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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334670/genetic-ablation-of-trpv1-exacerbates-pressure-overload-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy
#1
Beihua Zhong, Jack Rubinstein, Shuangtao Ma, Donna H Wang
Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels expressed in sensory nerves may regulate vascular tone and cardiovascular function via their anti-inflammatory effects by releasing neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Inflammation plays a role in the progression of cardiac hypertrophy and TRPV1 activation may be key to cardiac inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that TRPV1 modulates inflammatory processes to protect the heart from pressure overload-induced hypertrophy and inflammatory responses...
January 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333681/myotropic-activity-and-immuno-localization-of-selected-neuropeptides-of-the-burying-beetle-nicrophorus-vespilloides-coleoptera-silphidae
#2
Arkadiusz Urbański, Jan Lubawy, Paweł Marciniak, Grzegorz Rosiński
Burying beetles (Nicrophorus sp.) are necrophagous insects with developed parental care. Genome of Nicrophorus vespilloides has been recently sequenced, which makes them interesting model organism in behavioural ecology. However, we know very little about their physiology, including the functioning of their neuro-endocrine system. In this study, one of the physiological activities of proctolin, myosuppressin (Nicve-MS), myoinhibitory peptide (Trica-MIP-5) and the short neuropeptide F (Nicve-sNPF) in N. vespilloides have been investigated...
January 15, 2018: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329911/mrna-expression-and-metabolic-regulation-of-npy-and-agrp1-2-in-the-zebrafish-brain
#3
Inyoung Jeong, Eunmi Kim, Suhyun Kim, Hwan-Ki Kim, Dong-Won Lee, Jae Young Seong, Hae-Chul Park
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an evolutionarily conserved neuropeptide implicated in feeding regulation in vertebrates. In mammals, NPY neurons coexpress Agouti-related protein (AgRP) in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, and NPY/AgRP neurons activate orexigenic signaling to increase food intake. Zebrafish express npy and two agrp genes, agrp1 and agrp2, in the brain. Similar to mammals, NPY and AgRP1 act as orexigenic factors in zebrafish, but the exact distribution of NPY and AgRP neurons in the zebrafish brain and the regulation of these genes by metabolic states remain unclear...
January 9, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329678/apelin-13-ameliorates-cognitive-impairments-in-6-hydroxydopamine-induced-substantia-nigra-lesion-in-rats
#4
Elham Haghparast, Saeed Esmaeili-Mahani, Mehdi Abbasnejad, Vahid Sheibani
Although Parkinson's disease (PD) is well known with its motor deficits, the patients often suffer from cognitive dysfunction. Apelin, as the endogenous ligand of the APJ receptor, is found in several brain regions such as substantia nigra and mesolimbic pathway. However, the role of apelin in cognition and cognitive disorders has not been fully clarified. In this study the effects of apelin-13 were investigated on cognitive disorders in rat Parkinsonism experimental model. 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) was administrated into the substantia nigra...
January 5, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329236/gender-associated-impact-of-early-leucine-supplementation-on-adult-predisposition-to-obesity-in-rats
#5
Nora López, Juana Sánchez, Andreu Palou, Francisca Serra
Early nutrition plays an important role in development and may constitute a relevant contributor to the onset of obesity in adulthood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term impact of maternal leucine (Leu) supplementation during lactation on progeny in rats. A chow diet, supplemented with 2% Leu, was supplied during lactation (21 days) and, from weaning onwards, was replaced by a standard chow diet. Then, at adulthood (6 months of age), this was replaced with hypercaloric diets (either with high-fat (HF) or high-carbohydrate (HC) content), for two months, to induce obesity...
January 12, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328505/substance-p-as-a-putative-efferent-transmitter-mediates-gabaergic-inhibition-in-mouse-taste-buds
#6
Anthony Y Huang, Sandy Y Wu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Capsaicin-mediated modulation on taste nerve responses is thought to be produced indirectly by actions of neuropeptides, e.g., calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP), onto taste cells implying playing a role in taste sensitivity. During processing gustatory information in taste buds, CGRP shapes peripheral taste signals via serotonergic signaling. The underlying assumption has been that SP exerts its effects on taste transmitter secretion in taste buds of mice...
