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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797561/self-reported-psychosis-like-experiences-in-patients-with-mood-disorders
#1
I Baryshnikov, J Suvisaari, K Aaltonen, M Koivisto, T Melartin, P Näätänen, K Suominen, B Karpov, M Heikkinen, J Oksanen, T Paunio, G Joffe, E Isometsä
BACKGROUND: Self-reported psychosis-like experiences (PEs) may be common in patients with mood disorders, but their clinical correlates are not well known. We investigated their prevalence and relationships with self-reported symptoms of depression, mania, anxiety, borderline (BPD) and schizotypal (SPD) personality disorders among psychiatric patients with mood disorders. METHODS: The Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE-42), Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ), McLean Screening Instrument (MSI), The Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI), Overall Anxiety Severity and Impairment Scale (OASIS) and Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief form (SPQ-B) were filled in by patients with mood disorders (n=282) from specialized care...
February 3, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794973/increased-glutamate-gaba-ratio-in-a-shared-autistic-and-schizotypal-trait-phenotype-termed-social-disorganisation
#2
Talitha C Ford, Richard Nibbs, David P Crewther
Autism and schizophrenia are multi-dimensional spectrum disorders that have substantial phenotypic overlap. This overlap is readily identified in the non-clinical population, and has been conceptualised as Social Disorganisation (SD). This study investigates the balance of excitatory glutamate and inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations in a non-clinical sample with high and low trait SD, as glutamate and GABA abnormalities are reported across the autism and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Participants were 18 low (10 females) and 19 high (9 females) SD scorers aged 18 to 40 years who underwent (1)H-MRS for glutamate and GABA+macromolecule (GABA+) concentrations in right and left hemisphere superior temporal (ST) voxels...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760538/schizotypy-is-associated-with-reduced-mnemonic-precision-in-visual-working-memory
#3
Weizhen Xie, Marcus Cappiello, Hyung-Bum Park, Patricia Deldin, Raymond C K Chan, Weiwei Zhang
BACKGROUND: Working memory (WM) maintains a limited amount of information over a short period of time at the service of other ongoing mental activities. Deficits in this function are often observed in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The present study examined whether self-report schizotypy was associated with the qualitative, quantitative, or both aspects of visual WM and whether these impairments could be accounted for by sensory memory deficits and/or depressed mood in a group of non-clinical, medication-naïve participants...
July 28, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759626/glutamate-gaba-ratio-is-associated-with-the-psychosocial-domain-of-autistic-and-schizotypal-traits
#4
Talitha C Ford, Richard Nibbs, David P Crewther
BACKGROUND: The autism and schizophrenia spectra overlap to a large degree in the social and interpersonal domains. Similarly, abnormal excitatory glutamate and inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmitter concentrations have been reported for both spectra, with the interplay of these neurotransmitters important for cortical excitation to inhibition regulation. This study investigates whether these neurotransmitter abnormalities are specific to the shared symptomatology, and whether the degree of abnormality increases with increasing symptom severity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758885/dimensional-traits-of-schizotypy-associated-with-glycine-receptor-glra1-polymorphism-an-exploratory-candidate-gene-association-study
#5
Anvi K Vora, Amanda M Fisher, Antonia S New, Erin A Hazlett, Margaret McNamara, Qiaoping Yuan, Zhifeng Zhou, Colin Hodgkinson, David Goldman, Larry J Siever, Panos Roussos, M Mercedes Perez-Rodriguez
Schizotypy captures the underlying genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia. However, the genetic underpinnings of schizotypy remain unexplored. The authors examined the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and schizotypy. A sample of 137 subjects (43 healthy controls, 34 subjects with schizotypal personality disorder [SPD], 32 with borderline personality disorder, and 25 with other personality disorders) completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). Subjects were genotyped using a custom array chip...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758884/clinical-characteristics-of-comorbid-narcissistic-personality-disorder-in-patients-with-borderline-personality-disorder
#6
Susanne Hörz-Sagstetter, Diana Diamond, John F Clarkin, Kenneth N Levy, Michael Rentrop, Melitta Fischer-Kern, Nicole M Cain, Stephan Doering
This study examines psychopathology and clinical characteristics of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and comorbid narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) from two international randomized controlled trials. From a combined sample of 188 patients with BPD, 25 also fulfilled criteria for a comorbid diagnosis of NPD according to DSM-IV. The BPD patients with comorbid NPD, compared to the BPD patients without comorbid NPD, showed significantly more BPD criteria (M = 7.44 vs. M = 6.55, p < ...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755613/dsm-5-cannabis-use-disorder-in-the-national-epidemiologic-survey-on-alcohol-and-related-conditions-iii-gender-specific-profiles
#7
Bradley T Kerridge, Roger Pickering, Patricia Chou, Tulshi D Saha, Deborah S Hasin
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to present current information on the prevalence, correlates, comorbidity and quality of life among men and women with cannabis use disorder (CUD). METHODS: In 2012-2013, 36,309 respondents ≥18years old participated in face-to-face interviews in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III. RESULTS: Prevalence of 12-month CUD was greater among men (3.5%) than women (1...
