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Psychophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776789/transdiagnostic-effects-of-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-cue-reactivity
#1
Tonisha E Kearney-Ramos, Logan T Dowdle, Daniel H Lench, Oliver J Mithoefer, William H Devries, Mark S George, Raymond F Anton, Colleen A Hanlon
BACKGROUND: Elevated frontal and striatal reactivity to drug cues is a transdiagnostic hallmark of substance use disorders. The goal of these experiments was to determine if it is possible to decrease frontal and striatal reactivity to drug cues in both cocaine users and heavy alcohol users through continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) to the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). METHODS: Two single-blinded, within-subject, active sham-controlled experiments were performed wherein neural reactivity to drug/alcohol cues versus neutral cues was evaluated immediately before and after receiving real or sham cTBS (110% resting motor threshold, 3600 pulses, Fp1 location; N = 49: 25 cocaine users [experiment 1], 24 alcohol users [experiment 2]; 196 total functional magnetic resonance imaging scans)...
April 10, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769152/startle-habituation-sensory-and-sensorimotor-gating-in-trauma-affected-refugees-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#2
Hanieh Meteran, Erik Vindbjerg, Sigurd Wiingaard Uldall, Birte Glenthøj, Jessica Carlsson, Bob Oranje
BACKGROUND: Impairments in mechanisms underlying early information processing have been reported in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, findings in the existing literature are inconsistent. This current study capitalizes on technological advancements of research on electroencephalographic event-related potential and applies it to a novel PTSD population consisting of trauma-affected refugees. METHODS: A total of 25 trauma-affected refugees with PTSD and 20 healthy refugee controls matched on age, gender, and country of origin completed the study...
May 17, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755928/the-effects-of-social-support-on-strenuous-physical-exercise
#3
Arran Davis, Emma Cohen
In humans, socio-environmental cues play an important role in determining adaptive psychophysiological states and behaviours. In sport and exercise, cues to cohesive groups and close, supportive relationships are ubiquitous, possibly because of their effects on neurobiological mechanisms underlying physical performance. Clinical research has shown that the presence of supportive others can lead to reductions in perceptions of pain, while research from sport and exercise science has shown that pain and physical fatigue occupy ranges on a single spectrum of physical discomfort, which works to regulate outputs during strenuous physical exertion...
2018: Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745738/effect-of-prior-fatiguing-sport-specific-exercise-on-field-hockey-passing-ability
#4
Enzo Hollville, Vincent Le Croller, Yoshihiro Hirasawa, Rémi Husson, Giuseppe Rabita, Franck Brocherie
PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of multiple sets of repeated-sprint ability (RSA) induced fatigue on subsequent passing skill performance among field hockey. METHODS: Ten elite U-21 male field hockey players performed five sets of a combination of RSA test (6 × 20 m - 20 s of passive recovery) followed by a 1-min passing skill test (passing reception with subsequent passes at a pre-designed target). Fastest sprint time and cumulated sprint time for RSA test; total number of balls played, targeted and passing accuracy (number of balls targeted / total number of balls played) for passing skill test; heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration ([La-]) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were collected throughout the protocol...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745703/negative-urgency-moderates-reactivity-to-laboratory-stress-inductions
#5
Max M Owens, Michael T Amlung, Monika Stojek, James MacKillop
Impulsive personality traits refer to a group of self-reported dispositions about self-regulatory capacity, several of which have been linked to diverse forms of psychopathology. One of these is negative urgency (NUR), the propensity to act out when experiencing negative emotions, which has been linked to substance use disorders and eating disorders. However, few laboratory studies have investigated the extent to which self-reported NUR relates to an individual's in vivo emotional and behavioral responses. Harmonizing two archival data sets on alcohol and high-energy-dense (HED) food motivation, the current study investigated NUR as a moderator of reactivity to stressful situations elicited by two commonly used stress manipulations, the Trier Social Stress Test and a stress imagery induction...
May 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743827/the-effect-of-carbohydrate-mouth-rinse-on-performance-biochemical-and-psychophysiological-variables-during-a-cycling-time-trial-a-crossover-randomized-trial
#6
Amanda M J Ferreira, Luiz F Farias-Junior, Thaynan A A Mota, Hassan M Elsangedy, Aline Marcadenti, Telma M A M Lemos, Alexandre H Okano, Ana P T Fayh
Background: The hypothesis of the central effect of carbohydrate mouth rinse (CMR) on performance improvement in a fed state has not been established, and its psychophysiological responses have not yet been described. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CMR in athletes fed state on performance, biochemical and psychophysiological responses compared to ad libitum water intake. Methods: Eleven trained male cyclists completed a randomized, crossover trial, which consisted of a 30 km cycle ergometer at self-selected intensity and in a fed state...
