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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523937/attentional-set-shifting-and-social-abilities-in-children-with-schizotypal-and-comorbid-autism-spectrum-disorders
#1
Ahmad Abu-Akel, Renee R Testa, Harvey P Jones, Nola Ross, Efstratios Skafidas, Bruce Tonge, Christos Pantelis
OBJECTIVE: While diagnostically independent, autism and schizotypal disorders can co-occur. Their concurrent impact on outcomes and phenotypes has not been investigated. We investigated the impact of comorbid autism and schizotypal disorders in children on executive functioning and socio-pragmatic skills - core features of both disorders. METHOD: Executive functioning (assessed with the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery) and socio-pragmatic skills (assessed using the Melbourne Assessment of Schizotypy in Kids) were investigated in a total of 67 (6-12 year old) children with autism ( n = 15; M/F = 10/5), schizotypal disorder ( n = 8; M/F = 5/3) and comorbid autism and schizotypal disorder ( n = 12; M/F = 5/7) and typically developing children ( n = 32; M/F = 17/15)...
May 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514693/drinking-despite-health-problems-among-individuals-with-liver-disease-across-the-united-states
#2
Jennifer C Elliott, Malka Stohl, Deborah S Hasin
BACKGROUND: Heavy drinking is harmful for individuals with liver disease. However, some of these individuals drink despite knowledge of the risks. The current study aims to identify factors underlying drinking despite health problems among individuals with liver disease. METHODS: The current study utilizes a subsample of individuals reporting past-year liver disease and at least one drink in the past year (n=331), taken from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III), a large nationally representative survey of the United States...
May 9, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500871/the-ability-to-tickle-oneself-is-associated-with-level-of-psychometric-schizotypy-in-non-clinical-individuals
#3
Thomas J Whitford, Amelia M Mitchell, Damien J Mannion
A recent study (Lemaitre et al., 2016, Consciousness and Cognition, 41, 64-71) found that non-clinical individuals who scored highly on a psychometric scale of schizotypy were able to tickle themselves. The present study aimed to extend this finding by investigating whether the ability to tickle oneself was associated with level of psychometric schizotypy considered as a continuous variable. One hundred and eleven students completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). A mechanical device delivered tactile stimulation to participants' palms...
May 10, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486227/schizotypy-and-cognitive-failures-a-mediating-role-for-affect
#4
Nicole Carrigan, Emma Barkus
BACKGROUND: Cognitive failures are disruptions in cognitive functioning during everyday life. Vulnerability to these failures is increased in a range of psychological disorders, including schizophrenia. In addition, healthy individuals with personality-based psychosis proneness, or schizotypy, often complain of heightened failures. A factor known to exacerbate cognitive failures is negative affect. Negative affectivity is linked to both schizophrenia and schizotypy. It is therefore possible that affect is responsible for the increased everyday cognitive failures in "high schizotypes"...
May 10, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470477/association-of-serum-trace-elements-with-schizophrenia-and-effects-of-antipsychotic-treatment
#5
Xuefei Chen, Yinghui Li, Ting Zhang, Yingshui Yao, Chong Shen, Yong Xue
Variation of serum trace elements was previously reported in schizophrenia (SZ) patients; however, whether such variation is resulted from the antipsychotic treatment remains obscure. A case control study consist of 165 SZ inpatients and 614 healthy controls measured serum magnesium (Mg), Copper (Cu), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (Phos), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) to investigate the relationship of trace elements and SZ. The SZ patients were further followed up (average 3.8 weeks) to evaluate the effects of antipsychotic treatment on the trace element concentrations using repeated measures ANOVA analysis...
May 3, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456376/-consultation-liaison-during-the-peripartum-network-care-between-liaison-and-mobile-unit
#6
V Garez, E Devouche, A Bobin-Bègue, M Alecian, P Minjollet, A Vallerent, M Poget, H Oguibenine, C Héroux, F Medjkane, G Apter
OBJECTIVES: The pregnancy periods of peripartum and immediate postpartum represent moments of opportunity to access care. Both prevention and therapeutic management can be offered with a better chance of success during these periods. Our specific Consultation Liaison (CL) team PPUMMA was created in order to respond to the need for early detection of psychopathology and rapid implementation of therapeutic management and preventive measure for mother and child. The importance of urgently intervening "on site" seemed a necessity since duration of hospitalization in maternity wards is very short...
April 26, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422422/psychopathology-and-social-functioning-of-42-subjects-from-a-danish-ultra-high-risk-cohort
#7
Helle Karkov Madsen, Dorte Nordholm, Kristine Krakauer, Lasse Randers, Merete Nordentoft
AIM: To make a thorough characterization of the co-morbidity, psychopathology and demographics in the first Danish ultra high-risk (UHR) sample. METHOD: Forty-two UHR subjects went through comprehensive interviews assessing their psychopathology, psychiatric disorders, substance use and family history of psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: All UHR subjects met the criteria of at least 1 axis I diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) and met on average four diagnoses (both axis I and II), mostly within the areas of depression, anxiety and substance abuse...
