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Schizotypal personality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889470/-schizotypal-traits-and-verbal-creativity
#1
Nikolett Fejes, Sándor Rózsa, Anita Must
Background and purpose: The relationship of schizophrenia and its milder, subclinical forms, with creativity has been in the centre of theoretical interest for decades, however, the systematic research of the topic only prevailed more recently. Purpose - Here we aimed to examine the connection between different schizotypal and non-schizotypal personality traits and verbal creativity in a nonclinical sample. We also investigated the correspondence of two schizotypy inventories, the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences and a special character configuration of the Temperament and Character Inventory associated with schizotypy...
March 30, 2018: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884434/mortality-in-people-with-mental-disorders-in-the-czech-republic-a-nationwide-register-based-cohort-study
#2
Dzmitry Krupchanka, Karolína Mladá, Petr Winkler, Yasser Khazaal, Emiliano Albanese
BACKGROUND: The region of central and eastern Europe is estimated to have high rates of premature mortality due to mental disorders. However, epidemiological evidence is scarce and insufficient to inform policy actions and health system development. We aimed to assess mortality associated with mental disorders in the Czech Republic. METHODS: We did a nationwide, register-based, retrospective cohort study using routinely collected health data from two nationwide registries in the Czech Republic: the register of inpatient discharges (from Jan 1, 1994, to Dec 31, 2013) and the causes of death registry (from Jan 1, 1994, to Dec 31, 2014)...
June 2018: Lancet. Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878280/schizotypal-traits-are-linked-to-dopamine-induced-striato-cortical-decoupling-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#3
Julian Rössler, Lui Unterassner, Thomas Wyss, Helene Haker, Peter Brugger, Wulf Rössler, Diana Wotruba
The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia implies that alterations in the dopamine system cause functional abnormalities in the brain that may converge to aberrant salience attribution and eventually lead to psychosis. Indeed, widespread brain disconnectivity across the psychotic spectrum has been revealed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). However, the dopaminergic involvement in intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) and its putative relationship to the development of psychotic spectrum disorders remains partly unclear-in particular at the low-end of the psychosis continuum...
June 7, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870955/emotion-dysregulation-impulsivity-and-personality-disorder-traits-a-community-sample-study
#4
Carlo Garofalo, Patrizia Velotti, Antonino Callea, Raffaele Popolo, Giampaolo Salvatore, Francesca Cavallo, Giancarlo Dimaggio
The present study was designed to test an emotion regulation framework to understand individual differences in personality disorder (PD) traits in a non-clinical sample. Specifically, we tested whether: selected dimensions of emotion dysregulation were differentially related to PD traits; and whether emotion dysregulation and impulsivity had independent associations with PD traits. A community sample of 399 individuals (mean age = 37.91; 56.6% males) completed self-report measures of PDs, emotion dysregulation and impulsivity...
May 28, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867611/an-examination-of-the-multi-faceted-motivation-system-in-healthy-young-adults
#5
Susana Da Silva, Areti Apatsidou, Sarah Saperia, Ishraq Siddiqui, Eliyas Jeffay, Aristotle N Voineskos, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Gary Remington, Konstantine K Zakzanis, George Foussias
Background: Amotivation is a prevalent symptom in schizophrenia (SZ) and depression (MDD), and is linked to poor functional outcomes in affected individuals. Conceptualizations of motivation have outlined a multi-faceted construct comprised of reward responsiveness, reward expectancy, reward valuation, effort valuation, and action selection/preference-based decision making. To date, findings from studies utilizing variable-centered approaches to examining isolated facets of motivation in SZ and MDD have been inconsistent...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793817/increased-plasticity-of-bodily-self-experience-in-individuals-who-may-carry-latent-liability-for-schizophrenia
#6
Taylor L Benson, Sohee Park
Self-disturbances such as altered perception of one's own body boundary are central to the lived-in experience of schizophrenia. Bodily self-disturbances are also prevalent in healthy individuals who may carry latent liability for schizophrenia. Much of the research on self-disturbances rely on clinical interviews but these experiences are often difficult to verbalize, conceptualize and quantify. Furthermore, experimental evidence for plasticity of bodily self-experience in the schizophrenia-spectrum is scarce...
