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Ragab M Fereig, Hanan H Abdelbaky, Fumiaki Ihara, Yoshifumi Nishikawa
Cryptosporidium parvum is a major cause of diarrhea among human and calves, resulting in severe health hazards and drastic economic losses, respectively. Although C. parvum infection leads to high morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients and bovine calves, this infection remains a neglected disease. Currently available diagnostic tests for C. parvum are primarily based on detection of oocysts, DNA, or secreted antigens in fecal specimens. Demonstration of specific antibodies with a rapid immunochromatographic test (ICT) will be advantageous not only in providing a simple, rapid, accurate, and affordable tool but also in surveillance because of the ability to recognize recent and past infections...
June 19, 2018: Acta Tropica
Tarang Sharma, Chandresh Sharma, Anurag Sankhyan, Sanjiv Pal Bedi, Shinjini Bhatnagar, Navin Khanna, Vikas Gautam, Sunil Sethi, Sudhanshu Vrati, Ashutosh Tiwari
Typhoid fever caused by human restricted Salmonella typhi presents a considerable health burden on developing South-Asian nations like India. The suboptimal sensitivity and specificity associated with culture-based isolation of etiological agent and the extensively used surface antigen-based serological assays often lead to misdiagnosis and inappropriate antimicrobial treatment. The increasing reports of the emergence of resistant strains and undefined disease burden signify the critical need for an inexpensive, reliable, easy-to-use, and highly sensitive diagnostic test for typhoid fever...
June 21, 2018: Immunologic Research
Philipp Höhn, Chris Braumann, Waldemar Uhl, Andreas M Luu
Infectious mononucleosis is a common disease of the adolescent caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). We present a rare case of a male adult with acalculous cholecystitis due to infectious mononucleosis. A correct diagnosis was challenging due to a false negative antibody test. Laboratory values were significant for a marked lymphocytosis and an early Immunoglobulin G (IgG) response without initial Immunoglobulin M (IgM) elevation. However, IgM antibodies were elevated two weeks later. Symptoms resolved quickly under symptomatic therapy...
April 19, 2018: Curēus
Chi Young Jung, Yeoung Hun Choe, Sang Yeub Lee, Woo Jin Kim, Jong Deog Lee, Seung Won Ra, Eu Gene Choi, Jae Seung Lee, Myung Jae Park, Ju Ock Na
Background/Aims: To use serological and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to examine sputum samples from patients experiencing acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) for the presence of atypical pathogens, including Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila. Methods: From September 2012 to February 2014, 341 patients with AECOPD attending outpatient clinics were enrolled as part of a randomized, double-blind, multicenter study...
June 25, 2018: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
Maocang Yan, Jinyu Liu, Yu Li, Xuepeng Wang, Heng Jiang, Hao Fang, Zhiming Guo, Yongcan Sun
Bacterial ghosts (BGs) can be generated by the controlled expression of the PhiX174 lysis gene E in gram-negative bacteria. They are intriguing vaccine candidates since ghosts retain functional antigenic cellular determinants often lost during traditional inactivation procedures. Here we prepared Edwardsiella tarda ghost (ETG) and tested different concentrations in vaccination trials. The results showed that serum IgM antibody titers were significantly higher in three different concentration immunization groups than control group (P < 0...
