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Schizotypy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424380/-schizotypy-detachment-or-magical-fusion
#1
János Kállai, Mária Simon, István Hartung, Béla Birkás, Róbert Herold
Nowadays, both in the clinical population, and in general communities, we tend to encounter an increasing number of personality disorder patients, whose social adjustment, partnerships and efficient life management is made difficult by the disorder. The ideas of borderline personality disorder patients, who fluctuate between farfetched expectations and fears of their selves being demolished, schizoid patients, who close their selves in their own alienating prison, avoidant patients, who try to escape difficulties, which would enhance their self-esteem, OCD patients, who build their own mythic superstitious world, and antisocial patients who tend to ignore and aggressively override others' interests are all important in the development of cultures with insecure identities...
2017: Psychiatria Hungarica: A Magyar Pszichiátriai Társaság Tudományos Folyóirata
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383650/schizotypy-independent-and-schizotypy-modulated-cognitive-impairments-in-unaffected-first-degree-relatives-of-schizophrenia-spectrum-patients
#2
Chrysoula Zouraraki, Penny Karamaouna, Leda Karagiannopoulou, Stella G Giakoumaki
Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the neurocognitive profile of unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients with control individuals, controlling for different schizotypal traits. Method: One hundred and fifteen adult unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia-spectrum patients and 122 controls were tested for schizotypy with the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire. They also underwent a thorough neurocognitive assessment with a range of tasks covering several aspects of executive functioning...
April 5, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375210/corticolimbic-hyper-response-to-emotion-and-glutamatergic-function-in-people-with-high-schizotypy-a-multimodal-fmri-mrs-study
#3
G Modinos, A McLaughlin, A Egerton, K McMullen, V Kumari, G J Barker, C Keysers, S C R Williams
Animal models and human neuroimaging studies suggest that altered levels of glutamatergic metabolites within a corticolimbic circuit have a major role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Rodent models propose that prefrontal glutamate dysfunction could lead to amygdala hyper-response to environmental stress and underlie hippocampal overdrive in schizophrenia. Here we determine whether changes in brain glutamate are present in individuals with high schizotypy (HS), which refers to the presence of schizophrenia-like characteristics in healthy individuals, and whether glutamate levels are related to altered corticolimbic response to emotion...
April 4, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367379/the-sensed-presence-questionnaire-senpq-initial-psychometric-validation-of-a-measure-of-the-sensed-presence-experience
#4
Joseph M Barnby, Vaughan Bell
BACKGROUND: The experience of 'sensed presence'-a feeling or sense that another entity, individual or being is present despite no clear sensory or perceptual evidence-is known to occur in the general population, appears more frequently in religious or spiritual contexts, and seems to be prominent in certain psychiatric or neurological conditions and may reflect specific functions of social cognition or body-image representation systems in the brain. Previous research has relied on ad-hoc measures of the experience and no specific psychometric scale to measure the experience exists to date...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364588/a-latent-profile-analysis-of-schizotypal-dimensions-associations-with-psychopathology-and-personality
#5
Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero, Javier Ortuño-Sierra, Alicia Pérez de Álbeniz, José Muñiz, Alex S Cohen
The main goal of the present study was to explore the latent structure of schizotypal traits in non-clinical young adults, and compare the latent profiles in clinical and personality characteristics: mental distress, psychosis-proneness, hypomanic experiences, and anticipatory and consummatory pleasure. A large sample of college students (N =1002; mean age =21.11 years; SD =3.92) were administered the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief Revised, the Mood Disorder Questionnaire, the short version of the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences, the General Health Questionnaire-12, and the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale...
February 20, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347257/antipsychotic-treatment-of-schizotypy-and-schizotypal-personality-disorder-a-systematic-review
#6
Klaus Damgaard Jakobsen, Eva Skyum, Nasseh Hashemi, Ole Schjerning, Anders Fink-Jensen, Jimmi Nielsen
Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is characterised by thought disorders, experiences of illusions, obsessive ruminations, bizarre or eccentric behaviour, cognitive problems and deficits in social functioning - symptoms that SPD shares with schizophrenia. Efforts have been undertaken to investigate the relationship between these conditions regarding genetics, pathophysiology, and phenomenology. However, treatment of SPD with antipsychotics has received less scientific attention. Embase and PubMed databases were searched using all known generic names of antipsychotics as search terms in combination with the following diagnostic terms: latent schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder, latent type schizophrenia, or SPD...