2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738960/verbal-and-physical-client-aggression-a-longitudinal-analysis-of-professional-caregivers-psychophysiological-stress-response-and-burnout
#7
Nina Kind, Anne Eckert, Célia Steinlin, Jörg M Fegert, Marc Schmid
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the impact of verbal and physical client aggression on risk of developing high hair cortisol concentration (HCC) as an indicator of chronic stress exposure and burnout in a Swiss population of professional caregivers working in youth residential care. METHOD: Participants (n = 121; 62.0% women) reported on client aggression and burnout symptoms and provided hair samples at four annual sampling points. HCC was determined in the first 1...
May 2, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734227/fear-processing-psychophysiology-and-ptsd
#8
Seth Davin Norrholm, Tanja Jovanovic
The processing and regulation of fear is one of the key components of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Fear can involve both acute and potential threats that can manifest in different behaviors and result from activity within different neural nodes and networks. Fear circuits have been studied extensively in animal models for several decades and in human neuroimaging research for almost 20 years. Therefore, the centrality of fear processing to PTSD lends the disorder to be more tractable to investigation at the level of brain and behavior, and provides several observable phenotypes that can be linked to PTSD symptoms...
May 2018: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733039/ergonomic-work-analysis-a-case-study-of-bus-drivers-in-the-private-collective-transportation-sector
#9
Adolfo Vicente Araújo, Gemima Santos Arcanjo, Haroldo Fernandes, Georgia Santos Arcanjo
BACKGROUND: The collective transportation system is essential to reduce the number of automobiles in the roads. Concerns exist related to quality, comfort and safety of bus driver's workstations. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to improve the driver's workstation in the private collective transportation sector by analyzing ergonomic practices using the Ergonomic Work Analysis (EWA). The EWA was chosen because it seeks to evaluate the labor condition as it relates to the psychophysiological conditions of workers, it complies with regulatory standard 17 (NR17)...
May 3, 2018: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731197/visual-masking-contributions-from-and-comments-on-bruce-bridgeman
#10
REVIEW
Talis Bachmann
When about half a century ago masking research emerged as one of the hot topics in psychophysics, cognitive psychology and psychophysiology, Bruce Bridgeman was among the leaders in this domain. His studies and papers on masking must not be overlooked also today. This article brings to the readers a brief review of Bridgeman's contributions to the field and directly related research from other laboratories, with an eye on the implications for consciousness studies.
May 3, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729553/attachment-and-prejudice
#11
REVIEW
Katherine B Carnelley, Elle M Boag
There is a paucity of research that examines prejudice from an attachment theory perspective. Herein we make theoretical links between attachment patterns and levels of prejudice. Perceptions of outgroup threat, which activate the attachment system, are thought to lead to fear and prejudice for those high in attachment anxiety, and to distancing and prejudice for those high in attachment avoidance. We review the literature that examines the associations between attachment patterns and prejudice; evidence from attachment priming studies suggests a causal role of attachment security in reducing prejudice...
April 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727810/ptsd-in-women-is-associated-with-a-block-in-conversion-of-progesterone-to-the-gabaergic-neurosteroids-allopregnanolone-and-pregnanolone-measured-in-plasma
#12
S L Pineles, Y I Nillni, G Pinna, J Irvine, A Webb, K A Arditte Hall, R Hauger, M W Miller, P A Resick, S P Orr, A M Rasmusson
There is a need to identify new and more effective treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Allopregnanolone and its stereoisomer pregnanolone (together termed ALLO) are metabolites of progesterone that positively and allosterically modulate GABA effects at GABAA receptors, thereby reducing anxiety and depression. Previous research revealed that women with PTSD had low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ALLO levels and a low ratio of ALLO to the allopregnanolone precursor 5α-DHP, consistent with deficient activity of the ALLO synthetic enzyme 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSD)...
April 24, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724735/chronic-stress-protection-for-postnatal-depression-prevention-serene-a-protocol-for-an-exploratory-study
#13
Dahlia Tharwat, Marion Trousselard, Mélanie Balès, Anne-Laure Sutter-Dallay, Dominique Fromage, Elisabeth Spitz, Dominique Dallay, Thierry Harvey, Eric Welter, Frédéric Coatleven, Lydie Cherier, Frédérique Teissèdre, Jean-Luc Pouly, Frédéric Dutheil, Anaïs M Duffaud
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of postnatal depression (PND) is significant: reaching up to 20% in the general population. In mechanistic terms, the risk of PND lies in an interaction between a maternal psychophysiological vulnerability and a chronic environmental context of stress. On the one hand, repetition of stressor during pregnancy mimics a chronic stress model that is relevant to the study of the allostatic load and the adaptive mechanisms. On the other hand, vulnerability factors reflect a psychological profile mirroring mindfulness functioning (psychological quality that involves bringing one's complete and non-judgemental attention to the present experience on a moment-to-moment basis)...
