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Schizotypy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323528/current-directions-in-laboratory-studies-of-personality-pathology-examples-from-borderline-personality-disorder-psychopathy-and-schizotypy
#1
Alexis K Matusiewicz, Katherine L McCauley, Julie M McCarthy, Nadia Bounoua, C W Lejuez
Much of the earliest research on personality pathology was observational and descriptive in nature, drawing heavily on subjective self-reports, however, the last 20 years have seen a surge of interest in laboratory-based studies. Laboratory research offers a number of benefits for researchers interested in personality disorders and personality pathology including the opportunities to use objective performance-based and behavioral measures, reveal the neuropsychological and biobehavioral processes that may help shape the experience and behavior of individuals with personality disorders, and create experimental designs that allow researchers to systematically explore the effect of context on emotional, behavioral and cognitive responding...
January 2018: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323511/representing-schizotypal-thinking-with-dimensional-traits-a-case-for-the-five-factor-schizotypal-inventory
#2
Erin L Moorman, Douglas B Samuel
Building on support for the five-factor model (FFM) of personality disorder, the Five Factor Schizotypal Inventory (FFSI) was developed to assess maladaptive traits relevant to schizotypal personality disorder. While the development of the FFSI supports a continuity between schizotypal thinking and perception (STAP) and the FFM domain of Openness to Experience, other studies show inconsistent findings concerning the strength of this relationship. The current study evaluates these relationships by investigating specific components of a short-form of the FFSI (e...
January 2018: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306964/higher-schizotypy-predicts-better-metabolic-profile-in-unaffected-siblings-of-patients-with-schizophrenia
#3
E Cem Atbasoglu, Guvem Gumus-Akay, Sinan Guloksuz, Meram Can Saka, Alp Ucok, Koksal Alptekin, Sevim Gullu, Jim van Os
RATIONALE: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is more frequent in schizophrenia (Sz) than in the general population. This association is partly accounted for by shared susceptibility genetic variants. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypotheses that a genetic predisposition to Sz would be associated with higher likelihood of insulin resistance (IR), and that IR would be predicted by subthreshold psychosis phenotypes. METHODS: Unaffected siblings of Sz patients (n = 101) were compared with a nonclinical sample (n = 305) in terms of IR, schizotypy (SzTy), and a behavioural experiment of "jumping to conclusions"...
January 6, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258396/the-relationship-of-categorical-and-phonological-verbal-fluency-to-negative-schizotypy-and-social-functioning-in-a-non-clinical-sample
#4
Thomas J Dinzeo, Virginia Culiañez Serna, Sherry D Pujji, Eve M Sledjeski
Introduction Research suggests that levels of schizotypy are related to cognitive and social functioning, with negative schizotypy being particularly related to deficits in verbal fluency (VF) and distinct social skills. Considering the possibility that different VF tasks may involve both shared and unique underlying processes, this study sought to examine the separate contributions of categorical and phonological forms of VF to social functioning in those with varying levels of negative schizotypy. Methods Face-to-face interviews were conducted in which 228 college students completed VF tasks, the SPQ-BR, and a social functioning questionnaire...
December 19, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237066/early-motor-developmental-milestones-and-schizotypy-in-the-northern-finland-birth-cohort-study-1966
#5
Svetlana Filatova, Heli Koivumaa-Honkanen, Golam M Khandaker, Estelle Lowry, Tanja Nordström, Tuula Hurtig, Kristiina Moilanen, Jouko Miettunen
Delayed motor developmental milestones have been reported to be associated with schizophrenia in previous studies, but no study has examined the relationship between early motor developmental milestones and schizotypy. We have examined this relationship in a prospective birth cohort.In the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966, data on 9 early motor developmental milestones were collected prospectively from visits to child welfare centers, and data on adult schizotypy were collected through a questionnaire (N = 4557-4674)...
December 9, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218852/psychotic-conversion-of-individuals-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-the-potential-roles-of-schizotypy-and-basic-symptoms
#6
Minji Bang, Jin Young Park, Kyung Ran Kim, Su Young Lee, Yun Young Song, Jee In Kang, Eun Lee, Suk Kyoon An
AIM: To improve strategies for the early identification of individuals at a heightened risk for the development of psychosis, we investigated the relationships and interactions between 3 psychosis-proneness dimensions for the development of schizophrenia spectrum psychosis: schizotypy, basic symptoms and the ultra-high risk (UHR) criteria. METHODS: Seventy-seven UHR individuals and 79 healthy controls were assessed for schizotypy and basic symptoms using self-report questionnaires at baseline...
December 8, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215902/words-matter-implementing-the-electronically-activated-recorder-in-schizotypy
#7
Kyle S Minor, Beshaun J Davis, Matthew P Marggraf, Lauren Luther, Megan L Robbins
In schizophrenia-spectrum populations, analyzing the words people use has offered promise for unlocking information about affective states and social behaviors. The electronically activated recorder (EAR) is an application-based program that is combined with widely used smartphone technology to capture a person's real-world interactions via audio recordings. It improves on the ecological validity of current methodologies by providing objective and naturalistic samples of behavior. This study is the first to implement the EAR in people endorsing elevated traits of schizophrenia-spectrum personality disorders (i...