July 14, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750214/childhood-trauma-is-not-a-confounder-of-the-overlap-between-autistic-and-schizotypal-traits-a-study-in-a-non-clinical-adult-sample
#8
Jing-Bo Gong, Ya Wang, Simon S Y Lui, Eric F C Cheung, Raymond C K Chan
Childhood trauma has been shown to be a robust risk factor for mental disorders, and may exacerbate schizotypal traits or contribute to autistic trait severity. However, little is known whether childhood trauma confounds the overlap between schizotypal traits and autistic traits. This study examined whether childhood trauma acts as a confounding variable in the overlap between autistic and schizotypal traits in a large non-clinical adult sample. A total of 2469 participants completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form...
July 17, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744234/on-hearing-voices-and-seeing-things-probing-hallucination-predisposition-in-a-portuguese-nonclinical-sample-with-the-launay-slade-hallucination-scale-revised
#9
Paula Castiajo, Ana P Pinheiro
The experience of hallucinations is a hallmark of psychotic disorders, but they are also present in other psychiatric and medical conditions, and may be reported in nonclinical individuals. Despite the increased number of studies probing the incidence of nonclinical hallucinations, the underlying phenomenological characteristics are still poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the psychometrics proprieties of the Portuguese adaptation of the 16-item Launay-Slade Hallucinations Scale (LSHS), the phenomenological characteristics of nonclinical hallucinatory experiences in a Portuguese sample, and the relationship between clinical symptoms and hallucination predisposition...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740822/neurological-soft-signs-effects-of-trait-schizotypy-psychological-distress-and-auditory-hallucination-predisposition
#10
Saskia de Leede-Smith, Steven Roodenrys, Lauren Horsley, Shannen Matrini, Erin Mison, Emma Barkus
Schizotypy is regarded as a trait vulnerability for psychotic disorders, yet alone is insufficient for development of a diagnosable disorder. Additional symptoms and psychological distress are necessary for help seeking and transition from an at risk mental state to a clinical diagnosis. The present study investigated the interaction between trait schizotypy, state auditory verbal hallucination (AVH) predisposition, distress and handedness for the expression of neurological soft signs (NSS), a neurodevelopmental vulnerability factor for psychosis...
March 2017: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740815/positive-schizotypy-and-negative-schizotypy-are-associated-with-differential-patterns-of-episodic-memory-impairment
#11
Lili Sahakyan, Thomas R Kwapil
Cognitive impairment is a hallmark of schizophrenia; however, studies have not comprehensively examined such impairments in non-clinically ascertained schizotypic young adults. The present study employed a series of measures to assess episodic memory in high positive schizotypy, high negative schizotypy, and comparison groups (each group n = 25). Consistent with diminished cognitive functioning seen in negative symptom schizophrenia, the negative schizotypy group exhibited deficits on free recall, recognition, and source memory tasks...
September 2016: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740810/schizotypy-and-mindfulness-magical-thinking-without-suspiciousness-characterizes-mindfulness-meditators
#12
Elena Antonova, Kavitha Amaratunga, Bernice Wright, Ulrich Ettinger, Veena Kumari
Despite growing evidence for demonstrated efficacy of mindfulness in various disorders, there is a continuous concern about the relationship between mindfulness practice and psychosis. As schizotypy is part of the psychosis spectrum, we examined the relationship between long-term mindfulness practice and schizotypy in two independent studies. Study 1 included 24 experienced mindfulness practitioners (19 males) from the Buddhist tradition (meditators) and 24 meditation-naïve individuals (all males). Study 2 consisted of 28 meditators and 28 meditation-naïve individuals (all males)...
September 2016: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735566/attachment-and-personality-disorders-among-child-molesters-the-role-of-trust
#13
Carlo Garofalo, Stefan Bogaerts
The present study investigated multivariate associations between attachment styles and personality disorders (PDs)-and the mediating role of trust-in a sample of child molesters ( n = 84) and a matched control group from the general community ( n = 80). Among child molesters, canonical correlation analysis revealed that two variates resembling avoidant and anxious attachment dimensions were associated with PD traits. Attachment avoidance was related to schizoid, schizotypal, and avoidant PDs, with a marginal contribution of antisocial PD...
July 1, 2017: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719056/tracking-salience-in-young-people-a-psychometric-field-test-of-the-aberrant-salience-inventory-asi
#14
Andrea Raballo, David C Cicero, John G Kerns, Sara Sanna, Mirra Pintus, Ingrid Agartz, Elisa Pintus, Irene Corrias, Veronica Lai, Donatella Rita Petretto, Mauro G Carta, Antonio Preti
AIM: To explore the prevalence of Aberrant Salience (AS, an alleged experiential feature of psychosis-proneness) in Italian young people and corroborate the transcultural validity of the Aberrant Salience Inventory (ASI). METHODS: Young adults attending an Italian university (n = 649) underwent serial evaluations with the ASI together with psychometric proxies for help seeking General Health Questionnaire and attenuated positive and negative symptoms Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ)...
