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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159135/the-influence-of-schizotypal-traits-on-attention-under-high-perceptual-load
#1
Hanne Stotesbury, Sebastian B Gaigg, Saim Kirhan, Corinna Haenschel
Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (SSD) are known to be characterised by abnormalities in attentional processes, but there are inconsistencies in the literature that remain unresolved. This article considers whether perceptual resource limitations play a role in moderating attentional abnormalities in SSD. According to perceptual load theory, perceptual resource limitations can lead to attenuated or superior performance on dual-task paradigms depending on whether participants are required to process, or attempt to ignore, secondary stimuli...
March 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146020/clinical-and-demographic-predictors-of-continuing-remission-or-relapse-following-discontinuation-of-antipsychotic-medication-after-a-first-episode-of-psychosis-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Meghan Bowtell, Aswin Ratheesh, Patrick McGorry, Eoin Killackey, Brian O'Donoghue
BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines recommend maintenance treatment with antipsychotic medication for one to two years following remission of symptoms after a first episode of psychosis. However, recent research has suggested that this may not be indicated. Consistent predictors of outcome would be beneficial to guide clinicians as to which individuals are likely to have a successful discontinuation. OBJECTIVES: This study reviews the literature with the aim of identifying demographic and clinical predictors of either relapse or continued remission in those with a first episode of psychosis following discontinuation of antipsychotic medication...
November 13, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139159/syntaxin1b-contributes-to-regulation-of-the-dopaminergic-system-through-gaba-transmission-in-the-cns
#3
Tomonori Fujiwara, Takefumi Kofuji, Tatsuya Mishima, Kimio Akagawa
In neuronal plasma membrane, two syntaxin isoforms, HPC-1/syntaxin1A (STX1A) and syntaxin1B (STX1B), are predominantly expressed as soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion attachment protein receptors, also known as t-SNAREs. We previously reported that glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic transmission is impaired in Stx1b null mutant (Stx1b(-/-) ) mice, but is almost normal in Stx1a null mutant (Stx1a(-/-) ) mice. These observations suggested that STX1A and STX1B have distinct functions in fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS)...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131991/enhanced-mental-imagery-and-intact-perceptual-organization-in-schizotypal-personality-disorder
#4
Rebeka Maróthi, Szabolcs Kéri
According to a widely held view, psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia are characterized by a vague boundary between the perception of the external world and the inner imagery of persons, objects, and events. In this study, we addressed the perception-imagery debate in schizotypal personality disorder (SPD). Thirty individuals with SPD and 30 matched healthy subjects completed a lateral masking task. Participants were asked to detect a low-contrast Gabor patch flanked by two collinear Gabor masks. In the perceptual task, the masks were physically present, whereas in the imagery task, participants only imagined the masks...
November 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113776/brief-assessment-of-schizotypal-traits-a-multinational-study
#5
Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero, Javier Ortuño-Sierra, Beatriz Lucas-Molina, Martin Debbané, Raymond C K Chan, David C Cicero, Lisa C Zhang, Colleen Brenner, Emma Barkus, Richard J Linscott, Thomas Kwapil, Neus Barrantes-Vidal, Alex Cohen, Adrian Raine, Michael T Compton, Erin B Tone, Julie Suhr, Julio Bobes, Axit Fumero, Stella Giakoumaki, Ioannis Tsaousis, Antonio Preti, Michael Chmielewski, Julien Laloyaux, Anwar Mechri, Mohamed Aymen Lahmar, Viviana Wuthrich, Frank Larøi, Johanna C Badcock, Assen Jablensky, David Barron, Viren Swami, Ulrich S Tran, Martin Voracek
The Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B) was developed with the aim of examining variations in healthy trait schizotypy, as well as latent vulnerability to psychotic-spectrum disorders. No previous study has studied the cross-cultural validity of the SPQ-B in a large cross-national sample. The main goal of the present study was to analyze the reliability and the internal structure of SPQ-B scores in a multinational sample of 28,426 participants recruited from 14 countries. The mean age was 22...
