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Schizotypy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719056/tracking-salience-in-young-people-a-psychometric-field-test-of-the-aberrant-salience-inventory-asi
#1
Andrea Raballo, David C Cicero, John G Kerns, Sara Sanna, Mirra Pintus, Ingrid Agartz, Elisa Pintus, Irene Corrias, Veronica Lai, Donatella Rita Petretto, Mauro G Carta, Antonio Preti
AIM: To explore the prevalence of Aberrant Salience (AS, an alleged experiential feature of psychosis-proneness) in Italian young people and corroborate the transcultural validity of the Aberrant Salience Inventory (ASI). METHODS: Young adults attending an Italian university (n = 649) underwent serial evaluations with the ASI together with psychometric proxies for help seeking General Health Questionnaire and attenuated positive and negative symptoms Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ)...
July 18, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714081/combining-two-model-systems-of-psychosis-the-effects-of-schizotypy-and-sleep-deprivation-on-oculomotor-control-and-psychotomimetic-states
#2
Inga Meyhöfer, Maria Steffens, Eliana Faiola, Anna-Maria Kasparbauer, Veena Kumari, Ulrich Ettinger
Model systems of psychosis, such as schizotypy or sleep deprivation, are valuable in informing our understanding of the etiology of the disorder and aiding the development of new treatments. Schizophrenia patients, high schizotypes, and sleep-deprived subjects are known to share deficits in oculomotor biomarkers. Here, we aimed to further validate the schizotypy and sleep deprivation models and investigated, for the first time, their interactive effects on smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM), prosaccades, antisaccades, predictive saccades, and measures of psychotomimetic states, anxiety, depression, and stress...
July 17, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712364/the-structure-of-schizotypal-personality-traits-a-cross-national-study
#3
E Fonseca-Pedrero, M Debbané, J Ortuño-Sierra, R C K Chan, D C Cicero, L C Zhang, C Brenner, E Barkus, R J Linscott, T Kwapil, N Barrantes-Vidal, A Cohen, A Raine, M T Compton, E B Tone, J Suhr, J Muñiz, A Fumero, S Giakoumaki, I Tsaousis, A Preti, M Chmielewski, J Laloyaux, A Mechri, M A Lahmar, V Wuthrich, F Larøi, J C Badcock, A Jablensky
BACKGROUND: Schizotypal traits are considered a phenotypic-indicator of schizotypy, a latent personality organization reflecting a putative liability for psychosis. To date, no previous study has examined the comparability of factorial structures across samples originating from different countries and cultures. The main goal was to evaluate the factorial structure and reliability of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) scores by amalgamating data from studies conducted in 12 countries and across 21 sites...
July 17, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705020/differential-item-functioning-of-the-full-and-brief-wisconsin-schizotypy-scales-in-asian-white-hispanic-and-multiethnic-samples-and-between-sexes
#4
David C Cicero, Elizabeth A Martin, Alexander Krieg
The Wisconsin Schizotypy Scales, including their brief versions, are among the most commonly used self-report measures of schizotypy. Although they have been used extensively in many ethnic groups, few studies have examined their differential item functioning (DIF) across groups. The current study included 1,056 Asian, 408 White, 476 Multiethnic, and 372 Hispanic undergraduates. Unidimensional models of the brief Magical Ideation Scale and Perceptual Aberration Scales fit the data well. For both scales, global tests of measurement invariance provided mixed evidence, but few of the items displayed DIF across ethnicities or between sexes within a multiple indicator multiple causes model...
July 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699102/-the-concept-of-schizoidia-in-psychiatry-from-schizoidia-to-schizotypy-and-cluster%C3%A2-a-personality-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Hans-Peter Kapfhammer
From a perspective of conceptual evolution schizoidia was initially considered to describe features both of the premorbid personality of schizophrenic patients and of the personalities of non-psychotic family members (Bleuler, Kahlbaum, Kraepelin). On a psychopatholocial level a close link to the complex basic symptom of autism was stressed. From the very beginnings of modern psychiatry schizoidia was discussed within a conceptual frame of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (Kretschmer, Hoch, Polatin). Approaches to operationalize these conceptual works laid the basis for the cluster A personalities in DSM-III...
July 11, 2017: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697644/evidence-of-absence-no-relationship-between-behaviourally-measured-prediction-error-response-and-schizotypy
#6
Clara S Humpston, Lisa H Evans, Christoph Teufel, Niklas Ihssen, David E J Linden
INTRODUCTION: The predictive processing framework has attracted much interest in the field of schizophrenia research in recent years, with an increasing number of studies also carried out in healthy individuals with nonclinical psychosis-like experiences. The current research adopted a continuum approach to psychosis and aimed to investigate different types of prediction error responses in relation to psychometrically defined schizotypy. METHODS: One hundred and two healthy volunteers underwent a battery of behavioural tasks including (a) a force-matching task, (b) a Kamin blocking task, and (c) a reversal learning task together with three questionnaires measuring domains of schizotypy from different approaches...
