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Deokjong Lee, Jinsick Park, Kee Namkoong, In Young Kim, Young-Chul Jung
Background and aims Altered risk/reward decision-making is suggested to predispose individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) to pursue short-term pleasure, despite long-term negative consequences. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) play important roles in risk/reward decision-making. This study investigated gray matter differences in the ACC and OFC of young adults with and without IGD using surface-based morphometry (SBM). Methods We examined 45 young male adults with IGD and 35 age-matched male controls...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Jory Deleuze, Jiang Long, Tie-Qiao Liu, Pierre Maurage, Joël Billieux
A criticism of current diagnostic approaches to gaming disorder is that they fail to take into account that high and repeated engagement is not problematic per se, nor is it necessarily associated with adverse consequences. To tackle this controversy, we used Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to test, in regular gamers (N = 268), whether high (but healthy) engagement can be distinguished from problematic engagement by using the Addiction-Engagement Questionnaire (Charlton & Danforth, 2007). We then tested whether differential relationships exist between the engagement and addiction constructs, DSM-5 criteria for Internet gaming disorder (IGD), and psychological factors linked to gaming use and misuse (self-reported impulsivity, motives to play, and depression)...
February 27, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Mark Noviski, James L Mueller, Anne Satterthwaite, Lee Ann Garrett-Sinha, Frank Brombacher, Julie Zikherman
Naive B cells co-express two BCR isotypes, IgM and IgD, with identical antigen-binding domains but distinct constant regions. IgM but not IgD is downregulated on autoreactive B cells. Because these isotypes are presumed to be redundant, it is unknown how this could impose tolerance. We introduced the Nur77-eGFP reporter of BCR signaling into mice that express each BCR isotype alone. Despite signaling strongly in vitro , IgD is less sensitive than IgM to endogenous antigen in vivo and developmental fate decisions are skewed accordingly...
March 9, 2018: ELife
Hyera Ryu, Ji-Yoon Lee, Aruem Choi, Sunyoung Park, Dai-Jin Kim, Jung-Seok Choi
Background: This study aimed to explore relationships between impulsivity, interpersonal relationships, depression, and Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) symptoms. Methods: A total of 118 young adults participated in this study: 67 IGD patients who met five or more of the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for IGD and 56 healthy controls. We administered questionnaires to assess IGD symptoms (Young's Internet Addiction Test; Y-IAT), impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale; BIS-11), interpersonal relationship (Relationship Change Scale; RCS), and depression (Beck Depression Inventory; BDI)...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Elena Blanco, Martín Pérez-Andrés, Sonia Arriba-Méndez, Teresa Contreras-Sanfeliciano, Ignacio Criado, Ondrej Pelak, Ana Serra-Caetano, Alfonso Romero, Noemí Puig, Ana Remesal, Juan Torres Canizales, Eduardo López-Granados, Tomas Kalina, Ana E Sousa, Menno Van Zelm, Mirjam Van der Burg, Jacques J M van Dongen, Alberto Orfao
BACKGROUND: Humoral immunocompetence develops stepwise throughout life and contributes to individual susceptibility to infection, immunodeficiency, autoimmunity and neoplasia. Immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH)-isotype serum levels can partly explain such age-related differences, but their relationship with the IgH-isotype distribution within memory B-cell (MBCs) and plasma cell (PCs) compartments remains to be investigated. OBJECTIVE: We studied the age-related distribution of MBCs and PCs expressing different IgH-isotypes, in addition to the immature/transitional and naive B-cell compartments...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Carolina Sánchez-Rodríguez, Keyliz R Peraza Cruces, Laura Rodrigáñez Riesco, José Antonio García-Vela, Ricardo Sanz-Fernández
BACKGROUND: Recurrent tonsillitis might reduce the immunological capability of fighting against the infection of tonsil tissue. Polypodium leucotomos (Anapsos) immunomodulating effect has been subject of research in the last years. The aim of this research is to test the in vitro immunomodulating capacity of Anapsos in a child palatine tonsil explants model. METHODS: Palatine tonsils explants of children undergoing amigdalectomy were stimulated with mononuclear cells obtained from their own blood by density gradient centrifugation...
April 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
David A Ellis, Linda K Kaye, Thomas D W Wilcockson, Francesca C Ryding
Griffiths' (2017) response to the recent commentary piece by Ryding and Kaye (2017) on "Internet Addiction: A conceptual minefield" provided a useful critique and extension of some key issues. We take this opportunity to further build upon on one of these issues to provide some further insight into how the field of "internet addiction" (IA) or technological addictions more generally, may benefit from capitalising on behavioural data. As such, this response extends Griffiths' (2007) points surrounding the efficacy of behavioural data previously used in studies on problematic gambling, to consider its merit for future research on IA or associated topics such as Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) or "Smartphone addiction"...
