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Schizotypy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767457/suicidal-behavior-and-personality-traits-contribute-to-disability-in-first-episode-psychosis-a-1-year-follow-up-study
#1
Manuel Canal-Rivero, Javier-David Lopez-Moriñigo, Maria-Luisa Barrigón, Rosa Ayesa-Arriola, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Miguel Ruiz-Veguilla, Jordi E Obiols-Llandrich
BACKGROUND: Disability encompasses impairments, activity limitations, and restrictions on participation. Improvement in functioning has therefore become a crucial outcome of treatment in psychosis. OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this study was to analyze the potential relationship between suicidal behavior after first episode of psychosis (FEP) and family disability. The second aim was to find out whether personality traits are associated with disability dimensions...
May 16, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757142/autistic-traits-but-not-schizotypy-predict-increased-weighting-of-sensory-information-in-bayesian-visual-integration
#2
Povilas Karvelis, Aaron R Seitz, Stephen M Lawrie, Peggy Seriès
Recent theories propose that schizophrenia/schizotypy and autistic spectrum disorder are related to impairments in Bayesian inference i.e. how the brain integrates sensory information (likelihoods) with prior knowledge. However existing accounts fail to clarify: i) how proposed theories differ in accounts of ASD vs. schizophrenia and ii) whether the impairments result from weaker priors or enhanced likelihoods. Here, we directly address these issues by characterizing how 91 healthy participants, scored for autistic and schizotypal traits, implicitly learned and combined priors with sensory information...
May 14, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754710/attributional-biases-in-psychiatric-patients-a-religious-and-a-control-group-in-the-assessment-of-a-hallucinatory-experience-the-white-christmas-test
#3
Alejandro Parra, Gianina Maschi
The aim of this study was to evaluate the auditory hallucinatory experience in a clinical sample of patients with psychiatric symptoms (e.g. Schizophrenia), a religious group (eg. Christians) and a "control" group (with no mental disorder and non-religious). The sample consisted of individuals of both sexes. The patient sample was recruited in two psychiatric hospitals of Buenos Aires City, the religious from an evangelical cult, and people with no religious beliefs or previous psychiatric symptoms (control group)...
April 2018: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754020/the-relationship-between-schizotypal-traits-and-hoarding-symptoms-an-examination-of-symptom-specificity-and-the-role-of-perceived-cognitive-failures
#4
Marc J Weintraub, Caitlin A Brown, Kiara R Timpano
BACKGROUND: Hoarding disorder presents significant individual and interpersonal consequences. Because hoarding has only recently been added to the DSM, relatively little is known about associated comorbidity patterns. Several researchers have postulated a relationship between hoarding and schizotypy. To date, however, no investigations have considered which specific types of schizotypal traits relate to hoarding symptoms. METHODS: We examined the association between hoarding and schizotypal symptoms using multivariate analyses in two samples-a sample of 120 young adults and a community sample of 291 individuals recruited from Mechanical Turk's online crowdsourcing system...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730662/anomalous-self-experiences-markers-of-schizophrenia-vulnerability-or-symptoms-of-depersonalization-disorder-a-phenomenological-investigation-of-two-cases
#5
Tor Gunnar Værnes, Jan Ivar Røssberg, Paul Møller
BACKGROUND: Basic self-disturbance (BSD) is proposed to constitute the clinical core of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, including prodromal states and schizotypy. Anomalous self-experiences (ASEs) are suggested as phenotypic variants of BSD, representing markers of schizophrenia vulnerability. However, ASEs are not restricted to the schizophrenia spectrum, but may also occur in non-psychotic states like depersonalization disorder (DPD). It is unclear to what extent the prevalence and nature of ASEs are differing between the two conditions...
May 4, 2018: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722996/validity-of-the-multidimensional-schizotypy-scale-associations-with-schizotypal-traits-and-normal-personality
#6
Thomas R Kwapil, Georgina M Gross, Chris J Burgin, Michael L Raulin, Paul J Silvia, Neus Barrantes-Vidal
The present study provided the first examination of the construct validity of the Multidimensional Schizotypy Scale (MSS) and the first assessment of its psychometric properties outside of its derivation samples. The MSS contains 77 items that assess positive, negative, and disorganized schizotypy. A large multisite sample of 1,430 participants completed the MSS and measures of schizotypal personality traits and the five-factor model of personality. The MSS subscales had good-to-excellent internal consistency reliability that showed no shrinkage relative to the MSS derivation samples...
May 3, 2018: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721727/schizotypy-and-smooth-pursuit-eye-movements-as-potential-endophenotypes-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#7
Katharina Bey, Inga Meyhöfer, Leonhard Lennertz, Rosa Grützmann, Stephan Heinzel, Christian Kaufmann, Julia Klawohn, Anja Riesel, Ulrich Ettinger, Norbert Kathmann, Michael Wagner
Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) show dysfunctions of the fronto-striatal circuitry, which imply corresponding oculomotor deficits including smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM). However, evidence for a deficit in SPEM is inconclusive, with some studies reporting reduced velocity gain while others did not find any SPEM dysfunctions in OCD patients. Interestingly, psychosis-like traits have repeatedly been linked to both OCD and impaired SPEM. Here, we examined a large sample of n = 168 patients with OCD, n = 93 unaffected first-degree relatives and n = 171 healthy control subjects to investigate whether elevated levels of schizotypy and SPEM deficits represent potential endophenotypes of OCD...
