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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631695/-chronic-stress-and-mental-disorders-in-patients-with-systemic-scleroderma-results-of-an-interdisciplinary-study
#1
O F Seravina, T A Lisitsyna, M N Starovoytova, O V Desinova, O B Kovalevskaya, D Yu Veltishchev
AIM: To analyze of the prevalence of stressful factors and mental disorders (MDs), as well as their clinical psychopathological and clinical psychological characteristics to improve the comprehensive diagnosis and treatment of systemic scleroderma (SSD). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Examinations were performed in 110 patients (predominantly women (n=97 (88.2%); mean age, 49.9±2.47 years) with a documented diagnosis of SSD (its mean duration, 7.25±0.42 years). 62 (56...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627901/cone-of-gaze-in-positive-schizotypy-relationship-to-referential-thinking-and-social-functioning
#2
Heather M Wastler, Mark F Lenzenweger
Eye contact is an essential means of nonverbal communication, providing information about attention, emotion, mental state, facial expressions, and identity/gender (Itier & Batty, 2009). Although studies suggest that patients with schizophrenia endorse direct gaze more often than controls in ambiguous gaze circumstances, gaze perception in schizotypy remains unstudied. This study investigated whether individuals with positive schizotypic features incorrectly perceive that others are looking at them and whether this is related to referential thinking and psychosocial functioning...
June 19, 2017: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609679/segregating-polymorphisms-of-foxp2-are-associated-with-measures-of-inner-speech-speech-fluency-and-strength-of-handedness-in-a-healthy-population
#3
Bernard Crespi, Silven Read, Peter Hurd
We genotyped a healthy population for three haplotype-tagging FOXP2 SNPs, and tested for associations of these SNPs with strength of handedness and questionnaire-based metrics of inner speech characteristics (ISP) and speech fluency (FLU), as derived from the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-BR. Levels of mixed-handedness were positively correlated with ISP and FLU, supporting prior work on these two domains. Genotype for rs7799109, a SNP previously linked with lateralization of left frontal regions underlying language, was associated with degree of mixed handedness and with scores for ISP and FLU phenotypes...
June 10, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600932/investigation-of-associations-between-attachment-parenting-and-schizotypy-during-the-postnatal-period
#4
Melanie Hugill, Ian Fletcher, Katherine Berry
BACKGROUND: Parenting can be a stressful experience particularly for people with mental health problems or people who experienced abuse or attachment difficulties in their own childhoods. This study examined the relationships between earlier trauma, attachment, parenting and schizotypy in a non-clinical sample, with the specific hypothesis that parenting stress and competence would mediate any association between trauma, attachment and schizotypy. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-four first time parents with a child under 12 months old completed the following questionnaires online: the Experiences of Close Relationships Scale - Short Form (ECR-S), the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire - Brief, Revised (SPQ-BR) the Parenting Stress Scale, the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale (PSOC) and the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Questionnaire...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566957/additive-effects-of-former-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-and-cannabis-use-on-subclinical-psychotic-symptoms
#5
Berker Duman, Nilay Sedes, Bora Baskak
INTRODUCTION: Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is an amphetamine-derived psychostimulant, usually known as "ecstasy." The long-term neuropsychological effects of MDMA are examined in several studies with conflicting results. The most common findings reported are depression, anxiety, and memory and attention deficits. In addition to acute psychotic reactions observed after MDMA use, serotonergic and dopaminergic toxicities may increase the psychosis risk in the long-term. Cannabis usage among MDMA users is very high...
March 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555120/psychotic-like-experiences-at-the-healthy-end-of-the-psychosis-continuum
#6
Lui Unterrassner, Thomas A Wyss, Diana Wotruba, Vladeta Ajdacic-Gross, Helene Haker, Wulf Rössler
There is increasing evidence pointing toward a continuous distribution of psychotic symptoms and accompanying factors between subclinical and clinical populations. However, for the construction of continuum models, a more detailed knowledge of different types of psychotic-like experiences (PLE) and their associations with distress, functional impairment, and demographic variables is needed. We investigated PLE in a sample of healthy adults (N = 206) incorporating the recently developed revised Exceptional Experiences Questionnaire (PAGE-R)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523937/attentional-set-shifting-and-social-abilities-in-children-with-schizotypal-and-comorbid-autism-spectrum-disorders
#7
Ahmad Abu-Akel, Renee R Testa, Harvey P Jones, Nola Ross, Efstratios Skafidas, Bruce Tonge, Christos Pantelis
OBJECTIVE: While diagnostically independent, autism and schizotypal disorders can co-occur. Their concurrent impact on outcomes and phenotypes has not been investigated. We investigated the impact of comorbid autism and schizotypal disorders in children on executive functioning and socio-pragmatic skills - core features of both disorders. METHOD: Executive functioning (assessed with the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery) and socio-pragmatic skills (assessed using the Melbourne Assessment of Schizotypy in Kids) were investigated in a total of 67 (6-12 year old) children with autism ( n = 15; M/F = 10/5), schizotypal disorder ( n = 8; M/F = 5/3) and comorbid autism and schizotypal disorder ( n = 12; M/F = 5/7) and typically developing children ( n = 32; M/F = 17/15)...
