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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757142/autistic-traits-but-not-schizotypy-predict-increased-weighting-of-sensory-information-in-bayesian-visual-integration
#1
Povilas Karvelis, Aaron R Seitz, Stephen M Lawrie, Peggy Seriès
Recent theories propose that schizophrenia/schizotypy and autistic spectrum disorder are related to impairments in Bayesian inference i.e. how the brain integrates sensory information (likelihoods) with prior knowledge. However existing accounts fail to clarify: i) how proposed theories differ in accounts of ASD vs. schizophrenia and ii) whether the impairments result from weaker priors or enhanced likelihoods. Here, we directly address these issues by characterizing how 91 healthy participants, scored for autistic and schizotypal traits, implicitly learned and combined priors with sensory information...
May 14, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754710/attributional-biases-in-psychiatric-patients-a-religious-and-a-control-group-in-the-assessment-of-a-hallucinatory-experience-the-white-christmas-test
#2
Alejandro Parra, Gianina Maschi
The aim of this study was to evaluate the auditory hallucinatory experience in a clinical sample of patients with psychiatric symptoms (e.g. Schizophrenia), a religious group (eg. Christians) and a "control" group (with no mental disorder and non-religious). The sample consisted of individuals of both sexes. The patient sample was recruited in two psychiatric hospitals of Buenos Aires City, the religious from an evangelical cult, and people with no religious beliefs or previous psychiatric symptoms (control group)...
April 2018: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754020/the-relationship-between-schizotypal-traits-and-hoarding-symptoms-an-examination-of-symptom-specificity-and-the-role-of-perceived-cognitive-failures
#3
Marc J Weintraub, Caitlin A Brown, Kiara R Timpano
BACKGROUND: Hoarding disorder presents significant individual and interpersonal consequences. Because hoarding has only recently been added to the DSM, relatively little is known about associated comorbidity patterns. Several researchers have postulated a relationship between hoarding and schizotypy. To date, however, no investigations have considered which specific types of schizotypal traits relate to hoarding symptoms. METHODS: We examined the association between hoarding and schizotypal symptoms using multivariate analyses in two samples-a sample of 120 young adults and a community sample of 291 individuals recruited from Mechanical Turk's online crowdsourcing system...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730662/anomalous-self-experiences-markers-of-schizophrenia-vulnerability-or-symptoms-of-depersonalization-disorder-a-phenomenological-investigation-of-two-cases
#4
Tor Gunnar Værnes, Jan Ivar Røssberg, Paul Møller
BACKGROUND: Basic self-disturbance (BSD) is proposed to constitute the clinical core of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, including prodromal states and schizotypy. Anomalous self-experiences (ASEs) are suggested as phenotypic variants of BSD, representing markers of schizophrenia vulnerability. However, ASEs are not restricted to the schizophrenia spectrum, but may also occur in non-psychotic states like depersonalization disorder (DPD). It is unclear to what extent the prevalence and nature of ASEs are differing between the two conditions...
May 4, 2018: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722996/validity-of-the-multidimensional-schizotypy-scale-associations-with-schizotypal-traits-and-normal-personality
#5
Thomas R Kwapil, Georgina M Gross, Chris J Burgin, Michael L Raulin, Paul J Silvia, Neus Barrantes-Vidal
The present study provided the first examination of the construct validity of the Multidimensional Schizotypy Scale (MSS) and the first assessment of its psychometric properties outside of its derivation samples. The MSS contains 77 items that assess positive, negative, and disorganized schizotypy. A large multisite sample of 1,430 participants completed the MSS and measures of schizotypal personality traits and the five-factor model of personality. The MSS subscales had good-to-excellent internal consistency reliability that showed no shrinkage relative to the MSS derivation samples...
