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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538378/effects-of-intensive-training-on-menstrual-function-and-certain-serum-hormones-and-peptides-related-to-the-female-reproductive-system
#1
Geum Joon Cho, Sung Won Han, Jung-Ho Shin, Tak Kim
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of intensive training on menstrual function and related serum hormones and peptides.Forty female participants who attended a training course for an officer at the Korea Third Military Academy, and had regular menstrual periods were enrolled. Menstrual questionnaires and fasting blood samples were collected before entry and at 4-week intervals for 8 weeks. The levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), cortisol, prolactin, endorphin-β, neuropeptide Y (NPY), leptin, orexin-A, ghrelin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2), thyrotropin (TSH), and thyroxine (T4) were determined...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534875/dose-dependent-social-cognitive-effects-of-intranasal-oxytocin-delivered-with-novel-breath-powered-device-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-crossover-trial
#2
D S Quintana, L T Westlye, S Hope, T Nærland, T Elvsåshagen, E Dørum, Ø Rustan, M Valstad, L Rezvaya, H Lishaugen, E Stensønes, S Yaqub, K T Smerud, R A Mahmoud, P G Djupesland, O A Andreassen
The neuropeptide oxytocin has shown promise as a treatment for symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, clinical research progress has been hampered by a poor understanding of oxytocin's dose-response and sub-optimal intranasal delivery methods. We examined two doses of oxytocin delivered using a novel Breath Powered intranasal delivery device designed to improve direct nose-to-brain activity in a double-blind, crossover, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. In a randomized sequence of single-dose sessions, 17 male adults with ASD received 8 international units (IU) oxytocin, 24IU oxytocin or placebo followed by four social-cognitive tasks...
May 23, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531318/agrp-expressing-adrenal-chromaffin-cells-are-involved-in-the-sympathetic-response-to-fasting
#3
Rajesh Gupta, Yunbing Ma, Manqi Wang, Matthew D Whim
Fasting evokes a homeostatic response that maintains circulating levels of energy-rich metabolites and increases the drive to eat. Centrally this reflex activates a small population of hypothalamic neurons that are characterized by the expression of AgRP, a neuropeptide with an extremely restricted distribution. Apart from the hypothalamus the only other site with significant expression is the adrenal gland but there is disagreement about which cells synthesize AgRP. Using immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and RT-PCR we show AgRP is present in the mouse adrenal medulla and is expressed by neuroendocrine chromaffin cells that also synthesize the catecholamines and neuropeptide Y...
May 22, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530679/polymorphisms-of-the-oxytocin-receptor-gene-and-overeating-the-intermediary-role-of-endophenotypic-risk-factors
#4
C Davis, K Patte, C Zai, J L Kennedy
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Oxytocin (OXT) is an evolutionarily ancient neuropeptide with strong links to affiliative and prosocial behaviors, and the management of stress. Increases in OXT also tend to decrease food intake, especially of sweet carbohydrates. The social correlates of low OXT levels mesh with the social deficits and stress proneness identified in interpersonal models of overeating, as well as the increased appetite for highly palatable foods typically seen in chronic overeaters...
May 22, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529367/serum-nucb2-nesfatin-1-levels-in-different-stages-of-alcohol-dependence-is-there-a-relationship-with-craving
#5
Gokhan Umut, Cuneyt Evren, Alparslan Cansiz, Mustafa Akkus, Nesrin Karamustafalioglu
INTRODUCTION: In the literature, the relationship between appetite regulating peptides and alcohol craving is on the debate. AIM: This study aims to investigate serum level of NUCB2/nesfatin-1, which is discovered as appetite-related neuropeptide, in patients with alcohol dependence who were in craving and abstaining phase and to compare with healthy controls. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Research, Treatment, and Training Center for Alcohol and Substance Dependence, (AMATEM) Bakirkoy Training and Research Hospital for Psychiatry Neurology and Neurosurgery, Istanbul, case-control and prospective study design were used...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528906/warts-signaling-controls-organ-and-body-growth-through-regulation-of-ecdysone
#6
Morten E Moeller, Stanislav Nagy, Stephan U Gerlach, Karen C Soegaard, E Thomas Danielsen, Michael J Texada, Kim F Rewitz
Coordination of growth between individual organs and the whole body is essential during development to produce adults with appropriate size and proportions [1, 2]. How local organ-intrinsic signals and nutrient-dependent systemic factors are integrated to generate correctly proportioned organisms under different environmental conditions is poorly understood. In Drosophila, Hippo/Warts signaling functions intrinsically to regulate tissue growth and organ size [3, 4], whereas systemic growth is controlled via antagonistic interactions of the steroid hormone ecdysone and nutrient-dependent insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) (insulin) signaling [2, 5]...
