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Xiao-Yang Dong, Zhen Feng
Orexins, produced in the lateral hypothalamus, are important neuropeptides that participate in the sleep/wake cycle, and their expression coincides with the projection area of the vagus nerve in the brain. Vagus nerve stimulation has been shown to decrease the amounts of daytime sleep and rapid eye movement in epilepsy patients with traumatic brain injury. In the present study, we investigated whether vagus nerve stimulation promotes wakefulness and affects orexin expression. A rat model of traumatic brain injury was established using the free fall drop method...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Philip R Holland, Peter J Goadsby
Migraine is a highly prevalent, severe, and disabling neurological condition with a significant unmet need for effective acute therapies. Patients (~50%) are dissatisfied with their currently available therapies. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has emerged as a key neuropeptide involved in the pathophysiology of migraines. As reviewed in this manuscript, a number of small molecule antagonists of the CGRP receptor have been developed for migraine therapy. Incredibly, the majority of the clinical trials conducted have proven positive, demonstrating the importance of this signalling pathway in migraine...
March 19, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Geoffrey Littlejohn, Emma Guymer
Fibromyalgia is a high impact chronic pain disorder with a well-defined and robust clinical phenotype. Key features include widespread pain and tenderness, high levels of sleep disturbance, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction and emotional distress. Abnormal processing of pain and other sensory input occurs in the brain, spinal cord and periphery and is related to the processes of central and peripheral sensitization. As such, fibromyalgia is deemed to be one of the central sensitivity syndromes. There is increasing evidence of neurogenically derived inflammatory mechanisms occurring in the peripheral tissues, spinal cord and brain in fibromyalgia...
March 19, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
Christopher B Lietz, Thomas Toneff, Charles Mosier, Sonia Podvin, Anthony J O'Donoghue, Vivian Hook
Neuropeptides are vital for cell-cell communication and function in the regulation of the nervous and endocrine systems. They are generated by post-translational modification (PTM) steps resulting in small active peptides generated from prohormone precursors. Phosphorylation is a significant PTM for the bioactivity of neuropeptides. From the known diversity of distinct neuropeptide functions, it is hypothesized that the extent of phosphorylation varies among different neuropeptides. To assess this hypothesis, neuropeptide-containing dense core secretory vesicles from bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin cells were subjected to global phosphopeptidomics analyses by liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry (MS/MS)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Nikita M Bajwa, Chandrasekhar Kesavan, Subburaman Mohan
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to long-term cognitive, behavioral, affective deficits, and increase neurodegenerative diseases. It is only in recent years that there is growing awareness that TBI even in its milder form poses long-term health consequences to not only the brain but to other organ systems. Also, the concept that hormonal signals and neural circuits that originate in the hypothalamus play key roles in regulating skeletal system is gaining recognition based on recent mouse genetic studies. Accordingly, many TBI patients have also presented with hormonal dysfunction, increased skeletal fragility, and increased risk of skeletal diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Jing Huang, Erika Polgár, Hans Jürgen Solinski, Santosh K Mishra, Pang-Yen Tseng, Noboru Iwagaki, Kieran A Boyle, Allen C Dickie, Mette C Kriegbaum, Hendrik Wildner, Hanns Ulrich Zeilhofer, Masahiko Watanabe, John S Riddell, Andrew J Todd, Mark A Hoon
Stimuli that elicit itch are detected by sensory neurons that innervate the skin. This information is processed by the spinal cord; however, the way in which this occurs is still poorly understood. Here we investigated the neuronal pathways for itch neurotransmission, particularly the contribution of the neuropeptide somatostatin. We find that in the periphery, somatostatin is exclusively expressed in Nppb+ neurons, and we demonstrate that Nppb+ somatostatin+ cells function as pruriceptors. Employing chemogenetics, pharmacology and cell-specific ablation methods, we demonstrate that somatostatin potentiates itch by inhibiting inhibitory dynorphin neurons, which results in disinhibition of GRPR+ neurons...
March 19, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
LiLi Shi, Bin Li, Ting Ting Zhou, Wei Wang, Siuming F Chan
The recent use of RNA-Seq to study the transcriptomes of different species has helped identify a large number of new genes from different non-model organisms. In this study, five distinctive transcripts encoding for neuropeptide members of the CHH/MIH/GIH family have been identified from the spermatophore transcriptome of the shrimp Fenneropenaeus merguiensis. The size of these transcripts ranged from 531 bp to 1771 bp. Four transcripts encoded different CHH-family subtype I members, and one transcript encoded a subtype II member...
