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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438235/deception-detection-state-of-the-art-and-future-prospects
#1
Jaume Masip
BACKGROUND: Deception detection has been a longstanding concern throughout human history. It has also interested scientists, who have explored psychological and behavioral differences between liars and truth tellers, as well as ways to improve detection accuracy. METHOD: In recent years, substantial advances have been made in the field. Some of these advances are briefly reviewed in the current article. RESULTS: A description is provided of (a) research and contemporary theories on how people (try to) detect deception; (b) recent advances on strategic interviewing to detect deception; (c) the integrative findings of recent meta-analyses on systematic verbal lie detection approaches; and (d) several important aspects concerning psychophysiological detection of deception...
May 2017: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436351/reactivity-to-unpredictable-threat-as-a-treatment-target-for-fear-based-anxiety-disorders
#2
S M Gorka, L Lieberman, H Klumpp, K L Kinney, A E Kennedy, O Ajilore, J Francis, J Duffecy, M G Craske, J Nathan, S Langenecker, S A Shankman, K L Phan
BACKGROUND: Heightened reactivity to unpredictable threat (U-threat) is a core individual difference factor underlying fear-based psychopathology. Little is known, however, about whether reactivity to U-threat is a stable marker of fear-based psychopathology or if it is malleable to treatment. The aim of the current study was to address this question by examining differences in reactivity to U-threat within patients before and after 12-weeks of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)...
April 24, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433950/an-electrocortical-investigation-of-emotional-face-processing-in-military-related-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#3
Julia A DiGangi, Katie L Burkhouse, Darrin M Aase, Joseph M Babione, Christopher Schroth, Amy E Kennedy, Justin E Greenstein, Eric Proescher, K Luan Phan
PTSD is a disorder of emotion dysregulation. Although much work has intended to elucidate the neural underpinnings of the disorder, much remains unknown about the neurobiological substrates of emotion dysregulation in PTSD. In order to assess the relationship between a neural measure of attention to emotion (i.e. the late positive potential; LPP) and PTSD symptoms, EEG was recorded and examined as a potential predictor of military-related PTSD symptoms in a sample of 73 OEF/OIF/OND veterans. Results revealed that higher PTSD symptoms were related to an attenuated LPP response to angry facial expressions...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422323/validating-a-virtual-environment-for-sexual-assault-victims
#4
Claudie Loranger, Stéphane Bouchard
Virtual reality has shown promising results in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for some traumatic experiences, but sexual assault has been understudied. One important question to address is the relevance and safety of a virtual environment (VE) allowing patients to be progressively exposed to a sexual assault scenario. The aim of this study was to validate such a VE. Thirty women (victims and nonvictims of sexual assault) were randomly assigned in a counter-balanced order to 2 immersions in a virtual bar: a control scenario where the encounter with the aggressor does not lead to sexual assault and an experimental scenario where the participant is assaulted...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419834/sex-differences-in-autonomic-response-and-situational-appraisal-of-a-competitive-situation-in-young-adults
#5
Diana Abad-Tortosa, Adrián Alacreu-Crespo, Raquel Costa, Alicia Salvador, Miguel Ángel Serrano
Competition is a social stressor capable of eliciting physiological responses modulated by the outcome. The main objective of this study was to analyze the psychophysiological changes associated with competition and its outcome in men and women, taking into account the role of situational appraisal. To this end, 112 young people (46 men and 66 women) participated in a laboratory task in a competitive or non-competitive condition, while Blood Pressure (BP), Heart Rate Variability (HRV), and Skin Conductance (SC) responses were measured...
April 16, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417837/flight-crew-workload-evaluation-based-on-the-workload-function-distribution-method
#6
Yiyuan Zheng, Yanyu Lu, Yuwen Jie, Shan Fu
BACKGROUND: The minimum flight crew on the flight deck should be established according to the workload for individual crewmembers. Typical workload measures consist of three types: subjective rating scale, task performance, and psychophysiological measures. However, all these measures have their own limitations. To reflect flight crew workload more specifically and comprehensively within the flight environment, and more directly comply with airworthiness regulations, the Workload Function Distribution Method, which combined the basic six workload functions, was proposed...
May 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417549/searching-for-a-job-cardiac-responses-to-acute-stress-and-the-mediating-role-of-threat-appraisal-in-young-people
#7
M Zandara, M Garcia-Lluch, C Villada, V Hidalgo, A Salvador
Being unemployed and looking for a job has become a source of stress for many people in several European countries. However, little attention has been paid to the impact of this stressful situation on the individuals' psychophysiological stress responses. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of being an unemployed job seeker on cognitive threat appraisal and cardiac responses to a psychosocial stressor. We exposed a group of unemployed job seekers (N = 42) and a matched group of unemployed non-job seekers (N = 40) to a standardized social stressor in form of job interview, the Trier Social Stress Test...