December 7, 2017: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198207/neuroanatomical-changes-in-people-with-high-schizotypy-relationship-to-glutamate-levels
#8
Gemma Modinos, Alice Egerton, Anna McLaughlin, Katrina McMullen, Veena Kumari, David J Lythgoe, Gareth J Barker, André Aleman, Steve C R Williams
BACKGROUND: Cortical glutamatergic dysfunction is thought to be fundamental for psychosis development, and may lead to structural degeneration through excitotoxicity. Glutamate levels have been related to gray matter volume (GMV) alterations in people at ultra-high risk of psychosis, and we previously reported GMV changes in individuals with high schizotypy (HS), which refers to the expression of schizophrenia-like characteristics in healthy people. This study sought to examine whether GMV changes in HS subjects are related to glutamate levels...
December 4, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179910/meaning-in-meaninglessness-the-propensity-to-perceive-meaningful-patterns-in-coincident-events-and-randomly-arranged-stimuli-is-linked-to-enhanced-attention-in-early-sensory-processing
#9
Christian Rominger, Günter Schulter, Andreas Fink, Elisabeth M Weiss, Ilona Papousek
Perception of objectively independent events or stimuli as being significantly connected and the associated proneness to perceive meaningful patterns constitute part of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, which are associated with altered attentional processes in lateralized speech perception. Since perceiving meaningful patterns is to some extent already prevalent in the general population, the aim of the study was to investigate whether the propensity to experience meaningful patterns in co-occurring events and random stimuli may be associated with similar altered attentional processes in lateralized speech perception...
November 24, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174334/is-there-a-common-vulnerability-in-cannabis-phenomenology-and-schizotypy-the-role-of-the-n170-erp
#10
Gabriel A Brooks, Colleen A Brenner
Cannabis use is a known risk factor for the development of psychosis, although the precise nature of this relationship is unclear. The phenomenological experiences associated with cannabis use vary dramatically, and for some resemble certain features of psychosis. We hypothesized that individuals who report particularly unusual experiences associated with cannabis use would demonstrate similar electrophysiological patterns to those who score high on schizotypal personality traits. The Cannabis Experiences Questionnaire (CEQ) and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) were used to measure these experiences and traits...
November 21, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113776/brief-assessment-of-schizotypal-traits-a-multinational-study
#11
Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero, Javier Ortuño-Sierra, Beatriz Lucas-Molina, Martin Debbané, Raymond C K Chan, David C Cicero, Lisa C Zhang, Colleen Brenner, Emma Barkus, Richard J Linscott, Thomas Kwapil, Neus Barrantes-Vidal, Alex Cohen, Adrian Raine, Michael T Compton, Erin B Tone, Julie Suhr, Julio Bobes, Axit Fumero, Stella Giakoumaki, Ioannis Tsaousis, Antonio Preti, Michael Chmielewski, Julien Laloyaux, Anwar Mechri, Mohamed Aymen Lahmar, Viviana Wuthrich, Frank Larøi, Johanna C Badcock, Assen Jablensky, David Barron, Viren Swami, Ulrich S Tran, Martin Voracek
The Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B) was developed with the aim of examining variations in healthy trait schizotypy, as well as latent vulnerability to psychotic-spectrum disorders. No previous study has studied the cross-cultural validity of the SPQ-B in a large cross-national sample. The main goal of the present study was to analyze the reliability and the internal structure of SPQ-B scores in a multinational sample of 28,426 participants recruited from 14 countries. The mean age was 22...
November 4, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096131/winter-birth-urbanicity-and-immigrant-status-predict-psychometric-schizotypy-dimensions-in-adolescents
#12
D Mimarakis, T Roumeliotaki, P Roussos, S G Giakoumaki, P Bitsios
BACKGROUND: Urbanicity, immigration and winter-birth are stable epidemiological risk factors for schizophrenia, but their relationship to schizotypy is unknown. This is a first examination of the association of these epidemiological risk factors with positive schizotypy, in nonclinical adolescents, controlling for a range of potential and known confounders. METHODS: We collected socio-demographics, life-style, family and school circumstances, positive schizotypy dimensions and other personality traits from 445 high school pupils (192 males, 158 immigrants) from 9 municipalities in Athens and Heraklion, Greece, which covered a range of host population and migrant densities...
September 18, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036523/stress-dependent-association-between-polygenic-risk-for-schizophrenia-and-schizotypal-traits-in-young-army-recruits
#13
Alex Hatzimanolis, Dimitrios Avramopoulos, Dan E Arking, Anna Moes, Pallav Bhatnagar, Todd Lencz, Anil K Malhotra, Stella G Giakoumaki, Panos Roussos, Nikolaos Smyrnis, Panos Bitsios, Nicholas C Stefanis
Schizotypal personality traits may increase proneness to psychosis and likely index familial vulnerability to schizophrenia (SZ), implying shared genetic determinants with SZ. Here, we sought to investigate the contribution of common genetic risk variation for SZ on self-reported schizotypy in 2 ethnically homogeneous cohorts of healthy young males during compulsory military service, enrolled in the Athens Study of Proneness and Incidence of Schizophrenia (ASPIS, N = 875) and the Learning on Genetics of Schizophrenia Spectrum study (LOGOS, N = 690)...
