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Psychophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333059/innate-food-aversions-and-culturally-transmitted-food-taboos-in-pregnant-women-in-rural-southwest-india-separate-systems-to-protect-the-fetus
#1
Caitlyn D Placek, Purnima Madhivanan, Edward H Hagen
Pregnancy increases women's nutritional requirements, yet causes aversions to nutritious foods. Most societies further restrict pregnant women's diet with food taboos. Pregnancy food aversions are theorized to protect mothers and fetuses from teratogens and pathogens or increase dietary diversity in response to resource scarcity. Tests of these hypotheses have had mixed results, perhaps because many studies are in Westernized populations with reliable access to food and low exposure to pathogens. If pregnancy food aversions are adaptations, however, then they likely evolved in environments with uncertain access to food and high exposure to pathogens...
November 2017: Evolution and Human Behavior: Official Journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331446/intolerance-of-uncertainty-neural-and-psychophysiological-correlates-of-the-perception-of-uncertainty-as-threatening
#2
REVIEW
Ema Tanovic, Dylan G Gee, Jutta Joormann
Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) reflects the perception of uncertainty as threatening, regardless of the true probability of threat. IU is elevated in various forms of psychopathology, uniquely associated with anxiety and depression symptoms after controlling for related constructs, and prospectively predicts symptoms. Given the ubiquity of uncertainty in daily life and the clinical implications of IU, recent work has begun to investigate the neural and psychophysiological correlates of IU. This review summarizes the existing literature and integrates findings within a mechanistic neural model of responding to uncertainty...
January 6, 2018: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330483/neural-correlates-of-sexual-orientation-in-heterosexual-bisexual-and-homosexual-women
#3
Adam Safron, Victoria Klimaj, David Sylva, A M Rosenthal, Meng Li, Martin Walter, J Michael Bailey
We used fMRI to investigate neural correlates of responses to erotic pictures and videos in heterosexual (N = 26), bisexual (N = 26), and homosexual (N = 24) women, ages 25-50. We focused on the ventral striatum, an area of the brain associated with desire, extending previous findings from the sexual psychophysiology literature in which homosexual women had greater category specificity (relative to heterosexual and bisexual women) in their responses to male and female erotic stimuli. We found that homosexual women's subjective and neural responses reflected greater bias towards female stimuli, compared with bisexual and heterosexual women, whose responses did not significantly differ...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327312/examining-the-prospective-relationship-between-pre-disaster-respiratory-sinus-arrhythmia-and-post-disaster-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-in-children
#4
Amy J Mikolajewski, Michael S Scheeringa
Previous studies have examined the concurrent relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and a range of psychophysiological variables, including respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). However, there is a lack of research examining the prospective development of trauma symptomatology, and the directionality of the association between RSA level and PTSD has yet to be determined. The current study is the first prospective study to examine whether RSA level and RSA reactivity are risk factors for PTSD symptoms in children...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322399/when-is-best-worst-best-a-comparison-of-best-worst-scaling-numeric-estimation-and-rating-scales-for-collection-of-semantic-norms
#5
Geoff Hollis, Chris Westbury
Large-scale semantic norms have become both prevalent and influential in recent psycholinguistic research. However, little attention has been directed towards understanding the methodological best practices of such norm collection efforts. We compared the quality of semantic norms obtained through rating scales, numeric estimation, and a less commonly used judgment format called best-worst scaling. We found that best-worst scaling usually produces norms with higher predictive validities than other response formats, and does so requiring less data to be collected overall...
January 10, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309852/the-impact-of-chronic-stress-on-the-predictors-of-acute-stress-induced-eating-in-women
#6
Rebecca R Klatzkin, Allie Baldassaro, Ellery Hayden
Chronic stress is associated with palatable food intake and thus, the development of obesity. This may be due to chronic stress disrupting the regulatory effects of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis on stress-induced eating. Thus, the primary objective of the current study was to investigate how chronic stress (CS) and cortisol stress reactivity affect eating behaviors following acute stress. Exploratory analyses also sought to determine the distinct psychophysiological factors driving acute stress-induced eating in women with high versus low CS...
January 5, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308657/the-physical-postures-of-yoga-practices-may-protect-against-depressive-symptoms-even-as-life-stressors-increase-a-moderation-analysis
#7
Rebecca A Franklin, Michael P Butler, Jacob A Bentley
Yoga contains sub-components related to its physical postures (asana), breathing methods (pranayama), and meditation (dhyana). To test the hypothesis that specific yoga practices are associated with reduced psychological distress, 186 adults completed questionnaires assessing life stressors, symptom severity, and experience with each of these aspects of yoga. Each yoga sub-component was found to be negatively correlated with psychological distress indices. However, differing patterns of relationship to psychological distress symptoms were found for each yoga sub-component...