January 12, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328403/arcuate-nucleus-neurons-are-not-essential-for-the-preprandial-peak-in-plasma-ghrelin-after-neonatal-monosodium-glutamate-treatment
#7
Qing-Chun Li, Qing-Feng Li, Yan-Lin Wang, Hong-Liang Sun, Zheng-Yao Jiang
The aim of the present study was to determine whether arcuate nucleus (ARC) lesions affect the ghrelin level in the plasma and the stomach in monosodium glutamate (MSG)‑treated mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the ARC was destroyed in mice treated neonatally with MSG, and whether the ARC lesions affect the ghrelin level in the plasma and lipid mobilization in MSG‑treated mice. The results revealed that MSG led to a marked reduction in ARC cresyl violet staining, tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (IR) neurons and neuropeptide Y‑IR fibers, compared with saline controls...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324852/real-life-helping-behaviours-in-north-america-a-genome-wide-association-approach
#8
Georg Primes, Martin Fieder
In humans, prosocial behaviour is essential for social functioning. Twin studies suggest this distinct human trait to be partly hardwired. In the last decade research on the genetics of prosocial behaviour focused on neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, such as oxytocin, dopamine, and their respective pathways. Recent trends towards large scale medical studies targeting the genetic basis of complex diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia pave the way for new directions also in behavioural genetics...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323501/the-pivotal-role-of-copper-in-neurodegeneration-a-new-strategy-for-the-therapy-of-neurodegenerative-disorders
#9
Roberta Giampietro, Francesco Spinelli, Marialessandra Contino, Nicola Antonio Colabufo
Copper is an essential trace element for human body since it is a cofactor of several enzymes and proteins and plays a pivotal role in several biological functions (e.g., respiration, protection from oxidative damage, iron metabolism, etc.), also including the central nervous system development and functioning (e.g. synthesis of neurotransmitters, myelination, activation of neuropeptides, etc.). Therefore, copper dysmetabolism is associated with different toxic effects, mainly represented by oxidative stress, and it has been reported in many neurodegenerative disorders, such as Wilson's disease, Menkes disease, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321240/pigment-dispersing-factor-expressing-neurons-convey-circadian-information-in-the-honey-bee-brain
#10
Katharina Beer, Esther Kolbe, Noa B Kahana, Nadav Yayon, Ron Weiss, Pamela Menegazzi, Guy Bloch, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster
Pigment-Dispersing Factor (PDF) is an important neuropeptide in the brain circadian network of Drosophila and other insects, but its role in bees in which the circadian clock influences complex behaviour is not well understood. We combined high-resolution neuroanatomical characterizations, quantification of PDF levels over the day and brain injections of synthetic PDF peptide to study the role of PDF in the honey bee Apis mellifera We show that PDF co-localizes with the clock protein Period (PER) in a cluster of laterally located neurons and that the widespread arborizations of these PER/PDF neurons are in close vicinity to other PER-positive cells (neurons and glia)...
January 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318457/decreased-intracellular-granule-movement-and-glucagon-secretion-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-attached-to-superior-cervical-ganglion-neurites
#11
Kiyoto Watabe, Satoru Yokawa, Yoshikazu Inoh, Takahiro Suzuki, Tadahide Furuno
Autonomic neurons innervate pancreatic islets of Langerhans and participate in the maintenance of blood glucose concentrations by controlling hormone levels through attachment with islet cells. We previously found that stimulated superior cervical ganglia (SCG) could induce Ca2+ oscillation in α cells via neuropeptide substance P using an in vitro co-culture model. In this study, we studied the effect of SCG neurite adhesion on intracellular secretory granule movement and glucagon secretion in α cells stimulated by low glucose concentration...
January 9, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316420/immunology-the-neuronal-pathway-to-mucosal-immunity
#12
Stephan Löser, Rick M Maizels
Type 2 immunity at mucosal surfaces is thought to be initiated by type 2 innate lymphoid cells. New studies report that these cells are themselves activated by the neuropeptide neuromedin U, produced by cholinergic neurons in the gut and in airways.
January 8, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315906/antiobesity-molecular-mechanisms-of-action-resveratrol-and-pterostilbene
#13
REVIEW
Min-Hsiung Pan, Jia-Ching Wu, Chi-Tang Ho, Ching-Shu Lai
Obesity is a current global epidemic that has led to a marked increase in metabolic diseases. However, its treatment remains a challenge. Obesity is a multifactorial disease, which involves the dysfunction of neuropeptides, hormones, and inflammatory adipokines from the brain, gut, and adipose tissue. An understanding of the mechanisms and signal interactions in the crosstalk between organs and tissue in the coordination of whole-body energy metabolism would be helpful to provide therapeutic and putative approaches to the treatment and prevention of obesity and related complications...
January 5, 2018: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311610/interneuron-specific-signaling-evokes-distinctive-somatostatin-mediated-responses-in-adult-cortical-astrocytes
#14
Letizia Mariotti, Gabriele Losi, Annamaria Lia, Marcello Melone, Angela Chiavegato, Marta Gómez-Gonzalo, Michele Sessolo, Serena Bovetti, Angelo Forli, Micaela Zonta, Linda Maria Requie, Iacopo Marcon, Arianna Pugliese, Cécile Viollet, Bernhard Bettler, Tommaso Fellin, Fiorenzo Conti, Giorgio Carmignoto
The signaling diversity of GABAergic interneurons to post-synaptic neurons is crucial to generate the functional heterogeneity that characterizes brain circuits. Whether this diversity applies to other brain cells, such as the glial cells astrocytes, remains unexplored. Using optogenetics and two-photon functional imaging in the adult mouse neocortex, we here reveal that parvalbumin- and somatostatin-expressing interneurons, two key interneuron classes in the brain, differentially signal to astrocytes inducing weak and robust GABAB receptor-mediated Ca2+ elevations, respectively...
