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Marco Armando, Corrado Sandini, Maelle Chambaz, Marie Schaer, Maude Schneider, Stephan Eliez
Converging evidence suggests that psychosis emerges from the complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Stressful life events (SLEs) play a prominent role in combination with coping strategies and with a dysfunctional hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). It has been proposed that the framework of schizotypy might help disentangle the interaction between genetic and environmental factors in the pathogenesis of psychosis. Similarly, 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is considered as a genetic model of psychosis vulnerability...
March 14, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Alexander P Christensen, Yoed N Kenett, Tomaso Aste, Paul J Silvia, Thomas R Kwapil
Schizotypy is a multidimensional construct that provides a useful framework for understanding the etiology, development, and risk for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Past research has applied traditional methods, such as factor analysis, to uncovering common dimensions of schizotypy. In the present study, we aimed to advance the construct of schizotypy, measured by the Wisconsin Schizotypy Scales-Short Forms (WSS-SF), beyond this general scope by applying two different psychometric network filtering approaches-the state-of-the-art approach (lasso), which has been employed in previous studies, and an alternative approach (information-filtering networks; IFNs)...
March 8, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Anne-Laure Lemaitre, Gilles Lafargue, Hugues Duffau, Guillaume Herbet
A growing body of evidence suggests that individuals with pronounced schizotypal traits also display particular neurophysiological and morphological features - notably with regard to left frontotemporal connectivity. However, the studies published to date have focused on subclinical subjects and psychiatric patients, rather than brain-damaged patients. Here, we used the French version of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire to assess schizotypal traits in a sample of 97 patients having undergone surgical resection of a diffuse low-grade glioma...
February 27, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Phillip Grant, Melissa J Green, Oliver J Mason
The observation of psychosis-like traits that resemble symptoms of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, both among healthy relatives of psychotic patients and among the general population, can be traced to the early 20th century.1,2 These traits have since been described within various models of illness and health (ie, normal/abnormal personality, abnormal psychotic continua), each giving rise to concepts such as "schizotypy," "psychoticism," and "psychosis-proneness" that are not necessarily interchangeable, although their subtle distinctions are often overlooked...
February 21, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Maider Gonzalez de Artaza, Ana Catalan, Virxinia Angosto, Cristina Valverde, Amaia Bilbao, Jim van Os, Miguel Angel Gonzalez-Torres
BACKGROUND: This is an extension of a paper published earlier. We investigated the association between the tendency to detect speech illusion in random noise and levels of positive schizotypy in a sample of 185 adult healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subclinical positive, negative and depressive symptoms were assessed with the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE); positive and negative schizotypy was assessed with the Structured Interview for Schizotypy-Revised (SIS-R)...
2018: PloS One
Andrew Denovan, Neil Dagnall, Kenneth Drinkwater, Andrew Parker
This study assessed the extent to which within-individual variation in schizotypy and paranormal belief influenced performance on probabilistic reasoning tasks. A convenience sample of 725 non-clinical adults completed measures assessing schizotypy (Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences; O-Life brief), belief in the paranormal (Revised Paranormal Belief Scale; RPBS) and probabilistic reasoning (perception of randomness, conjunction fallacy, paranormal perception of randomness, and paranormal conjunction fallacy)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Emma E Walter, Francesca Fernandez, Mollie Snelling, Emma Barkus
Cortisol is involved in preparing the body's response for stress. However, in those at risk for mental health problems, abnormal cortisol release following stress has been reported. In particular, we are yet to fully understand how stress leads to an exacerbation of symptoms and progression of risk in those who express psychosis proneness or schizotypy. Using the Trier Social Stress Test, we examined the effect of experimentally induced psychosocial stress on cortisol release in otherwise healthy individuals with schizotypal traits...
January 30, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Lai-Quan Zou, Han-Yu Zhou, Simon S Y Lui, Yi Wang, Ya Wang, Jun Gan, Xiong-Zhao Zhu, Eric F C Cheung, Raymond C K Chan
OBJECTIVE: Olfactory identification impairments have been consistently found in schizophrenia patients. However, few previous studies have investigated this in first-episode patients. There are also inconsistent findings regarding olfactory identification ability in psychometrically-defined schizotypy individuals. In this study, we directly compared the olfactory identification ability of first-episode schizophrenia patients with schizotypy individuals. The relationship between olfactory identification impairments and hedonic traits was also examined...
January 22, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Lili Sahakyan, Thomas R Kwapil
Negative symptom schizophrenia and negative schizotypy are associated with deficits in episodic memory, which may reflect deficits in context processing. However, studies that rely on summary performance measures such as mean accuracy or latency are limited in the extent that they can examine processes underlying memory impairment. The present study decomposed free recall performance by examining serial position functions, first response probability, temporal contiguity effect, cumulative recall functions, and interresponse times in high-positive schizotypy, high-negative schizotypy, and control groups...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Ana Catalan, Maider Gonzalez de Artaza, Arantza Fernández-Rivas, Virxinia Angosto, Fernando Aguirregomoscorta, Sonia Bustamante, Aida Díaz, Iker Zamalloa, Nora Olazabal, Amaia Bilbao, Claudio Maruottolo, Miguel Angel Gonzalez-Torres
BACKGROUND: Subclinical psychotic symptoms are present in the general population. Furthermore, they are quite common in diagnostic categories beyond psychosis, such as BPD patients. METHODS: We want to assess the differences between 3 groups: BPD (n = 68), FEP (n = 83) and controls (n = 203) in an experimental paradigm measuring the presence of speech illusions in white noise. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale was administered in the patient group, the Structured Interview for Schizotypy-Revised, and the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences in the control and BPD group...