January 8, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305871/resting-heart-rate-a-physiological-predicator-of-lie-detection-ability
#8
Geoffrey Duran, Isabelle Tapiero, George A Michael
This study explored a psychophysiological measure, Resting Heart Rate (RHR), as a predicator of the ability to detect lies. RHR was recorded for 1min and followed by a deception detection task in which participants were required to judge 24 videos of people describing a real-life event (50% truthful, 50% deceptive). Multiple regression analyses showed that, among other individual characteristics, only RHR predicted the ability to distinguish truth from lies. Importantly, the prediction was negative. This result suggests that the higher the RHR, the worse the detection of lies...
January 3, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305660/psychophysiological-body-composition-biomechanical-and-autonomic-modulation-analysis-procedures-in-an-ultraendurance-mountain-race
#9
Pedro Belinchon-deMiguel, Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez
The current research aimed to analyze psychophysiological, body composition, biomechanical and autonomic modifications in an ultraendurance mountain race. We analyzed 11 finisher voluntary athletes that participated in a 51.2 km ultraendurance mountain race. We measured before and after the mountain ultraendurance event the following parameters: Rate of perceived exertion, body composition, cortical arousal, blood pressure, body temperature, forced vital capacity, blood oxygen saturation, isometric hand strength and heart rate variability parameters...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297196/psychophysiological-evaluation-of-patients-with-transient-loss-of-consciousness-of-uncertain-origin
#10
Donatella Brisinda, Lara La Brocca, Anna Rita Sorbo, Gianmarco Lombardi, Francesco Fioravanti, Riccardo Fenici
BACKGROUND: Psychological profile (PsyP) of patients with transient loss of consciousness (TLoC) evidences high prevalence of anxiety and depression. However, the mechanistic link between abnormal PsyP and TLoC is still unclear. AIM: This study aimed at evaluating: 1) prevalence of abnormal PsyP in TLoC patients; 2) cardiac autonomic response to Head-up Tilt Test (HUTT) in patients with (PsyP+) or without abnormal PsyP (PsyP-), developing syncope (HUTT+) or not (HUTT-)...
January 3, 2018: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297147/one-year-cardiovascular-prognosis-of-the-randomized-controlled-short-term-heart-rate-variability-biofeedback-among-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#11
Li-Ching Yu, I-Mei Lin, Sheng-Yu Fan, Chin-Lung Chien, Tsung-Hsien Lin
PURPOSE: Heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) is an effective psychophysiological intervention, with short-term effects of increased autonomic nervous system homeostasis, strengthened baroreflex sensitivity, and decreased hostility in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). The study examined the 1-year HRV-BF effect on cardiovascular prognosis of these patients. METHODS: Of 222 patients with CAD referred by cardiologists, 210 were screened and randomly assigned to the HRV-BF and control groups...
January 2, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296103/interoceptive-sensitivity-as-a-proxy-for-emotional-intensity-and-its-relationship-with-perseverative-cognition
#12
Ricardo G Lugo, Kirsi Helkala, Benjamin J Knox, Øyvind Jøsok, Natalie M Lande, Stefan Sütterlin
Background: Technical advancement in military cyber defense poses increased cognitive demands on cyber officers. In the cyber domain, the influence of emotion on decision-making is rarely investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess psychophysiological correlation with perseverative cognitions during emotionally intensive/stressful situations in cyber military personnel. In line with parallel research on clinical samples high on perseverative cognition, we expected a decreased interoceptive sensitivity in officers with high levels of perseverative cognition...
2018: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291580/the-effect-of-panic-disorder-versus-anxiety-sensitivity-on-event-related-potentials-during-anticipation-of-threat
#13
Elizabeth S Stevens, Anna Weinberg, Brady D Nelson, Emily E E Meissel, Stewart A Shankman
Attention-related abnormalities are key components of the abnormal defensive responding observed in panic disorder (PD). Although behavioral studies have found aberrant attentional biases towards threat in PD, psychophysiological studies have been mixed. Predictability of threat, an important feature of threat processing, may have contributed to these mixed findings. Additionally, anxiety sensitivity, a dimensional trait associated with PD, may yield stronger associations with cognitive processes than categorical diagnoses of PD...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289376/one-session-of-autogenic-training-increases-acute-subjective-sexual-arousal-in-premenopausal-women-reporting-sexual-arousal-problems
#14
Amelia M Stanton, J Gregory Hixon, Lindsey M Nichols, Cindy M Meston
BACKGROUND: Below average heart rate variability (HRV) has been associated with sexual arousal dysfunction and overall sexual dysfunction in women. Autogenic training, a psychophysiologic relaxation technique, has been shown to increase HRV. In a recent study, sexually healthy women experienced acute increases in physiologic (ie, genital) and subjective sexual arousal after 1 brief session of autogenic training. AIM: To build on these findings by testing the effects of a single session of autogenic training on sexual arousal in a sample of women who reported decreased or absent sexual arousal for at least 6 months...