November 4, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095898/brain-gray-matter-structural-network-in-myotonic-dystrophy-type-1
#6
Atsuhiko Sugiyama, Daichi Sone, Noriko Sato, Yukio Kimura, Miho Ota, Norihide Maikusa, Tomoko Maekawa, Mikako Enokizono, Madoka Mori-Yoshimura, Yasushi Ohya, Satoshi Kuwabara, Hiroshi Matsuda
This study aimed to investigate abnormalities in structural covariance network constructed from gray matter volume in myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) patients by using graph theoretical analysis for further clarification of the underlying mechanisms of central nervous system involvement. Twenty-eight DM1 patients (4 childhood onset, 10 juvenile onset, 14 adult onset), excluding three cases from 31 consecutive patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging in a certain period, and 28 age- and sex- matched healthy control subjects were included in this study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083029/dimensional-assessment-of-schizotypal-psychotic-and-other-psychiatric-traits-in-children-and-their-parents-development-and-validation-of-the-childhood-oxford-liverpool-inventory-of-feelings-and-experiences-on-a-representative-us-sample
#7
David W Evans, Laina G Lusk, Mylissa M Slane, Andrew M Michael, Scott M Myers, Mirko Uljarević, Oliver Mason, Gordon Claridge, Thomas Frazier
BACKGROUND: Healthy functioning relies on a variety of perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral abilities that are distributed throughout the normal population. Variation in these traits define the wide range of neurodevelopmental (NDD) and neuropsychiatric (NPD) disorders. Here, we introduce a new measure for assessing these traits in typically developing children and children at risk for NDD and NPD from age 2 to 18 years. METHOD: The Childhood Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (CO-LIFE) was created as a dimensional, parent-report measure of schizotypal and psychotic traits in the general population...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065890/the-mediating-effects-of-childhood-neglect-on-the-association-between-schizotypal-and-autistic-personality-traits-and-depression-in-a-non-clinical-sample
#8
Jianbo Liu, Jingbo Gong, Guanghui Nie, Yuqiong He, Bo Xiao, Yanmei Shen, Xuerong Luo
BACKGROUND: Autistic personality traits (APT) and schizotypal personality traits (SPT) are associated with depression. However, mediating factors within these relationships have not yet been explored. Thus, the focus of the current study was to examine the effects of childhood neglect on the relationship between APT/SPT and depression. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on first-year students (N = 2469) at Hunan University of Chinese Medicine and Hengyang Normal College (Changsha, China)...
October 25, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036523/stress-dependent-association-between-polygenic-risk-for-schizophrenia-and-schizotypal-traits-in-young-army-recruits
#9
Alex Hatzimanolis, Dimitrios Avramopoulos, Dan E Arking, Anna Moes, Pallav Bhatnagar, Todd Lencz, Anil K Malhotra, Stella G Giakoumaki, Panos Roussos, Nikolaos Smyrnis, Panos Bitsios, Nicholas C Stefanis
Schizotypal personality traits may increase proneness to psychosis and likely index familial vulnerability to schizophrenia (SZ), implying shared genetic determinants with SZ. Here, we sought to investigate the contribution of common genetic risk variation for SZ on self-reported schizotypy in 2 ethnically homogeneous cohorts of healthy young males during compulsory military service, enrolled in the Athens Study of Proneness and Incidence of Schizophrenia (ASPIS, N = 875) and the Learning on Genetics of Schizophrenia Spectrum study (LOGOS, N = 690)...
