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Schizotypy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070918/stereotype-threat-and-social-function-in-opioid-substitution-therapy-patients
#1
Courtney von Hippel, Julie D Henry, Gill Terrett, Kimberly Mercuri, Karen McAlear, Peter G Rendell
OBJECTIVES: People with a history of substance abuse are subject to widespread stigmatization. It seems likely that this societal disapproval will result in feelings of stereotype threat, or the belief that one is the target of demeaning stereotypes. If so, stereotype threat has the potential to contribute to functional difficulties including poor social outcomes. METHODS: Eighty drug users on opioid substitution therapy and 84 demographically matched controls completed measures of mental health and social function...
January 10, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040431/overshadowing-depends-on-cue-and-reinforcement-sensitivity-but-not-schizotypy
#2
Clare Pickett, Helen J Cassaday, Peter A Bibby
There is evidence for impaired selective learning mechanisms in individuals high in schizotypy. Overshadowing provides a direct test of selective learning based on cue salience and has previously been reported to be impaired in relation to schizotypy scores. The present study tested for overshadowing using food allergy and Lego construction task variants. Both variants used the same number of conditioned stimulus (CS) cues and the same number of learning trials. CS cues were trained in compound pairs or in isolation and overshadowing was subsequently tested on trials followed by negative versus positive outcomes...
December 28, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935733/correction-to-kane-et-al-2016
#3
Michael J Kane, Matt E Meier, Bridget A Smeekens, Georgina M Gross, Charlotte A Chun, Paul J Silvia, Thomas R Kwapil
Reports an error in "Individual differences in the executive control of attention, memory, and thought, and their associations with schizotypy" by Michael J. Kane, Matt E. Meier, Bridget A. Smeekens, Georgina M. Gross, Charlotte A. Chun, Paul J. Silvia and Thomas R. Kwapil (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 2016[Aug], Vol 145[8], 1017-1048). There were errors in Table 3 and Table 7 (these transcription errors were limited to descriptive statistics in the Tables and did not affect any inferential statistics)...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934937/spatiotemporal-processing-of-somatosensory-stimuli-in-schizotypy
#4
Francesca Ferri, Ettore Ambrosini, Marcello Costantini
Unusual interaction behaviors and perceptual aberrations, like those occurring in schizotypy and schizophrenia, may in part originate from impaired remapping of environmental stimuli in the body space. Such remapping is contributed by the integration of tactile and proprioceptive information about current body posture with other exteroceptive spatial information. Surprisingly, no study has investigated whether alterations in such remapping occur in psychosis-prone individuals. Four hundred eleven students were screened with respect to schizotypal traits using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916709/insights-to-the-schizophrenia-continuum-a-systematic-review-of-saccadic-eye-movements-in-schizotypy-and-biological-relatives-of-schizophrenia-patients
#5
REVIEW
Jessica B Myles, Susan L Rossell, Andrea Phillipou, Elizabeth Thomas, Caroline Gurvich
Myles, J.B., S. Rossell, A. Phillipou, Thomas, E and C. Gurvich. A systematic review of saccadic eye movements across the schizophrenia continuum: Characterisation, pathophysiology and genetic associations. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV 21(1) XXX-XXX, 2015. One of the cognitive hallmarks of schizophrenia is impaired eye movements, particularly for the antisaccade task. Less saccade research has been conducted in relation to the broader schizophrenia continuum, that is, people with high schizotypy or first-degree relatives of people with schizophrenia...
January 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901211/how-to-tell-a-happy-from-an-unhappy-schizotype-personality-factors-and-mental-health-outcomes-in-individuals-with-psychotic-experiences
#6
Letícia O Alminhana, Miguel Farias, Gordon Claridge, Claude R Cloninger, Alexander Moreira-Almeida
Objective: It is unclear why some individuals reporting psychotic experiences have balanced lives while others go on to develop mental health problems. The objective of this study was to test if the personality traits of harm avoidance, self-directedness, and self-transcendence can be used as criteria to differentiate healthy from unhealthy schizotypal individuals. Methods: We interviewed 115 participants who reported a high frequency of psychotic experiences. The instruments used were the Temperament and Character Inventory (140), Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, and the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences...