July 11, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667929/using-lexical-analysis-to-identify-emotional-distress-in-psychometric-schizotypy
#7
Samuel J Abplanalp, Benjamin Buck, Virgilio Gonzenbach, Carlos Janela, Paul H Lysaker, Kyle S Minor
Through the use of lexical analysis software, researchers have demonstrated a greater frequency of negative affect word use in those with schizophrenia and schizotypy compared to the general population. In addition, those with schizotypy endorse greater emotional distress than healthy controls. In this study, our aim was to expand on previous findings in schizotypy to determine whether negative affect word use could be linked to emotional distress. Schizotypy (n=33) and non-schizotypy groups (n=33) completed an open-ended, semi-structured interview and negative affect word use was analyzed using a validated lexical analysis instrument...
June 24, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646791/disorganised-schizotypy-is-selectively-associated-with-poorer-semantic-processing-in-non-clinical-individuals
#8
Eric Josiah Tan, Susan Lee Rossell
The nature and severity of semantic memory (SM) impairments in schizophrenia has been related to symptoms, mainly formal thought disorder (FTD), and other clinical factors like length of illness. Symptom-related studies in schizophrenia are often confounded by clinical factors, for example medication and hospitalisations. We completed a schizotypy analogue study to examine the relationship between SM processing and FTD using an analogue schizotypy score referred to as cognitive disorganisation. Sixty individuals without a history of mental illness (M=22...
June 20, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645078/facial-affect-recognition-and-social-functioning-among-individuals-with-varying-degrees-of-schizotypy
#9
Marta Statucka, Deborah J Walder
Facial affect recognition (FAR) accuracy is impaired in schizophrenia and, to a lesser extent, in individuals at-risk for psychosis. Reduced reaction time and negative bias on FAR tasks are also evident in schizophrenia, though few studies have examined these measures in at-risk samples. Social dysfunction is associated with FAR deficits in schizophrenia and at-risk individuals. We aimed to elucidate the nature of FAR and social functioning among individuals from a non-clinical population reporting a range of schizotypal traits (i...
June 15, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642726/urban-legends-and-paranormal-beliefs-the-role-of-reality-testing-and-schizotypy
#10
Neil Dagnall, Andrew Denovan, Kenneth Drinkwater, Andrew Parker, Peter J Clough
Recent research suggests that unconventional beliefs are locatable within a generic anomalous belief category. This notion derives from the observation that apparently dissimilar beliefs share fundamental, core characteristics (i.e., contradiction of orthodox scientific understanding of the universe and defiance of conventional understanding of reality). The present paper assessed the supposition that anomalous beliefs were conceptually similar and explicable via common psychological processes by comparing relationships between discrete beliefs [endorsement of urban legends (ULs) and belief in the paranormal] and cognitive-perceptual personality measures [proneness to reality testing (RT) and schizotypy]...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634459/cognitive-correlates-of-different-mentalizing-abilities-in-individuals-with-high-and-low-trait-schizotypy-findings-from-an-extreme-group-design
#11
Krisztina Kocsis-Bogár, Simone Kotulla, Susanne Maier, Martin Voracek, Kristina Hennig-Fast
Mentalizing or Theory of Mind (ToM) deficits in schizophrenia have been studied to great extent, but studies involving samples of trait schizotypy yield ambiguous results. Executive functions like cognitive inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and agency are all prerequisites of mentalizing, and it is assumed that the impairment of these functions contributes to ToM deficits in schizophrenia. Whether these impairments influence the ToM performance of people with high trait schizotypy remains unclear. Although impaired self-agency has repeatedly been identified in people with schizotypy, its role in mentalizing is yet to be investigated...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627901/cone-of-gaze-in-positive-schizotypy-relationship-to-referential-thinking-and-social-functioning
#12
Heather M Wastler, Mark F Lenzenweger
Eye contact is an essential means of nonverbal communication, providing information about attention, emotion, mental state, facial expressions, and identity/gender (Itier & Batty, 2009). Although studies suggest that patients with schizophrenia endorse direct gaze more often than controls in ambiguous gaze circumstances, gaze perception in schizotypy remains unstudied. This study investigated whether individuals with positive schizotypic features incorrectly perceive that others are looking at them and whether this is related to referential thinking and psychosocial functioning...
June 19, 2017: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600932/investigation-of-associations-between-attachment-parenting-and-schizotypy-during-the-postnatal-period
#13
Melanie Hugill, Ian Fletcher, Katherine Berry
BACKGROUND: Parenting can be a stressful experience particularly for people with mental health problems or people who experienced abuse or attachment difficulties in their own childhoods. This study examined the relationships between earlier trauma, attachment, parenting and schizotypy in a non-clinical sample, with the specific hypothesis that parenting stress and competence would mediate any association between trauma, attachment and schizotypy. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-four first time parents with a child under 12 months old completed the following questionnaires online: the Experiences of Close Relationships Scale - Short Form (ECR-S), the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire - Brief, Revised (SPQ-BR) the Parenting Stress Scale, the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale (PSOC) and the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Questionnaire...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566957/additive-effects-of-former-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-and-cannabis-use-on-subclinical-psychotic-symptoms
#14
Berker Duman, Nilay Sedes, Bora Baskak
INTRODUCTION: Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is an amphetamine-derived psychostimulant, usually known as "ecstasy." The long-term neuropsychological effects of MDMA are examined in several studies with conflicting results. The most common findings reported are depression, anxiety, and memory and attention deficits. In addition to acute psychotic reactions observed after MDMA use, serotonergic and dopaminergic toxicities may increase the psychosis risk in the long-term. Cannabis usage among MDMA users is very high...