June 13, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029972/development-of-indicators-for-a-nationwide-cross-sectoral-quality-assurance-procedure-for-mental-health-care-of-patients-with-schizophrenia-schizotypal-and-delusional-disorders-in-germany
#10
Constance Stegbauer, Gerald Willms, Katja Kleine-Budde, Anke Bramesfeld, Carina Stammann, Joachim Szecsenyi
PURPOSE: This paper describes the development of quality indicators for an external statutory and cross-sectoral quality assurance (QA) procedure in the context of the German health care system for adult patients suffering from schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders (F20-F29). METHODS: Indicators were developed by a modified RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method with 1) the compilation of an indicator register based on a systematic literature search and analyses of health care claims data, 2) the selection of indicators by an expert panel that rated them for relevance and for feasibility regarding implementation...
October 10, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität Im Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024855/the-relationship-between-schizotypal-facets-and-conspiracist-beliefs-via-cognitive-processes
#11
David Barron, Adrian Furnham, Laura Weis, Kevin D Morgan, Tony Towell, Viren Swami
This study sought to replicate previous work showing relationships between components of schizotypy and conspiracist beliefs, and extend it by examining the mediating role of cognitive processes. An international online sample of 411 women and men (mean age = 35.41 years) completed measures of the schizotypal facets of Odd Beliefs or Magical Thinking and Ideas of Reference, conspiracist beliefs, and cognitive processes related to need for cognition, analytic thinking, and cognitive insight. Path analysis confirmed the associations between both schizotypal facets and conspiracist beliefs in the present sample...
October 2, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024192/association-of-schizotypy-with-striatocortical-functional-connectivity-and-its-asymmetry-in-healthy-adults
#12
Yi Wang, Ulrich Ettinger, Thomas Meindl, Raymond C K Chan
Altered striatocortical functional connectivity has been suggested to be a trait marker of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, including schizotypal personality. In the present study, we examined the association between schizotypal personality traits and striatocortical functional connectivity in a sample of healthy adults. The German version of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire was obtained from N = 111 participants recruited from the general public. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired at 3T...
October 11, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017618/dissociation-between-affective-experience-and-motivated-behaviour-in-schizophrenia-patients-and-their-unaffected-first-degree-relatives-and-schizotypal-individuals
#13
Dong-Jie Xie, Simon S Y Lui, Fu-Lei Geng, Zhuo-Ya Yang, Ying-Min Zou, Ying Li, Hera K H Yeung, Eric F C Cheung, Erin A Heerey, Raymond C K Chan
BACKGROUND: The neuropsychological origins of negative syndrome of schizophrenia remain elusive. Evidence from behavioural studies, which utilised emotion-inducing pictures to elicit motivated behaviour generally reported that that schizophrenia patients experienced similar affective experience as healthy individuals but failed to translate emotional salience to motivated behaviour, a phenomenon called emotion-behaviour decoupling. However, a few studies have examined emotion-behaviour decoupling in non-psychotic high-risk populations, who are relatively unaffected by medication effects...
October 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979762/ketamine-for-pain
#14
REVIEW
Kelly Jonkman, Albert Dahan, Tine van de Donk, Leon Aarts, Marieke Niesters, Monique van Velzen
The efficacy of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist ketamine as an analgesic agent is still under debate, especially for indications such as chronic pain. To understand the efficacy of ketamine for relief of pain, we performed a literature search for relevant narrative and systematic reviews and meta-analyses. We retrieved 189 unique articles, of which 29 were deemed appropriate for use in this review. Ketamine treatment is most effective for relief of postoperative pain, causing reduced opioid consumption...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958455/schizotypal-traits-and-cognitive-performance-in-siblings-of-patients-with-psychosis
#15
L Moreno-Samaniego, Ana M Gaviria, E Vilella, J Valero, A Labad
INTRODUCTION: Schizotypy has been proposed to be the expression of genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia. The available literature shows cognitive similarities between schizotypy and schizophrenia, with mildly impaired performance being associated with schizotypy. This study aims to determine the relationship between schizotypy and cognitive performance in siblings of patients with psychosis. METHODS: Schizotypal features and cognitive performance on a neuropsychological battery were compared between 48 siblings of patients with psychosis and 44 healthy controls...