November 24, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895608/genetic-consideration-of-schizotypal-traits-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Emma E Walter, Francesca Fernandez, Mollie Snelling, Emma Barkus
Schizotypal traits are of interest and importance in their own right and also have theoretical and clinical associations with schizophrenia. These traits comprise attenuated psychotic symptoms, social withdrawal, reduced cognitive capacity, and affective dysregulation. The link between schizotypal traits and psychotic disorders has long since been debated. The status of knowledge at this point is such schizotypal traits are a risk for psychotic disorders, but in and of themselves only confer liability, with other risk factors needing to be present before a transition to psychosis occurs...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844503/attentional-capture-by-physically-salient-stimuli-in-the-gamma-frequency-is-associated-with-schizophrenia-symptoms
#8
Laura Kornmayer, Gregor Leicht, Christoph Mulert
OBJECTIVES: Aberrant salience mainly is attributed to excessive dopaminergic processing in the ventral striatum. Increased gamma power during sensory processing of physical salience has been shown to be associated with positive trait schizotypy. In the present study, this is assessed in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: The early evoked visual gamma-band response (GBR) at 40 Hz was assessed for a schizophrenia patient group (N = 22) and a matched healthy control group (N = 22) applying EEG time-frequency analysis...
December 23, 2016: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836244/self-is-other-other-is-self-poor-self-other-discriminability-explains-schizotypal-twisted-agency-judgment
#9
Tomohisa Asai
Anomalous agency has been reported clinically and empirically for people with schizophrenia. This finding is expected to contribute to understanding positive symptomatology in schizophrenia in terms of a general neurocomputational model of motor control, because anomalous agency has also been reported in schizotypal traits in the general population. However, superficially opposite conclusions have been suggested: over-attributed or under-attributed agency in patients. In this work, healthy participants (N=104) were presented continuous morphed self-other visual feedback of their reaching movements and rated the agency they felt for it...
December 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783716/the-biological-rhythms-interview-of-assessment-in-neuropsychiatry-in-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-correlation-with-affective-temperaments-and-schizotypy
#10
Ewa Dopierala, Adrian A Chrobak, Flavio Kapczinski, Michal Michalak, Anna Tereszko, Ewa Ferensztajn-Rochowiak, Dominika Dudek, Daria Dembinska-Krajewska, Marcin Siwek, Jan Jaracz, Janusz K Rybakowski
Objective: To assess the relationship of biological rhythms, evaluated by the Biological Rhythms Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (BRIAN), with affective temperaments and schizotypy. Methods: The BRIAN assessment, along with the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) and the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory for Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE), was administered to 54 patients with remitted bipolar disorder (BD) and 54 healthy control (HC) subjects...
October 20, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764693/familial-aggregation-of-schizotypy-in-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-and-its-relation-to-clinical-and-neurodevelopmental-characteristics
#11
J Soler, P Ferentinos, C Prats, S Miret, M Giralt, V Peralta, L Fañanás, M Fatjó-Vilas
INTRODUCTION: This study explored schizotypy as a familial liability marker for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SSD) by examining: 1) the aggregation of schizotypy in families with a SSD patient, 2) whether familial resemblance of schizotypy is associated with ridge dissociations (RD), another SSD liability marker, 3) whether schizotypy aggregation patterns influence patients' psychopathology. METHODS: The sample comprised 30 SSD patients and 82 healthy first-degree relatives...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752140/the-neural-transfer-effect-of-working-memory-training-to-enhance-hedonic-processing-in-individuals-with-social-anhedonia
#12
Xu Li, Zhi Li, Ke Li, Ya-Wei Zeng, Hai-Song Shi, Wen-Lan Xie, Zhuo-Ya Yang, Simon S Y Lui, Eric F C Cheung, Ada W S Leung, Raymond C K Chan
Anhedonia, the diminished ability to experience pleasure, is a challenging negative symptom in patients with schizophrenia and can be observed in at-risk individuals with schizotypy. Deficits in hedonic processing have been postulated to be related to decreased motivation to engage in potentially rewarding events. It remains unclear whether non-pharmacological interventions, such as cognitive training, could improve anhedonia. The present study aimed to examine the neural mechanism for alleviating hedonic deficits with working memory (WM) training in individuals with social anhedonia...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741482/examining-lexical-processing-with-two-word-tasks-using-the-schizotypy-analogue
#13
Eric Josiah Tan, Giorgia A Wagner, Susan Lee Rossell
Semantic processing is impaired in schizophrenia, and is often assessed using word-based semantic tasks that additionally require lexical processing for accurate performance. This study aimed to examine lexical processing in relation to psychosis proneness. 61 individuals (mean age=22.92, SD=2.67) completed a schizotypy questionnaire and two lexical processing tasks (recognition and production). Results revealed no relationship between increasing schizotypy scores and overall performance on either lexical processing task...
December 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738648/embrained-drives-to-perform-extraordinary-roles-predict-schizotypal-traits-in-the-general-population
#14
Ana L Fernandez-Cruz, Ola Mohamed Ali, Gifty Asare, Morgan S Whyte, Ishan Walpola, Julia Segal, J Bruno Debruille
Some personal drives correspond to extraordinary social roles. Given that behavioral strategies associated with such drives may conflict with those associated with ordinary roles, they could cause behavioral disorganization. To test whether they do so independent of the factors responsible for full-blown schizotypy and schizophrenia, these drives were assessed in the general population. Two hundred and nine healthy volunteers were individually presented with hundreds of names of social roles in experimental psychology conditions...