March 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544975/-spiritual-but-not-religious-cognition-schizotypy-and-conversion-in-alternative-beliefs
#15
Aiyana K Willard, Ara Norenzayan
The spiritual but not religious (SBNR) are a growing population in secularizing societies. Yet, we know little about the underlying psychology of this group or their belief profile. Based on an individual difference approach, we address this knowledge gap by comparing SBNR with religious and non-religious participants. In a sample of Americans (n=1013), we find that the SBNR differ from non-religious and religious participants in a number of ways. SBNR participants are more likely to hold paranormal beliefs and to have an experiential relationship to the supernatural (e...
August 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538227/self-directedness-predicts-quality-of-life-in-individuals-with-psychotic-experiences-a-1-year-follow-up-study
#16
Letícia Oliveira Alminhana, Miguel Farias, Gordon Claridge, C Robert Cloninger, Alexander Moreira-Almeida
There is a high prevalence of psychotic-like experiences in nonclinical patient cohorts from Brazil. This study aimed to test whether personality dimensions, as well as schizotypy, are important predictors of quality of life (QoL) in individuals with psychotic experiences (PE). METHOD: 115 participants were recruited from Spiritist Centers in Brazil. At the 1-year follow up, 90 participants (78%) were reassessed. Instruments were the SCID-I (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV), TCI-R 140 (Revised Temperament and Character Inventory), OLIFE-R (Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences), and WHOQOL-BREF (World Health Organization QoL Instrument)...
May 25, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523937/attentional-set-shifting-and-social-abilities-in-children-with-schizotypal-and-comorbid-autism-spectrum-disorders
#17
Ahmad Abu-Akel, Renee R Testa, Harvey P Jones, Nola Ross, Efstratios Skafidas, Bruce Tonge, Christos Pantelis
OBJECTIVE: While diagnostically independent, autism and schizotypal disorders can co-occur. Their concurrent impact on outcomes and phenotypes has not been investigated. We investigated the impact of comorbid autism and schizotypal disorders in children on executive functioning and socio-pragmatic skills - core features of both disorders. METHOD: Executive functioning (assessed with the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery) and socio-pragmatic skills (assessed using the Melbourne Assessment of Schizotypy in Kids) were investigated in a total of 67 (6-12 year old) children with autism ( n = 15; M/F = 10/5), schizotypal disorder ( n = 8; M/F = 5/3) and comorbid autism and schizotypal disorder ( n = 12; M/F = 5/7) and typically developing children ( n = 32; M/F = 17/15)...
May 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500871/the-ability-to-tickle-oneself-is-associated-with-level-of-psychometric-schizotypy-in-non-clinical-individuals
#18
Thomas J Whitford, Amelia M Mitchell, Damien J Mannion
A recent study (Lemaitre et al., 2016, Consciousness and Cognition, 41, 64-71) found that non-clinical individuals who scored highly on a psychometric scale of schizotypy were able to tickle themselves. The present study aimed to extend this finding by investigating whether the ability to tickle oneself was associated with level of psychometric schizotypy considered as a continuous variable. One hundred and eleven students completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). A mechanical device delivered tactile stimulation to participants' palms...
May 10, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486227/schizotypy-and-cognitive-failures-a-mediating-role-for-affect
#19
Nicole Carrigan, Emma Barkus
BACKGROUND: Cognitive failures are disruptions in cognitive functioning during everyday life. Vulnerability to these failures is increased in a range of psychological disorders, including schizophrenia. In addition, healthy individuals with personality-based psychosis proneness, or schizotypy, often complain of heightened failures. A factor known to exacerbate cognitive failures is negative affect. Negative affectivity is linked to both schizophrenia and schizotypy. It is therefore possible that affect is responsible for the increased everyday cognitive failures in "high schizotypes"...
2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485076/response-inhibition-and-interference-control-effects-of-schizophrenia-genetic-risk-and-schizotypy
#20
Ulrich Ettinger, Désirée S Aichert, Nicola Wöstmann, Sandra Dehning, Michael Riedel, Veena Kumari
The ability to inhibit inappropriate responses and suppress irrelevant information is a core feature of executive control. In this study, we provide a detailed analysis of prepotent response inhibition and interference in patients with schizophrenia. To further test the role of genetic factors and subclinical schizophrenia-like traits, we additionally studied clinically unaffected, first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients and assessed dimensions of schizotypy in both relatives and healthy controls. Inhibition and interference control were assessed using a battery comprising the antisaccade, Stroop, stop signal, go/no-go, flanker, and Simon tasks...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
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