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Schizotypy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761988/neurological-soft-signs-precede-the-onset-of-schizophrenia-a-study-of-individuals-with-schizotypy-ultra-high-risk-individuals-and-first-onset-schizophrenia
#1
Raymond C K Chan, Hui-Ru Cui, Min-Yi Chu, Tian-Hong Zhang, Ya Wang, Yi Wang, Zhi Li, Simon S Y Lui, Ji-Jun Wang, Eric F C Cheung
Neurological soft signs (NSS) are one of the biomarkers for schizophrenia spectrum disorders. However, a few studies have examined the prevalence of NSS across the schizophrenia spectrum. The present study adopted a quasi-longitudinal study design and examined the prevalence of NSS and their associations with clinical and behavioural manifestations in participants in different stages of the illness. The abridged version of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory was administered to 39 patients with the first-episode schizophrenia, 39 individuals with ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis, 39 individuals with schizotypy, and 39 healthy controls...
July 31, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760538/schizotypy-is-associated-with-reduced-mnemonic-precision-in-visual-working-memory
#2
Weizhen Xie, Marcus Cappiello, Hyung-Bum Park, Patricia Deldin, Raymond C K Chan, Weiwei Zhang
BACKGROUND: Working memory (WM) maintains a limited amount of information over a short period of time at the service of other ongoing mental activities. Deficits in this function are often observed in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The present study examined whether self-report schizotypy was associated with the qualitative, quantitative, or both aspects of visual WM and whether these impairments could be accounted for by sensory memory deficits and/or depressed mood in a group of non-clinical, medication-naïve participants...
July 28, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758885/dimensional-traits-of-schizotypy-associated-with-glycine-receptor-glra1-polymorphism-an-exploratory-candidate-gene-association-study
#3
Anvi K Vora, Amanda M Fisher, Antonia S New, Erin A Hazlett, Margaret McNamara, Qiaoping Yuan, Zhifeng Zhou, Colin Hodgkinson, David Goldman, Larry J Siever, Panos Roussos, M Mercedes Perez-Rodriguez
Schizotypy captures the underlying genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia. However, the genetic underpinnings of schizotypy remain unexplored. The authors examined the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and schizotypy. A sample of 137 subjects (43 healthy controls, 34 subjects with schizotypal personality disorder [SPD], 32 with borderline personality disorder, and 25 with other personality disorders) completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). Subjects were genotyped using a custom array chip...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751128/trajectories-of-schizotypy-and-their-emotional-and-social-functioning-an-18-month-follow-up-study
#4
Yi Wang, Hai-Song Shi, Wen-Hua Liu, Dong-Jie Xie, Fu-Lei Geng, Chao Yan, Ya Wang, Ya-Hui Xiao, Suzanne H W So, Chui-De Chiu, Patrick W L Leung, Eric F C Cheung, Diane C Gooding, Raymond C K Chan
Schizotypy is a set of personality traits that convey liability to develop schizophrenia. Studying schizotypy in healthy individuals may facilitate the understanding of the psychopathological processes underlying schizophrenia. The present study aimed to examine the developmental trajectories of schizotypy over time using a longitudinal study design. The Chapman Scales for Psychosis Proneness were administered to 1541 college students at baseline, and subsequently at six-monthly intervals up to 18months. Latent class growth analysis was conducted to track the different trajectories...
July 24, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750214/childhood-trauma-is-not-a-confounder-of-the-overlap-between-autistic-and-schizotypal-traits-a-study-in-a-non-clinical-adult-sample
#5
Jing-Bo Gong, Ya Wang, Simon S Y Lui, Eric F C Cheung, Raymond C K Chan
Childhood trauma has been shown to be a robust risk factor for mental disorders, and may exacerbate schizotypal traits or contribute to autistic trait severity. However, little is known whether childhood trauma confounds the overlap between schizotypal traits and autistic traits. This study examined whether childhood trauma acts as a confounding variable in the overlap between autistic and schizotypal traits in a large non-clinical adult sample. A total of 2469 participants completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form...