July 18, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714081/combining-two-model-systems-of-psychosis-the-effects-of-schizotypy-and-sleep-deprivation-on-oculomotor-control-and-psychotomimetic-states
#15
Inga Meyhöfer, Maria Steffens, Eliana Faiola, Anna-Maria Kasparbauer, Veena Kumari, Ulrich Ettinger
Model systems of psychosis, such as schizotypy or sleep deprivation, are valuable in informing our understanding of the etiology of the disorder and aiding the development of new treatments. Schizophrenia patients, high schizotypes, and sleep-deprived subjects are known to share deficits in oculomotor biomarkers. Here, we aimed to further validate the schizotypy and sleep deprivation models and investigated, for the first time, their interactive effects on smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM), prosaccades, antisaccades, predictive saccades, and measures of psychotomimetic states, anxiety, depression, and stress...
July 17, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712990/supervoxel-based-statistical-analysis-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-in-schizotypal-personality-disorder
#16
Teng Zhang, Lin Shi, Qing Zhang, Jianlin Wu, Jian Lv, Defeng Wang
To study white matter changes in schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), we developed a new statistical analysis method based on supervoxels for diffusion tensor imaging. Twenty patients with SPD and eighteen healthy controls were recruited from a pool of 3000 first-year university undergraduates, and underwent MRI using a 3T scanner. Diffusion tensors were first normalized into ICBM-152 space followed by a supervoxel segmentation based on graph clustering to segment white matter tensors into diffusion homogeneous supervoxels...
July 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712364/the-structure-of-schizotypal-personality-traits-a-cross-national-study
#17
E Fonseca-Pedrero, M Debbané, J Ortuño-Sierra, R C K Chan, D C Cicero, L C Zhang, C Brenner, E Barkus, R J Linscott, T Kwapil, N Barrantes-Vidal, A Cohen, A Raine, M T Compton, E B Tone, J Suhr, J Muñiz, A Fumero, S Giakoumaki, I Tsaousis, A Preti, M Chmielewski, J Laloyaux, A Mechri, M A Lahmar, V Wuthrich, F Larøi, J C Badcock, A Jablensky
BACKGROUND: Schizotypal traits are considered a phenotypic-indicator of schizotypy, a latent personality organization reflecting a putative liability for psychosis. To date, no previous study has examined the comparability of factorial structures across samples originating from different countries and cultures. The main goal was to evaluate the factorial structure and reliability of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) scores by amalgamating data from studies conducted in 12 countries and across 21 sites...
July 17, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709430/exploring-the-factor-structure-of-the-health-of-the-nation-outcomes-scale-honos-in-a-sample-of-patients-with-schizophrenia-schizotypal-and-delusional-disorders
#18
Wayne Smith, Silia Vitoratou, Paul McCrone, Anita Patel
BACKGROUND: The Health of the Nation Outcomes Scale (HoNOS) is recommended for use by the English National Service Framework for Mental Health and by the working group on outcome indicators for severe mental illnesses to the Department of Health. It was developed to measure the health and social functioning of people with severe mental illness. Since the development of the HoNOS many have debated its latent structure. This paper examines the latent structure of the HoNOS using current factor analysis techniques...
July 14, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699102/-the-concept-of-schizoidia-in-psychiatry-from-schizoidia-to-schizotypy-and-cluster%C3%A2-a-personality-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Hans-Peter Kapfhammer
From a perspective of conceptual evolution schizoidia was initially considered to describe features both of the premorbid personality of schizophrenic patients and of the personalities of non-psychotic family members (Bleuler, Kahlbaum, Kraepelin). On a psychopatholocial level a close link to the complex basic symptom of autism was stressed. From the very beginnings of modern psychiatry schizoidia was discussed within a conceptual frame of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (Kretschmer, Hoch, Polatin). Approaches to operationalize these conceptual works laid the basis for the cluster A personalities in DSM-III...
July 11, 2017: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697644/evidence-of-absence-no-relationship-between-behaviourally-measured-prediction-error-response-and-schizotypy
#20
Clara S Humpston, Lisa H Evans, Christoph Teufel, Niklas Ihssen, David E J Linden
INTRODUCTION: The predictive processing framework has attracted much interest in the field of schizophrenia research in recent years, with an increasing number of studies also carried out in healthy individuals with nonclinical psychosis-like experiences. The current research adopted a continuum approach to psychosis and aimed to investigate different types of prediction error responses in relation to psychometrically defined schizotypy. METHODS: One hundred and two healthy volunteers underwent a battery of behavioural tasks including (a) a force-matching task, (b) a Kamin blocking task, and (c) a reversal learning task together with three questionnaires measuring domains of schizotypy from different approaches...
July 11, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
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