May 21, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730662/anomalous-self-experiences-markers-of-schizophrenia-vulnerability-or-symptoms-of-depersonalization-disorder-a-phenomenological-investigation-of-two-cases
#7
Tor Gunnar Værnes, Jan Ivar Røssberg, Paul Møller
BACKGROUND: Basic self-disturbance (BSD) is proposed to constitute the clinical core of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, including prodromal states and schizotypy. Anomalous self-experiences (ASEs) are suggested as phenotypic variants of BSD, representing markers of schizophrenia vulnerability. However, ASEs are not restricted to the schizophrenia spectrum, but may also occur in non-psychotic states like depersonalization disorder (DPD). It is unclear to what extent the prevalence and nature of ASEs are differing between the two conditions...
May 4, 2018: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722996/validity-of-the-multidimensional-schizotypy-scale-associations-with-schizotypal-traits-and-normal-personality
#8
Thomas R Kwapil, Georgina M Gross, Chris J Burgin, Michael L Raulin, Paul J Silvia, Neus Barrantes-Vidal
The present study provided the first examination of the construct validity of the Multidimensional Schizotypy Scale (MSS) and the first assessment of its psychometric properties outside of its derivation samples. The MSS contains 77 items that assess positive, negative, and disorganized schizotypy. A large multisite sample of 1,430 participants completed the MSS and measures of schizotypal personality traits and the five-factor model of personality. The MSS subscales had good-to-excellent internal consistency reliability that showed no shrinkage relative to the MSS derivation samples...
May 3, 2018: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684178/the-network-structure-of-schizotypal-personality-traits
#9
Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero, Javier Ortuño, Martin Debbané, Raymond C K Chan, David Cicero, Lisa C Zhang, Colleen Brenner, Emma Barkus, Richard J Linscott, Thomas Kwapil, Neus Barrantes-Vidal, Alex Cohen, Adrian Raine, Michael T Compton, Erin B Tone, Julie Suhr, Felix Inchausti, Julio Bobes, Axit Fumero, Stella Giakoumaki, Ioannis Tsaousis, Antonio Preti, Michael Chmielewski, Julien Laloyaux, Anwar Mechri, Mohamed Aymen Lahmar, Viviana Wuthrich, Frank Larøi, Johanna C Badcock, Assen Jablensky, Adela M Isvoranu, Sacha Epskamp, Eiko I Fried
Elucidating schizotypal traits is important if we are to understand the various manifestations of psychosis spectrum liability and to reliably identify individuals at high risk for psychosis. The present study examined the network structures of (1) 9 schizotypal personality domains and (2) 74 individual schizotypal items, and (3) explored whether networks differed across gender and culture (North America vs China). The study was conducted in a sample of 27001 participants from 12 countries and 21 sites (M age = 22...
April 19, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625786/development-and-public-release-of-a-computerized-adaptive-cat-version-of-the-schizotypal-personality-questionnaire
#10
Tyler M Moore, Monica E Calkins, Steven P Reise, Ruben C Gur, Raquel E Gur
One of the most widely used measures of psychosis-related symptoms and characteristics is the 74-item Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). Using multidimensional Item Response Theory (bifactor 2-parameter model), we calibrated SPQ items in a sample of 375 youths aged 9-24 years and constructed a fully functional computerized adaptive form of the SPQ on an open-source platform for public use. To assess validity, we used the above parameters to simulate CAT sessions in a separate validation sample (N = 100) using three test-length-based stopping rules: 8 items, 16 items, and 32 items...
