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Schizotypy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931092/the-genome-wide-associated-candidate-gene-znf804a-and-psychosis-proneness-evidence-of-sex-modulated-association
#1
Marta de Castro-Catala, Aurea Mora-Solano, Thomas R Kwapil, Paula Cristóbal-Narváez, Tamara Sheinbaum, Anna Racioppi, Neus Barrantes-Vidal, Araceli Rosa
BACKGROUND: The Zinc finger protein 804A (ZNF804A) is a promising candidate gene for schizophrenia and the broader psychosis phenotype that emerged from genome-wide association studies. It is related to neurodevelopment and associated to severe symptoms of schizophrenia and alterations in brain structure, as well as positive schizotypal personality traits in non-clinical samples. Moreover, a female-specific association has been observed between ZNF804A and schizophrenia. AIM: The present study examined the association of two ZNF804A polymorphisms (rs1344706 and rs7597593) with the positive dimension of schizotypy and psychotic-like experiences in a sample of 808 non-clinical subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923963/mistiming-of-thought-and-perception-predicts-delusionality
#2
Adam Bear, Rebecca G Fortgang, Michael V Bronstein, Tyrone D Cannon
The timing of thoughts and perceptions plays an essential role in belief formation. Just as people can experience in-the-moment perceptual illusions, however, they can also be deceived about how events unfold in time. Here, we consider how a particular type of temporal distortion, in which the apparent future influences "earlier" events in conscious awareness, might affect people's most fundamental beliefs about themselves and the world. Making use of a task that has been shown to elicit such reversals in the temporal experience of prediction and observation, we find that people who are more prone to think that they predicted an event that they actually already observed are also more likely to report holding delusion-like beliefs...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913387/personality-traits-and-theory-of-mind-performance-data-of-a-spanish-sample-of-university-students
#3
José M Gavilán, Juan Haro
This article allows consulting the performance data of 96 Spanish university students in two personality questionnaires and two theory of mind (ToM) tasks. Personality dimensions were evaluated through the OPERAS questionnaire (Vigil-Colet et al., 2013) [1], which evaluates global personality through 5 scales: extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, openness to experience, and the ESQUIZO-Q questionnaire (Fonseca-Pedrero et al., 2010) [2], which assesses schizotypy by means of 10 subscales: ideas of reference, magical thinking, unusual perceptual experiences, odd thinking and language, paranoid ideation, physical anhedonia, social anhedonia, odd behavior, lack of close friends, and excessive social anxiety...
October 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889074/interaction-between-fkbp5-gene-and-childhood-trauma-on-psychosis-depression-and-anxiety-symptoms-in-a-non-clinical-sample
#4
Marta de Castro-Catala, Elionora Peña, Thomas R Kwapil, Sergi Papiol, Tamara Sheinbaum, Paula Cristóbal-Narváez, Sergi Ballespí, Neus Barrantes-Vidal, Araceli Rosa
BACKGROUND: Childhood trauma has been associated with a heightened risk for presenting clinical and non-clinical psychopathology in adulthood. Genes related with the stress response, such as the FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP5), are plausible candidates moderating the effects of childhood trauma on the emergence of such symptoms later on. The present study aimed to explore the moderating role of FKBP5 genetic variability on the association of different types of childhood trauma with subclinical psychosis, depression and anxiety in a non-clinical sample...
August 26, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878159/connecting-the-dots-between-schizotypal-symptoms-and-social-anxiety-in-youth-with-an-extra-x-chromosome-a-mediating-role-for-catastrophizing
#5
Anne C Miers, Tim Ziermans, Sophie van Rijn
Youth with an extra X chromosome (47, XXY & 47, XXX) display higher levels of schizotypal symptoms and social anxiety as compared to typically developing youth. It is likely that the extra X chromosome group is at-risk for clinical levels of schizotypy and social anxiety. Hence, this study investigated how schizotypal and social anxiety symptoms are related and mechanisms that may explain their association in a group of 38 children and adolescents with an extra X chromosome and a comparison group of 109 typically developing peers (8-19 years)...