June 13, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036385/the-latent-taxonicity-of-schizotypy-in-biological-siblings-of-probands-with-schizophrenia
#14
Richard J Linscott, Sarah E Morton
If schizotypy is a taxonic liability for schizophrenia with a general population prevalence of ~10%, it should also be taxonic among biological siblings of probands with schizophrenia. Moreover, assuming this is so, siblings' schizotypy class membership should be predicted by probands' familial load for psychotic disorder and clinical severity, consistent with a multifactorial polygenic threshold model of schizophrenia. We tested these hypotheses in the Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis (GROUP) Study where siblings of probands (n = 792) and unaffected controls (n = 559) provided self-report ratings on the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE)...
October 4, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028526/semantic-coherence-in-psychometric-schizotypy-an-investigation-using-latent-semantic-analysis
#15
Matthew P Marggraf, Alex S Cohen, Beshaun J Davis, Paula DeCrescenzo, Natasha Bair, Kyle S Minor
Technological advancements have led to the development of automated methods for assessing semantic coherence in psychiatric populations. Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) is an automated method that has been used to quantify semantic coherence in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. The current study examined whether: 1) Semantic coherence reductions extended to psychometrically-defined schizotypy and 2) Greater cognitive load further reduces semantic coherence. LSA was applied to responses generated during category fluency tasks in baseline and cognitive load conditions...
September 30, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024855/the-relationship-between-schizotypal-facets-and-conspiracist-beliefs-via-cognitive-processes
#16
David Barron, Adrian Furnham, Laura Weis, Kevin D Morgan, Tony Towell, Viren Swami
This study sought to replicate previous work showing relationships between components of schizotypy and conspiracist beliefs, and extend it by examining the mediating role of cognitive processes. An international online sample of 411 women and men (mean age = 35.41 years) completed measures of the schizotypal facets of Odd Beliefs or Magical Thinking and Ideas of Reference, conspiracist beliefs, and cognitive processes related to need for cognition, analytic thinking, and cognitive insight. Path analysis confirmed the associations between both schizotypal facets and conspiracist beliefs in the present sample...
October 2, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024192/association-of-schizotypy-with-striatocortical-functional-connectivity-and-its-asymmetry-in-healthy-adults
#17
Yi Wang, Ulrich Ettinger, Thomas Meindl, Raymond C K Chan
Altered striatocortical functional connectivity has been suggested to be a trait marker of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, including schizotypal personality. In the present study, we examined the association between schizotypal personality traits and striatocortical functional connectivity in a sample of healthy adults. The German version of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire was obtained from N = 111 participants recruited from the general public. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired at 3T...
October 11, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958455/schizotypal-traits-and-cognitive-performance-in-siblings-of-patients-with-psychosis
#18
L Moreno-Samaniego, Ana M Gaviria, E Vilella, J Valero, A Labad
INTRODUCTION: Schizotypy has been proposed to be the expression of genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia. The available literature shows cognitive similarities between schizotypy and schizophrenia, with mildly impaired performance being associated with schizotypy. This study aims to determine the relationship between schizotypy and cognitive performance in siblings of patients with psychosis. METHODS: Schizotypal features and cognitive performance on a neuropsychological battery were compared between 48 siblings of patients with psychosis and 44 healthy controls...
December 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957793/cannabis-use-in-early-adolescence-is-associated-with-higher-negative-schizotypy-in-females
#19
L Albertella, M E Le Pelley, J Copeland
The current study examined the relationship between early onset cannabis use (before age 16) and different schizotypy dimensions, and whether gender moderates these associations. Participants were 162 cannabis users, aged 15-24 years, who completed an online assessment examining alcohol and other drug use, psychological distress, and schizotypy. Participants were divided according to whether or not they had started using cannabis before the age of 16 (early onset=47; later onset=115) and gender (males=66; females=96)...
September 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955212/classifying-schizotypy-using-an-audiovisual-emotion-perception-test-and-scalp-electroencephalography
#20
Ji Woon Jeong, Tariku W Wendimagegn, Eunhee Chang, Yeseul Chun, Joon Hyuk Park, Hyoung Joong Kim, Hyun Taek Kim
Schizotypy refers to the personality trait of experiencing "psychotic" symptoms and can be regarded as a predisposition of schizophrenia-spectrum psychopathology (Raine, 1991). Cumulative evidence has revealed that individuals with schizotypy, as well as schizophrenia patients, have emotional processing deficits. In the present study, we investigated multimodal emotion perception in schizotypy and implemented the machine learning technique to find out whether a schizotypy group (ST) is distinguishable from a control group (NC), using electroencephalogram (EEG) signals...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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