May 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609984/evaluating-the-role-of-functional-impairment-in-personality-psychopathology
#11
Jennifer K Boland, Tatjana Damnjanovic, Jaime L Anderson
DSM-5's Section III Alternative Model for Personality Disorder (AMPD) model states that an individual must show impairment in self and interpersonal functioning for PD diagnosis. The current study investigated dimensional personality trait associations with impairment, including differential patterns of impairment across specific PDs, and whether traits have improved our assessment of functional impairment in PDs. Two-hundred and seventy-seven participants were administered measures of Antisocial PD, Avoidant PD, Borderline PD, Narcissistic PD, Obsessive-Compulsive PD, and Schizotypal PD from the perspectives of Section II (PDQ-4) and Section III (PID-5) PD models, as well as measures of functional impairment in interpersonal and intrapersonal domains...
March 22, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567403/comparisons-of-schizotypal-traits-across-12-countries-results-from-the-international-consortium-for-schizotypy-research
#12
Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero, Raymond C K Chan, Martin Debbané, David Cicero, Lisa C Zhang, Colleen Brenner, Emma Barkus, Richard J Linscott, Thomas Kwapil, Neus Barrantes-Vidal, Alex Cohen, Adrian Raine, Michael T Compton, Erin B Tone, Julie Suhr, José Muñiz, Alicia Pérez de Albéniz, Axit Fumero, Stella Giakoumaki, Ioannis Tsaousis, Antonio Preti, Michael Chmielewski, Julien Laloyaux, Anwar Mechri, Mohamed Aymen Lahmar, Viviana Wuthrich, Frank Larøi, Johanna C Badcock, Assen Jablensky, Javier Ortuño-Sierra
BACKGROUND: Schizotypal traits are expressions of underlying vulnerability to psychotic disorders which have a potential impact on mental health status, neurocognition, quality of life, and daily functioning. To date, little research has examined epidemiologic landscape of schizotypal traits at the cross-national level. Our aim was to study the expression of schizotypal traits by sex, age, and country in a combined sample gathered from 12 countries. METHODS: A total of 27,001 participants completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ)...
March 19, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566227/resting-state-networks-of-adolescents-experiencing-depersonalization-like-illusions-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-findings
#13
Mélodie Derome, Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero, Deborah Badoud, Larisa Morosan, Dimitri Van De Ville, François Lazeyras, Stephan Eliez, Raymond Chan, David Rudrauf, Sophie Schwartz, Martin Debbane
The mirror-gazing task (MGT) experimentally induces illusions, ranging from simple color changes in the specular image of oneself, to depersonalization-like anomalous self-experiences (ASE) as in experiencing one's specular image as someone else. The objective was to characterize how connectivity in resting-state networks (RSNs) differed in adolescents reporting such depersonalization-like ASEs during the MGT, in a cross-sectional (Y1) and in a longitudinal manner (a year after). 75 adolescents were recruited; for the cross-sectional analysis, participants were split into 2 groups: those who reported depersonalization-like ASEs on the MGT (ASE), and those who did not (NoASE)...
March 15, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548017/coping-strategies-mediate-the-effect-of-stressful-life-events-on-schizotypal-traits-and-psychotic-symptoms-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#14
Marco Armando, Corrado Sandini, Maelle Chambaz, Marie Schaer, Maude Schneider, Stephan Eliez
Converging evidence suggests that psychosis emerges from the complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Stressful life events (SLEs) play a prominent role in combination with coping strategies and with a dysfunctional hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). It has been proposed that the framework of schizotypy might help disentangle the interaction between genetic and environmental factors in the pathogenesis of psychosis. Similarly, 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is considered as a genetic model of psychosis vulnerability...
