model states that an individual must show impairment in self and interpersonal functioning for PD diagnosis. The current study investigated dimensional personality trait associations with impairment, including differential patterns of impairment across specific PDs, and whether traits have improved our assessment of functional impairment in PDs. Two-hundred and seventy-seven participants were administered measures of Antisocial PD, Avoidant PD, Borderline PD, Narcissistic PD, Obsessive-Compulsive PD, and Schizotypal PD from the perspectives of Section II (PDQ-4) and Section III (PID-5) PD models, as well as measures of functional impairment in interpersonal and intrapersonal domains...
March 22, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567403/comparisons-of-schizotypal-traits-across-12-countries-results-from-the-international-consortium-for-schizotypy-research
#3
Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero, Raymond C K Chan, Martin Debbané, David Cicero, Lisa C Zhang, Colleen Brenner, Emma Barkus, Richard J Linscott, Thomas Kwapil, Neus Barrantes-Vidal, Alex Cohen, Adrian Raine, Michael T Compton, Erin B Tone, Julie Suhr, José Muñiz, Alicia Pérez de Albéniz, Axit Fumero, Stella Giakoumaki, Ioannis Tsaousis, Antonio Preti, Michael Chmielewski, Julien Laloyaux, Anwar Mechri, Mohamed Aymen Lahmar, Viviana Wuthrich, Frank Larøi, Johanna C Badcock, Assen Jablensky, Javier Ortuño-Sierra
BACKGROUND: Schizotypal traits are expressions of underlying vulnerability to psychotic disorders which have a potential impact on mental health status, neurocognition, quality of life, and daily functioning. To date, little research has examined epidemiologic landscape of schizotypal traits at the cross-national level. Our aim was to study the expression of schizotypal traits by sex, age, and country in a combined sample gathered from 12 countries. METHODS: A total of 27,001 participants completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ)...
March 19, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566227/resting-state-networks-of-adolescents-experiencing-depersonalization-like-illusions-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-findings
#4
Mélodie Derome, Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero, Deborah Badoud, Larisa Morosan, Dimitri Van De Ville, François Lazeyras, Stephan Eliez, Raymond Chan, David Rudrauf, Sophie Schwartz, Martin Debbane
The mirror-gazing task (MGT) experimentally induces illusions, ranging from simple color changes in the specular image of oneself, to depersonalization-like anomalous self-experiences (ASE) as in experiencing one's specular image as someone else. The objective was to characterize how connectivity in resting-state networks (RSNs) differed in adolescents reporting such depersonalization-like ASEs during the MGT, in a cross-sectional (Y1) and in a longitudinal manner (a year after). 75 adolescents were recruited; for the cross-sectional analysis, participants were split into 2 groups: those who reported depersonalization-like ASEs on the MGT (ASE), and those who did not (NoASE)...
March 15, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548017/coping-strategies-mediate-the-effect-of-stressful-life-events-on-schizotypal-traits-and-psychotic-symptoms-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#5
Marco Armando, Corrado Sandini, Maelle Chambaz, Marie Schaer, Maude Schneider, Stephan Eliez
Converging evidence suggests that psychosis emerges from the complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Stressful life events (SLEs) play a prominent role in combination with coping strategies and with a dysfunctional hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). It has been proposed that the framework of schizotypy might help disentangle the interaction between genetic and environmental factors in the pathogenesis of psychosis. Similarly, 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is considered as a genetic model of psychosis vulnerability...
March 14, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505387/low-vocational-outcome-among-people-diagnosed-with-borderline-personality-disorder-during-first-admission-to-mental-health-services-in-denmark-a-nationwide-9-year-register-based-study
#6
Lene Halling Hastrup, Mickey T Kongerslev, Erik Simonsen
Earlier studies report that although people with borderline personality disorder (BPD) experience symptom reduction in the long term, they continue to have difficulties in work recovery. This nationwide 9-year register-based study (N = 67,075) investigated the long-term labor-market attachment of all individuals diagnosed with BPD during first admission to Danish mental health services in comparison with other psychiatric disorders. Controlling for baseline characteristics and co-occurring secondary psychiatric diagnoses, the BPD group had 32% lower odds (OR = 0...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499963/damage-to-the-left-uncinate-fasciculus-is-associated-with-heightened-schizotypal-traits-a-multimodal-lesion-mapping-study
#7
Anne-Laure Lemaitre, Gilles Lafargue, Hugues Duffau, Guillaume Herbet
A growing body of evidence suggests that individuals with pronounced schizotypal traits also display particular neurophysiological and morphological features - notably with regard to left frontotemporal connectivity. However, the studies published to date have focused on subclinical subjects and psychiatric patients, rather than brain-damaged patients. Here, we used the French version of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire to assess schizotypal traits in a sample of 97 patients having undergone surgical resection of a diffuse low-grade glioma...