May 3, 2018: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710317/association-of-substance-use-disorders-with-conversion-from-schizotypal-disorder-to-schizophrenia
#6
Carsten Hjorthøj, Nikolai Albert, Merete Nordentoft
Importance: Understanding the role of substance use disorders in conversion from schizotypal disorder to schizophrenia may provide physicians and psychiatrists with important tools for prevention or early detection of schizophrenia. Objective: To investigate whether substance use disorders, in particular cannabis use disorder, are associated with conversion to schizophrenia in individuals with schizotypal disorder. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study included a population-based sample of all individuals born in Denmark from January 1, 1981, through August 10, 2014, with an incident diagnosis of schizotypal disorder and without a previous diagnosis of schizophrenia...
April 25, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702302/cluster-analysis-reveals-subclinical-subgroups-with-shared-autistic-and-schizotypal-traits
#7
Talitha C Ford, Pragalathan Apputhurai, Denny Meyer, David P Crewther
Autism and schizophrenia spectrum research is typically based on coarse diagnostic classification, which overlooks individual variation within clinical groups. This method limits the identification of underlying cognitive, genetic and neural correlates of specific symptom dimensions. This study, therefore, aimed to identify homogenous subclinical subgroups of specific autistic and schizotypal traits dimensions, that may be utilised to establish more effective diagnostic and treatment practices. Latent profile analysis of subscale scores derived from an autism-schizotypy questionnaire, completed by 1678 subclinical adults aged 18-40 years (1250 females), identified a local optimum of eight population clusters: High, Moderate and Low Psychosocial Difficulties; High, Moderate and Low Autism-Schizotypy; High Psychosis-Proneness; and Moderate Schizotypy...
April 14, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694318/well-being-in-schizotypy-the-effect-of-subclinical-psychotic-experiences
#8
Ascensión Fumero, Rosario J Marrero, Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero
BACKGROUND: Schizotypy is a multidimensional construct that includes positive, negative, and disorganized dimensions. The healthy schizotypal model suggests that positive schizotypal features could be associated with better psychological functioning. The aim of this study was to analyze whether schizotypal features are associated with subjective and psychological well-being, and consider whether psychotic-like experiences affect well-being. METHOD: These relationships were investigated in two hundred non-clinical Spanish adults (mean age = 34...
May 2018: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685421/altered-short-term-neural-plasticity-related-to-schizotypal-traits-evidence-from-visual-adaptation
#9
Katharine N Thakkar, Anna Antinori, Olivia L Carter, Jan W Brascamp
Abnormalities in synaptic plasticity are argued to underlie the neural dysconnectivity observed in schizophrenia. One way to measure synaptic plasticity is through sensory adaptation, whereby sensory neurons exhibit reduced sensitivity after sustained stimulus exposure. Evidence for decreased adaptation in individuals with schizophrenia is currently inconclusive, possibly due to heterogeneity in clinical and medication status across samples. Here we circumvent these confounds by examining whether altered adaptation is represented sub-clinically in the general population...
April 20, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684178/the-network-structure-of-schizotypal-personality-traits
#10
Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero, Javier Ortuño, Martin Debbané, Raymond C K Chan, David Cicero, Lisa C Zhang, Colleen Brenner, Emma Barkus, Richard J Linscott, Thomas Kwapil, Neus Barrantes-Vidal, Alex Cohen, Adrian Raine, Michael T Compton, Erin B Tone, Julie Suhr, Felix Inchausti, Julio Bobes, Axit Fumero, Stella Giakoumaki, Ioannis Tsaousis, Antonio Preti, Michael Chmielewski, Julien Laloyaux, Anwar Mechri, Mohamed Aymen Lahmar, Viviana Wuthrich, Frank Larøi, Johanna C Badcock, Assen Jablensky, Adela M Isvoranu, Sacha Epskamp, Eiko I Fried
Elucidating schizotypal traits is important if we are to understand the various manifestations of psychosis spectrum liability and to reliably identify individuals at high risk for psychosis. The present study examined the network structures of (1) 9 schizotypal personality domains and (2) 74 individual schizotypal items, and (3) explored whether networks differed across gender and culture (North America vs China). The study was conducted in a sample of 27001 participants from 12 countries and 21 sites (M age = 22...
