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Psychophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340256/sleep-disturbance-of-adults-with-a-brain-tumor-and-their-family-caregivers-a-systematic-review
#1
Megan Soohwa Jeon, Haryana M Dhillon, Meera R Agar
The high incidence and psychophysiological morbidities of sleep disturbance in cancer have been increasingly recognized. Yet, more detailed understanding of sleep disturbance and options for management have been neglected areas in both clinical care and research. Brain tumor patients have been particularly overlooked. A systematic search of the literature from 1990 to 2015 was performed to review sleep disturbance in adults with primary or secondary brain tumor and their family caregivers. Fifty eligible studies were identified, of which 12 focused on sleep, 37 reported sleep items within a health-related quality of life measure and 1 reported caregivers' sleep...
March 15, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334138/working-memory-modulation-of-frontoparietal-network-connectivity-in-first-episode-schizophrenia
#2
Jesper Duemose Nielsen, Kristoffer H Madsen, Zheng Wang, Zhening Liu, Karl J Friston, Yuan Zhou
Working memory (WM) impairment is regarded as a core aspect of schizophrenia. However, the neural mechanisms behind this cognitive deficit remain unclear. The connectivity of a frontoparietal network is known to be important for subserving WM. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the current study investigated whether WM-dependent modulation of effective connectivity in this network is affected in a group of first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients compared with similarly performing healthy participants during a verbal n-back task...
February 25, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334063/what-role-does-elongation-play-in-tool-specific-activation-and-connectivity-in-the-dorsal-and-ventral-visual-streams
#3
Juan Chen, Jacqueline C Snow, Jody C Culham, Melvyn A Goodale
Images of tools induce stronger activation than images of nontools in a left-lateralized network that includes ventral-stream areas implicated in tool identification and dorsal-stream areas implicated in tool manipulation. Importantly, however, graspable tools tend to be elongated rather than stubby, and so the tool-selective responses in some of these areas may, to some extent, reflect sensitivity to elongation rather than "toolness" per se. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the role of elongation in driving tool-specific activation in the 2 streams and their interconnections...
March 18, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323285/utilization-of-machine-learning-for-prediction-of-post-traumatic-stress-a-re-examination-of-cortisol-in-the-prediction-and-pathways-to-non-remitting-ptsd
#4
I R Galatzer-Levy, S Ma, A Statnikov, R Yehuda, A Y Shalev
To date, studies of biological risk factors have revealed inconsistent relationships with subsequent post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The inconsistent signal may reflect the use of data analytic tools that are ill equipped for modeling the complex interactions between biological and environmental factors that underlay post-traumatic psychopathology. Further, using symptom-based diagnostic status as the group outcome overlooks the inherent heterogeneity of PTSD, potentially contributing to failures to replicate...
March 21, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322476/optimizing-exposure-based-cbt-for-anxiety-disorders-via-enhanced-extinction-design-and-methods-of-a-multicentre-randomized-clinical-trial
#5
Ingmar Heinig, Andre Pittig, Jan Richter, Katrin Hummel, Isabel Alt, Kristina Dickhöver, Jennifer Gamer, Maike Hollandt, Katja Koelkebeck, Anne Maenz, Sophia Tennie, Christina Totzeck, Yunbo Yang, Volker Arolt, Jürgen Deckert, Katharina Domschke, Thomas Fydrich, Alfons Hamm, Jürgen Hoyer, Tilo Kircher, Ulrike Lueken, Jürgen Margraf, Peter Neudeck, Paul Pauli, Winfried Rief, Silvia Schneider, Benjamin Straube, Andreas Ströhle, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen
Exposure-based psychological interventions currently represent the empirically best established first line form of cognitive-behavioural therapy for all types of anxiety disorders. Although shown to be highly effective in both randomized clinical and other studies, there are important deficits: (1) the core mechanisms of action are still under debate, (2) it is not known whether such treatments work equally well in all forms of anxiety disorders, including comorbid diagnoses like depression, (3) it is not known whether an intensified treatment with more frequent sessions in a shorter period of time provides better outcome than distributed sessions over longer time intervals...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322458/reduced-positive-emotion-and-underarousal-are-uniquely-associated-with-subclinical-depression-symptoms-evidence-from-psychophysiology-self-report-and-symptom-clusters
#6
Stephen D Benning, Belel Ait Oumeziane
Multiple models of aberrant emotional processing in depression have been advanced. However, it is unclear which of these models best applies to emotional disturbances in subclinical depressive symptoms. The current study employed a battery of psychophysiological measures and emotional ratings in a picture-viewing paradigm to examine whether the underarousal, low positive emotion, heightened negative emotion, or emotion context insensitivity model of emotional dysfunction in subclinical depressive symptoms received greatest support...
March 21, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321592/resonance-frequency-breathing-biofeedback-to-reduce-symptoms-of-subthreshold-ptsd-with-an-air-force-special-tactics-operator-a-case-study
#7
Lorene M Petta
The prevalence rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been estimated to be several times higher in military populations compared to the national average. Special Tactics operators are a group that is more likely to avoid seeking psychological care due to the stigma and other consequences the diagnosis may have on their military careers. There is a need for more effective and less stigmatizing interventions to treat this population. Psychophysiological methods have been proven to be efficacious in treating PTSD, yet have received less attention as an adjunctive intervention...
