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Kirsty V Everett, Richard J Linscott
Heterogeneity in the expression of schizotypy may arise from underlying dimensional processes or a taxonic population structure. In a 2-phase study, we tested the taxonicity of self-reported schizotypy within a general psychiatric sample (n = 109) and examined taxon validity by testing its association with clinical schizotaxia in follow-up subsamples. Taxometric analyses indicated a taxonic structure (schizotypy prevalence = 38.8%) provided the best description of the underlying population distribution. After a year, schizotypal (n = 14) and nonschizotypal (n = 14) subsamples returned for diagnosis of clinical schizotaxia by assessment of executive functioning, attention, memory, and negative symptoms...
March 2015: Schizophrenia Bulletin
William S Stone, Anthony J Giuliano
Three decades after Paul Meehl proposed the term "schizotaxia" to describe a conceptual framework for understanding the liability to schizophrenia, Ming Tsuang et al. at Harvard University reformulated the concept as a clinical syndrome with provisional research criteria. The reformulated view relied heavily on more recent data showing that many non-psychotic, un-medicated biological relatives of individuals with schizophrenia showed difficulties in cognitive and other clinical functions that resembled those seen in their ill relatives...
October 2013: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
H W Thermenos, M S Keshavan, R J Juelich, E Molokotos, S Whitfield-Gabrieli, B K Brent, N Makris, L J Seidman
In an effort to identify the developing abnormalities preceding psychosis, Dr. Ming T. Tsuang and colleagues at Harvard expanded Meehl's concept of "schizotaxia," and examined brain structure and function in families affected by schizophrenia (SZ). Here, we systematically review genetic (familial) high-risk (HR) studies of SZ using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), examine how findings inform models of SZ etiology, and suggest directions for future research. Neuroimaging studies of youth at HR for SZ through the age of 30 were identified through a MEDLINE (PubMed) search...
October 2013: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
William S Stone, Xiaolu Hsi, Liwen Tan, Shaochun Zhu, Lingjiang Li, Anthony J Giuliano, Larry J Seidman, Ming T Tsuang
Many first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia demonstrate deficits in neurocognitive, social, clinical and other dimensions, in the absence of psychosis. Based on a reformulation of Meehl's concept of "schizotaxia" as a clinically meaningful syndrome reflecting liability to schizophrenia, we proposed research criteria in relatives focused on negative symptoms and neurocognitive deficits. Here we assess validity of the syndrome in a sample of Chinese adult relatives by assessing measures of concurrent validity, and by using cluster analysis to test the hypothesis that relatives could be grouped into distinct schizotaxic and non-schizotaxic subgroups based on our diagnostic criteria...
March 2012: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
William S Stone, Xiaolu Hsi, Anthony J Giuliano, Liwen Tan, Shaochun Zhu, Lingjiang Li, Larry J Seidman, Ming T Tsuang
The Changsha study identifies adult, non-psychotic relatives of patients with schizophrenia who show deficits in neurocognitive, social, clinical and other dimensions, and who meet provisional criteria for a liability syndrome for schizophrenia ('schizotaxia'). In this study, we investigated whether negative symptoms, neurocognitive deficits, or other measures of clinical and social function in subjects who met our research criteria for schizotaxia were amenable to pharmacological remediation with a low dose (2...
March 2012: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
M T Tsuang, W S Stone, S V Faraone
One of the most important trends in the treatment of schizophrenia involves its early diagnosis and intervention. The ultimate goal of research is the prevention of the disorder, A major impediment to the development of prevention strategies, however, is that we do not yet know what the liability for schizophrenia is before the onset of psychosis. Consequently, early treatment attempts are focused on the "prodrome," which involves the early symptoms of psychosis. In a companion paper, we recently suggested that prevention work should focus not only on the prodrome, but also on "schizotaxia," which is a clinically meaningful condition that may reflect the vulnerability to schizophrenia in the absence of psychosis...
September 2000: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
M T Tsuang, W S Stone, S V Faraone
Historically, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia have emphasized several features, including symptoms of psychosis, a dissociation of symptoms from their etiology, a reliance on clinical symptoms, and a categorical approach to classifying the disorder. Although these emphases are quite useful, they have limitations. We review these here, and stress the importance of incorporating recent data on the genetic /biological and neurodevelopmental origins of schizophrenia into current conceptions of the disorder...
December 1999: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
M T Tsuang, W S Stone, S V Faraone
A substantial part of the contribution of genetic studies to the treatment of schizophrenia involves its emphasis on reliable and valid diagnoses. One consequence of this focus is the recognition that schizophrenic illness is broader than the diagnostic entity of schizophrenia itself, and instead consists of a "spectrum" of related disorders. Because some of the symptoms in these disorders differ from each other, they provide an opportunity to determine which ones reflect a common etiology. To the extent that such symptoms are identifiable, they may provide a foundation for treatment and even prevention strategies...
December 2000: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
J G Franco, J Valero, A Labad
Many authors view schizophrenia as a neurodevelopmental disorder. Knowledge of whether patients have morphologic variants that occur during the development of different anatomic areas of the brain and an understanding of the relation between such variants and brain development or prenatal exposure to possible noxae could provide clues about the events that lead to schizophrenia. Nonspecific morphologic variants that occur during the first and second trimesters of gestation, which are known as minor physical anomalies (MPA) and can be used as disease risk markers insusceptible persons, have been related with schizophrenia,independently of the anatomic region where they occur...