2016: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732025/-psychosis-predictive-value-of-self-reported-schizotypy-in-a-clinical-high-risk-sample-correction-to-fl%C3%A3-ckiger-et-al-2016
#15
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Psychosis-Predictive Value of Self-Reported Schizotypy in a Clinical High-Risk Sample" by Rahel Flückiger, Stephan Ruhrmann, Martin Debbané, Chantal Michel, Daniela Hubl, Benno G. Schimmelmann, Joachim Klosterkötter and Frauke Schultze-Lutter (Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Sep 1, 2016, np). In the article, there was an error in the Author Note. The affiliation of Daniela Hubl was incorrectly listed as "University Hospital of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Bern...
October 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718467/typology-of-schizotypy-in-non-clinical-young-adults-psychopathological-and-personality-disorder-traits-correlates
#16
Patrick Raynal, Nelly Goutaudier, Victoria Nidetch, Henri Chabrol
Few typological studies address schizotypy in young adults. Schizotypal traits were assessed on 466 college students using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B). Other measures evaluated personality traits previously associated with schizotypy (borderline, obsessionnal, and autistic traits), psychopathological symptoms (suicidal ideations, depressive and obsessive-compulsive symptoms) and psychosocial functioning. A factor analysis was first performed on SPQ-B results, leading to four factors: negative schizotypy, positive schizotypy, social anxiety, and reference ideas...
December 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644915/-schizotypal-personality-questionnaire-brief-likert-format-factor-structure-analysis-in-general-population-in-france
#17
A Ferchiou, L Todorov, M Lajnef, G Baudin, B Pignon, J-R Richard, M Leboyer, A Szöke, F Schürhoff
INTRODUCTION: The main objective of the study was to explore the factorial structure of the French version of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B) in a Likert format, in a representative sample of the general population. In addition, differences in the dimensional scores of schizotypy according to gender and age were analyzed. As the study in the general population of schizotypal traits and its determinants has been recently proposed as a way toward the understanding of aetiology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia, consistent self-report tools are crucial to measure psychometric schizotypy...
September 16, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632907/examining-the-continuum-of-psychosis-frequency-and-characteristics-of-psychotic-like-symptoms-in-relatives-and-non-relatives-of-patients-with-schizophrenia
#18
R Landin-Romero, P J McKenna, A Romaguera, E Álvarez-Moya, S Sarró, C Aguirre, C Sarri, A Compte, C Bosque, R Salvador, E Pomarol-Clotet
BACKGROUND: A key finding underlying the continuum of psychosis concept is the presence of psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) in healthy subjects. However, it remains uncertain to what extent these experiences are related to the genetic risk for schizophrenia and how far they actually resemble attenuated forms of psychotic symptoms. METHODS: Forty-nine adults with no history of mental illness in first-degree relatives and 59 siblings of patients with schizophrenia were rated on the psychosis section of the Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule IV (C DIS-IV) and the Rust Inventory of Schizotypal Cognitions (RISC)...
December 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621208/associations-of-differential-schizotypal-dimensions-with-executive-working-memory-a-moderated-mediation-analysis
#19
Chrysoula Zouraraki, Ioannis Tsaousis, Penny Karamaouna, Leda Karagiannopoulou, Panos Roussos, Panos Bitsios, Stella G Giakoumaki
BACKGROUND: Increased schizotypal traits are observed in a percentage of the general population and in the schizophrenia-spectrum and have been associated with impairments in working memory. In this study we examined the effects of four schizotypal dimensions [Negative (NegS), Paranoid (ParS), Cognitive-Perceptual (CPS), Disorganized (DiS)] on executive working memory (EWM), as mediated by set-shifting, planning and control inhibition. We also examined whether these associations are moderated by family-history of psychosis...
August 21, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613511/preliminary-evidence-that-schizophrenia-liability-at-age-15-predicts-suicidal-ideation-two-years-later
#20
Irie D Schimanski, Kelly L Mouat, Bronwyn L Billinghurst, Richard J Linscott
We tested artifactual and theory-based accounts of the relationship between schizophrenia liability and suicidality. At baseline, 387 adolescents (12 to 17years) completed measures of schizotypy, hopelessness, and depressed affect. After two years, schizotypal and non-schizotypal subsamples (n=16 and 31, respectively) self-reported passive suicidal ideation, active ideation, and serious ideation and action. Taxonic schizotypy predicted passive ideation (OR=8.15, 95% CI 1.34, 49.60) even when controlling for depressed affect...
September 6, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
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