April 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288547/neuropsychological-correlates-of-schizotypy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-cross-sectional-studies
#7
Sara Siddi, Donatella Rita Petretto, Antonio Preti
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive deficits can precede the onset of psychotic episodes and predict the onset of the illness in individuals with schizotypy traits. In some studies, high levels of schizotypy were associated with impairments in memory, attention, executive functions, and verbal fluency. This review provides a more comprehensive understanding of cognitive impairments related to schizoytpy. METHODS:  A systematic review of "schizotypy and neuropsychological measures" was conducted, and it retrieved 67 studies...
March 13, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253090/differential-patterns-in-mind-perception-in-subclinical-paranoia-relationships-to-self-reported-empathy
#8
Benjamin Buck, Neil Hester, David L Penn, Kurt Gray
INTRODUCTION: Although social cognition skills and biases are well-studied in paranoia, "mind perception" - perceiving the extent to which someone even possesses a thinking, feeling mind - is not. We sought to better characterise the profile of mind perception for individuals with paranoia. METHODS: We examined links between mind perception and paranoia in a large (n = 890) subclinical sample. Participants completed measures of paranoia, schizotypy, mind perception, and dispositional empathy...
March 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249639/baseline-demographics-clinical-features-and-predictors-of-conversion-among-200-individuals-in-a-longitudinal-prospective-psychosis-risk-cohort
#9
G Brucato, M D Masucci, L Y Arndt, S Ben-David, T Colibazzi, C M Corcoran, A H Crumbley, F M Crump, K E Gill, D Kimhy, A Lister, S A Schobel, L H Yang, J A Lieberman, R R Girgis
BACKGROUND: DSM-5 proposes an Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome (APS) for further investigation, based upon the Attenuated Positive Symptom Syndrome (APSS) in the Structured Interview for Psychosis-Risk Syndromes (SIPS). SIPS Unusual Thought Content, Disorganized Communication and Total Disorganization scores predicted progression to psychosis in a 2015 NAPLS-2 Consortium report. We sought to independently replicate this in a large single-site high-risk cohort, and identify baseline demographic and clinical predictors beyond current APS/APSS criteria...
March 2, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211553/the-assessment-of-schizotypy-by-the-o-life-oxford-liverpool-inventory-for-feelings-and-experiences-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-affective-disorders
#10
Daria Dembińska-Krajewska, Janusz Rybakowski
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess schizotypy by using the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE), in the groups of patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder (BD) and unipolar (recurrent) depression (UD). An important element of the study was to compare - in terms of similarity - the results obtained in schizophrenia and BD, and - in terms of differences - the results obtained in BD and UD. METHODS: The study involved 58 patients with schizophrenia (35 men, 23 women, mean age = 34...
December 23, 2016: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192768/schizotypal-and-affective-traits-in-the-offspring-of-antenatally-depressed-mothers-relationship-to-family-history-of-psychosis-in-the-northern-finland-1966-birth-cohort
#11
T Taka-Eilola Née Riekki, J Miettunen, P Mäki
BACKGROUND: Maternal depression is relatively common during pregnancy. However, follow-ups of the adult offspring of antenatally depressed mothers are scarce. Previously we found the risk of schizophrenia to be higher in the adult offspring with antenatally depressed mothers and parents with psychosis than in subjects with only one or neither of these risk factors. The aim was to study whether the risk of schizotypal or affective traits differ among adult offspring with antenatally depressed mothers with or without a parental history of psychosis when compared with offspring without antenatally depressed mothers and without parental psychosis...
December 28, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168598/brain-activity-underlying-negative-self-and-other-perception-in-adolescents-the-role-of-attachment-derived-self-representations
#12
Martin Debbané, Deborah Badoud, David Sander, Stephan Eliez, Patrick Luyten, Pascal Vrtička
One of teenagers' key developmental tasks is to engage in new and meaningful relationships with peers and adults outside the family context. Attachment-derived expectations about the self and others in terms of internal attachment working models have the potential to shape such social reorientation processes critically and thereby influence adolescents' social-emotional development and social integration. Because the neural underpinnings of this developmental task remain largely unknown, we sought to investigate them by functional magnetic resonance imaging...