February 27, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499413/relationship-between-social-cognitive-and-social-perceptual-aspects-of-theory-of-mind-and-neurocognitive-deficits-insight-level-and-schizotypal-traits-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#8
Emre Mısır, Emre Bora, Berna Binnur Akdede
OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of the current study was to investigate different aspects of theory of mind (ToM), including social-cognitive (ToM-reasoning) and social-perceptual (ToM-decoding) in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We also aimed to investigate the relationship between ToM, neurocognition and a number of clinical variables including overvalued ideas, schizotypal personality traits, level of insight, and disease severity. METHOD: Thirty-four patients who have been diagnosed with OCD according to DSM-IV and 30 healthy controls were included in the study...
February 17, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454512/frontal-and-temporal-cortical-volume-white-matter-tract-integrity-and-hemispheric-asymmetry-in-schizotypal-personality-disorder
#9
Chi C Chan, Philip R Szeszko, Edmund Wong, Cheuk Y Tang, Caitlin Kelliher, Justin D Penner, M Mercedes Perez-Rodriguez, Daniel R Rosell, Margaret McClure, Panos Roussos, Antonia S New, Larry J Siever, Erin A Hazlett
Abnormalities in temporal and frontal cortical volume, white matter tract integrity, and hemispheric asymmetry have been implicated in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Schizotypal personality disorder can provide insight into vulnerability and protective factors in these disorders without the confounds associated with chronic psychosis. However, multimodal imaging and asymmetry studies in SPD are sparse. Thirty-seven individuals with SPD and 29 healthy controls (HC) received clinical interviews and 3T magnetic resonance T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging scans...
February 14, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448863/mental-health-literacy-sub-clinical-personality-disorders-and-job-fit
#10
Adrian Furnham, Kelly Petropoulou
BACKGROUND: This study looked at lay theories of how people with sub-clinical personality disorders experience the world of work. AIMS: The aim was to investigate the paradox that subclinical and clinical personality disorders are seen as beneficial for success, rather than a handicap in certain jobs. METHODS: In all, 230 participants read 14 vignettes derived from Oldham and Morris's book describing DSMIII personality disorders for a popular audience...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414034/stress-induced-cortisol-release-and-schizotypy
#11
Emma E Walter, Francesca Fernandez, Mollie Snelling, Emma Barkus
Cortisol is involved in preparing the body's response for stress. However, in those at risk for mental health problems, abnormal cortisol release following stress has been reported. In particular, we are yet to fully understand how stress leads to an exacerbation of symptoms and progression of risk in those who express psychosis proneness or schizotypy. Using the Trier Social Stress Test, we examined the effect of experimentally induced psychosocial stress on cortisol release in otherwise healthy individuals with schizotypal traits...
January 30, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410313/motor-dysfunction-as-research-domain-in-the-period-preceding-manifest-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Dusan Hirjak, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Katharina M Kubera, Philipp A Thomann, Robert C Wolf
Schizophrenia is a severe behavioral syndrome of neurodevelopmental nature marked by primary or genuine motor abnormalities (GMA), which refer to spontaneous and medication-independent motor phenomena. Since motor dysfunction thus might be a consequence of events occurring during early childhood and adolescence, GMA can be detected in the period preceding manifest schizophrenia. However, the question whether motor system dysfunction might be a promising motor intermediate phenotype for schizophrenia remains unanswered...
February 20, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395871/clinically-significant-personality-traits-in-individuals-at-high-risk-of-developing-psychosis
#13
Julia Sevilla-Llewellyn-Jones, Gustavo Camino, Debra A Russo, Michelle Painter, Angel L Montejo, Susana Ochoa, Peter B Jones, Jesus Perez
It is still unclear to what extent personality may influence the development of psychosis. We aimed to explore significant personality traits in individuals at high-risk (HR) for psychosis. Personalities of forty HR individuals and a matched sample of 40 healthy volunteers (HVs) were evaluated with the Millon Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III). They were also assessed with the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories (BDI-II and BAI), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI 6...