December 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956087/a-compromise-solution-between-overlapping-and-overlooking-dsm-personality-disorders-in-chinese-psychiatric-practice
#16
SuoYu Zhu, TianHong Zhang, ChengQing Yang, YanYan Wei, LiHua Xu, JunJie Wang, Annabelle Chow, XiaoHua Liu, KaiDa Jiang, ZePing Xiao, Hui Zhou, JiJun Wang
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the overlaps between the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-5 (DSM-5) Personality Disorders (PDs) in a high-risk clinical population and to explore a transitional model for implementing DSM-5 PDs. METHOD: A sample population of 982 outpatients with at least one diagnosed PD was selected from 3,075 outpatients of the Shanghai Mental Health Center. The diagnostic process comprised of a personality diagnostic questionnaire and a structured clinical interview...
September 27, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955212/classifying-schizotypy-using-an-audiovisual-emotion-perception-test-and-scalp-electroencephalography
#17
Ji Woon Jeong, Tariku W Wendimagegn, Eunhee Chang, Yeseul Chun, Joon Hyuk Park, Hyoung Joong Kim, Hyun Taek Kim
Schizotypy refers to the personality trait of experiencing "psychotic" symptoms and can be regarded as a predisposition of schizophrenia-spectrum psychopathology (Raine, 1991). Cumulative evidence has revealed that individuals with schizotypy, as well as schizophrenia patients, have emotional processing deficits. In the present study, we investigated multimodal emotion perception in schizotypy and implemented the machine learning technique to find out whether a schizotypy group (ST) is distinguishable from a control group (NC), using electroencephalogram (EEG) signals...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953820/study-on-the-prescribing-patterns-of-antipsychotic-medication-in-a-rural-england-community-mental-health-team
#18
Madhavan Seshadri, Ahmed Elsemary, Madhusudan Deepak Thalitaya, Lawrence Chikodzore, Priya Nagalingam
INTRODUCTION: Providing comprehensive services for about 400 patients in the South Herefordshire area, the community mental health team manages cases of varying severity and complexity, ranging from Schizophrenia, to neuroses and disorders of adult personality. Antipsychotic medication remains a mainstay of treatment and management for patients under the team case load; hence a need exists for a detailed look into the prescription patterns of such medications. AIM: The aim of this study was to look into the prescribing patterns of antipsychotics for a sample of 50 patients in the South Herefordshire community team during the year of 2016 (from Jan 2016 to Dec 2016), as well as investigate whether these antipsychotics were licensed to be used for the corresponding diagnoses of these patients...
September 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950739/are-periodontal-outcomes-affected-by-personality-patterns-a-18-month-follow-up-study
#19
Carlo Bertoldi, Marco Venuta, Gianpaolo Guaraldi, Michele Lalla, Stefania Guaitolini, Luigi Generali, Daniele Monzani, Pierpaolo Cortellini, Davide Zaffe
OBJECTIVES: This research aims to study the relationship between personality traits and periodontal clinical outcomes by taking into account the level of anxiety and depression, periodontal health and oral hygiene behaviour of patients affected with gingivitis or moderate periodontitis requiring periodontal therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The periodontal data of 40 systemically healthy patients affected by gingivitis or moderate periodontitis were collected at baseline and 18 months later...
September 26, 2017: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946869/understanding-others-a-pilot-investigation-of-cognitive-and-affective-facets-of-social-cognition-in-patients-with-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-22q11ds
#20
D Badoud, M Schneider, S Menghetti, B Glaser, M Debbané, S Eliez
BACKGROUND: Although significant impairments in the affective and cognitive facets of social cognition have been highlighted in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) in previous studies, these domains have never been investigated simultaneously within the same group of participants. Furthermore, despite theoretical evidence, associations between these two processes and schizotypal symptoms or social difficulties in this population have been scarcely examined. METHODS: Twenty-nine participants with 22q11DS and 27 typically developing controls (N = 5 siblings; N = 22 unrelated controls) aged between 11 and 21 years participated in the study...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
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