May 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514693/drinking-despite-health-problems-among-individuals-with-liver-disease-across-the-united-states
#8
Jennifer C Elliott, Malka Stohl, Deborah S Hasin
BACKGROUND: Heavy drinking is harmful for individuals with liver disease. However, some of these individuals drink despite knowledge of the risks. The current study aims to identify factors underlying drinking despite health problems among individuals with liver disease. METHODS: The current study utilizes a subsample of individuals reporting past-year liver disease and at least one drink in the past year (n=331), taken from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III), a large nationally representative survey of the United States...
May 9, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500871/the-ability-to-tickle-oneself-is-associated-with-level-of-psychometric-schizotypy-in-non-clinical-individuals
#9
Thomas J Whitford, Amelia M Mitchell, Damien J Mannion
A recent study (Lemaitre et al., 2016, Consciousness and Cognition, 41, 64-71) found that non-clinical individuals who scored highly on a psychometric scale of schizotypy were able to tickle themselves. The present study aimed to extend this finding by investigating whether the ability to tickle oneself was associated with level of psychometric schizotypy considered as a continuous variable. One hundred and eleven students completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). A mechanical device delivered tactile stimulation to participants' palms...
May 10, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486227/schizotypy-and-cognitive-failures-a-mediating-role-for-affect
#10
Nicole Carrigan, Emma Barkus
BACKGROUND: Cognitive failures are disruptions in cognitive functioning during everyday life. Vulnerability to these failures is increased in a range of psychological disorders, including schizophrenia. In addition, healthy individuals with personality-based psychosis proneness, or schizotypy, often complain of heightened failures. A factor known to exacerbate cognitive failures is negative affect. Negative affectivity is linked to both schizophrenia and schizotypy. It is therefore possible that affect is responsible for the increased everyday cognitive failures in "high schizotypes"...
May 10, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470477/association-of-serum-trace-elements-with-schizophrenia-and-effects-of-antipsychotic-treatment
#11
Xuefei Chen, Yinghui Li, Ting Zhang, Yingshui Yao, Chong Shen, Yong Xue
Variation of serum trace elements was previously reported in schizophrenia (SZ) patients; however, whether such variation is resulted from the antipsychotic treatment remains obscure. A case control study consist of 165 SZ inpatients and 614 healthy controls measured serum magnesium (Mg), Copper (Cu), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (Phos), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) to investigate the relationship of trace elements and SZ. The SZ patients were further followed up (average 3.8 weeks) to evaluate the effects of antipsychotic treatment on the trace element concentrations using repeated measures ANOVA analysis...
May 3, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456376/-consultation-liaison-during-the-peripartum-network-care-between-liaison-and-mobile-unit
#12
V Garez, E Devouche, A Bobin-Bègue, M Alecian, P Minjollet, A Vallerent, M Poget, H Oguibenine, C Héroux, F Medjkane, G Apter
OBJECTIVES: The pregnancy periods of peripartum and immediate postpartum represent moments of opportunity to access care. Both prevention and therapeutic management can be offered with a better chance of success during these periods. Our specific Consultation Liaison (CL) team PPUMMA was created in order to respond to the need for early detection of psychopathology and rapid implementation of therapeutic management and preventive measure for mother and child. The importance of urgently intervening "on site" seemed a necessity since duration of hospitalization in maternity wards is very short...
April 26, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422422/psychopathology-and-social-functioning-of-42-subjects-from-a-danish-ultra-high-risk-cohort
#13
Helle Karkov Madsen, Dorte Nordholm, Kristine Krakauer, Lasse Randers, Merete Nordentoft
AIM: To make a thorough characterization of the co-morbidity, psychopathology and demographics in the first Danish ultra high-risk (UHR) sample. METHOD: Forty-two UHR subjects went through comprehensive interviews assessing their psychopathology, psychiatric disorders, substance use and family history of psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: All UHR subjects met the criteria of at least 1 axis I diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) and met on average four diagnoses (both axis I and II), mostly within the areas of depression, anxiety and substance abuse...
April 19, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414014/do-dsm-5-section-ii-personality-disorders-and-section-iii-personality-trait-domains-reflect-the-same-genetic-and-environmental-risk-factors
#14
T Reichborn-Kjennerud, R F Krueger, E Ystrom, F A Torvik, T H Rosenström, S H Aggen, S C South, M C Neale, G P Knudsen, K S Kendler, N O Czajkowski
BACKGROUND: DSM-5 includes two conceptualizations of personality disorders (PDs). The classification in Section II is identical to the one found in DSM-IV, and includes 10 categorical PDs. The Alternative Model (Section III) includes criteria for dimensional measures of maladaptive personality traits organized into five domains. The degree to which the two conceptualizations reflect the same etiological factors is not known. METHODS: We use data from a large population-based sample of adult twins from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel on interview-based DSM-IV PDs and a short self-report inventory that indexes the five domains of the DSM-5 Alternative Model plus a domain explicitly targeting compulsivity...