April 19, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414014/do-dsm-5-section-ii-personality-disorders-and-section-iii-personality-trait-domains-reflect-the-same-genetic-and-environmental-risk-factors
#8
T Reichborn-Kjennerud, R F Krueger, E Ystrom, F A Torvik, T H Rosenström, S H Aggen, S C South, M C Neale, G P Knudsen, K S Kendler, N O Czajkowski
BACKGROUND: DSM-5 includes two conceptualizations of personality disorders (PDs). The classification in Section II is identical to the one found in DSM-IV, and includes 10 categorical PDs. The Alternative Model (Section III) includes criteria for dimensional measures of maladaptive personality traits organized into five domains. The degree to which the two conceptualizations reflect the same etiological factors is not known. METHODS: We use data from a large population-based sample of adult twins from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel on interview-based DSM-IV PDs and a short self-report inventory that indexes the five domains of the DSM-5 Alternative Model plus a domain explicitly targeting compulsivity...
April 17, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406913/no-age-effect-in-the-prevalence-and-clinical-significance-of-ultra-high-risk-symptoms-and-criteria-for-psychosis-in-22q11-deletion-syndrome-confirmation-of-the-genetically-driven-risk-for-psychosis
#9
MULTICENTER STUDY
Marco Armando, Maude Schneider, Maria Pontillo, Stefano Vicari, Martin Debbané, Frauke Schultze-Lutter, Stephan Eliez
BACKGROUND: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is one of the highest known risk factors for schizophrenia. Thus, the detection of 22q11DS patients at particularly high risk of psychosis is important, yet studies on the clinical significance of the widely used ultra-high risk (UHR) criteria in 22q11DS are inconclusive. Since age was reported to moderate clinical significance of UHR symptoms in community samples, we explored whether age at presentation of UHR symptoms and criteria may explain part of this heterogeneity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383650/schizotypy-independent-and-schizotypy-modulated-cognitive-impairments-in-unaffected-first-degree-relatives-of-schizophrenia-spectrum-patients
#10
Chrysoula Zouraraki, Penny Karamaouna, Leda Karagiannopoulou, Stella G Giakoumaki
Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the neurocognitive profile of unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients with control individuals, controlling for different schizotypal traits. Method: One hundred and fifteen adult unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia-spectrum patients and 122 controls were tested for schizotypy with the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire. They also underwent a thorough neurocognitive assessment with a range of tasks covering several aspects of executive functioning...
April 5, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371657/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-val66met-genotype-modulates-amygdala-habituation
#11
M Mercedes Perez-Rodriguez, Antonia S New, Kim E Goldstein, Daniel Rosell, Qiaoping Yuan, Zhifeng Zhou, Colin Hodgkinson, David Goldman, Larry J Siever, Erin A Hazlett
A deficit in amygdala habituation to repeated emotional stimuli may be an endophenotype of disorders characterized by emotion dysregulation, such as borderline personality disorder (BPD). Amygdala reactivity to emotional stimuli is genetically modulated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) variants. Whether amygdala habituation itself is also modulated by BDNF genotypes remains unknown. We used imaging-genetics to examine the effect of BDNF Val66Met genotypes on amygdala habituation to repeated emotional stimuli...
March 24, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367379/the-sensed-presence-questionnaire-senpq-initial-psychometric-validation-of-a-measure-of-the-sensed-presence-experience
#12
Joseph M Barnby, Vaughan Bell
BACKGROUND: The experience of 'sensed presence'-a feeling or sense that another entity, individual or being is present despite no clear sensory or perceptual evidence-is known to occur in the general population, appears more frequently in religious or spiritual contexts, and seems to be prominent in certain psychiatric or neurological conditions and may reflect specific functions of social cognition or body-image representation systems in the brain. Previous research has relied on ad-hoc measures of the experience and no specific psychometric scale to measure the experience exists to date...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364588/a-latent-profile-analysis-of-schizotypal-dimensions-associations-with-psychopathology-and-personality
#13
Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero, Javier Ortuño-Sierra, Alicia Pérez de Álbeniz, José Muñiz, Alex S Cohen
The main goal of the present study was to explore the latent structure of schizotypal traits in non-clinical young adults, and compare the latent profiles in clinical and personality characteristics: mental distress, psychosis-proneness, hypomanic experiences, and anticipatory and consummatory pleasure. A large sample of college students (N =1002; mean age =21.11 years; SD =3.92) were administered the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief Revised, the Mood Disorder Questionnaire, the short version of the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences, the General Health Questionnaire-12, and the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale...