May 2, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707955/do-schizotypy-dimensions-reflect-the-symptoms-of-schizophrenia
#8
Elizabeth Hx Thomas, Susan L Rossell, Eric J Tan, Erica Neill, Tamsyn E Van Rheenen, Sean P Carruthers, Philip J Sumner, Stephanie Louise, Kiymet Bozaoglu, Caroline Gurvich
OBJECTIVE: The personality characteristics and symptoms observed in schizophrenia are postulated to lie on a continuum, with non-clinical manifestations referred to as schizotypy. High schizotypy behaviours are argued to correspond with the three main clusters of symptoms in schizophrenia: positive, negative and cognitive/disorganised symptoms, yet there is limited empirical evidence to support this. This study aimed to investigate whether schizotypy dimensions significantly correlate with their respective schizophrenia symptomatology in the largest sample to date...
April 1, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702304/the-factor-structure-of-the-short-form-of-the-wisconsin-schizotypy-scales
#9
Antonio Preti, Rosanna Scanu, Tamara Muratore, Giustino Claudetti, Andrea Cao, Rossana Scerman, Marta Carrus, Carlotta Cadoni, Antonio Manca, Giovanni D'Errico, Augusto Contu, Donatella R Petretto
The Chapman psychosis-proneness scales-also known as Wisconsin schizotypy scales (WSS)-are among the most used tools to measure schizotypy. The factor structure of the short-form WSS was investigated in a mixed sample of patients with chronic mental disorders and of healthy subjects from the general population. One hundred patients with a chronic mental disorder were enrolled over a 6-month period. For each patient, two controls of same sex and similar age (±5 years) were enrolled; 131 accepted to take part in the study...
April 19, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702302/cluster-analysis-reveals-subclinical-subgroups-with-shared-autistic-and-schizotypal-traits
#10
Talitha C Ford, Pragalathan Apputhurai, Denny Meyer, David P Crewther
Autism and schizophrenia spectrum research is typically based on coarse diagnostic classification, which overlooks individual variation within clinical groups. This method limits the identification of underlying cognitive, genetic and neural correlates of specific symptom dimensions. This study, therefore, aimed to identify homogenous subclinical subgroups of specific autistic and schizotypal traits dimensions, that may be utilised to establish more effective diagnostic and treatment practices. Latent profile analysis of subscale scores derived from an autism-schizotypy questionnaire, completed by 1678 subclinical adults aged 18-40 years (1250 females), identified a local optimum of eight population clusters: High, Moderate and Low Psychosocial Difficulties; High, Moderate and Low Autism-Schizotypy; High Psychosis-Proneness; and Moderate Schizotypy...
April 14, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694318/well-being-in-schizotypy-the-effect-of-subclinical-psychotic-experiences
#11
Ascensión Fumero, Rosario J Marrero, Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero
BACKGROUND: Schizotypy is a multidimensional construct that includes positive, negative, and disorganized dimensions. The healthy schizotypal model suggests that positive schizotypal features could be associated with better psychological functioning. The aim of this study was to analyze whether schizotypal features are associated with subjective and psychological well-being, and consider whether psychotic-like experiences affect well-being. METHOD: These relationships were investigated in two hundred non-clinical Spanish adults (mean age = 34...
May 2018: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685421/altered-short-term-neural-plasticity-related-to-schizotypal-traits-evidence-from-visual-adaptation
#12
Katharine N Thakkar, Anna Antinori, Olivia L Carter, Jan W Brascamp
Abnormalities in synaptic plasticity are argued to underlie the neural dysconnectivity observed in schizophrenia. One way to measure synaptic plasticity is through sensory adaptation, whereby sensory neurons exhibit reduced sensitivity after sustained stimulus exposure. Evidence for decreased adaptation in individuals with schizophrenia is currently inconclusive, possibly due to heterogeneity in clinical and medication status across samples. Here we circumvent these confounds by examining whether altered adaptation is represented sub-clinically in the general population...
April 20, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679842/context-matters-social-cognition-task-performance-in-psychometric-schizotypes
#13
Madeline J Pflum, Diane C Gooding
Patients with schizophrenia show performance deficits on tasks requiring empathy-related social cognition. The extent to which empathy impairments are observed in psychometric schizotypy is unclear. We compared accuracy and reaction time in three groups of individuals characterized by positive schizotypy (n = 79), negative schizotypy (n = 123), or low schizotypy group (n = 137). On a social cognition task that provided context, namely, the Emotion Perspective Taking Task, the positive schizotypes showed poorer performance than the negative schizotypy and control groups...