June 18, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Laura Martinez-Prat, Michael J Nissen, Céline Lamacchia, Chelsea Bentow, Laura Cesana, Pascale Roux-Lombard, Cem Gabay, Michael Mahler
Introduction: The diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is based on a combined approach that includes serological markers such as rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-citrullinated peptide/protein antibodies (ACPA). The goal of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of several RF and ACPA immunoassays for the diagnosis of RA, as well as the diagnostic value of a combinatory approach with these markers. Methods: The study cohort included 1,655 patients from the Swiss Clinical Quality Management registry with sera from 968 patients with RA and 687 disease controls, including patients with axial spondyloarthritis ( n  = 450) and psoriatic arthritis ( n  = 237)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Dongmiao Chen, Yajie Zhang, Yinjuan Xu, Tingting Shen, Guorui Cheng, Bingkang Huang, Xiandong Ruan, Congrong Wang
Objective: This study aimed to compare the performance of chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and passive agglutination (PA) method in detecting Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) infection. Methods: This study enrolled a total of 280 patients who were consecutively seen at the Nanfang Hospital of the Southern Medical University in Guangdong Province, China, between August and December 2016. Serum was collected and examined by CLIA, ELISA, and PA, respectively...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Hugh J Willison
Anti-ganglioside antibodies are principally associated with autoimmune peripheral neuropathies. In these disorders, immune attack is inadvertently directed at peripheral nerve by autoantibodies that target glycan structures borne by glycolipids, particularly gangliosides concentrated in nerve myelin and axons. The most thoroughly studied disorder is the acute paralytic disease, Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in which IgG autoantibodies against gangliosides arise following acute infections, notably Campylobacter jejuni enteritis...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jennifer L J Heaney, John P Campbell, Gulnaz Iqbal, David Cairns, Alex Richter, J Anthony Child, Walter Gregory, Graham Jackson, Martin Kaiser, Roger Owen, Faith Davies, Gareth Morgan, Janet Dunn, Mark T Drayson
We measured immunosuppression at myeloma diagnosis and assessed the impact on survival in 5826 UK myeloma trial patients. Polyclonal immunoglobulin levels were below normal in 85% of patients and above normal in only 0.4% of cases for IgA, 0.2% for IgM and no cases for IgG. Immunoparesis had a greater impact in recent trials: median overall survival (OS) was up to 3 years longer for patients without immunoparesis compared to the old trials, less than 1 year longer. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 39%, 36% and 57% longer for patients with normal IgG, IgA and IgM levels, respectively...
June 20, 2018: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Yana Zorina, Jason Stricker, Anthony O Caggiano, Donald C Button
In multiple sclerosis (MS), demyelinated CNS lesions fail to sufficiently remyelinate, despite the presence of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) capable of differentiating into mature oligodendrocytes. MS lesions contain damaged myelin debris that can inhibit OPC maturation and hinder repair. rHIgM22 is an experimental human recombinant IgM antibody that promotes remyelination in animal models and is being examined in patients with MS. rHIgM22 binds to CNS myelin and partially rescues OPC process outgrowth on myelin...
June 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
M Jack Borrok, Antonio DiGiandomenico, Nurten Beyaz, Gabriela M Marchetti, Arnita S Barnes, Kristen J Lekstrom, Sandrina S Phipps, Michael P McCarthy, Herren Wu, William F Dall'Acqua, Ping Tsui, Ruchi Gupta
IgG antibodies are abundantly present in the vasculature but to a much lesser extent in mucosal tissues. This contrasts with antibodies of the IgA and IgM isotype that are present at high concentration in mucosal secretions due to active delivery by the polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR). IgG is the preferred isotype for therapeutic mAb development due to its long serum half-life and robust Fc-mediated effector function, and it is utilized to treat a diverse array of diseases with antigen targets located in the vasculature, serosa, and mucosa...
June 21, 2018: JCI Insight
Richa Manwani, Sajitha Sachchithanantham, Shameem Mahmood, Darren Foard, Faye Sharpley, Tamer Rezk, Thirusha Lane, Cristina Quarta, Marianna Fontana, Helen J Lachmann, Julian D Gillmore, Carol Whelan, Philip N Hawkins, Ashutosh D Wechalekar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2018: Blood
Jin Dong, Tianhao Peng, Jing Gao, Xingwang Jia, Guangtao Yan, Yong Wang
BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN), membranous nephropathy (MN) and minimal-change disease (MCD) are three common types of glomerulonephritis in China. Pathological diagnosis based on renal biopsy is the criterion and the golden standard for diagnosing the sub-types of primary or secondary glomerulonephritis. Immunoglobulin and complements might be used in the differential diagnosis of glomerulonephritis without renal biopsies. However, the relationship between IF intensities of immune proteins and the corresponding serum levels remained unclear, and seldom studies combine histopathological examination results and blood tests together for a predictive purpose...
June 20, 2018: BMC Immunology
Jae-Hoon Ko, Hyeri Seok, Sun Young Cho, Young Eun Ha, Jin Yang Baek, So Hyun Kim, Yae-Jean Kim, Jin Kyeong Park, Chi Ryang Chung, Eun-Suk Kang, Duck Cho, Marcel A Müller, Christian Drosten, Cheol-In Kang, Doo Ryeon Chung, Jae-Hoon Song, Kyong Ran Peck
BACKGROUND: The effects of convalescent plasma (CP) infusion, one of treatment options for severe Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections, have not yet been evaluated. METHODS: Serologic responses of CP-infused MERS patients during the 2015 Korean MERS outbreak at a tertiary care center were evaluated. Serologic activity was evaluated with anti-MERS-CoV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) IgG, ELISA IgA, immunofluorescence assay IgM, and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT)...