March 20, 2017: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316586/spatial-and-temporal-high-processing-of-visual-and-auditory-stimuli-in-cervical-dystonia
#8
Gaetana Chillemi, Alessandro Calamuneri, Francesca Morgante, Carmen Terranova, Vincenzo Rizzo, Paolo Girlanda, Maria Felice Ghilardi, Angelo Quartarone
OBJECTIVE: Investigation of spatial and temporal cognitive processing in idiopathic cervical dystonia (CD) by means of specific tasks based on perception in time and space domains of visual and auditory stimuli. BACKGROUND: Previous psychophysiological studies have investigated temporal and spatial characteristics of neural processing of sensory stimuli (mainly somatosensorial and visual), whereas the definition of such processing at higher cognitive level has not been sufficiently addressed...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315361/effects-of-anticipated-emotional-category-and-temporal-predictability-on-the-startle-reflex
#9
Elizabeth A Parisi, Greg Hajcak, Eleni Aneziris, Brady D Nelson
Anticipated emotional category and temporal predictability are key characteristics that have both been shown to impact psychophysiological indices of defensive motivation (e.g., the startle reflex). To date, research has primarily examined these features in isolation, and it is unclear whether they have additive or interactive effects on defensive motivation. In the present study, the startle reflex was measured in anticipation of low arousal neutral, moderate arousal pleasant, and high arousal unpleasant pictures that were presented with either predictable or unpredictable timing...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314707/biometrics-and-policing-a-protocol-for-multichannel-sensor-data-collection-and-exploratory-analysis-of-contextualized-psychophysiological-response-during-law-enforcement-operations
#10
Robert D Furberg, Travis Taniguchi, Brian Aagaard, Alexa M Ortiz, Meghan Hegarty-Craver, Kristin H Gilchrist, Ty A Ridenour
BACKGROUND: Stress experienced by law enforcement officers is often extreme and is in many ways unique among professions. Although past research on officer stress is informative, it is limited, and most studies measure stress using self-report questionnaires or observational studies that have limited generalizability. We know of no research studies that have attempted to track direct physiological stress responses in high fidelity, especially within an operational police setting. The outcome of this project will have an impact on both practitioners and policing researchers...
March 17, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300994/the-choking-game-a-new-craze-among-brazilian-children-and-young-people-psychophysiological-behavioral-and-epidemiological-characteristics-of-asphyxial-games
#11
Juliana Guilheri, Anne Andronikof, Latife Yazigi
The 'choking game' is a risk-taking behavior that has spread quickly among children and young people, causing dependence, accidents and even death, including in Brazil. These activities are performed in order to experience fleeting euphoric sensations, attracting numerous participants through the thousands of videos posted on YouTube. The problem of 'asphyxial games' can be observed in the Brazilian digital media, although there is a lack of scientific studies. Through a systematic review of the literature and complementary material, this paper aims to address the 'asphyxial games', warning about the psychophysiological and behavioral effects of these practices, while also presenting international epidemiological data...
March 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294134/influence-of-familial-risk-for-depression-on-cortico-limbic-connectivity-during-implicit-emotional-processing
#12
Carolin Wackerhagen, Torsten Wüstenberg, Sebastian Mohnke, Susanne Erk, Ilya M Veer, Johann D Kruschwitz, Maria Garbusow, Lydia Romund, Kristina Otto, Janina I Schweiger, Heike Tost, Andreas Heinz, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Henrik Walter, Nina Romanczuk-Seiferth
Imbalances in cortico-limbic activity and functional connectivity (FC) supposedly underlie biased emotional processing and present putative intermediate phenotypes (IPs) for major depressive disorder (MDD). To prove the validity of these IPs, we assessed them in familial risk during implicit emotional processing. To provide comparable data to previous studies and additionally elucidate the implications of altered functional connectivity, amygdala FC was assessed across and between task conditions. In 70 healthy first-degree relatives of MDD patients and 70 controls, brain activity and seed-based amygdala FC were assessed during an angry and fearful faces matching task for fMRI...
March 15, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293982/visual-versus-auditory-simon-effect-a-behavioural-and-physiological-investigation
#13
Stefania D'Ascenzo, Luisa Lugli, Giulia Baroni, Roberto Guidotti, Sandro Rubichi, Cristina Iani, Roberto Nicoletti
The present study investigated whether the visual and auditory Simon effects could be accounted for by the same mechanism. In a single experiment we performed a detailed comparison of the visual and the auditory Simon effects arising in behavioural responses and in pupil dilation, a psychophysiological measure considered as a marker of the cognitive effort induced by conflict processing. To address our question, we performed sequential and distributional analyses on both reaction times and pupil dilation. Results confirmed that the mechanisms underlying the visual and auditory Simon effects are functionally equivalent in terms of the interaction between unconditional and conditional response processes...