2018: PloS One
Peter Christ, Sharon R Hill, Joachim Schachtner, Frank Hauser, Rickard Ignell
Mosquito blood feeding transiently inhibits sugar- and host seeking through neuropeptide signaling. Short neuropeptide F (sNPF) is one of the neuromodulators involved in this regulation. Here, we identified the genes for the sNPF precursor and the sNPF receptor in the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus. Comparative analyses are made with the genes of the sNPF precursor and receptor from two other important vectors, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles coluzzii. We functionally characterized the receptors in all three species using endogenous neuropeptides, and quantified their transcript expression following a blood meal and a sugar meal...
March 14, 2018: Peptides
Emmanuel Weyne, Johanna L Hannan, Thomas Gevaert, Yodi Soebadi, Hotaka Matsui, Fabio Castiglione, Koenraad van Renterghem, Dirk De Ridder, Frank Van der Aa, Trinity J Bivalacqua, Maarten Albersen
BACKGROUND: Previously, we found that the neuropeptide galanin was strongly upregulated soon after bilateral cavernous nerve injury (BCNI) and that galanin and its receptors were expressed in nitrergic erectile innervation. Galanin has been observed to exert neuroregenerative effects in dorsal root ganglion neurons, but evidence for these effects in the major pelvic ganglion (MPG) after BCNI is lacking. AIM: To evaluate the neurotropic effects of galanin receptor agonists and antagonists in vitro in nitrergic neurons and MPG and in vivo in rats after BCNI...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
L Tomova, M Heinrichs, C Lamm
Distinguishing self- from other-related representations plays an important role in social interactions. The neuropeptide oxytocin has been shown to modulate social behavior as well as underlying social cognitions and emotions. However, how exactly oxytocin modulates representations of self and other is still unclear. The present study therefore aimed to assess effects of oxytocin on self-other distinction on two different processing levels (i.e., lower-level imitation-inhibition and higher-level perspective taking) in a male sample (n = 56) by performing a double-blind, placebo-controlled oxytocin administration study...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Marc G J Feuilloley
By its size and diversity, the cutaneous microbial flora is the second of the human body and there is a growing body of research showing its key role in cutaneous homeostasis. However, skin is also the first neuroendocrine organ and it is now demonstrated that bacteria can sense a multitude of human hormones and neurotransmitters. Then, besides of the intrinsic effect of their virulence factors on cutaneous neurogenic activity, recent data demonstrate that the virulence, invasion potential, and biofilm formation activity of some of the principal species of the cutaneous bacteria flora are directly controlled by neuropeptides released by sensory nerve endings including substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide...
March 16, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
Priyadarshini Singh Nee Priyadarshini, Bechan Lal
The present study demonstrates seasonal variation in the cellular expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY), a known orexigenic neuropeptide, in the testis of the catfish, Clarias batrachus and its relation with testicular steroids. In vitro effects of NPY on androgen production and activities of steroidogenic enzymes were also analyzed to reaffirm the relation between NPY and steroids. NPY-immunoprecipitation was observed in Sertoli cells, interstitial cells and germ cells in recrudescing testis. Intensity of NPY-immunoreaction in the interstitial cells increased steadily with initiation of spermatogenesis and reached maximal in fully grown testes, and then decreased suddenly in the spermiating/spent testis...
March 13, 2018: Peptides
Henry T Peng, Catherine Tenn, Oshin Vartanian, Shawn G Rhind, Jerzy Jarmasz, Homer Tien, Andrew Beckett
Introduction: Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) training imposes psychophysiological stress on medics. It is unclear whether these stress levels vary with the training modalities selected. It is also unclear how stress levels could have an impact on medical performance and skill uptake. Materials and Methods: We conducted a pilot study to compare the effects of live tissue (LT) with a high-fidelity patient simulator (SIM) on the level of stress elicited, performance, and skill uptake during battlefield trauma training course in an operating room (OR) and in a simulated battlefield scenario (field)...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Ioana Miruna Balmus, Radu Lefter, Alin Ciobica, Iulia Antioch, Daniela Ababei, Romeo Dobrin
INTRODUCTION: Oxytocin (OT) is a well-known neuropeptides which together with vasopressin, melatonin, insulin and other hormones can alter both behavior and physiological or neuronal functions. This growing interest on OT roles is also based on the demonstrated beneficial effects as a stress reliever and a social bonding agent. The association between old age and OT was only vaguely studied. Little or few is known on the effect of the OT hormone on the old body. Hereby, we present our preliminary results in the research on behavioral changes regarding the intraperitoneal administration of OT in aged rats...