September 6, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867517/schizophrenia-and-creativity-a-meta-analytic-review
#6
Selcuk Acar, Xiao Chen, Nur Cayirdag
The present study investigated the relationship between creativity and schizophrenia with a 3-level multilevel meta-analytic approach. Analyses with 200 effect sizes obtained from 42 studies found a mean effect size of r=-0.324, 95%CI [-0.42, -0.23]. Further analyses focused on moderators and indicated that the relationship between schizophrenia and creativity is moderated by type of creativity measure, the content of creativity measure, the severity of schizophrenia, and patient status. The negative mean effect size was stronger with semantic-category or verbal-letter fluency tasks than the divergent thinking or associational measures...
August 31, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853332/cognitive-functioning-in-schizotypy-through-the-lens-of-the-accessibility-model
#7
Kyle R Mitchell, Alex S Cohen
INTRODUCTION: Individuals with schizotypy self-report subjective cognitive complaints commensurate with deficits reported by individuals with schizophrenia. In contrast to schizophrenia, objective deficits in memory are modest in individuals with schizotypy, as compared to their self-reported cognitive complaints. It has been proposed that abnormalities in semantic memory systems may underlie this dysjunction. METHODS: This study employed a modified verbal memory paradigm in a sample of 87 individuals with psychometrically defined schizotypy...
August 30, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843155/do-complaints-of-everyday-cognitive-failures-in-high-schizotypy-relate-to-emotional-working-memory-deficits-in-the-lab
#8
Nicole Carrigan, Emma Barkus, Adriel Ong, Maryann Wei
BACKGROUND: Individuals high on schizotypy complain of increased cognitive failures in everyday life. However, the neuropsychological performance of this group does not consistently indicate underlying ability deficits. It is possible that current neuropsychological tests lack ecological validity. Given the increased affective reactivity of high schizotypes, they may be more sensitive to emotional content interfering with cognitive ability. This study sought to explore whether an affective n-back working memory task would elicit impaired performance in schizotypy, echoing complaints concerning real world cognition...
July 5, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832672/white-noise-speech-illusion-and-psychosis-expression-an-experimental-investigation-of-psychosis-liability
#9
Lotta-Katrin Pries, Sinan Guloksuz, Claudia Menne-Lothmann, Jeroen Decoster, Ruud van Winkel, Dina Collip, Philippe Delespaul, Marc De Hert, Catherine Derom, Evert Thiery, Nele Jacobs, Marieke Wichers, Claudia J P Simons, Bart P F Rutten, Jim van Os
BACKGROUND: An association between white noise speech illusion and psychotic symptoms has been reported in patients and their relatives. This supports the theory that bottom-up and top-down perceptual processes are involved in the mechanisms underlying perceptual abnormalities. However, findings in nonclinical populations have been conflicting. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the association between white noise speech illusion and subclinical expression of psychotic symptoms in a nonclinical sample...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761988/neurological-soft-signs-precede-the-onset-of-schizophrenia-a-study-of-individuals-with-schizotypy-ultra-high-risk-individuals-and-first-onset-schizophrenia
#10
Raymond C K Chan, Hui-Ru Cui, Min-Yi Chu, Tian-Hong Zhang, Ya Wang, Yi Wang, Zhi Li, Simon S Y Lui, Ji-Jun Wang, Eric F C Cheung
Neurological soft signs (NSS) are one of the biomarkers for schizophrenia spectrum disorders. However, a few studies have examined the prevalence of NSS across the schizophrenia spectrum. The present study adopted a quasi-longitudinal study design and examined the prevalence of NSS and their associations with clinical and behavioural manifestations in participants in different stages of the illness. The abridged version of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory was administered to 39 patients with the first-episode schizophrenia, 39 individuals with ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis, 39 individuals with schizotypy, and 39 healthy controls...