April 17, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406913/no-age-effect-in-the-prevalence-and-clinical-significance-of-ultra-high-risk-symptoms-and-criteria-for-psychosis-in-22q11-deletion-syndrome-confirmation-of-the-genetically-driven-risk-for-psychosis
#15
MULTICENTER STUDY
Marco Armando, Maude Schneider, Maria Pontillo, Stefano Vicari, Martin Debbané, Frauke Schultze-Lutter, Stephan Eliez
BACKGROUND: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is one of the highest known risk factors for schizophrenia. Thus, the detection of 22q11DS patients at particularly high risk of psychosis is important, yet studies on the clinical significance of the widely used ultra-high risk (UHR) criteria in 22q11DS are inconclusive. Since age was reported to moderate clinical significance of UHR symptoms in community samples, we explored whether age at presentation of UHR symptoms and criteria may explain part of this heterogeneity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383650/schizotypy-independent-and-schizotypy-modulated-cognitive-impairments-in-unaffected-first-degree-relatives-of-schizophrenia-spectrum-patients
#16
Chrysoula Zouraraki, Penny Karamaouna, Leda Karagiannopoulou, Stella G Giakoumaki
Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the neurocognitive profile of unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients with control individuals, controlling for different schizotypal traits. Method: One hundred and fifteen adult unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia-spectrum patients and 122 controls were tested for schizotypy with the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire. They also underwent a thorough neurocognitive assessment with a range of tasks covering several aspects of executive functioning...
April 5, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371657/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-val66met-genotype-modulates-amygdala-habituation
#17
M Mercedes Perez-Rodriguez, Antonia S New, Kim E Goldstein, Daniel Rosell, Qiaoping Yuan, Zhifeng Zhou, Colin Hodgkinson, David Goldman, Larry J Siever, Erin A Hazlett
A deficit in amygdala habituation to repeated emotional stimuli may be an endophenotype of disorders characterized by emotion dysregulation, such as borderline personality disorder (BPD). Amygdala reactivity to emotional stimuli is genetically modulated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) variants. Whether amygdala habituation itself is also modulated by BDNF genotypes remains unknown. We used imaging-genetics to examine the effect of BDNF Val66Met genotypes on amygdala habituation to repeated emotional stimuli...
March 24, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367379/the-sensed-presence-questionnaire-senpq-initial-psychometric-validation-of-a-measure-of-the-sensed-presence-experience
#18
Joseph M Barnby, Vaughan Bell
BACKGROUND: The experience of 'sensed presence'-a feeling or sense that another entity, individual or being is present despite no clear sensory or perceptual evidence-is known to occur in the general population, appears more frequently in religious or spiritual contexts, and seems to be prominent in certain psychiatric or neurological conditions and may reflect specific functions of social cognition or body-image representation systems in the brain. Previous research has relied on ad-hoc measures of the experience and no specific psychometric scale to measure the experience exists to date...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364588/a-latent-profile-analysis-of-schizotypal-dimensions-associations-with-psychopathology-and-personality
#19
Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero, Javier Ortuño-Sierra, Alicia Pérez de Álbeniz, José Muñiz, Alex S Cohen
The main goal of the present study was to explore the latent structure of schizotypal traits in non-clinical young adults, and compare the latent profiles in clinical and personality characteristics: mental distress, psychosis-proneness, hypomanic experiences, and anticipatory and consummatory pleasure. A large sample of college students (N =1002; mean age =21.11 years; SD =3.92) were administered the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief Revised, the Mood Disorder Questionnaire, the short version of the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences, the General Health Questionnaire-12, and the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale...
February 20, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347257/antipsychotic-treatment-of-schizotypy-and-schizotypal-personality-disorder-a-systematic-review
#20
Klaus Damgaard Jakobsen, Eva Skyum, Nasseh Hashemi, Ole Schjerning, Anders Fink-Jensen, Jimmi Nielsen
Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is characterised by thought disorders, experiences of illusions, obsessive ruminations, bizarre or eccentric behaviour, cognitive problems and deficits in social functioning - symptoms that SPD shares with schizophrenia. Efforts have been undertaken to investigate the relationship between these conditions regarding genetics, pathophysiology, and phenomenology. However, treatment of SPD with antipsychotics has received less scientific attention. Embase and PubMed databases were searched using all known generic names of antipsychotics as search terms in combination with the following diagnostic terms: latent schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder, latent type schizophrenia, or SPD...
April 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
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