2018: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction
Mark D Griffiths
The recent commentary paper by Ryding and Kaye Journal of Mental Health and Addictio n (doi 10.1007/s11469-017-9811-6, 2017) rightly claimed that "internet addiction" (IA) is a conceptual minefield and raised some important issues for researchers and treatment providers working in the online addiction field. In the present commentary paper, some of the assertions made by Ryding and Kaye are briefly critiqued and extended. More specifically, the present paper (i) examines IA and Internet-based addictions and argues that IA is now a misnomer, (ii) examines IA and its relationship to Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) and argues IA and IGD are two completely different constructs, and that IGD is a sub-type of gaming disorder rather than a sub-type of IA, (iii) argues that the time spent engaging in online activities is not a good criterion for assessing online addictions and that the context of use is far more important criterion, and (iv) argues that those researchers working in the IA field can learn a lot from the problem gambling field in collecting robust data...
2018: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction
Nazir S Hawi, Maya Samaha, Mark D Griffiths
Background and aims The latest (fifth) edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders included Internet gaming disorder (IGD) as a disorder that needs further research among different general populations. In line with this recommendation, the primary objective of this was to explore the relationships between IGD, sleep habits, and academic achievement in Lebanese adolescents. Methods Lebanese high-school students (N = 524, 47.9% males) participated in a paper survey that included the Internet Gaming Disorder Test and demographic information...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Felipe Leite de Oliveira, Sofia Nascimento Dos Santos, Lauremilia Ricon, Thayse Pinheiro da Costa, Jonathas Xavier Pereira, Camila Brand, Marise Lopes Fermino, Roger Chammas, Emerson Soares Bernardes, Márcia Cury El-Cheikh
Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a β-galactoside binding protein that controls cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. In lymphoid organs, gal-3 inhibits B cell differentiation by mechanisms poorly understood. The B cell development is dependent on tissue organization and stromal cell signaling, including IL-7 and Notch pathways. Here, we investigate possible mechanisms that gal-3 interferes during B lymphocyte differentiation in the bone marrow (BM) and spleen. The BM of gal-3-deficient mice (Lgals3-/- mice) was evidenced by elevated numbers of B220+ CD19+ c-Kit+ IL-7R+ progenitor B cells...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xu Han, Xiaowei Wu, Yao Wang, Yawen Sun, Weina Ding, Mengqiu Cao, Yasong Du, Fuchun Lin, Yan Zhou
Internet gaming disorder (IGD), a major behavior disorder, has gained increasing attention. Recent studies indicate altered resting-state static functional connectivity (FC) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in subjects with IGD. Whereas static FC often provides information on functional changes in subjects with IGD, investigations of temporal changes in FC between the DLPFC and the other brain regions may shed light on the dynamic characteristics of brain function associated with IGD. Thirty subjects with IGD and 30 healthy controls (HCs) matched for age, gender and education status were recruited...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Ondrej Dlouhy, Pavlina Kusnierova, Irena Kurasova, Monika Cisarikova, David Zeman
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Detection of oligoclonal IgG (o-IgG) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) not found in serum is the principal laboratory test to support a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. The aim of this study was to compare chemiluminescent and chromogenic detection of oligoclonal immunoglobulins in the cerebrospinal fluid and serum after their separation by means of isoelectric focusing followed by immunoblotting. METHODS: A set of experiments was designed to detect oligoclonal immunoglobulins by means of alkaline phosphatase BCIP/NBT substrate and chemiluminescent peroxidase substrate...
February 21, 2018: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
Anise M S Wu, Juliet Honglei Chen, Kwok-Kit Tong, Shu Yu, Joseph T F Lau
Background and aims Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been mainly studied among adolescents, and no research to date has examined its prevalence in general Chinese adult populations. This study estimated the prevalence of probable IGD in community-dwelling adults in Macao, China. Associations between IGD and psychological distress (i.e., depression and anxiety) as well as IGD and character strength (i.e., psychological resilience and purpose in life) were also tested. Methods A random, representative sample of 1,000 Chinese residents (44% males; mean age = 40...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Michelle Colder Carras, Anne Marie Porter, Antonius J Van Rooij, Daniel King, Amanda Lange, Matthew Carras, Alain Labrique
In response to calls for further research into the phenomenology of Internet gaming disorder (IGD), we used a community-engaged consensus development approach to evaluate how members of the "gamer culture" describe problematic gaming and the relationship of these descriptions to the proposed IGD criteria. Two focus groups of gamers were recruited at a video game convention. Participants were asked to submit suggestions for signs of game "addiction". Participants discussed and ranked the criteria in order of conceptual importance...