March 14, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505387/low-vocational-outcome-among-people-diagnosed-with-borderline-personality-disorder-during-first-admission-to-mental-health-services-in-denmark-a-nationwide-9-year-register-based-study
#15
Lene Halling Hastrup, Mickey T Kongerslev, Erik Simonsen
Earlier studies report that although people with borderline personality disorder (BPD) experience symptom reduction in the long term, they continue to have difficulties in work recovery. This nationwide 9-year register-based study (N = 67,075) investigated the long-term labor-market attachment of all individuals diagnosed with BPD during first admission to Danish mental health services in comparison with other psychiatric disorders. Controlling for baseline characteristics and co-occurring secondary psychiatric diagnoses, the BPD group had 32% lower odds (OR = 0...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499963/damage-to-the-left-uncinate-fasciculus-is-associated-with-heightened-schizotypal-traits-a-multimodal-lesion-mapping-study
#16
Anne-Laure Lemaitre, Gilles Lafargue, Hugues Duffau, Guillaume Herbet
A growing body of evidence suggests that individuals with pronounced schizotypal traits also display particular neurophysiological and morphological features - notably with regard to left frontotemporal connectivity. However, the studies published to date have focused on subclinical subjects and psychiatric patients, rather than brain-damaged patients. Here, we used the French version of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire to assess schizotypal traits in a sample of 97 patients having undergone surgical resection of a diffuse low-grade glioma...
February 27, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499413/relationship-between-social-cognitive-and-social-perceptual-aspects-of-theory-of-mind-and-neurocognitive-deficits-insight-level-and-schizotypal-traits-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#17
Emre Mısır, Emre Bora, Berna Binnur Akdede
OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of the current study was to investigate different aspects of theory of mind (ToM), including social-cognitive (ToM-reasoning) and social-perceptual (ToM-decoding) in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We also aimed to investigate the relationship between ToM, neurocognition and a number of clinical variables including overvalued ideas, schizotypal personality traits, level of insight, and disease severity. METHOD: Thirty-four patients who have been diagnosed with OCD according to DSM-IV and 30 healthy controls were included in the study...
May 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454512/frontal-and-temporal-cortical-volume-white-matter-tract-integrity-and-hemispheric-asymmetry-in-schizotypal-personality-disorder
#18
Chi C Chan, Philip R Szeszko, Edmund Wong, Cheuk Y Tang, Caitlin Kelliher, Justin D Penner, M Mercedes Perez-Rodriguez, Daniel R Rosell, Margaret McClure, Panos Roussos, Antonia S New, Larry J Siever, Erin A Hazlett
Abnormalities in temporal and frontal cortical volume, white matter tract integrity, and hemispheric asymmetry have been implicated in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Schizotypal personality disorder can provide insight into vulnerability and protective factors in these disorders without the confounds associated with chronic psychosis. However, multimodal imaging and asymmetry studies in SPD are sparse. Thirty-seven individuals with SPD and 29 healthy controls (HC) received clinical interviews and 3T magnetic resonance T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging scans...
February 14, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448863/mental-health-literacy-sub-clinical-personality-disorders-and-job-fit
#19
Adrian Furnham, Kelly Petropoulou
BACKGROUND: This study looked at lay theories of how people with sub-clinical personality disorders experience the world of work. AIMS: The aim was to investigate the paradox that subclinical and clinical personality disorders are seen as beneficial for success, rather than a handicap in certain jobs. METHODS: In all, 230 participants read 14 vignettes derived from Oldham and Morris's book describing DSMIII personality disorders for a popular audience...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414034/stress-induced-cortisol-release-and-schizotypy
#20
Emma E Walter, Francesca Fernandez, Mollie Snelling, Emma Barkus
Cortisol is involved in preparing the body's response for stress. However, in those at risk for mental health problems, abnormal cortisol release following stress has been reported. In particular, we are yet to fully understand how stress leads to an exacerbation of symptoms and progression of risk in those who express psychosis proneness or schizotypy. Using the Trier Social Stress Test, we examined the effect of experimentally induced psychosocial stress on cortisol release in otherwise healthy individuals with schizotypal traits...
March 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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