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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096971/carthamus-tinctorius-l-ameliorates-brain-injury-followed-by-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-in-rats-by-antioxidative-and-anti-inflammatory-mechanisms
#1
Pin-Kuei Fu, Tai-Long Pan, Chi-Yu Yang, Kee-Ching Jeng, Nou-Ying Tang, Ching-Liang Hsieh
OBJECTIVES: Carthamus tinctorius L. (CT) or safflower is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. This study investigated the effects of CT extract (CTE) on ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) brain injury and elucidated the underlying mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The I/R model was conducted by occlusion of both common carotid arteries and right middle cerebral artery for 90 min followed by 24 hr reperfusion in Sprague-Dawley rats. CTE (0.2-0.6 g/kg) was administered intraperitoneally before and during ischemia, and during reperfusion period...
December 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095921/papillary-fibroelastoma-of-the-aortic-valve-presenting-with-chronic-angina-and-acute-stroke-a-case-report
#2
Fan Zhang, Ziqiang Zhu, Gautham K Upadhya, Jiankun Tong, Vlad Gotlieb, Abdullah Khan, Rakesh P Gupta
BACKGROUND: Papillary fibroelastomas are rare, benign cardiac tumors that are often found on cardiac valvular surfaces. Most are incidental discoveries during surgery or autopsy. The clinical presentation of fibroelastoma varies widely, ranging from clinically asymptomatic to severe thromboembolic events. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of 65-year-old white man diagnosed with scattered, bilateral acute cerebral hemisphere infarcts with a history of chronic angina...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091816/pediatric-cerebral-sinovenous-thrombosis-following-cranial-surgery
#3
Dmitriy Petrov, Michael Y Uohara, Rebecca Ichord, Zarina Ali, Laura Jastrzab, Shih-Shan Lang, Lori Billinghurst
PURPOSE: Pediatric cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT) is an important, though less common subtype of pediatric stroke. It has been linked to several risk factors, including cranial procedures, with few studies highlighting this relationship. The aim of this study was to characterize the diagnosis and treatment of CSVT after cranial surgery. METHODS: An institutional pediatric stroke research database was used to identify all CSVT cases diagnosed within 30 days of cranial surgery from November 2004 to December 2014...
January 14, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091411/protective-effects-of-calpain-inhibition-on-neurovascular-unit-injury-through-downregulating-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-related-inflammation-during-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice
#4
Xiao-Gang Tao, Jing-Hua Shi, Shu-Yu Hao, Xue-Tao Chen, Bai-Yun Liu
BACKGROUND: In addition to neurons, all components of the neurovascular unit (NVU), such as glial, endothelial, and basal membranes, are destroyed during traumatic brain injury (TBI). Previous studies have shown that excessive stimulation of calpain is crucial for cerebral injury after traumatic insult. The objective of this study was to investigate whether calpain activation participated in NVU disruption and edema formation in a mouse model of controlled cortical impact (CCI). METHODS: One hundred and eight mice were divided into three groups: the sham group, the control group, and the MDL28170 group...
2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090682/pituitary-macrotumor-causing-narcolepsy-cataplexy-in-a-dachshund
#5
S Schmid, A Hodshon, S Olin, I Pfeiffer, S Hecht
Familial narcolepsy secondary to breed-specific mutations in the hypocretin receptor 2 gene and sporadic narcolepsy associated with hypocretin ligand deficiencies occur in dogs. In this report, a pituitary mass is described as a unique cause of narcolepsy-cataplexy in a dog. A 6-year-old male neutered Dachshund had presented for acute onset of feeding-induced cataplexy and was found to have a pituitary macrotumor on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cerebral spinal fluid hypocretin-1 levels were normal, indicating that tumor effect on the ventral lateral nucleus of the hypothalamus was not the cause of the dog's narcolepsy-cataplexy...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087635/rb-controls-growth-survival-and-neuronal-migration-in-human-cerebral-organoids
#6
Takeshi Matsui, Vanesa Nieto-Estévez, Sergii Kyrychenko, Jay W Schneider, Jenny Hsieh
Retinoblastoma (RB) is a tumor suppressor gene which regulates cell cycle entry to S phase via E2F transcription factors. Using knockout (KO) mice, it has been described that Rb plays a role in cell migration and differentiation in developing and adult brain as well as apoptosis. In addition, the RB family is required for the self-renewal and survival of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs). However, little is known about the role of this gene in human brain development. Here, we investigated the role of RB in cerebral organoids from human ESCs deficient for RB...
January 13, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087392/predictors-and-mechanisms-of-epilepsy-occurrence-in-cerebral-gliomas-what-to-look-for-in-clinicopathology
#7
Cheng Huang, Xiao-Sa Chi, Xin Hu, Ni Chen, Qiao Zhou, Dong Zhou, Jin-Mei Li
Gliomas, especially low-grade gliomas, are highly epileptogenic brain tumors. Histopathological information is valuable in evaluating the diagnosis and/or biologic behavior of various gliomas. Here we explored the clinical data and histopathological predictors of the occurrence of epilepsy in patients with gliomas. A retrospective study examined 310 consecutive patients who had undergone surgical treatment for gliomas in our institution from January 2013 to January 2015. Clinical data and pathological examination results were analyzed...