May 3, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724018/neural-oscillatory-correlates-for-conditioning-and-extinction-of-fear
#14
REVIEW
Carlos Trenado, Nicole Pedroarena-Leal, Laura Cif, Michael Nitsche, Diane Ruge
The extinction of conditioned-fear represents a hallmark of current exposure therapies as it has been found to be impaired in people suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and anxiety. A large body of knowledge focusing on psychophysiological animal and human studies suggests the involvement of key brain structures that interact via neural oscillations during the acquisition and extinction of fear. Consequently, neural oscillatory correlates of such mechanisms appear relevant regarding the development of novel therapeutic approaches to counterbalance abnormal activity in fear-related brain circuits, which, in turn, could alleviate fear and anxiety symptoms...
May 1, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719398/comparison-of-changes-in-oxygenated-hemoglobin-during-the-tree-drawing-task-between-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-healthy-controls
#15
Shinya Nakano, Yoshihisa Shoji, Kiichiro Morita, Hiroyasu Igimi, Mamoru Sato, Youhei Ishii, Akihiko Kondo, Naohisa Uchimura
Background: Tree-drawing test is used as a projective psychological test that expresses the abnormal internal experience in patients with schizophrenia (SZ). Despite the widely accepted view that the cognitive function is involved in characteristic tree-drawing in patients with SZ, no study has psychophysiologically examined it. The present study aimed to investigate the involvement of cognitive function during tree-drawing in patients with SZ. For that purpose, we evaluated the brain function in patients with SZ during a tree-drawing task by using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and compared them with those in healthy controls...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709541/the-physiological-orienting-response-in-female-adolescents-with-borderline-personality-disorder
#16
Julian Koenig, Romuald Brunner, Peter Parzer, Franz Resch, Michael Kaess
BACKGROUND: The reflexive startle- and orienting-response have been widely studied in psychiatric disorders. Existing evidence in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) is mixed, and limited to adults. The present study addressed clinical correlates of the psychophysiological orienting response in adolescents with BPD. METHODS: Female adolescents (13-19 years) with BPD (n = 30), healthy controls (HC; n = 34), and psychiatric clinical controls (CC; n = 53) participated in the trial...
April 27, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704963/a-multimethod-examination-of-the-effect-of-insomnia-symptoms-on-anxious-responding-to-a-social-stressor
#17
Nicole A Short, Norman B Schmidt
A growing number of studies identify insomnia symptoms as a potential risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders. However, little research has examined potential mechanisms through which insomnia could confer increased risk for anxiety. A separate line of literature suggests sleep is necessary for adaptive emotional and behavioral responding to stressors, a potential mechanism linking insomnia symptoms to anxiety risk. To test whether insomnia symptoms affect emotional and behavioral responding to an anxiety-relevant stressor, the current study recruited a sample of 99 undergraduates with varying levels of insomnia symptoms...
May 2018: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702257/verbal-instruction-can-induce-extinction-of-fear-of-movement-related-pain
#18
Yoshiki Maeda, Shigeyuki Kan, Yuji Fujino, Masahiko Shibata
The fear avoidance model of chronic musculoskeletal pain highlights the importance of pain-related fear in chronification of pain. Although several interventions have been developed based on this model, the following issues remain unresolved: first, whether movement conditioned to pain can evoke fear responses particularly sympathetic activation; second, whether verbal instructions can attenuate conditioned fear of movement-related pain as with direct experience. To investigate these issues, we induced proprioceptive conditioning (learning the relationship between proprioceptive sensations and an aversive event) and extinction learning in healthy volunteers, and we compared psychophysiological and subjective indices of fear between an Instructed and a Normal extinction group...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698498/psychophysiological-responses-of-junior-orienteers-under-competitive-pressure
#19
Claudio Robazza, Pascal Izzicupo, Maria Angela D'Amico, Barbara Ghinassi, Maria Chiara Crippa, Vincenzo Di Cecco, Montse C Ruiz, Laura Bortoli, Angela Di Baldassarre
The purpose of the study was to examine psychobiosocial states, cognitive functions, endocrine responses (i.e., salivary cortisol and chromogranin A), and performance under competitive pressure in orienteering athletes. The study was grounded in the individual zones of optimal functioning (IZOF) and biopsychosocial models. Fourteen junior orienteering athletes (7 girls and 7 boys), ranging in age from 15 to 20 years (M = 16.93, SD = 1.77) took part in a two-day competitive event. To enhance competitive pressure, emphasis was placed on the importance of the competition and race outcome...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695992/empathy-challenge-and-psychophysiological-activation-in-therapist-client-interaction
#20
Liisa Voutilainen, Pentti Henttonen, Mikko Kahri, Niklas Ravaja, Mikko Sams, Anssi Peräkylä
Two central dimensions in psychotherapeutic work are a therapist's empathy with clients and challenging their judgments. We investigated how they influence psychophysiological responses in the participants. Data were from psychodynamic therapy sessions, 24 sessions from 5 dyads, from which 694 therapist's interventions were coded. Heart rate and electrodermal activity (EDA) of the participants were used to index emotional arousal. Facial muscle activity (electromyography) was used to index positive and negative emotional facial expressions...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
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