January 20, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
Alison Simpson, Nicole A Thomas
The same piece of artwork can attract both admiration and rejection from different people. One potential explanation for this effect is individual differences in perceptual biases, which influence the way in which we see different aspects of the same image. We explored the relationship between individual differences (i.e., personality) and eye movements for examinations of abstract art. Images were presented for 5000ms, after which participants judged aesthetic appeal and perceived value using visual analogue scales...
January 16, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Mark F Lenzenweger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
Alexis K Matusiewicz, Katherine L McCauley, Julie M McCarthy, Nadia Bounoua, C W Lejuez
Much of the earliest research on personality pathology was observational and descriptive in nature, drawing heavily on subjective self-reports, however, the last 20 years have seen a surge of interest in laboratory-based studies. Laboratory research offers a number of benefits for researchers interested in personality disorders and personality pathology including the opportunities to use objective performance-based and behavioral measures, reveal the neuropsychological and biobehavioral processes that may help shape the experience and behavior of individuals with personality disorders, and create experimental designs that allow researchers to systematically explore the effect of context on emotional, behavioral and cognitive responding...
January 2018: Personality Disorders
Erin L Moorman, Douglas B Samuel
Building on support for the five-factor model (FFM) of personality disorder, the Five Factor Schizotypal Inventory (FFSI) was developed to assess maladaptive traits relevant to schizotypal personality disorder. While the development of the FFSI supports a continuity between schizotypal thinking and perception (STAP) and the FFM domain of Openness to Experience, other studies show inconsistent findings concerning the strength of this relationship. The current study evaluates these relationships by investigating specific components of a short-form of the FFSI (e...
January 2018: Psychological Assessment
E Cem Atbasoglu, Guvem Gumus-Akay, Sinan Guloksuz, Meram Can Saka, Alp Ucok, Koksal Alptekin, Sevim Gullu, Jim van Os
RATIONALE: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is more frequent in schizophrenia (Sz) than in the general population. This association is partly accounted for by shared susceptibility genetic variants. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypotheses that a genetic predisposition to Sz would be associated with higher likelihood of insulin resistance (IR), and that IR would be predicted by subthreshold psychosis phenotypes. METHODS: Unaffected siblings of Sz patients (n = 101) were compared with a nonclinical sample (n = 305) in terms of IR, schizotypy (SzTy), and a behavioural experiment of "jumping to conclusions"...
January 6, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Thomas J Dinzeo, Virginia Culiañez Serna, Sherry D Pujji, Eve M Sledjeski
Introduction Research suggests that levels of schizotypy are related to cognitive and social functioning, with negative schizotypy being particularly related to deficits in verbal fluency (VF) and distinct social skills. Considering the possibility that different VF tasks may involve both shared and unique underlying processes, this study sought to examine the separate contributions of categorical and phonological forms of VF to social functioning in those with varying levels of negative schizotypy. Methods Face-to-face interviews were conducted in which 228 college students completed VF tasks, the SPQ-BR, and a social functioning questionnaire...
December 19, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Svetlana Filatova, Heli Koivumaa-Honkanen, Golam M Khandaker, Estelle Lowry, Tanja Nordström, Tuula Hurtig, Kristiina Moilanen, Jouko Miettunen
Delayed motor developmental milestones have been reported to be associated with schizophrenia in previous studies, but no study has examined the relationship between early motor developmental milestones and schizotypy. We have examined this relationship in a prospective birth cohort.In the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966, data on 9 early motor developmental milestones were collected prospectively from visits to child welfare centers, and data on adult schizotypy were collected through a questionnaire (N = 4557-4674)...
December 9, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Minji Bang, Jin Young Park, Kyung Ran Kim, Su Young Lee, Yun Young Song, Jee In Kang, Eun Lee, Suk Kyoon An
AIM: To improve strategies for the early identification of individuals at a heightened risk for the development of psychosis, we investigated the relationships and interactions between 3 psychosis-proneness dimensions for the development of schizophrenia spectrum psychosis: schizotypy, basic symptoms and the ultra-high risk (UHR) criteria. METHODS: Seventy-seven UHR individuals and 79 healthy controls were assessed for schizotypy and basic symptoms using self-report questionnaires at baseline...
December 8, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Kyle S Minor, Beshaun J Davis, Matthew P Marggraf, Lauren Luther, Megan L Robbins
In schizophrenia-spectrum populations, analyzing the words people use has offered promise for unlocking information about affective states and social behaviors. The electronically activated recorder (EAR) is an application-based program that is combined with widely used smartphone technology to capture a person's real-world interactions via audio recordings. It improves on the ecological validity of current methodologies by providing objective and naturalistic samples of behavior. This study is the first to implement the EAR in people endorsing elevated traits of schizophrenia-spectrum personality disorders (i...
December 7, 2017: Personality Disorders
Gemma Modinos, Alice Egerton, Anna McLaughlin, Katrina McMullen, Veena Kumari, David J Lythgoe, Gareth J Barker, André Aleman, Steve C R Williams
BACKGROUND: Cortical glutamatergic dysfunction is thought to be fundamental for psychosis development, and may lead to structural degeneration through excitotoxicity. Glutamate levels have been related to gray matter volume (GMV) alterations in people at ultra-high risk of psychosis, and we previously reported GMV changes in individuals with high schizotypy (HS), which refers to the expression of schizophrenia-like characteristics in healthy people. This study sought to examine whether GMV changes in HS subjects are related to glutamate levels...
December 4, 2017: Psychological Medicine
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