July 17, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740822/neurological-soft-signs-effects-of-trait-schizotypy-psychological-distress-and-auditory-hallucination-predisposition
#6
Saskia de Leede-Smith, Steven Roodenrys, Lauren Horsley, Shannen Matrini, Erin Mison, Emma Barkus
Schizotypy is regarded as a trait vulnerability for psychotic disorders, yet alone is insufficient for development of a diagnosable disorder. Additional symptoms and psychological distress are necessary for help seeking and transition from an at risk mental state to a clinical diagnosis. The present study investigated the interaction between trait schizotypy, state auditory verbal hallucination (AVH) predisposition, distress and handedness for the expression of neurological soft signs (NSS), a neurodevelopmental vulnerability factor for psychosis...
March 2017: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740815/positive-schizotypy-and-negative-schizotypy-are-associated-with-differential-patterns-of-episodic-memory-impairment
#7
Lili Sahakyan, Thomas R Kwapil
Cognitive impairment is a hallmark of schizophrenia; however, studies have not comprehensively examined such impairments in non-clinically ascertained schizotypic young adults. The present study employed a series of measures to assess episodic memory in high positive schizotypy, high negative schizotypy, and comparison groups (each group n = 25). Consistent with diminished cognitive functioning seen in negative symptom schizophrenia, the negative schizotypy group exhibited deficits on free recall, recognition, and source memory tasks...
September 2016: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740810/schizotypy-and-mindfulness-magical-thinking-without-suspiciousness-characterizes-mindfulness-meditators
#8
Elena Antonova, Kavitha Amaratunga, Bernice Wright, Ulrich Ettinger, Veena Kumari
Despite growing evidence for demonstrated efficacy of mindfulness in various disorders, there is a continuous concern about the relationship between mindfulness practice and psychosis. As schizotypy is part of the psychosis spectrum, we examined the relationship between long-term mindfulness practice and schizotypy in two independent studies. Study 1 included 24 experienced mindfulness practitioners (19 males) from the Buddhist tradition (meditators) and 24 meditation-naïve individuals (all males). Study 2 consisted of 28 meditators and 28 meditation-naïve individuals (all males)...
September 2016: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735642/development-and-psychometric-properties-of-the-multidimensional-schizotypy-scale-a-new-measure-for-assessing-positive-negative-and-disorganized-schizotypy
#9
Thomas R Kwapil, Georgina M Gross, Paul J Silvia, Michael L Raulin, Neus Barrantes-Vidal
This article reports on the development of a new self-report questionnaire measure of schizotypy - the Multidimensional Schizotypy Scale (MSS). Schizotypy offers a useful and unifying construct for understanding schizophrenia-spectrum psychopathology. Questionnaire measures have been widely used to assess schizotypy and have greatly informed our understanding of the construct. However, available measures suffer from a number of limitations, including lack of a clear conceptual framework, outdated wording, unclear factor structure, and psychometric shortcomings...
July 20, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734178/subcortical-surface-shape-in-youth-at-familial-high-risk-for-schizophrenia
#10
Kathryn Hill, Nicolas Bolo, Suraj Sarvode Mothi, Paulo Lizano, Synthia Guimond, Neeraj Tandon, Elena Molokotos, Matcheri Keshavan
Abnormalities in the subcortical brain regions that support cognitive functions have been reported in schizophrenia. Relatives of those with schizophrenia often present with psychosis-like traits (schizotypy) and similar cognition as those with schizophrenia. To evaluate the relationships between subcortical structure, schizotypy, and cognitive function, we assessed shape and volume of the hippocampus, amygdala and thalamus in untreated youth at familial high risk for schizophrenia (HRSZ). The sample consisted of 66 HRSZ and 69 age-matched healthy controls (HC)...