November 2010: Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría
Ming T Tsuang, William S Stone, Tracey L Auster
This article reviews progress made in the identification of vulnerability to schizophrenia in genetic high-risk groups. Dimensions of vulnerability include cognitive, clinical and social functions, among others. Based on studies of dysfunction in these areas, specialized programs are being developed to focus on recognizing rates and patterns of transition to schizophrenia, and intervention techniques that include psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic techniques. After considering a current conceptualization of schizotaxia, the identification of novel endophenotypes that may include brain function, molecular biology or other medical functions will be considered, in addition to clinical, social and neuropsychological measures...
July 2010: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Andrea Raballo, Josef Parnas
The identification of individuals carrying unexpressed genetic liability to schizophrenia is crucial for both etiological research and clinical risk stratification. Subclinical psychopathological features detectable in the nonpsychotic part of the schizophrenia spectrum could improve the delineation of informative vulnerability phenotypes. Inspired by Meehl's schizotaxia-schizotypy heuristic model, we tested anomalous subjective experiences (self-disorders, SDs) as a candidate vulnerability phenotype in a sample of nonpsychotic, genetically high-risk subjects...
September 2011: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Janusz K Rybakowski, Wiktor Drozdz, Alina Borkowska
The term schizotaxia is currently defined as a syndrome of neuropsychological deficits and negative symptoms found in relatives of schizophrenic patients. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of long-term treatment with the low-dose risperidone on cognitive and social functioning in seven schizotaxia patients. There were four males and three females, aged between 17 and 44 years, first-degree (four patients) or second-degree (three patients) relatives of schizophrenic patients. Schizotaxia was recognized in them on account of neuropsychological and social function impairment...
August 2007: Human Psychopharmacology
Richard J Linscott
Recent exchanges on the place of hypohedonia within Meehl's theory of schizotaxia, schizotypy, and schizophrenia focus on evidence of the taxonicity of asociality, not hedonic capacity per se. Two hypotheses were contrasted, one that hypohedonia is a nonpathological individual difference variable independent of schizotypy, the other that schizotypy and hypohedonia tap independent taxonic processes that predict the emergence of positive and negative signs of schizophrenia, respectively. Undergraduates (n = 1,543) completed a multifaceted measure of schizotypy and hypohedonia...
June 2007: Journal of Personality Disorders
Andrea Raballo, Eva Lundgren, Emanuela Leuci, Stefania Fontò, Carlo Maggini
The phenomenon of self-centrality denotes a qualitative modification of the psychotic experience. Transitory experiences of self-reference have regularly been found in subjects in the prodromic phase and at the beginning of psychosis or in the post psychotic phase, and are specifically identified in the semeiotics of Basic Symptoms. However, self-centrality, in addition to being a morphological organizer in the psychotic crisis, also manifests itself in schizotypal personality disorders and in first-degree relatives of schizophrenics (where it is correlated to the degree of schizotypal traits)...
April 2006: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
Niels G Waller
This article presents a brief summary of Paul Meehl's development of taxometrics. Of special concern is the question, Why did Paul Meehl develop taxometrics? It is shown that taxometrics played an integral role in Meehl's broader research program on the genetics of schizotaxia.
May 2006: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Mark F Lenzenweger
Paul E. Meehl proposed a model of the cause and pathogenesis of schizophrenia and related states in the early 1960s (Meehl, 1962), which he later revised in 1990 (Meehl, 1990). His model emphasized a genetically influenced aberration in neural transmission that could eventuate in clinical schizophrenia, nonpsychotic schizotypic states, or apparent normalcy depending on the coexistence of other factors. His model embodied the core ideas of the diathesis-stressor framework that would come to dominate experimental and developmental psychopathology for the next 40 years...
May 2006: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
William S Stone, Stephen V Faraone, Larry J Seidman, Elizabeth A Olson, Ming T Tsuang et al.
Conceptualizations of the liability for schizophrenia help guide the development of research protocols, which, in turn, provide empirical confirmations or disconfirmations of the conceptualization's tenets. This paper focuses on a conception of liability and its relationships to genetic adolescent high-risk studies. Specifically, the derivation and nature of a proposed multidimensional syndrome of liability to schizophrenia ("schizotaxia") are outlined, followed by a representative review of features reported in previous high-risk studies that may be related to schizotaxia, and a perspective on future high-risk investigations...
June 2005: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Ming T Tsuang, William S Stone, Sarah I Tarbox, Stephen V Faraone
Schizotaxia is a stable syndrome of neuropsychological deficits and negative symptoms found in relatives of schizophrenic patients. These may represent special vulnerability to schizophrenia. Five areas of deficit are enumerated and suggestions as to the potential value of pre-illness interventions are discussed.
2005: Essential Psychopharmacology
Kerry L Jang, Todd S Woodward, Donna Lang, William G Honer, W John Livesley
The clinical phenotype commonly referred to as schizotypy is used in two different ways in psychiatric practice. One usage emphasizes psychosis-proneness where schizotypy is considered part of the schizophrenia spectrum. The other emphasizes personality aberrations and is classed as a personality disorder. The present study provides evidence that schizotypy is a unitary construct and that features like schizophrenia and personality share a common genetic basis. A sample of 102 monozygotic and 90 dizygotic general population twin pairs completed measures of psychosis-proneness and traits delineating personality disorder...
March 2005: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Dorota Parnowska
From Kretschmer's trials binding personality traits with risk of psychoses have been described in literature. Still there is lack of one theory linking genetic factors with schizophrenia. In 1962 Meehl, introducing the term "schizotaxia", had been trying to find an answer to such a question. He described schizotaxia as subtle neuronal integration deficit caused by a single genetic factor, which depending on conditions, can give schizotypy or schizophrenia. Actually, this theory has only historical meaning. Recently Tsuang and Faraone reformulated the concept of schizotaxia used in clinical studies...
September 2004: Psychiatria Polska
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