March 15, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289394/task-performance-modulates-functional-connectivity-involving-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#14
Shihao Wu, Huiling Wang, Cheng Chen, Jilin Zou, Huan Huang, Peifu Li, Yilin Zhao, Qizhong Xu, Liang Zhang, Hesheng Wang, Sanjib Pandit, Subodh Dahal, Jun Chen, Yuan Zhou, Tianzi Jiang, Gaohua Wang
Previous studies have suggested that patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls exhibit differential activation of and connectivity involving the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during working memory tasks, though their findings remain inconsistent. The functional integration perspective further suggests that working memory performance also modulates differences in functional interactions of the DLPFC between patients and controls. To explore this possibility, 45 healthy controls and 45 patients with schizophrenia were recruited to perform a 2-back task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287585/psychophysiological-assessment-of-the-effectiveness-of-emotion-regulation-strategies-in-childhood
#15
Elizabeth L Davis, Parisa Parsafar, Laura E Quiñones-Camacho, Emily W Shih
Effective regulation of emotion is one of the most important skills that develops in childhood. Research interest in this area is expanding, but empirical work has been limited by predominantly correlational investigations of children's skills. Relatedly, a key conceptual challenge for emotion scientists is to distinguish between emotion responding and emotion regulatory processes. This paper presents a novel method to address these conceptual and methodological issues in child samples. An experimental paradigm that assesses the effectiveness with which children regulate emotion is described...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285242/psychophysiological-correlates-of-emotion-regulation-training-in-adolescent-anxiety-evidence-from-the-novel-pier-task
#16
Nele A J De Witte, Stefan Sütterlin, Caroline Braet, Sven C Mueller
BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are the leading cause of mental illness in adolescence. While anxious adolescents show impairments in emotion processing and deficits in emotion regulation, few studies have attempted to improve emotion regulation within these populations. METHOD: This study used a multi-method design to test a newly developed emotion regulation training aimed at improving insight into emotions and instructing cognitive reappraisal. The efficacy of cognitive reappraisal was investigated in 27 clinically anxious youth (Age: M=12...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284776/neural-underpinnings-of-prosexual-effects-induced-by-gamma-hydroxybutyrate-in-healthy-male-humans
#17
Oliver G Bosch, Michael M Havranek, Andrea Baumberger, Katrin H Preller, Robin von Rotz, Marcus Herdener, Rainer Kraehenmann, Philipp Staempfli, Milan Scheidegger, Tim Klucken, Erich Seifritz, Boris B Quednow
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a GHB-/GABAB-receptor agonist currently used as treatment for narcolepsy but also as a drug of abuse. Non-medical GHB users have repeatedly reported prosexual effects including libido-enhancement and lowering of attractiveness standards for partner selection. Here, we examined the putative prosexual effects of oral GHB in healthy males in two experiments both employing randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced, and cross-over study designs. In experiment I, subjective effects of 20 and 35mg/kg GHB vs...
March 8, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282912/predictors-of-nightly-subjective-objective-sleep-discrepancy-in-poor-sleepers-over-a-seven-day-period
#18
Vanessa Herbert, Daniel Pratt, Richard Emsley, Simon D Kyle
This study sought to examine predictors of subjective/objective sleep discrepancy in poor sleepers. Forty-two individuals with insomnia symptoms (mean age = 36.2 years, 81% female) were recruited to take part in a prospective study which combined seven days of actigraphy with daily assessment of sleep perceptions, self-reported arousal, sleep effort, and mood upon awakening. A high level of intra-individual variability in measures of sleep discrepancy was observed. Multilevel modelling revealed that higher levels of pre-sleep cognitive activity and lower mood upon awakening were significantly and independently predictive of the underestimation of total sleep time...
March 9, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282555/beauty-in-the-eye-of-the-beholder-using-facial-electromyography-to-examine-the-association-between-eating-disorder-symptoms-and-perceptions-of-emaciation-among-undergraduate-women
#19
Dorian R Dodd, Elizabeth A Velkoff, Lauren N Forrest, Lauren M Fussner, April Smith
Thin-ideal internalization, drive for thinness, and over-evaluation of the importance of thinness are associated with eating disorders (EDs). However, little research has examined to what extent perceptions of emaciation are also associated with ED symptoms. In the present study, 80 undergraduate women self-reported on ED symptomatology and perceptions of emaciated, thin, and overweight female bodies. While participants viewed images of these different body types, facial electromyography was used to measure activation of facial muscles associated with disgust reactions...
March 7, 2017: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282414/cognitive-control-attention-and-the-other-race-effect-in-memory
#20
Thackery I Brown, Melina R Uncapher, Tiffany E Chow, Jennifer L Eberhardt, Anthony D Wagner
People are better at remembering faces from their own race than other races-a phenomenon with significant societal implications. This Other Race Effect (ORE) in memory could arise from different attentional allocation to, and cognitive control over, same- and other-race faces during encoding. Deeper or more differentiated processing of same-race faces could yield more robust representations of same- vs. other-race faces that could support better recognition memory. Conversely, to the extent that other-race faces may be characterized by lower perceptual expertise, attention and cognitive control may be more important for successful encoding of robust, distinct representations of these stimuli...
2017: PloS One
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