July 14, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719056/tracking-salience-in-young-people-a-psychometric-field-test-of-the-aberrant-salience-inventory-asi
#11
Andrea Raballo, David C Cicero, John G Kerns, Sara Sanna, Mirra Pintus, Ingrid Agartz, Elisa Pintus, Irene Corrias, Veronica Lai, Donatella Rita Petretto, Mauro G Carta, Antonio Preti
AIM: To explore the prevalence of Aberrant Salience (AS, an alleged experiential feature of psychosis-proneness) in Italian young people and corroborate the transcultural validity of the Aberrant Salience Inventory (ASI). METHODS: Young adults attending an Italian university (n = 649) underwent serial evaluations with the ASI together with psychometric proxies for help seeking General Health Questionnaire and attenuated positive and negative symptoms Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ)...
July 18, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714081/combining-two-model-systems-of-psychosis-the-effects-of-schizotypy-and-sleep-deprivation-on-oculomotor-control-and-psychotomimetic-states
#12
Inga Meyhöfer, Maria Steffens, Eliana Faiola, Anna-Maria Kasparbauer, Veena Kumari, Ulrich Ettinger
Model systems of psychosis, such as schizotypy or sleep deprivation, are valuable in informing our understanding of the etiology of the disorder and aiding the development of new treatments. Schizophrenia patients, high schizotypes, and sleep-deprived subjects are known to share deficits in oculomotor biomarkers. Here, we aimed to further validate the schizotypy and sleep deprivation models and investigated, for the first time, their interactive effects on smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM), prosaccades, antisaccades, predictive saccades, and measures of psychotomimetic states, anxiety, depression, and stress...
July 17, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712364/the-structure-of-schizotypal-personality-traits-a-cross-national-study
#13
E Fonseca-Pedrero, M Debbané, J Ortuño-Sierra, R C K Chan, D C Cicero, L C Zhang, C Brenner, E Barkus, R J Linscott, T Kwapil, N Barrantes-Vidal, A Cohen, A Raine, M T Compton, E B Tone, J Suhr, J Muñiz, A Fumero, S Giakoumaki, I Tsaousis, A Preti, M Chmielewski, J Laloyaux, A Mechri, M A Lahmar, V Wuthrich, F Larøi, J C Badcock, A Jablensky
BACKGROUND: Schizotypal traits are considered a phenotypic-indicator of schizotypy, a latent personality organization reflecting a putative liability for psychosis. To date, no previous study has examined the comparability of factorial structures across samples originating from different countries and cultures. The main goal was to evaluate the factorial structure and reliability of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) scores by amalgamating data from studies conducted in 12 countries and across 21 sites...
July 17, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705020/differential-item-functioning-of-the-full-and-brief-wisconsin-schizotypy-scales-in-asian-white-hispanic-and-multiethnic-samples-and-between-sexes
#14
David C Cicero, Elizabeth A Martin, Alexander Krieg
The Wisconsin Schizotypy Scales, including their brief versions, are among the most commonly used self-report measures of schizotypy. Although they have been used extensively in many ethnic groups, few studies have examined their differential item functioning (DIF) across groups. The current study included 1,056 Asian, 408 White, 476 Multiethnic, and 372 Hispanic undergraduates. Unidimensional models of the brief Magical Ideation Scale and Perceptual Aberration Scales fit the data well. For both scales, global tests of measurement invariance provided mixed evidence, but few of the items displayed DIF across ethnicities or between sexes within a multiple indicator multiple causes model...
July 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699102/-the-concept-of-schizoidia-in-psychiatry-from-schizoidia-to-schizotypy-and-cluster%C3%A2-a-personality-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Hans-Peter Kapfhammer
From a perspective of conceptual evolution schizoidia was initially considered to describe features both of the premorbid personality of schizophrenic patients and of the personalities of non-psychotic family members (Bleuler, Kahlbaum, Kraepelin). On a psychopatholocial level a close link to the complex basic symptom of autism was stressed. From the very beginnings of modern psychiatry schizoidia was discussed within a conceptual frame of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (Kretschmer, Hoch, Polatin). Approaches to operationalize these conceptual works laid the basis for the cluster A personalities in DSM-III...