April 18, 2017: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414249/psychological-distress-is-associated-with-altered-cognitive-functioning-in-family-caregivers-of-patients-with-disorders-of-consciousness
#8
P Moretta, O Masotta, E Crispino, G Castronovo, S Ruvolo, C Montalbano, V Loreto, L Trojano, A Estraneo
OBJECTIVES: To analyse the possible presence of reduced cognitive efficiency in family caregivers of patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness (DOC). SUBJECTS: The participants were 27 caregivers of 25 patients with DOC admitted to the severe brain injury units of the ICS Maugeri, Institutes of Telese Terme and Sciacca, Italy. METHODS: We examined cognitive functions such as short- and long-term memory, executive functions and attention by means of standardized tests...
April 17, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411743/psychophysiological-responses-to-short-term-cooling-during-a-simulated-monotonous-driving-task
#9
Elisabeth Schmidt, Ralf Decke, Ralph Rasshofer, Angelika C Bullinger
For drivers on monotonous routes, cognitive fatigue causes discomfort and poses an important risk for traffic safety. Countermeasures against this type of fatigue are required and thermal stimulation is one intervention method. Surprisingly, there are hardly studies available to measure the effect of cooling while driving. Hence, to better understand the effect of short-term cooling on the perceived sleepiness of car drivers, a driving simulator study (n = 34) was conducted in which physiological and vehicular data during cooling and control conditions were compared...
July 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410485/impact-of-posttraumatic-stress-symptom-dimensions-on-psychophysiological-reactivity-to-threat-and-reward
#10
Lynne Lieberman, Stephanie M Gorka, Carter J Funkhouser, Stewart A Shankman, K Luan Phan
Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are associated with significant distress and impairment. Research has therefore focused on identifying neurobehavioral deficits that contribute to the pathophysiology of PTSS. One issue that has contributed to difficulty in identifying these deficits is the highly heterogeneous nature of PTSS. PTSS is comprised of four, factor analytically distinct dimensions of symptoms - re-experiencing, avoidance, hyperarousal, and negative cognitions and mood. It is therefore unlikely that there is one single mechanism that accounts for all of PTSS and elucidating neurobehavioral deficits associated with specific PTSS symptom dimensions may better inform clinical prevention and intervention efforts...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407206/pre-ejection-period-reactivity-to-reward-is-associated-with-anhedonic-symptoms-of-depression-among-adolescents
#11
Joshua J Ahles, Amy H Mezulis, Sheila E Crowell
Pre-ejection period (PEP) reactivity to reward has been posited as a specific index of behavioral approach and incentive motivation, suggesting it might be uniquely associated with the affective and motivational deficits of anhedonia. This study evaluated PEP reactivity to a reward task as a predictor of depressive symptoms among adolescents, examining global depressive symptoms as well as specific anhedonic and nonanhedonic symptoms clusters. Participants included 76 adolescents, ages 11-15 years (52% female)...
April 13, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406689/caloric-primary-rewards-systematically-alter-time-perception
#12
Bowen J Fung, Carsten Murawski, Stefan Bode
Human time perception can be influenced by contextual factors, such as the presence of reward. Yet, the exact nature of the relationship between time perception and reward has not been conclusively characterized. We implemented a novel experimental paradigm to measure estimations of time across a range of suprasecond intervals, during the anticipation and after the consumption of fruit juice, a physiologically relevant primary reward. We show that average time estimations were systematically affected by the consumption of reward, but not by the anticipation of reward...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403387/skin-conductance-responses-and-neural-activations-during-fear-conditioning-and-extinction-recall-across-anxiety-disorders
#13
Marie-France Marin, Rachel G Zsido, Huijin Song, Natasha B Lasko, William D S Killgore, Scott L Rauch, Naomi M Simon, Mohammed R Milad
Importance: The fear conditioning and extinction neurocircuitry has been extensively studied in healthy and clinical populations, with a particular focus on posttraumatic stress disorder. Despite significant overlap of symptoms between posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety disorders, the latter has received less attention. Given that dysregulated fear levels characterize anxiety disorders, examining the neural correlates of fear and extinction learning may shed light on the pathogenesis of underlying anxiety disorders...
April 12, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401924/the-human-coparental-bond-implicates-distinct-corticostriatal-pathways-longitudinal-impact-on-family-formation-and-child-well-being
#14
Eyal Abraham, Gadi Gilam, Yaniv Kanat-Maymon, Yael Jacob, Orna Zagoory-Sharon, Talma Hendler, Ruth Feldman
Alloparental care, the cooperative care of offspring by group members other than the biological mother, has been widely practiced since early hominin evolution to increase infant survival and thriving. The coparental bond-a relationship of solidarity and commitment between two adults who join their effort to care for children- is a central contributor to children's well-being and sociality; yet, the neural basis of coparenting has not been studied in humans. Here, we followed 84 first-time co-parents (42 couples) across the first six years of family formation, including opposite-sex and same-sex couples, measured brain response to coparental stimuli, observed collaborative and undermining coparental behaviors in infancy and preschool, assayed oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP), and measured coparenting and child behavior problems at six years...