February 20, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347257/antipsychotic-treatment-of-schizotypy-and-schizotypal-personality-disorder-a-systematic-review
#14
Klaus Damgaard Jakobsen, Eva Skyum, Nasseh Hashemi, Ole Schjerning, Anders Fink-Jensen, Jimmi Nielsen
Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is characterised by thought disorders, experiences of illusions, obsessive ruminations, bizarre or eccentric behaviour, cognitive problems and deficits in social functioning - symptoms that SPD shares with schizophrenia. Efforts have been undertaken to investigate the relationship between these conditions regarding genetics, pathophysiology, and phenomenology. However, treatment of SPD with antipsychotics has received less scientific attention. Embase and PubMed databases were searched using all known generic names of antipsychotics as search terms in combination with the following diagnostic terms: latent schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder, latent type schizophrenia, or SPD...
April 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335530/risk-of-suicide-and-dysfunctional-patterns-of-personality-among-bereaved-substance-users
#15
Laura Masferrer, Beatriz Caparrós
Background: Research has shown that suicide is a phenomenon highly present among the drug dependent population. Different studies have demonstrated an upraised level of comorbidity between personality disorders (PD) and substance use disorders (SUD). This study aimed to describe which PDs are more frequent among those patients with a risk of suicide. Methods: The study was based on a consecutive non-probabilistic convenience sample of 196 bereaved patients attended to in a Public Addiction Center in Girona (Spain)...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327348/know-thy-agency-in-predictive-coding-meta-monitoring-over-forward-modeling
#16
Tomohisa Asai
Though the computation of agency is thought to be based on prediction error, it is important for us to grasp our own reliability of that detected error. Here, the current study shows that we have a meta-monitoring ability over our own forward model, where the accuracy of motor prediction and therefore of the felt agency are implicitly evaluated. Healthy participants (N=105) conducted a simple motor control task and SELF or OTHER visual feedback was given. The relationship between the accuracy and confidence in a mismatch detection task and in a self-other attribution task was examined...
April 10, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318468/understanding-adolescent-personality-pathology-from-growth-trajectories-of-childhood-oddity
#17
Barbara De Clercq, Lize Verbeke, Elien De Caluwé, Tom Vercruysse, Joeri Hofmans
Research on developmental trajectories of early maladaptive features for understanding later personality disorders (PDs) is increasingly recognized as an important study area. The course of early odd features is highly relevant in this regard, as only a few researchers have addressed childhood oddity in the context of emerging PDs. Using latent growth modeling, the current study explores growth parameters of odd features in a mixed sample of Flemish community and referred children (N = 485) across three measurement waves with 1-year time intervals...
March 20, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291035/borderline-or-schizotypal-differential-psychodynamic-assessment-in-severe-personality-disorders
#18
Laura VAN Riel, Theo J M Ingenhoven, Quin D VAN Dam, Marike G Polak, Meinte G Vollema, Anne E Willems, Han Berghuis, Harold VAN Megen
Considerable overlap in symptoms between patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and schizotypal personality disorder (STPD) complicates personality diagnostics. Yet very little is known about the level of psychodynamic functioning of both personality disorders. Psychodynamic assessment procedures may specify personality characteristics relevant for differential diagnosis and treatment planning. In this cross-sectional study we explored the differences and similarities in level of personality functioning and psychodynamic features of patients with severe BPD or STPD...
March 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288547/neuropsychological-correlates-of-schizotypy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-cross-sectional-studies
#19
Sara Siddi, Donatella Rita Petretto, Antonio Preti
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive deficits can precede the onset of psychotic episodes and predict the onset of the illness in individuals with schizotypy traits. In some studies, high levels of schizotypy were associated with impairments in memory, attention, executive functions, and verbal fluency. This review provides a more comprehensive understanding of cognitive impairments related to schizoytpy. METHODS:  A systematic review of "schizotypy and neuropsychological measures" was conducted, and it retrieved 67 studies...
March 13, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288440/schizophrenia-spectrum-personality-disorders-in-psychometrically-identified-schizotypes-at-two-year-follow-up
#20
P Kevin Bolinskey, Elizabeth A Smith, Kelly M Schuder, Dianna Cooper-Bolinskey, Kevin R Myers, Daniel V Hudak, Alison V James, Helen K Hunter, Jonathan H Novi, Janice P Guidi, Yelena Gonzalez, Erin F McTiernan, Kaitlin M Arnold, Carina A Iati, Irving I Gottesman
Earlier (Bolinskey et al., 2015), we reported that psychometrically identified schizotypes displayed greater symptom levels and higher incidences of schizophrenia spectrum (schizotypal, schizoid, paranoid, and avoidant) personality disorders (PDs). In this study, 49 schizotypes and 39 matched controls participated in follow-up assessments after two years. Participants were previously identified as schizotypes or controls based on scores on the Chapman Psychosis Proneness Scales (CPPS), and were interviewed at baseline and follow-up with the Personality Disorder Interview for DSM-IV (PDI-IV)...
June 2017: Psychiatry Research
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