July 11, 2017: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697644/evidence-of-absence-no-relationship-between-behaviourally-measured-prediction-error-response-and-schizotypy
#16
Clara S Humpston, Lisa H Evans, Christoph Teufel, Niklas Ihssen, David E J Linden
INTRODUCTION: The predictive processing framework has attracted much interest in the field of schizophrenia research in recent years, with an increasing number of studies also carried out in healthy individuals with nonclinical psychosis-like experiences. The current research adopted a continuum approach to psychosis and aimed to investigate different types of prediction error responses in relation to psychometrically defined schizotypy. METHODS: One hundred and two healthy volunteers underwent a battery of behavioural tasks including (a) a force-matching task, (b) a Kamin blocking task, and (c) a reversal learning task together with three questionnaires measuring domains of schizotypy from different approaches...
July 11, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667929/using-lexical-analysis-to-identify-emotional-distress-in-psychometric-schizotypy
#17
Samuel J Abplanalp, Benjamin Buck, Virgilio Gonzenbach, Carlos Janela, Paul H Lysaker, Kyle S Minor
Through the use of lexical analysis software, researchers have demonstrated a greater frequency of negative affect word use in those with schizophrenia and schizotypy compared to the general population. In addition, those with schizotypy endorse greater emotional distress than healthy controls. In this study, our aim was to expand on previous findings in schizotypy to determine whether negative affect word use could be linked to emotional distress. Schizotypy (n=33) and non-schizotypy groups (n=33) completed an open-ended, semi-structured interview and negative affect word use was analyzed using a validated lexical analysis instrument...
September 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646791/disorganised-schizotypy-is-selectively-associated-with-poorer-semantic-processing-in-non-clinical-individuals
#18
Eric Josiah Tan, Susan Lee Rossell
The nature and severity of semantic memory (SM) impairments in schizophrenia has been related to symptoms, mainly formal thought disorder (FTD), and other clinical factors like length of illness. Symptom-related studies in schizophrenia are often confounded by clinical factors, for example medication and hospitalisations. We completed a schizotypy analogue study to examine the relationship between SM processing and FTD using an analogue schizotypy score referred to as cognitive disorganisation. Sixty individuals without a history of mental illness (M=22...
June 20, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645078/facial-affect-recognition-and-social-functioning-among-individuals-with-varying-degrees-of-schizotypy
#19
Marta Statucka, Deborah J Walder
Facial affect recognition (FAR) accuracy is impaired in schizophrenia and, to a lesser extent, in individuals at-risk for psychosis. Reduced reaction time and negative bias on FAR tasks are also evident in schizophrenia, though few studies have examined these measures in at-risk samples. Social dysfunction is associated with FAR deficits in schizophrenia and at-risk individuals. We aimed to elucidate the nature of FAR and social functioning among individuals from a non-clinical population reporting a range of schizotypal traits (i...
June 15, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642726/urban-legends-and-paranormal-beliefs-the-role-of-reality-testing-and-schizotypy
#20
Neil Dagnall, Andrew Denovan, Kenneth Drinkwater, Andrew Parker, Peter J Clough
Recent research suggests that unconventional beliefs are locatable within a generic anomalous belief category. This notion derives from the observation that apparently dissimilar beliefs share fundamental, core characteristics (i.e., contradiction of orthodox scientific understanding of the universe and defiance of conventional understanding of reality). The present paper assessed the supposition that anomalous beliefs were conceptually similar and explicable via common psychological processes by comparing relationships between discrete beliefs [endorsement of urban legends (ULs) and belief in the paranormal] and cognitive-perceptual personality measures [proneness to reality testing (RT) and schizotypy]...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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