March 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Gilda Fazzari, Merylin Zizza, Anna Di Vito, Raffaella Alò, Maria Mele, Rosalinda Bruno, Barni Tullio, Rosa Maria Facciolo, Canonaco Marcello
Recent indications are suggesting that high fat and sugar-enriched foods do not only evoke harmful physiological conditions, but they also endure evident structural alterations in cerebral regions controlling cognitive and feeding behaviors. Food consumption plus neuronal energy regulatory mechanisms seem to constitute a complex system assuring that food calories do not exceed body requirements. At the same time obesogenic-related properties of limbic feeding stations like the hypothalamus (HTH), hippocampus (HIP) and amygdala (AMY) tend to control eating habits through the interaction of distinct neuropeptides...
March 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Peyton W Weems, Michael N Lehman, Lique M Coolen, Robert L Goodman
Work over the last 15 years on the control of pulsatile LH secretion has focused largely on a set of neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) that contains two stimulatory neuropeptides, critical for fertility in humans (kisspeptin and neurokinin B (NKB)) and the inhibitory endogenous opioid peptide (EOP), dynorphin, and are now known as KNDy (kisspeptin-NKB-dynorphin) neurons. In this review, we consider the role of each of the KNDy peptides in the generation of GnRH pulses and the negative feedback actions of ovarian steroids, with an emphasis on NKB and dynorphin...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Guo-Ying Sun, Hui-Hui Yang, Xin-Xin Guan, Wen-Jing Zhong, Yong-Ping Liu, Ming-Yuan Du, Xiao-Qin Luo, Yong Zhou, Cha-Xiang Guan
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is one of the most abundant neuropeptides in the lungs with various biological characters. We have reported that VIP inhibited the expressions of TREM-1 and IL-17A, which are involved in the initiation and amplification of inflammation in acute lung injury (ALI). However, the overall effect of VIP on ALI remains unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the therapeutic effect of VIP mediated by lentivirus (Lenti-VIP) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine ALI. We found that the expression of intrapulmonary VIP peaked at day7 after the intratracheal injection of Lenti-VIP...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Thanh D Do, Joseph F Ellis, Elizabeth K Neumann, Troy J Comi, Emily G Tillmaand, Ashley E Lenhart, Stanislav S Rubakhin, Jonathan Sweedler
The mammalian dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are located on the dorsal roots of the spinal nerves and contain cell bodies of primary sensory neurons. DRG cells have been classified into subpopulations based on their size, morphology, intracellular markers, response to stimuli, and neuropeptides. To understand the connections between DRG chemical heterogeneity and cellular function, we performed optically guided, high-throughput single cell profiling using sequential matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MS) to detect lipids, peptides, and several proteins in individual DRG cells...
March 15, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Guo Zhang, Wang-Ding Yuan, Ferdinand S Vilim, Elena V Romanova, Ke Yu, Si-Yuan Yin, Zi-Wei Le, Ying-Yu Xue, Ting-Ting Chen, Guo-Kai Chen, Song-An Chen, Elizabeth C Cropper, Jonathan V Sweedler, Klaudiusz R Weiss, Jian Jing
When individual neurons in a circuit contain multiple neuropeptides, these peptides can target different sets of follower neurons. This endows the circuit with a certain degree of flexibility. Here we identified a novel family of peptides, the Aplysia SPTR-Gene Family-Derived peptides (apSPTR-GF-DPs). We demonstrated apSPTR-GF-DPs, particularly apSPTR-GF-DP2, are expressed in the Aplysia CNS using immunohistochemistry and MALDI-TOF MS. apSPTR-GF-DP2 is present in single projection neurons, e.g., in the cerebral-buccal interneuron-12 (CBI-12)...
March 15, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
James W Checco, Guo Zhang, Wangding Yuan, Ke Yu, Siyuan Yin, Rachel H Roberts-Galbraith, Peter M Yau, Elena V Romanova, Jian Jing, Jonathan V Sweedler
Neuropeptides in several animals undergo an unusual post-translational modification: the isomerization of an amino acid residue from the L-stereoisomer to the D-stereoisomer. The resulting D-amino acid-containing peptide (DAACP) often displays higher biological activity than its all-L-residue analogue, with the D-residue being critical for function in many cases. However, little is known about the full physiological roles played by DAACPs and few studies have examined the interaction of DAACPs with their cognate receptors...
March 15, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
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