May 17, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527954/sex-differences-in-the-effect-of-chronic-mild-stress-on-mouse-prefrontal-cortical-bdnf-levels-a-role-of-major-ovarian-hormones
#7
Bhanu Chandra Karisetty, Pranav Chintamani Joshi, Arvind Kumar, Sumana Chakravarty
Depression induced by stress is affected by sex, age and hormonal status of the animal and also by duration and type of the stressors. Moreover, higher prevalence of depression and comorbidities in women than men implies the need to include the sex variable in studies on animal models of depression. The present study was therefore initiated to evaluate the effect of sex and ovarian hormones on depression-like phenotypes in mice exposed to a 21-day Chronic Variable Mild Stress (CVMS) paradigm. Adult male, intact female and, ovariectomized (OVX) female mice exposed to CVMS displayed despair behavior, a depression-like phenotype, in all the groups...
May 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527063/the-role-of-anti-cgrp-antibodies-in-the-pathophysiology-of-primary-headaches
#8
Piero Barbanti, Cinzia Aurilia, Luisa Fofi, Gabriella Egeo, Patrizia Ferroni
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a potent vasodilator and pain-signaling neuropeptide, is a validated therapeutic target for migraine and cluster headache. Four anti-CGRP monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been developed, representing the first specific, mechanism-based, migraine prophylactic treatment. CGRP mAbs demonstrated good efficacy coupled to excellent tolerability and safety in 5 phase II clinical trials. Notably, CGRP mAbs induced complete migraine remission in a patients' subset. To date, more than 20 phase III trials using CGRP mAbs for of episodic and chronic migraine and cluster headache prevention are ongoing...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526556/circulating-levels-of-cortistatin-are-correlated-with-metabolic-parameters-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#9
Wenjia Chen, Yu Fu, Xinhua Yin, Yue Liu
Cortistatin (CST) is a recently discovered cyclic neuropeptide with multiple bioactive effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between plasma CST and various metabolic markers in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). For this study, 60 patients with newly diagnosed T2DM and 38 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), serum insulin and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels and a blood lipid profile were obtained with commercially available diagnostic reagents...
May 16, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526554/the-roles-of-orexins-in-sleep-wake-regulation
#10
REVIEW
Michihiro Mieda
Orexin A and orexin B are hypothalamic neuropeptides initially identified as endogenous ligands for two orphan G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). A deficiency of orexin signaling results in the sleep disorder narcolepsy-cataplexy in humans, dogs, and rodents, a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy. Multiple approaches, including molecular genetic, electrophysiological, pharmacological, and neuroanatomical studies have suggested that orexins play critical roles in the maintenance of wakefulness by regulating the function of monoaminergic and cholinergic neurons that are implicated in the regulation of wakefulness...
May 16, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526553/hypothalamic-regulation-of-the-sleep-wake-cycle
#11
REVIEW
Daisuke Ono, Akihiro Yamanaka
Sleep is one of the most important physiological functions in mammals. It is regulated by not only homeostatic regulation but also circadian clock. Several neuropeptide-producing neurons located in the hypothalamus are implicated in the regulation of sleep/wakefulness. Among them, orexin/hypocretin-producing neurons (orexin neurons) are a crucial component for maintenance of wakefulness, because lack of orexin function results in narcolepsy, which is a sleep disorder. Recent findings have identified substances that excite or inhibit neural activity of orexin neurons...
May 16, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526435/the-bidirectional-gut-brain-microbiota-axis-as-a-potential-nexus-between-traumatic-brain-injury-inflammation-and-disease
#12
Mark H Sundman, Nan-Kuei Chen, Vignesh Subbian, Ying-Hui Chou
As head injuries and their sequelae have become an increasingly salient matter of public health, experts in the field have made great progress elucidating the biological processes occurring within the brain at the moment of injury and throughout the recovery thereafter. Given the extraordinary rate at which our collective knowledge of neurotrauma has grown, new insights may be revealed by examining the existing literature across disciplines with a new perspective. This article will aim to expand the scope of this rapidly evolving field of research beyond the confines of the central nervous system (CNS)...
May 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525358/galanin-suppresses-proliferation-of-human-u251-and-t98g-glioma-cells-via-its-subtype-1-receptor
#13
Zhu Mei, Yutao Yang, Yun Li, Feiya Yang, Junfa Li, Xingnian Zeng, Zhi-Qing David Xu
Galanin is a neuropeptide with a widespread distribution throughout the nervous and endocrine systems, and recent studies have shown an anti-proliferative effect of galanin on several types of tumors. However, whether and how galanin and its receptors are involved in the regulation of cell proliferation in glioma cells remains unclear. In this study, the roles of galanin and its subtype 1 receptor (GAL1) in the proliferation of human U251 and T98G glioma cells were investigated. We found that galanin significantly suppressed the proliferation of U251 and T98G cells as well as tumor growth in nude mice...
May 19, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525332/distribution-and-immunohistochemical-characteristics-of-cocaine-and-amphetamineregulated-transcript-positive-nerve-elements-in-the-pelvic-ganglia-of-the-female-pig
#14
A Zacharko-Siembida, M Matysek, R Szalak, A Radlińska, K Obszańska, M B Arciszewski
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides are widely expressed not only in the brain but also in numerous endocrine/neuroendocrine cells as well as in neurons of the peripheral nervous system. The present study investigated the distribution patterns of CART-like immunoreactivity in the pelvic plexus (PP) of the female pig. The co-expression of CART with principal neurotransmitter markers: choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), serotonin (5-HT) or biologically active neuropeptides: pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), substance P (SP), calbindin was analyzed using double immunohistochemical stainings...