January 8, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310113/a-promising-therapeutic-target-for-metabolic-diseases-neuropeptide-y-receptors-in-humans
#15
Min Yi, Hekai Li, Zhiye Wu, Jianyun Yan, Qicai Liu, Caiwen Ou, Minsheng Chen
Human neuropeptide Y (hNPY) is one of the most widely expressed neurotransmitters in the human central and peripheral nervous systems. It consists of 36 highly conserved amino acid residues, and was first isolated from the porcine hypothalamus in 1982. While it is the most recently discovered member of the pancreatic polypeptide family (which includes neuropeptide Y, gut-derived hormone peptide YY, and pancreatic polypeptide), NPY is the most abundant peptide found in the mammalian brain. In order to exert particular functions, NPY needs to bind to the NPY receptor to activate specific signaling pathways...
December 22, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309996/biomarker-discovery-for-disease-status-and-symptom-severity-in-children-with-autism
#16
Ozge Oztan, Lisa P Jackson, Robin A Libove, Raena D Sumiyoshi, Jennifer M Phillips, Joseph P Garner, Antonio Y Hardan, Karen J Parker
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by social impairments and repetitive behaviors, and affects 1 in 68 US children. Despite ASD's societal impact, its disease mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recent preclinical ASD biomarker discovery research has implicated the neuropeptides oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP), and their receptors, OXTR and AVPR1A, in animal models. Efforts to translate these findings to individuals with ASD have typically involved evaluating single neuropeptide measures as biomarkers of ASD and/or behavioral functioning...
December 28, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309751/activation-of-npy-y2-receptors-ameliorates-disease-pathology-in-the-r6-2-mouse-and-pc12-cell-models-of-huntington-s-disease
#17
Oluwaseun Fatoba, Eugen Kloster, Christiane Reick, Carsten Saft, Ralf Gold, Jörg T Epplen, Larissa Arning, Gisa Ellrichmann
Huntington's disease (HD) is a monogenic inherited polyglutamine-mediated neurodegenerative disorder for which effective therapies are currently unavailable. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been implicated as a potential therapeutic target in several neurodegenerative diseases, including HD. However, its mechanisms of action in the context of HD pathology remain unknown. Here, we investigated the beneficial effects of Y2 receptor (Y2R) activation with NPY or Y2R selective agonist NPY13-36 in the R6/2 mouse and PC12 cell models of HD...
January 5, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309115/multifaceted-expression-of-peptidergic-modulation-in-the-feeding-system-of-aplysia
#18
Elizabeth C Cropper, Jian Jing, Ferdinand S Vilim, Michael A Barry, Klaudiusz R Weiss
Neuropeptides are present in species throughout the animal kingdom and generally exert actions that are distinct from those of small molecule transmitters. It has, therefore, been of interest to define the unique behavioral role of this class of substances. Progress in this regard has been made in experimentally advantageous invertebrate preparations. We focus on one such system, the feeding circuit in the mollusc Aplysia. We review research conducted over several decades that played an important role in establishing that peptide cotransmitters are released under behaviorally relevant conditions...
January 8, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307696/role-of-hypothalamic-leptin-leprb-signaling-in-npy-cart-mediated-appetite-suppression-in-amphetamine-treated-rats
#19
Shu-Chen Chu, Pei-Ni Chen, Jeng-Rung Chen, Ching-Han Yu, Yih-Shou Hsieh, Dong-Yih Kuo
Leptin is an adipose tissue hormone which plays an important role in regulating energy homeostasis. Amphetamine (AMPH) is a drug of appetite suppressant, which exerts its effect by decreasing the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and increasing that of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART). This study investigated whether leptin, the leptin receptor (LepRb) and the signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) were involved in NPY/CART-mediated appetite suppression in AMPH-treated rats...
January 4, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307543/neurotensin-speeds-inhibition-of-dopamine-neurons-through-temporal-modulation-of-gabaa-and-gabab-receptor-mediated-synaptic-input
#20
Christopher W Tschumi, Michael J Beckstead
Midbrain dopamine neurons play physiological roles in many processes including reward learning and motivated behavior, and are tonically inhibited by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic input from multiple brain regions. Neurotensin (NT) is a neuropeptide which acutely modulates midbrain dopamine neuron excitability through multiple mechanisms, one of which is a decrease of GABA-mediated inhibition. However, the mechanisms through which NT depresses GABA signaling are not known. Here we used whole cell patch-clamp electrophysiology of dopamine neurons in mouse brain slices to show that NT acts both presynaptically to increase GABAA and postsynaptically to decrease GABAB receptor-mediated currents in the substantia nigra...
January 4, 2018: Neuropharmacology
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