April 12, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400747/the-positive-effects-of-trait-emotional-intelligence-during-a-performance-review-discussion-a-psychophysiological-study
#15
Mikko Salminen, Niklas Ravaja
Performance review discussions of real manager-subordinate pairs were examined in two studies to investigate the effects of trait emotional intelligence (EI) on dyad member's felt and expressed emotions. Altogether there were 84 managers and 122 subordinates in two studies using 360 measured and self-reported trait EI. Facial electromyography, and frontal electroencephalography (EEG) asymmetry were collected continuously. Manager's high trait EI was related to increased positive valence emotional facial expressions in the dyad during the discussions...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400245/psychophysiological-correlates-of-the-misinformation-effect
#16
Katja Volz, Rainer Leonhart, Rudolf Stark, Dieter Vaitl, Wolfgang Ambach
The misinformation effect refers to memory impairment that arises after exposure to misleading information (Loftus, 2005, p. 361). The present study focuses on the peripheral psychophysiology of false memories induced in a misleading information paradigm. On the basis of Sokolov's orienting reflex and studies concerning the Concealed Information Test (CIT, Lykken, 1959), the main hypothesis assumes differences between true and false memories in terms of the accompanying autonomic measures. It also is assumed that a cued recall of original information preceding the recollection phase reduces misinformation effects...
April 8, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398011/striatal-activation-and-frontostriatal-connectivity-during-non-drug-reward-anticipation-in-alcohol-dependence
#17
Alena Becker, Martina Kirsch, Martin Fungisai Gerchen, Falk Kiefer, Peter Kirsch
According to prevailing neurobiological theories of addiction, altered function in neural reward circuitry is a central mechanism of alcohol dependence. Growing evidence postulates that the ventral striatum (VS), as well as areas of the prefrontal cortex, contribute to the increased incentive salience of alcohol-associated cues, diminished motivation to pursue non-drug rewards and weakened strength of inhibitory cognitive control, which are central to addiction. The present study aims to investigate the neural response and functional connectivity underlying monetary, non-drug reward processing in alcohol dependence...
May 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387335/two-types-of-peak-emotional-responses-to-music-the-psychophysiology-of-chills-and-tears
#18
Kazuma Mori, Makoto Iwanaga
People sometimes experience a strong emotional response to artworks. Previous studies have demonstrated that the peak emotional experience of chills (goose bumps or shivers) when listening to music involves psychophysiological arousal and a rewarding effect. However, many aspects of peak emotion are still not understood. The current research takes a new perspective of peak emotional response of tears (weeping, lump in the throat). A psychophysiological experiment showed that self-reported chills increased electrodermal activity and subjective arousal whereas tears produced slow respiration during heartbeat acceleration, although both chills and tears induced pleasure and deep breathing...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385683/the-multimodal-assessment-of-adult-attachment-security-developing-the-biometric-attachment-test
#19
Federico Parra, Raphaële Miljkovitch, Gwenaelle Persiaux, Michelle Morales, Stefan Scherer
BACKGROUND: Attachment theory has been proven essential for mental health, including psychopathology, development, and interpersonal relationships. Validated psychometric instruments to measure attachment abound but suffer from shortcomings common to traditional psychometrics. Recent developments in multimodal fusion and machine learning pave the way for new automated and objective psychometric instruments for adult attachment that combine psychophysiological, linguistic, and behavioral analyses in the assessment of the construct...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385627/feedback-from-the-heart-emotional-learning-and-memory-is-controlled-by-cardiac-cycle-interoceptive-accuracy-and-personality
#20
Gaby Pfeifer, Sarah N Garfinkel, Cassandra D Gould van Praag, Kuljit Sahota, Sophie Betka, Hugo D Critchley
Feedback processing is critical to trial-and-error learning. Here, we examined whether interoceptive signals concerning the state of cardiovascular arousal influence the processing of reinforcing feedback during the learning of 'emotional' face-name pairs, with subsequent effects on retrieval. Participants (N=29) engaged in a learning task of face-name pairs (fearful, neutral, happy faces). Correct and incorrect learning decisions were reinforced by auditory feedback, which was delivered either at cardiac systole (on the heartbeat, when baroreceptors signal the contraction of the heart to the brain), or at diastole (between heartbeats during baroreceptor quiescence)...
April 3, 2017: Biological Psychology
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