March 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373967/personality-dimensions-emerging-during-adolescence-and-young-adulthood-are-underpinned-by-a-single-latent-trait-indexing-impairment-in-social-functioning
#14
Ela Polek, Peter B Jones, Pasco Fearon, Jeannette Brodbeck, Michael Moutoussis, Nspn Consortium, Ray Dolan, Peter Fonagy, Edward T Bullmore, Ian M Goodyer
BACKGROUND: Personality with stable behavioural traits emerges in the adolescent and young adult years. Models of putatively distinct, but correlated, personality traits have been developed to describe behavioural styles including schizotypal, narcissistic, callous-unemotional, negative emotionality, antisocial and impulsivity traits. These traits have influenced the classification of their related personality disorders. We tested if a bifactor model fits the data better than correlated-factor and orthogonal-factor models and subsequently validated the obtained factors with mental health measures and treatment history...
January 26, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373752/identity-disturbance-feelings-of-emptiness-and-the-boundaries-of-the-schizophrenia-spectrum
#15
Maja Zandersen, Josef Parnas
Historical and current research on borderline personality disorder reveal certain affinities with schizophrenia spectrum psychopathology. This is also the case for the borderline criteria of "identity disturbance" and "feelings of emptiness," which reflect symptomatology frequently found in schizophrenia and schizotypal personality disorder. Unfortunately, the diagnostic manuals offer limited insight into the nature of these criteria, including possible deviations and similarities with schizophrenia spectrum symptomatology...
January 24, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329058/association-of-comorbid-personality-disorders-with-clinical-characteristics-and-outcome-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial-comparing-two-psychotherapies-for-early-onset-persistent-depressive-disorder
#16
Nele Erkens, Elisabeth Schramm, Levente Kriston, Martin Hautzinger, Martin Härter, Ulrich Schweiger, Jan Philipp Klein
BACKGROUND: Persistent depressive disorder (PDD) is associated with high rates of comorbid personality disorders (PD). The association of comorbid PD and clinical characteristics has not been systematically studied in PDD. Results regarding effects on treatment outcome are heterogeneous. METHODS: We analyzed the association of comorbid personality disorders with clinical characteristics and outcome in a randomized controlled trial comparing the disorder-specific Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP) with nonspecific supportive psychotherapy (SP) in patients with early-onset PDD...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323511/representing-schizotypal-thinking-with-dimensional-traits-a-case-for-the-five-factor-schizotypal-inventory
#17
Erin L Moorman, Douglas B Samuel
Building on support for the five-factor model (FFM) of personality disorder, the Five Factor Schizotypal Inventory (FFSI) was developed to assess maladaptive traits relevant to schizotypal personality disorder. While the development of the FFSI supports a continuity between schizotypal thinking and perception (STAP) and the FFM domain of Openness to Experience, other studies show inconsistent findings concerning the strength of this relationship. The current study evaluates these relationships by investigating specific components of a short-form of the FFSI (e...
January 2018: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174334/is-there-a-common-vulnerability-in-cannabis-phenomenology-and-schizotypy-the-role-of-the-n170-erp
#18
Gabriel A Brooks, Colleen A Brenner
Cannabis use is a known risk factor for the development of psychosis, although the precise nature of this relationship is unclear. The phenomenological experiences associated with cannabis use vary dramatically, and for some resemble certain features of psychosis. We hypothesized that individuals who report particularly unusual experiences associated with cannabis use would demonstrate similar electrophysiological patterns to those who score high on schizotypal personality traits. The Cannabis Experiences Questionnaire (CEQ) and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) were used to measure these experiences and traits...
November 21, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171491/-the-efficacy-and-tolerability-of-pericyazine-in-the-treatment-of-patients-with-schizotypal-disorder-organic-personality-disorders-and-pathocharacterological-changes-within-personality-disorders
#19
D S Danilov
AIM: To assess the efficacy and tolerability of pericyazine in the treatment of patients with mental disorders manifesting with psychopathic-like symptoms and correction of pathocharacterological disorders in patients with personality disorders during the short-term admission to the hospital or the long-term outpatient treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty-three patients with schizotypal personality disorder and organic personality disorder with psychopathic-like symptoms and pathocharacterological changes within the diagnosis of dissocial personality disorder and borderline personality disorder were examined...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159135/the-influence-of-schizotypal-traits-on-attention-under-high-perceptual-load
#20
Hanne Stotesbury, Sebastian B Gaigg, Saim Kirhan, Corinna Haenschel
Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (SSD) are known to be characterised by abnormalities in attentional processes, but there are inconsistencies in the literature that remain unresolved. This article considers whether perceptual resource limitations play a role in moderating attentional abnormalities in SSD. According to perceptual load theory, perceptual resource limitations can lead to attenuated or superior performance on dual-task paradigms depending on whether participants are required to process, or attempt to ignore, secondary stimuli...
March 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
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