March 28, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524415/ndrg4-an-early-detection-marker-for-colorectal-cancer-is-specifically-expressed-in-enteric-neurons
#15
N Vaes, M H F M Lentjes, M J Gijbels, G Rademakers, K L Daenen, W Boesmans, K A D Wouters, A Geuzens, X Qu, H P J Steinbusch, B P F Rutten, S H Baldwin, K A Sharkey, R M W Hofstra, M van Engeland, P Vanden Berghe, V Melotte
BACKGROUND: Promoter methylation of N-myc Downstream-Regulated Gene 4 (NDRG4) in fecal DNA is an established early detection marker for colorectal cancer (CRC). Despite its connection to CRC, NDRG4 is predominantly studied in brain and heart, with little to no knowledge about its expression or role in other organs. In this study, we aimed to determine the whole-body expression of NDRG4, with a focus on the intestinal tract. METHODS: We investigated NDRG4 expression throughout the body by immunohistochemistry, Western Blotting and in situ mRNA hybridization using tissues from NDRG4 wild-type, heterozygous and knockout mice and humans...
May 19, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523979/pacap-promotes-matrix-driven-adhesion-of-cultured-adult-murine-neural-progenitors
#16
James A Waschek, Joseph R Cohen, Gloria C Chi, Tomasz J Proszynski, Pawel Niewiadomski
New neurons are born throughout the life of mammals in germinal zones of the brain known as neurogenic niches: the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. These niches contain a subpopulation of cells known as adult neural progenitor cells (aNPCs), which self-renew and give rise to new neurons and glia. aNPCs are regulated by many factors present in the niche, including the extracellular matrix (ECM). We show that the neuropeptide PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide) affects subventricular zone-derived aNPCs by increasing their surface adhesion...
May 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522313/neurotensin-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-reverses-dopamine-supersensitivity-evoked-by-antipsychotic-treatment
#17
Alice Servonnet, Ellie-Anna Minogianis, Claude Bouchard, Anne-Marie Bédard, Daniel Lévesque, Pierre-Paul Rompré, Anne-Noël Samaha
Long-term exposure to antipsychotics like haloperidol can increase sensitivity to dopamine agonist stimulation. This could contribute to treatment failure and increase relapse to psychosis. Chronic antipsychotic treatment elevates neurotensin levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), where the neuropeptide modulates dopamine function by signalling through NTS1 receptors. We hypothesized that increasing neurotensin activity in the NAc attenuates the expression of antipsychotic-induced dopamine supersensitivity, which is indicated by a potentiated psychomotor response to amphetamine...
May 15, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518137/nerve-growth-factor-from-chinese-cobra-venom-stimulates-chondrogenic-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#18
Zhenhui Lu, Danqing Lei, Tongmeng Jiang, Lihui Yang, Li Zheng, Jinmin Zhao
Growth factors such as transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-β1), have critical roles in the regulation of the chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which promote cartilage repair. However, the clinical applications of the traditional growth factors are limited by their high cost, functional heterogeneity and unpredictable effects, such as cyst formation. It may be advantageous for cartilage regeneration to identify a low-cost substitute with greater chondral specificity and easy accessibility...
May 18, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515230/crosstalk-from-camp-to-erk1-2-emerges-during-postnatal-maturation-of-nociceptive-neurons-and-is-maintained-during-aging
#19
Joerg Isensee, Cosimo Schild, Frank Schwede, Tim Hucho
Maturation of nociceptive neurons depends on changes of transcription factors, ion channels, and neuropeptides. Mature nociceptors initiate pain in part by drastically reducing the activation threshold via intracellular sensitization signaling. If sensitization signaling also changes during development and aging remains so far unknown.Using a novel automated microscopy approach, we quantified changes of intracellular signaling protein expression, of their signaling dynamics, as well as of intracellular signaling cascade wiring in sensory neurons from newborn to senescent rats...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513109/separation-and-identification-of-mouse-brain-tissue-microproteins-using-top-down-method-with-high-resolution-nanocapillary-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#20
Wenxue Li, Filomena Petruzziello, Nan Zhao, Huiyuan Zhao, Xueting Ye, Xiaozhe Zhang, Gregor Rainer
Microproteins and endogenous peptides in the brain contain important substances that have critical roles in diverse biological processes, contributing to signal transduction and inter-cellular signaling. However, variability in their physical or chemical characteristics, such as molecule size, hydrophobicity and charge states, complicate the simultaneous analysis of these compounds, although this would be highly beneficial for the field of neuroscience research. Here, we present a top-down analytical method for simultaneous analysis of microproteins and endogenous peptides using high-resolution nanocapillary liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry...
May 16, 2017: Proteomics
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