January 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289375/differences-in-perceived-and-physiologic-genital-arousal-between-women-with-and-without-sexual-dysfunction
#15
Ariel B Handy, Amelia M Stanton, Carey S Pulverman, Cindy M Meston
BACKGROUND: Many sexual psychophysiologic studies have failed to find differences in physiologic genital arousal between women with and those without sexual dysfunction. However, differences in self-reported (ie, perceived) measures of genital responses between these 2 groups of women have been noted. AIMS: To determine whether women with and without sexual dysfunction differ on measures of physiologic and perceived genital arousal based on type of analytic technique used, to explore differences in perceived genital arousal, and to assess the relation between physiologic and perceived genital arousal...
January 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288667/chronic-sleep-disorder-induced-by-psychophysiological-stress-induces-glucose-intolerance-without-adipose-inflammation-in-mice
#16
Katsutaka Oishi, Sumika Ohyama, Sayaka Higo-Yamamoto
Sleep disturbances are associated with various metabolic diseases such as hypertension and diabetes. We had previously established a mouse model of a psychophysiological stress-induced chronic sleep disorder (CSD) characterized by disrupted circadian rhythms of wheel-running activity, core body temperature, and sleep-wake cycles. To evaluate the underlying mechanisms of metabolic disorders induced by CSD, we created mice with CSD for six weeks and fed them with a high-fat diet. Glucose intolerance with hyperglycemia resulted, although plasma insulin levels and body weight increases were identical between control and CSD mice...
December 28, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287111/the-impact-of-pre-existing-anxiety-on-affective-and-cognitive-processing-of-a-virtual-reality-analogue-trauma
#17
Tina Schweizer, Julian Schmitz, Laura Plempe, Dali Sun, Christian Becker-Asano, Rainer Leonhart, Brunna Tuschen-Caffier
Dysfunctional processing of traumatic events may be in particular related to high trait anxiety as a pre-traumatic risk factor for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, as this has rarely been investigated in prospective, experimental studies, we aimed to analyse the association between high trait anxiety and affective as well as cognitive processing of stress using a new prospective Virtual Reality analogue trauma paradigm to overcome limitations of retrospective or current analogue designs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286524/psychophysiological-characteristics-in-the-chnpp-accident-clean-up-workers-exclusion-zone-evacuees-and-anti-terrorist-operation-servicemen
#18
K M Loganovsky, M V Gresko
OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of interdependencies between psychometric parameters and spontaneous cerebral electric activity in the ChNPP accident clean up workers, evacuees from exclusion zone, and anti terrorist operation service men. OBJECT AND METHODS: Psychometric and neurophysiological parameters were reviewed in the study subjects retro spectively and in comparison. Study population included the ChNPP accident clean up workers (ACUW), evacuees from the 30 kilometer exclusion zone, specifically in a sample from a cohort of the NRCRM Clinical Epidemiological Register (n=316), and anti terrorist operation servicemen (n=81) undergoing rehabilitation in the NRCRM Radiation psychoneurology department...
December 2017: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286444/generalized-psychophysiological-interaction-ppi-analysis-of-memory-related-connectivity-in-individuals-at-genetic-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Theresa M Harrison, Donald G McLaren, Teena D Moody, Jamie D Feusner, Susan Y Bookheimer
In neuroimaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measures the blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) signal in the brain. The degree of correlation of the BOLD signal in spatially independent regions of the brain defines the functional connectivity of those regions. During a cognitive fMRI task, a psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis can be used to examine changes in the functional connectivity during specific contexts defined by the cognitive task. An example of such a task is one that engages the memory system, asking participants to learn pairs of unrelated words (encoding) and recall the second word in a pair when presented with the first word (retrieval)...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283591/measuring-physiological-influence-in-dyads-a-guide-to-designing-implementing-and-analyzing-dyadic-physiological-studies
#20
Katherine R Thorson, Tessa V West, Wendy Berry Mendes
Scholars across domains in psychology, physiology, and neuroscience have long been interested in the study of shared physiological experiences between people. Recent technological and analytic advances allow researchers to examine new questions about how shared physiological experiences occur. Yet comprehensive guides that address the theoretical, methodological, and analytic components of studying these processes are lacking. The goal of this article is to provide such a guide. We begin by addressing basic theoretical issues in the study of shared physiological states by presenting five guiding theoretical principles for making psychological inferences from physiological influence-the extent to which one dyad member's physiology predicts the other dyad member's physiology at a future time point...
December 28, 2017: Psychological Methods
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