April 19, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679842/context-matters-social-cognition-task-performance-in-psychometric-schizotypes
#11
Madeline J Pflum, Diane C Gooding
Patients with schizophrenia show performance deficits on tasks requiring empathy-related social cognition. The extent to which empathy impairments are observed in psychometric schizotypy is unclear. We compared accuracy and reaction time in three groups of individuals characterized by positive schizotypy (n = 79), negative schizotypy (n = 123), or low schizotypy group (n = 137). On a social cognition task that provided context, namely, the Emotion Perspective Taking Task, the positive schizotypes showed poorer performance than the negative schizotypy and control groups...
April 4, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661523/a-positive-psychological-intervention-reduces-acute-psychosis-proneness
#12
Phillip Grant, Aisha Judith Leila Munk, Juergen Hennig
BACKGROUND: While individuals at ultra-risk for schizophrenia are characterized by high negative/disorganised but low positive schizotypy, schizophrenia patients are usually high in all three schizotypy facets. Thus, avoiding increases in positive schizotypy in ultra-high risk individuals may constitute of form of schizophrenia-prevention. A possible method of reducing positive schizotypy could be Positive-Psychological intervention (PI). METHODS: We present results from 2 independent studies, including a 12-month follow-up from study 1, using an easy-to-perform intervention based on Positive Psychology to reduce positive schizotypy...
April 13, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625786/development-and-public-release-of-a-computerized-adaptive-cat-version-of-the-schizotypal-personality-questionnaire
#13
Tyler M Moore, Monica E Calkins, Steven P Reise, Ruben C Gur, Raquel E Gur
One of the most widely used measures of psychosis-related symptoms and characteristics is the 74-item Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). Using multidimensional Item Response Theory (bifactor 2-parameter model), we calibrated SPQ items in a sample of 375 youths aged 9-24 years and constructed a fully functional computerized adaptive form of the SPQ on an open-source platform for public use. To assess validity, we used the above parameters to simulate CAT sessions in a separate validation sample (N = 100) using three test-length-based stopping rules: 8 items, 16 items, and 32 items...
February 8, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618388/psychotic-traits-in-musicians
#14
Oliver Mason, Heidi Daniels
The association of music with madness is very longstanding. But is it more than myth, and if so what is the nature of this relationship? We tested the hypotheses that musicians possess greater schizotypy and symptoms of bipolar disorder. A total of 102 musicians were found to have greater positive and negative schizotypal traits when compared to matched norms on the shortened Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences. Based on the Mood Disorder Questionnaire, 10.8% of musicians also met criteria for lifetime bipolar disorder...
April 5, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618094/clustering-of-schizotypal-features-in-unaffected-first-degree-relatives-of-schizophrenia-patients
#15
Simon S Y Lui, Karen S Y Hung, Yi Wang, Karen K Y Ho, Hera K H Yeung, Ya Wang, Jia Huang, Diane C Gooding, Eric F C Cheung, Raymond C K Chan
Meehl conceptualized schizotypy as the phenotypic manifestations of a neural integrative defect resulting from a schizophrenia diathesis. The majority of schizotypy studies recruited subjects from the general population and revealed a multidimensional construct. This 2-phase investigation first examined the clustering of schizotypy in 194 unaffected relatives of schizophrenia patients using the Chapman Psychosis Proneness scales and then directly compared the cognitive profiles of negative schizotypal individuals and positive schizotypal individuals with schizophrenia patients and controls...
March 31, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609984/evaluating-the-role-of-functional-impairment-in-personality-psychopathology
#16
Jennifer K Boland, Tatjana Damnjanovic, Jaime L Anderson
DSM-5's Section III Alternative Model for Personality Disorder (AMPD) model states that an individual must show impairment in self and interpersonal functioning for PD diagnosis. The current study investigated dimensional personality trait associations with impairment, including differential patterns of impairment across specific PDs, and whether traits have improved our assessment of functional impairment in PDs. Two-hundred and seventy-seven participants were administered measures of Antisocial PD, Avoidant PD, Borderline PD, Narcissistic PD, Obsessive-Compulsive PD, and Schizotypal PD from the perspectives of Section II (PDQ-4) and Section III (PID-5) PD models, as well as measures of functional impairment in interpersonal and intrapersonal domains...