February 6, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168302/a-neural-tuning-curve-for-multisensory-experience-and-cognitive-perceptual-schizotypy
#13
Francesca Ferri, Yuliya S Nikolova, Mauro Gianni Perrucci, Marcello Costantini, Antonio Ferretti, Valentina Gatta, Zirui Huang, Richard A E Edden, Qiang Yue, Marco D'Aurora, Etienne Sibille, Liborio Stuppia, Gian Luca Romani, Georg Northoff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149692/no-apparent-influence-of-psychometrically-defined-schizotypy-on-orientation-dependent-contextual-modulation-of-visual-contrast-detection
#14
Damien J Mannion, Chris Donkin, Thomas J Whitford
We investigated the relationship between psychometrically-defined schizotypy and the ability to detect a visual target pattern. Target detection is typically impaired by a surrounding pattern (context) with an orientation that is parallel to the target, relative to a surrounding pattern with an orientation that is orthogonal to the target (orientation-dependent contextual modulation). Based on reports that this effect is reduced in those with schizophrenia, we hypothesised that there would be a negative relationship between the relative score on psychometrically-defined schizotypy and the relative effect of orientation-dependent contextual modulation...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142065/deficits-in-reality-and-internal-source-monitoring-of-actions-are-associated-with-the-positive-dimension-of-schizotypy
#15
Clara S Humpston, David E J Linden, Lisa H Evans
People with schizophrenia have deficits in retrieving the source of memory information. Research has focused on two types of judgements: reality monitoring (discriminating internally-generated stimuli from external information) and internal source monitoring (distinguishing two different internal sources). The aim of the current study was to assess the relation between schizotypy and both types of source memory in healthy volunteers. One hundred and two participants completed two source memory tasks: one involved the completion of well-known word pairs (e...
January 23, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126052/schizotypal-traits-and-psychotic-like-experiences-during-adolescence-an-update
#16
Eduardo Fonseca Pedrero, Martin Debbané
BACKGROUND: The psychosis phenotype is distributed along a severity continuum that ranges from psychological well-being to full-blown psychosis. Schizotypal traits and psychotic-like experiences are considered as one of the possible phenotypic indicators of the latent liability for psychosis (named schizotypy). This selective review offers a general overview and update of trait schizotypy and psychotic like experiences during adolescence. METHOD: The previous literature on schizotypal traits  and psychotic like experiences is selectively reviewed...
February 2017: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070918/stereotype-threat-and-social-function-in-opioid-substitution-therapy-patients
#17
Courtney von Hippel, Julie D Henry, Gill Terrett, Kimberly Mercuri, Karen McAlear, Peter G Rendell
OBJECTIVES: People with a history of substance abuse are subject to widespread stigmatization. It seems likely that this societal disapproval will result in feelings of stereotype threat, or the belief that one is the target of demeaning stereotypes. If so, stereotype threat has the potential to contribute to functional difficulties including poor social outcomes. METHODS: Eighty drug users on opioid substitution therapy and 84 demographically matched controls completed measures of mental health and social function...
January 10, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040431/overshadowing-depends-on-cue-and-reinforcement-sensitivity-but-not-schizotypy
#18
Clare Pickett, Helen J Cassaday, Peter A Bibby
There is evidence for impaired selective learning mechanisms in individuals high in schizotypy. Overshadowing provides a direct test of selective learning based on cue salience and has previously been reported to be impaired in relation to schizotypy scores. The present study tested for overshadowing using food allergy and Lego construction task variants. Both variants used the same number of conditioned stimulus (CS) cues and the same number of learning trials. CS cues were trained in compound pairs or in isolation and overshadowing was subsequently tested on trials followed by negative versus positive outcomes...
March 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935733/correction-to-kane-et-al-2016
#19
Michael J Kane, Matt E Meier, Bridget A Smeekens, Georgina M Gross, Charlotte A Chun, Paul J Silvia, Thomas R Kwapil
Reports an error in "Individual differences in the executive control of attention, memory, and thought, and their associations with schizotypy" by Michael J. Kane, Matt E. Meier, Bridget A. Smeekens, Georgina M. Gross, Charlotte A. Chun, Paul J. Silvia and Thomas R. Kwapil (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 2016[Aug], Vol 145[8], 1017-1048). There were errors in Table 3 and Table 7 (these transcription errors were limited to descriptive statistics in the Tables and did not affect any inferential statistics)...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934937/spatiotemporal-processing-of-somatosensory-stimuli-in-schizotypy
#20
Francesca Ferri, Ettore Ambrosini, Marcello Costantini
Unusual interaction behaviors and perceptual aberrations, like those occurring in schizotypy and schizophrenia, may in part originate from impaired remapping of environmental stimuli in the body space. Such remapping is contributed by the integration of tactile and proprioceptive information about current body posture with other exteroceptive spatial information. Surprisingly, no study has investigated whether alterations in such remapping occur in psychosis-prone individuals. Four hundred eleven students were screened with respect to schizotypal traits using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
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