January 10, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078859/role-of-vitacamphore-in-improving-central-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-following-transient-global-ischemia
#8
J Lin, L Pang, X L Liu, J Xing
Pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) are responsive to ischemic stress. This process thereby modulates the responsiveness of many cell types under diseased conditions. The current study was to examine the role played by vitacamphore (VCP) in regulating the levels of PICs and protein expression of PIC receptors in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of rats after cardiac arrest (CA)-induced transient global ischemia. CA was induced by asphyxia followed by cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in rats...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077279/homology-analysis-detects-topological-changes-of-iba1-localization-accompanied-by-microglial-activation
#9
Toshinori Sawano, Ryo Tsuchihashi, Eiichi Morii, Fumiya Watanabe, Kazuaki Nakane, Shinobu Inagaki
The state of microglial activation provides important information about the central nervous system. However, a reliable index of microglial activation in histological samples has yet to be established. Here, we show that microglial activation induces topological changes of Iba1 localization that can be detected by analysis based on homology theory. Analysis of homology was applied to images of Iba1-stained tissue sections, and the 0-dimentional Betti number (b0: the number of solid components) and the 1-dimentional Betti number (b1: the number of windows surrounded by solid components) were obtained...
January 7, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074323/changes-in-cerebral-metabolism-during-ketogenic-diet-in-patients-with-primary-brain-tumors-1-h-mrs-study
#10
Moran Artzi, Gilad Liberman, Nachum Vaisman, Felix Bokstein, Faina Vitinshtein, Orna Aizenstein, Dafna Ben Bashat
Normal brain cells depend on glucose metabolism, yet they have the flexibility to switch to the usage of ketone bodies during caloric restriction. In contrast, tumor cells lack genomic and metabolic flexibility and are largely dependent on glucose. Ketogenic-diet (KD) was suggested as a therapeutic option for malignant brain cancer. This study aimed to detect metabolic brain changes in patients with malignant brain gliomas on KD using proton magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). Fifty MR scans were performed longitudinally in nine patients: four patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GB) treated with KD in addition to bevacizumab; one patient with gliomatosis-cerebri treated with KD only; and four patients with recurrent GB who did not receive KD...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072724/fatal-antiphospholipid-syndrome-following-endoscopic-transnasal-transsphenoidal-surgery-for-a-pituitary-tumor-a-case-report
#11
Chiao-Zhu Li, Chiao-Ching Li, Chih-Chuan Hsieh, Meng-Chi Lin, Dueng-Yuan Hueng, Feng-Chen Liu, Yuan-Hao Chen
INTRODUCTION: The fatal type of antiphospholipid syndrome is a rare but life-threating condition. It may be triggered by surgery or infection. Endoscopic transnasal-transsphenoidal surgery is a common procedure for pituitary tumor. We report a catastrophic case of a young woman died of fatal antiphospholipid syndrome following endoscopic transnasal-transsphenoidal surgery. METHODS AND RESULT: A 31-year-old woman of a history of stroke received endoscopic transnasal-transsphenoidal surgery for a pituitary tumor...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070049/-common-factors-for-ischemic-cerebral-stroke-in-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-in-patients-with-concomitant-carotid-and-coronary-artery-severe-stenosis
#12
Lei Huang, Feng Kuang, Zhonggui Shan, Yiquan Lai, Hongwei Guo
To analyze two common factors for perioperative ischemic stroke in patients with concomitant carotid and coronary artery severe stenosis and to improve the therapeutic effect.
 Methods: A total of 44 patients with multi-vessel coronary artery disease combined with carotid stenosis, who admitted to the Department of Cardiac Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University from 2008 to 2014, were enrolled in this study. Among them, 32 cases were male, 12 cases was female. All patients received coronary artery bypass grafting after treatment of neck diseases...
December 28, 2016: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066899/a-role-for-the-histone-h2a-deubiquitinase-mysm1-in-maintenance-of-cd8-t-cells
#13
Michael Förster, Rupinder K Boora, Jessica C Petrov, Nassima Fodil, Isabella Albanese, Jamie Kim, Philippe Gros, Anastasia Nijnik
Several previous studies outlined the importance of the histone H2A deubiquitinase (H2A-DUB) MYSM1 in the regulation of stem cell quiescence and hematopoiesis. In this study we investigated the role of MYSM1 in T cell development. Using mouse models that allow conditional Mysm1 ablation at late stages of thymic development, we found that MYSM1 is intricately involved in the maintenance, activation, and survival of CD8+ T cells. Mysm1 ablation resulted in a 2-fold reduction in CD8+ T cell numbers, and also led to a hyperactivated CD8+ T cell state accompanied by impaired proliferation and increased proinflammatory cytokine production after ex vivo stimulation...