June 20, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Jia-Jia Zhu, Ming-Xing Gao, Xiao-Jun Song, Li Zhao, Yu-Wen Li, Zhi-Hui Hao
PURPOSE: The microbiota composition of faeces and colonic contents were analysed to investigate the mechaninsm by which fermented soybean meal improves intestinal microbial communities, growth and immunity in weaning piglets. METHODOLOGY: Microbiota were investigated using16S rRNA gene sequencing and systematical bio-information Operational Taxonomic Units; α-diversity analyses indicated that fermented soybean meal increased bacterial species diversity. RESULTS: The levels of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteia in faeces, and Firmicutes and Tenericutes in the colon, increased significantly in piglets fed fermented soybean meal (P<0...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Wenwen Sun, Na Zhang, Yujie Zhang, Zonghong Shao, Lu Gong, Wei Wei
OBJECTIVE: To investigate consistency of lymphocyte immunophenotype between labial gland and peripheral blood in patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS). METHODS: Seventy-one pSS patients and 35 patients with maxillofacial trauma were included in the study. Based on the ratio of CD20 to CD3 in labial gland from 71 pSS patients, they were divided into the high and (n = 48) and low CD20 expression group (n = 23). Lymphocyte immunophenotypes in labial glands, course of disease, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein, immunoglobulin, and complement levels were analyzed...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
Maurizio Benucci, Francesca Bandinelli, Arianna Damiani, Francesca Li Gobbi, Maria Infantino, Valentina Grossi, Mariangela Manfredi
Background: Rheumatoid arthritis patients are exposed to a high risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality even in the early phases of the disease. Methods: We evaluated carotid common carotid intimal media thickness (ccIMT) intimal thickness and brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of 45 rheumatoid arthritis patients without known cardiovascular risk factors or heart disease on a stable dose of prednisone 5.2±1.2 mg/day and Methotrexate 11.5±2.1 mg at baseline (T0) and after 12 months (T1) of treatment with Abatacept 125 mg/week...
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
Brandon D D'Aloiso, Sarah S Rupchak, Kaitlin J Gettle, Claudio Lima, Robert D Rush
Waldenström's Macroglobulinemia (WM) is a rare lymphoma caused by the overproduction of immunoglobulin M (IgM). The elevated level of IgM causes serum hyperviscosity, cold agglutinins, and cryoglobulinemia. Anemia is also present because of impaired production of erythrocytes. For these reasons, placing a patient with WM on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) requires careful preparation. In this case, the patient was a 73-year-old male with known Waldenström's disease who required coronary artery bypass graft surgery...
June 2018: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
Ana Laura Tellechea, Victoria Luppo, María Alejandra Morales, Boris Groisman, Agustin Baricalla, Cintia Fabbri, Anabel Sinchi, Alicia Alonso, Cecilia Gonzalez, Bibiana Ledesma, Patricia Masi, María Silva, Adriana Israilev, Marcela Rocha, Marcela Quaglia, María Paz Bidondo, Rosa Liascovich, Pablo Barbero
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) vertical transmission may lead to microcephaly and other congenital anomalies. In March and April 2016, the first outbreak of ZIKV occurred in Argentina. The objective was to describe the surveillance of newborns with microcephaly and other selected brain anomalies in Argentina, and evaluation different etiologies. METHODS: Participants were enrolled between April 2016 and March 2017. CASES: newborns from the National Network of Congenital Abnormalities of Argentina (RENAC) with head circumference lower than the 3rd percentile according to gestational age and sex, or selected brain anomalies...
June 19, 2018: Birth Defects Research
Andreza Lemos Salvio, Amanda de Oliveira Lopes, Adilson José de Almeida, Noemi Rovaris Gardinali, Lyana Ribeiro Pinto Lima, Jaqueline Mendes de Oliveira, Fernando Samuel Sion, Luiz Claudio Pereira Ribeiro, Marcelo Alves Pinto, Vanessa Salete de Paula
AIMS: To improve RT-qPCR with an internal control and a synthetic standard curve to detect HEV in HIV coinfected patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: A single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) and a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) synthetic curve were designed, compared to the international reference panel for HEV genotypes, and tested to quantify and detect a reference panel for HEV genotypes. The detection limit of the RNA synthetic curve (50 copies/mL) was better than the DNA synthetic curve (100 copies/mL) and the WHO standard curve (250 copies/mL)...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
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