February 2018: Computers in Human Behavior
Lara A Aqrawi, Margarita Ivanchenko, Albin Björk, Jorge I Ramírez Sepúlveda, Juliana Imgenberg-Kreuz, Marika Kvarnström, Philipp Haselmayer, Janicke Liaaen Jensen, Gunnel Nordmark, Karine Chemin, Kathrine Skarstein, Marie Wahren-Herlenius
Genetic investigations of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) have identified a susceptibility locus at p23.3 of chromosome 11, which contains the CXCR5 gene. CXCR5 is a chemokine receptor expressed on B and T cell subsets, and binds the chemotactic ligand CXCL13. We here aimed to link the genetic association with functional effects and explore the CXCR5/CXCL13 axis in SS. Expression quantitative trait loci analysis of the 11q23.3 locus was performed using B cell mRNA expression data from genotyped individuals. Lymphocyte surface markers were assessed by flow cytometry, and CXCL13 levels by a proximity extension assay...
February 17, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Sara M Centuori, Cecil J Gomes, Samuel S Kim, Charles W Putnam, Brandon T Larsen, Linda L Garland, David W Mount, Jesse D Martinez
BACKGROUND: The presence of B cells in early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is associated with longer survival, however, the role these cells play in the generation and maintenance of anti-tumor immunity is unclear. B cells differentiate into a variety of subsets with differing characteristics and functions. To date, there is limited information on the specific B cell subsets found within NSCLC. To better understand the composition of the B cell populations found in NSCLC we have begun characterizing B cells in lung tumors and have detected a population of B cells that are CD79A + CD27 - IgD - ...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Robert Wilson, Mateusz Makuch, Anne-Kathrin Kienzler, James Varley, Jennifer Taylor, Mark Woodhall, Jacqueline Palace, M Isabel Leite, Patrick Waters, Sarosh R Irani
Autoantibodies to aquaporin-4 (AQP4) are pathogenic in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). However, it is not known which B cells are the major contributors to circulating AQP4 antibodies nor which conditions promote their generation. Our experiments showed CD19+CD27++CD38++ circulating ex vivo antibody-secreting cells did not produce AQP4 antibodies under several culture conditions. To question whether other cells in circulation were capable of AQP4 antibody production, B cells were differentiated into antibody-secreting cells in vitro...
February 13, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Souheil El-Chemaly, Foo Cheung, Yuri Kotliarov, Kevin J O'Brien, William A Gahl, Jinguo Chen, Shira Y Perl, Angélique Biancotto, Bernadette R Gochuico
The immunome (immune cell phenotype, gene expression, and serum cytokines profiling) in pulmonary fibrosis is incompletely defined. Studies focusing on inherited forms of pulmonary fibrosis provide insights into mechanisms of fibrotic lung disease in general. To define the cellular and molecular immunologic phenotype in peripheral blood, high-dimensional flow cytometry and large-scale gene expression of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and serum proteomic multiplex analyses were performed and compared in a cohort with familial pulmonary fibrosis (FPF), an autosomal dominant disorder with incomplete penetrance; Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome pulmonary fibrosis (HPSPF), a rare autosomal recessive disorder; and their unaffected relatives...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Guangheng Dong, Lingdan Wu, Ziliang Wang, Yifan Wang, Xiaoxia Du, Marc N Potenza
Several studies have suggested that Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is related to altered brain white matter integrity. However, seeming inconsistencies exist and may reflect comparison groups not matched well for certain gaming characteristics. In order to address this possible concern, we recruited in the present study individuals with recreational Internet game use (RGU) comprised of individuals who spend similar amounts of time as IGD subjects playing online games without developing IGD. Diffusion tensor imaging data were collected from 42 IGD and 44 RGU subjects...
February 2, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Tatsuya Yamazaki, Maria Nagashima, Daisuke Ninomiya, Akira Ainai, Akira Fujimoto, Isao Ichimonji, Hidekazu Takagi, Naoko Morita, Kenta Murotani, Hideki Hasegawa, Joe Chiba, Sachiko Akashi-Takamura
The influenza virus causes annual epidemics and occasional pandemics and is thus a major public health problem. Development of vaccines and antiviral drugs is essential for controlling influenza virus infection. We previously demonstrated the use of vectored immune-prophylaxis against influenza virus infection. We generated a plasmid encoding neutralizing IgG monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against A/PR/8/34 influenza virus (IAV) hemagglutinin (HA). We then performed electroporation of the plasmid encoding neutralizing mAbs (EP) in mice muscles and succeeded in inducing the expression of neutralizing antibodies in mouse serum...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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