January 9, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066810/dynamic-susceptibility-contrast-mri-quantification-software-tool-development-and-evaluation
#14
Panagiotis Korfiatis, Timothy L Kline, Zachary S Kelm, Rickey E Carter, Leland S Hu, Bradley J Erickson
Relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) is a magnetic resonance imaging biomarker that is used to differentiate progression from pseudoprogression in patients with glioblastoma multiforme, the most common primary brain tumor. However, calculated rCBV depends considerably on the software used. Automating all steps required for rCBV calculation is important, as user interaction can lead to increased variability and possible inaccuracies in clinical decision-making. Here, we present an automated tool for computing rCBV from dynamic susceptibility contrast-magnetic resonance imaging that includes leakage correction...
December 2016: Tomography: a Journal for Imaging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061768/a-matched-pair-study-comparing-whole-brain-irradiation-alone-to-radiosurgery-or-fractionated-stereotactic-radiotherapy-alone-in-patients-irradiated-for-up-to-three-brain-metastases
#15
Dirk Rades, Stefan Janssen, Liesa Dziggel, Oliver Blanck, Amira Bajrovic, Theo Veninga, Steven E Schild
BACKGROUND: This matched-pair study was initiated to validate the results of a retrospective study of 186 patients published in 2007 that compared whole-brain irradiation (WBI) alone and radiosurgery (RS) alone for up to three brain metastases. METHODS: One-hundred-fifty-two patients receiving WBI alone for up to three brain metastases were matched with 152 patients treated with RS of fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) alone 1:1 for each of eight factors (age, gender, Eastern Oncology Cooperative Group (ECOG)-performance score, nature of tumor, brain metastases number, extra-cerebral spread, period from cancer detection to irradiation of brain metastases, and recursive partitioning analysis (RPA)-class...
January 6, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061500/collision-tumor-composed-of-meningioma-and-cavernoma
#16
Jens Weigel, Markus Neher, Michael Schrey, Peter H Wünsch, Hans-Herbert Steiner
A true collision tumor is a rare entity composed of two histologically distinct neoplasms coinciding in the same organ. This paper reports a unique case of cerebral collision tumor consisting of two benign components. On the first hand, meningioma which is usually a benign lesion arising from the meningothelial cell in the arachnoidal membrane. On the other, cerebral cavernoma which is a well-circumscribed, benign vascular hamartoma within the brain. To our knowledge, there is no previously documented case of cerebral collision tumor consisting of two benign components...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059664/navigated-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-for-glioma-removal-prognostic-value-in-motor-function-recovery-from-postsurgical-neurological-deficits
#17
Tomokazu Takakura, Yoshihiro Muragaki, Manabu Tamura, Takashi Maruyama, Masayuki Nitta, Chiharu Niki, Takakazu Kawamata
OBJECTIVE The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) as a prognostic predictor for upper-extremity motor functional recovery from postsurgical neurological deficits. METHODS Preoperative and postoperative nTMS studies were prospectively applied in 14 patients (mean age 39 ± 12 years) who had intraparenchymal brain neoplasms located within or adjacent to the motor eloquent area in the cerebral hemisphere. Mapping by nTMS was done 3 times, i...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059629/extra-axial-ependymoma-of-the-cerebral-convexity-a-very-rare-intracranial-adult-tumor
#18
Soufiane Berhili, Abdellah Aissa, Selma Kadiri, Nadia Cherradi, Sanae El Majjaoui, Hanan El Kacemi, Tayeb Kebdani, Noureddine Benjaafar
Background Ependymomas are rare adult tumors that originate from the ventricular system or the ependymal surface of the central canal. Extra-axial supratentorial ependymomas are extremely rare, and only five cases have been reported to date in the English literature. Case presentation A 46-year-old previously healthy male presented with a gradual painless loss of vision in the right eye. Cerebral MRI showed a right parietal-occipital lesion resembling an atypical meningioma. Surgical resection was performed, and immunohistochemical staining results concluded that it was a very uncommon location of a grade 3 ependymoma...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054940/neuroprotective-effects-of-aged-garlic-extract-on-cognitive-dysfunction-and-neuroinflammation-induced-by-%C3%AE-amyloid-in-rats
#19
Nutchareeporn Nillert, Wanassanun Pannangrong, Jariya Umka Welbat, Wunnee Chaijaroonkhanarak, Kittisak Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn Sripanidkulchai
Neuroinflammation is pathological evidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that likely starts as a host defense response to the damaging effects of the β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits in the brain. The activation of microglia may promote the neurodegenerative process through the release of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), which may lead to neuronal damage and eventual death. Aged garlic extract (AGE) has been reported to have multiple biological activities, including anti-inflammatory effects...
January 3, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054416/anomalous-diffusion-in-cerebral-glioma-assessed-using-a-fractional-motion-model
#20
Boyan Xu, Lu Su, Zhenxiong Wang, Yang Fan, Gaolang Gong, Wenzhen Zhu, Peiyi Gao, Jia-Hong Gao
PURPOSE: To demonstrate the capability of the fractional motion (FM) model for describing anomalous diffusion in cerebral gliomas and to assess the potential feasibility of FM for grading these tumors. METHODS: Diffusion MRI images were acquired from brain tumor patients using a special Stejskal-Tanner diffusion sequence with variable diffusion gradient amplitudes and separation times. Patients with histopathologically confirmed gliomas, including astrocytic and oligoastrocytic tumors, were selected...
January 5, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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