March 22, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603664/exploring-electrophysiological-correlates-of-social-cognition-in-subclinical-schizotypy
#17
Charlie Andrew Davidson, John E Kiat, Melissa Tarasenko, A Jocelyn Ritchie, Dennis Molfese, William D Spaulding
Impairments in social cognition and associated abnormalities in brain function are well documented in psychotic disorders. They may represent neurodevelopmental vulnerabilities and may therefore be present in less severe or even subclinical conditions of the schizophrenia spectrum, such as schizotypy. Schizotypy has features highly suggestive of social cognitive impairments, but little is known about possible related abnormalities of brain function. This exploratory pilot study examines electrophysiological event-related potentials (ERPs) implicated in schizophrenia, in 23 undergraduates with a range of subclinical schizotypal characteristics...
March 30, 2018: Personality and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601887/schizotypal-traits-and-forearm-motor-control-against-self-other-produced-action-in-a-bimanual-unloading-task
#18
Yoshihiro Itaguchi, Eriko Sugimori, Kazuyoshi Fukuzawa
The present study investigated the relation between schizotypy and motor control against self- or other-produced action. We used an unloading task to focus on the timing component of anticipatory motor control. In the task, a weight was removed from a participants' hand by the participants themselves or by an experimenter (voluntary versus imposed unloading). Postural disturbance at the removal timing was measured as an index of predictive function in motor control. We hypothesized that the postural disturbance in the voluntary unloading would be positively related to schizotypal traits; however, the results did not support this theory...
March 27, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567403/comparisons-of-schizotypal-traits-across-12-countries-results-from-the-international-consortium-for-schizotypy-research
#19
Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero, Raymond C K Chan, Martin Debbané, David Cicero, Lisa C Zhang, Colleen Brenner, Emma Barkus, Richard J Linscott, Thomas Kwapil, Neus Barrantes-Vidal, Alex Cohen, Adrian Raine, Michael T Compton, Erin B Tone, Julie Suhr, José Muñiz, Alicia Pérez de Albéniz, Axit Fumero, Stella Giakoumaki, Ioannis Tsaousis, Antonio Preti, Michael Chmielewski, Julien Laloyaux, Anwar Mechri, Mohamed Aymen Lahmar, Viviana Wuthrich, Frank Larøi, Johanna C Badcock, Assen Jablensky, Javier Ortuño-Sierra
BACKGROUND: Schizotypal traits are expressions of underlying vulnerability to psychotic disorders which have a potential impact on mental health status, neurocognition, quality of life, and daily functioning. To date, little research has examined epidemiologic landscape of schizotypal traits at the cross-national level. Our aim was to study the expression of schizotypal traits by sex, age, and country in a combined sample gathered from 12 countries. METHODS: A total of 27,001 participants completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ)...
March 19, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566227/resting-state-networks-of-adolescents-experiencing-depersonalization-like-illusions-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-findings
#20
Mélodie Derome, Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero, Deborah Badoud, Larisa Morosan, Dimitri Van De Ville, François Lazeyras, Stephan Eliez, Raymond Chan, David Rudrauf, Sophie Schwartz, Martin Debbane
The mirror-gazing task (MGT) experimentally induces illusions, ranging from simple color changes in the specular image of oneself, to depersonalization-like anomalous self-experiences (ASE) as in experiencing one's specular image as someone else. The objective was to characterize how connectivity in resting-state networks (RSNs) differed in adolescents reporting such depersonalization-like ASEs during the MGT, in a cross-sectional (Y1) and in a longitudinal manner (a year after). 75 adolescents were recruited; for the cross-sectional analysis, participants were split into 2 groups: those who reported depersonalization-like ASEs on the MGT (ASE), and those who did not (NoASE)...
March 15, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
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