April 4, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661523/a-positive-psychological-intervention-reduces-acute-psychosis-proneness
#14
Phillip Grant, Aisha Judith Leila Munk, Juergen Hennig
BACKGROUND: While individuals at ultra-risk for schizophrenia are characterized by high negative/disorganised but low positive schizotypy, schizophrenia patients are usually high in all three schizotypy facets. Thus, avoiding increases in positive schizotypy in ultra-high risk individuals may constitute of form of schizophrenia-prevention. A possible method of reducing positive schizotypy could be Positive-Psychological intervention (PI). METHODS: We present results from 2 independent studies, including a 12-month follow-up from study 1, using an easy-to-perform intervention based on Positive Psychology to reduce positive schizotypy...
April 13, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627698/differentiating-positive-schizotypy-and-mania-risk-scales-and-their-associations-with-spontaneous-eye-blink-rate
#15
Jessica P Y Hua, John G Kerns
Positive schizotypy and mania risk scales are strongly correlated, and both are linked to alterations in striatal dopamine. Previous research has not examined whether these risk scales form distinct factors or whether they are differentially related to other measures of psychopathology risk or striatal dopamine. In the current study (N = 596), undergraduate students completed both positive schizotypy and mania risk scales as well as scales assessing related psychopathology (i.e., negative and disorganized schizotypy; self-reported manic-like episodes)...
March 29, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625786/development-and-public-release-of-a-computerized-adaptive-cat-version-of-the-schizotypal-personality-questionnaire
#16
Tyler M Moore, Monica E Calkins, Steven P Reise, Ruben C Gur, Raquel E Gur
One of the most widely used measures of psychosis-related symptoms and characteristics is the 74-item Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). Using multidimensional Item Response Theory (bifactor 2-parameter model), we calibrated SPQ items in a sample of 375 youths aged 9-24 years and constructed a fully functional computerized adaptive form of the SPQ on an open-source platform for public use. To assess validity, we used the above parameters to simulate CAT sessions in a separate validation sample (N = 100) using three test-length-based stopping rules: 8 items, 16 items, and 32 items...
February 8, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623062/lucid-dreaming-intensity-but-not-frequency-is-inversely-related-to-psychopathology
#17
Liat Aviram, Nirit Soffer-Dudek
Lucid dreaming (LD) is awareness that one is dreaming, during the dream state. However, some define and assess LD relying also on controlling dream events, although control is present only in a subset of lucid dreams. LD has been claimed to represent well-being, and has even been used as a therapeutic agent. Conversely, LD is associated with mixed sleep-wake states, which are related to bizarre cognitions, stress, and psychopathology, and have been construed as arousal permeating and disrupting sleep. We propose that previous conflicting findings regarding relations between LD and both psychopathology and well-being, stem from the non-differentiated assessment of frequency and control...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618388/psychotic-traits-in-musicians
#18
Oliver Mason, Heidi Daniels
The association of music with madness is very longstanding. But is it more than myth, and if so what is the nature of this relationship? We tested the hypotheses that musicians possess greater schizotypy and symptoms of bipolar disorder. A total of 102 musicians were found to have greater positive and negative schizotypal traits when compared to matched norms on the shortened Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences. Based on the Mood Disorder Questionnaire, 10.8% of musicians also met criteria for lifetime bipolar disorder...
April 5, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618094/clustering-of-schizotypal-features-in-unaffected-first-degree-relatives-of-schizophrenia-patients
#19
Simon S Y Lui, Karen S Y Hung, Yi Wang, Karen K Y Ho, Hera K H Yeung, Ya Wang, Jia Huang, Diane C Gooding, Eric F C Cheung, Raymond C K Chan
Meehl conceptualized schizotypy as the phenotypic manifestations of a neural integrative defect resulting from a schizophrenia diathesis. The majority of schizotypy studies recruited subjects from the general population and revealed a multidimensional construct. This 2-phase investigation first examined the clustering of schizotypy in 194 unaffected relatives of schizophrenia patients using the Chapman Psychosis Proneness scales and then directly compared the cognitive profiles of negative schizotypal individuals and positive schizotypal individuals with schizophrenia patients and controls...
March 31, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608759/negative-schizotypy-and-altered-functional-connectivity-during-facial-emotion-processing
#20
Yi Wang, Zhi Li, Wen-Hua Liu, Xin-Hua Wei, Xin-Qing Jiang, Simon S Y Lui, Suzanne Ho-Wai So, Eric F C Cheung, Martin Debbane, Raymond C K Chan
Background: Impairment in facial emotion perception is an important domain of social cognition deficits in schizophrenia. Although impaired facial emotion perception has been found in individuals with negative schizotypy (NS), little is known about the corresponding change in brain functional connectivity. Methods: Sixty-four participants were classified into a high NS group (n = 34) and a low NS group (n = 30) based on their total scores on the Chapman scales for physical and social anhedonia...
March 28, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
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