July 31, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760538/schizotypy-is-associated-with-reduced-mnemonic-precision-in-visual-working-memory
#11
Weizhen Xie, Marcus Cappiello, Hyung-Bum Park, Patricia Deldin, Raymond C K Chan, Weiwei Zhang
BACKGROUND: Working memory (WM) maintains a limited amount of information over a short period of time at the service of other ongoing mental activities. Deficits in this function are often observed in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The present study examined whether self-report schizotypy was associated with the qualitative, quantitative, or both aspects of visual WM and whether these impairments could be accounted for by sensory memory deficits and/or depressed mood in a group of non-clinical, medication-naïve participants...
July 28, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758885/dimensional-traits-of-schizotypy-associated-with-glycine-receptor-glra1-polymorphism-an-exploratory-candidate-gene-association-study
#12
Anvi K Vora, Amanda M Fisher, Antonia S New, Erin A Hazlett, Margaret McNamara, Qiaoping Yuan, Zhifeng Zhou, Colin Hodgkinson, David Goldman, Larry J Siever, Panos Roussos, M Mercedes Perez-Rodriguez
Schizotypy captures the underlying genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia. However, the genetic underpinnings of schizotypy remain unexplored. The authors examined the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and schizotypy. A sample of 137 subjects (43 healthy controls, 34 subjects with schizotypal personality disorder [SPD], 32 with borderline personality disorder, and 25 with other personality disorders) completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). Subjects were genotyped using a custom array chip...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751128/trajectories-of-schizotypy-and-their-emotional-and-social-functioning-an-18-month-follow-up-study
#13
Yi Wang, Hai-Song Shi, Wen-Hua Liu, Dong-Jie Xie, Fu-Lei Geng, Chao Yan, Ya Wang, Ya-Hui Xiao, Suzanne H W So, Chui-De Chiu, Patrick W L Leung, Eric F C Cheung, Diane C Gooding, Raymond C K Chan
Schizotypy is a set of personality traits that convey liability to develop schizophrenia. Studying schizotypy in healthy individuals may facilitate the understanding of the psychopathological processes underlying schizophrenia. The present study aimed to examine the developmental trajectories of schizotypy over time using a longitudinal study design. The Chapman Scales for Psychosis Proneness were administered to 1541 college students at baseline, and subsequently at six-monthly intervals up to 18months. Latent class growth analysis was conducted to track the different trajectories...
July 24, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750214/childhood-trauma-is-not-a-confounder-of-the-overlap-between-autistic-and-schizotypal-traits-a-study-in-a-non-clinical-adult-sample
#14
Jing-Bo Gong, Ya Wang, Simon S Y Lui, Eric F C Cheung, Raymond C K Chan
Childhood trauma has been shown to be a robust risk factor for mental disorders, and may exacerbate schizotypal traits or contribute to autistic trait severity. However, little is known whether childhood trauma confounds the overlap between schizotypal traits and autistic traits. This study examined whether childhood trauma acts as a confounding variable in the overlap between autistic and schizotypal traits in a large non-clinical adult sample. A total of 2469 participants completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form...
July 17, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740822/neurological-soft-signs-effects-of-trait-schizotypy-psychological-distress-and-auditory-hallucination-predisposition
#15
Saskia de Leede-Smith, Steven Roodenrys, Lauren Horsley, Shannen Matrini, Erin Mison, Emma Barkus
Schizotypy is regarded as a trait vulnerability for psychotic disorders, yet alone is insufficient for development of a diagnosable disorder. Additional symptoms and psychological distress are necessary for help seeking and transition from an at risk mental state to a clinical diagnosis. The present study investigated the interaction between trait schizotypy, state auditory verbal hallucination (AVH) predisposition, distress and handedness for the expression of neurological soft signs (NSS), a neurodevelopmental vulnerability factor for psychosis...
March 2017: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740815/positive-schizotypy-and-negative-schizotypy-are-associated-with-differential-patterns-of-episodic-memory-impairment
#16
Lili Sahakyan, Thomas R Kwapil
Cognitive impairment is a hallmark of schizophrenia; however, studies have not comprehensively examined such impairments in non-clinically ascertained schizotypic young adults. The present study employed a series of measures to assess episodic memory in high positive schizotypy, high negative schizotypy, and comparison groups (each group n = 25). Consistent with diminished cognitive functioning seen in negative symptom schizophrenia, the negative schizotypy group exhibited deficits on free recall, recognition, and source memory tasks...
September 2016: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740810/schizotypy-and-mindfulness-magical-thinking-without-suspiciousness-characterizes-mindfulness-meditators
#17
Elena Antonova, Kavitha Amaratunga, Bernice Wright, Ulrich Ettinger, Veena Kumari
Despite growing evidence for demonstrated efficacy of mindfulness in various disorders, there is a continuous concern about the relationship between mindfulness practice and psychosis. As schizotypy is part of the psychosis spectrum, we examined the relationship between long-term mindfulness practice and schizotypy in two independent studies. Study 1 included 24 experienced mindfulness practitioners (19 males) from the Buddhist tradition (meditators) and 24 meditation-naïve individuals (all males). Study 2 consisted of 28 meditators and 28 meditation-naïve individuals (all males)...
September 2016: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735642/development-and-psychometric-properties-of-the-multidimensional-schizotypy-scale-a-new-measure-for-assessing-positive-negative-and-disorganized-schizotypy
#18
Thomas R Kwapil, Georgina M Gross, Paul J Silvia, Michael L Raulin, Neus Barrantes-Vidal
This article reports on the development of a new self-report questionnaire measure of schizotypy - the Multidimensional Schizotypy Scale (MSS). Schizotypy offers a useful and unifying construct for understanding schizophrenia-spectrum psychopathology. Questionnaire measures have been widely used to assess schizotypy and have greatly informed our understanding of the construct. However, available measures suffer from a number of limitations, including lack of a clear conceptual framework, outdated wording, unclear factor structure, and psychometric shortcomings...
July 20, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734178/subcortical-surface-shape-in-youth-at-familial-high-risk-for-schizophrenia
#19
Kathryn Hill, Nicolas Bolo, Suraj Sarvode Mothi, Paulo Lizano, Synthia Guimond, Neeraj Tandon, Elena Molokotos, Matcheri Keshavan
Abnormalities in the subcortical brain regions that support cognitive functions have been reported in schizophrenia. Relatives of those with schizophrenia often present with psychosis-like traits (schizotypy) and similar cognition as those with schizophrenia. To evaluate the relationships between subcortical structure, schizotypy, and cognitive function, we assessed shape and volume of the hippocampus, amygdala and thalamus in untreated youth at familial high risk for schizophrenia (HRSZ). The sample consisted of 66 HRSZ and 69 age-matched healthy controls (HC)...
July 14, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719056/tracking-salience-in-young-people-a-psychometric-field-test-of-the-aberrant-salience-inventory-asi
#20
Andrea Raballo, David C Cicero, John G Kerns, Sara Sanna, Mirra Pintus, Ingrid Agartz, Elisa Pintus, Irene Corrias, Veronica Lai, Donatella Rita Petretto, Mauro G Carta, Antonio Preti
AIM: To explore the prevalence of Aberrant Salience (AS, an alleged experiential feature of psychosis-proneness) in Italian young people and corroborate the transcultural validity of the Aberrant Salience Inventory (ASI). METHODS: Young adults attending an Italian university (n = 649) underwent serial evaluations with the ASI together with psychometric proxies for help seeking General Health Questionnaire and attenuated positive and negative symptoms Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ)...
July 18, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
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