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Cerebral tumor

Ahsan Habib, Huayan Hou, Takashi Mori, Jun Tian, Jin Zeng, Shengnuo Fan, Brian Giunta, Paul R Sanberg, Darrell Sawmiller, Jun Tan
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related disorder that affects cognition. Our previous studies showed that the neuroprotective fragment of amyloid procurer protein (APP) metabolite, soluble APPα (sAPPα), interferes with β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1, β-secretase) cleavage and reduces amyloid-β (Aβ) generation. In an attempt to identify approaches to restore sAPPα levels, we found that human cord blood serum (CBS) significantly promotes sAPPα production compared with adult blood serum (ABS) and aged blood serum (AgBS) in Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing wild-type human APP...
January 1, 2018: Cell Transplantation
Marcel A Kamp, Maxine Dibué-Adjei, Jan F Cornelius, Philipp J Slotty, Hans-Jakob Steiger, Sebastian A Ahmadi, Marion Rapp, Michael Sabel
The oncological impact of cytoreductive surgery for malignant glioma has been analyzed in a few prospective, randomized studies; however, the impact of different cytoreductive surgical techniques of cerebral tumors remains controversial. Despite retrospective analyses revealing an oncological impact of complete surgical resection in cerebral metastases and low-grade glioma, the oncological impact of further extension of resection to a supramarginal resection remains disputable lacking high-grade evidence: supramarginal resections have yet to be analyzed in malignant glioma...
March 20, 2018: Neurosurgical Review
Hisashi Takeuchi, Naoto Tokuyama, Isao Kuroda, Teiichiro Aoyagi
Molecular targeted therapies have markedly improved the prognosis of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and patients are able to receive specific treatments depending on their condition. The cases of two patients who presented with large RCC with very different statuses were examined in the current study. One of the patients was elderly with numerous comorbidities, and the other was young and had Case 1 was an elderly female with various comorbidities including a history of cerebral infarction and impaired eyesight...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Sarah E Sartain, Nancy A Turner, Joel L Moake
Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) and bone marrow transplantation-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TA-TMA) are associated with excessive activation of the alternative complement pathway (AP) and with severe renal - and rarely, cerebral - microvascular damage. Here, we compared AP activation and regulation in human glomerular and brain microvascular endothelial cells (GMVECs and BMVECs, respectively) unstimulated or stimulated by the proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Compared with GMVECs and under both experimental conditions, BMVECs had increased gene expression of the AP-related genes C3 , CFB , and C5 , and decreased expression of CFD This was associated with increased expression in BMVECs (relative to GMVECs) of the genes for surface and soluble regulatory molecules ( CD46 , THBD , CD55 , CFI , and CFH ) suppressing formation of the AP C3 and C5 convertases...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Kaori Wakabayashi, Takahiko Umahara, Katsuiku Hirokawa, Haruo Hanyu, Toshiki Uchihara
α-Synuclein shares structural homology with 14-3-3 proteins. Seven 14-3-3 protein isoforms have been identified in mammals. Among them, the 14-3-3 sigma isoform was initially considered absent in the mammalian brain. However, we previously identified immunohistochemical association of 14-3-3 sigma with Pick bodies. Because 14-3-3 isoforms other than sigma isoform have been identified in Lewy bodies, we were prompted to look for this 14-3-3 sigma-like immunoreactivity (IR) in Lewy bodies in the brainstem, cerebral cortex, and Lewy neurites in seven patients with Lewy body disease...
March 16, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Frantisek Nehaj, Juraj Sokol, Michal Mokan, Veronika Jankovicova, Frantisek Kovar, Marianna Kubaskova, Stanislav Mizera, Marian Mokan
The patient database at the First Department of Internal Medicine in Martin, the Central Slovak Institute for Cardiac and Vascular Diseases in Banska Bystrica, and the National Slovak Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases in Bratislava was searched to identify patients with benign tumors of the heart seen during the 5-year period between 2011 and 2016. Forty-one patients with primary cardiac myxomas were identified and their medical records were reviewed for details pertaining to presenting symptoms, staging modalities, treatment approaches, and outcomes...
2018: BioMed Research International
Yukari Yoshida, Yukihiko Sejimo, Masashi Kurachi, Yasuki Ishizaki, Takashi Nakano, Akihisa Takahashi
X-ray irradiation (X-irradiation) induces disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). However, the mechanisms underlying the permeability changes are unclear. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the cellular and molecular changes produced by X-irradiation of the brain. Male ICR mice were irradiated locally on their head, posterior to the bregma, except for the eyes, with a single dose of 60 Gy. BBB permeability was assessed using Evans blue dye. We also examined vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, microglial morphology, and the expression of the tight junction protein claudin-5 from 0...
March 12, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Bárbara da Silva, Ryan K Mathew, Euan S Polson, Jennifer Williams, Heiko Wurdak
Organoid methodology provides a platform for the ex vivo investigation of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying brain development and disease. The high-grade brain tumor glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is considered a cancer of unmet clinical need, in part due to GBM cell infiltration into healthy brain parenchyma, making complete surgical resection improbable. Modeling the process of GBM invasion in real time is challenging as it requires both tumor and neural tissue compartments. Here, we demonstrate that human GBM spheroids possess the ability to spontaneously infiltrate early-stage cerebral organoids (eCOs)...
March 1, 2018: SLAS Discovery
Istvan Bodi, Anastasios Giamouriadis, Naomi Sibtain, Ross Laxton, Andrew King, Francesco Vergani
Background: Primary CNS malignant rhabdoid tumors are very rare in adults and much less is known about their biological behavior than in children. Recently, two adult cases of SMARCB1 (also known as INI1)-deficient tumor with rhabdoid cells have been described, suggesting an emerging group of primary meningeal SMARCB1-deficient tumors. We have recently encountered a case of INI1-deficient tumor with similar histology and immunophenotype to the above cases, but with a superficial cerebral, yet apparent intra-axial origin...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Huisheng Wu, Chaoliang Tang, Lydia Wai Tai, Weifeng Yao, Peipei Guo, Junmou Hong, Xin Yang, Xinyi Li, Zhao Jin, Jianjuan Ke, Yanlin Wang
Background & Aims:  Ischemic stroke has been ranked the second cause of death in patients worldwide.Inflammation which is activated during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion is an important mechanism leading to brain injury. This study aimed to investigate the effect of flurbiprofen axetil on cerebral I/R injury and the role of inflammation in this process. Methods:  Rats were subjected to sham operation or global cerebral I/R with or without flurbiprofen axetil (5 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg). Global cerebral ischemia was achieved by occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries combined with hypotension for 20 min followed by reperfusion for 72 h...
March 14, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Mei Jiang, Xinghui Liu, Denghai Zhang, Ying Wang, Xiaoxia Hu, Fengxia Xu, Mingming Jin, Fanfan Cao, Limin Xu
BACKGROUND: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is the most common type of cerebrovascular disease and is a leading cause of disability and death worldwide. Recently, a study suggested that transformation of microglia from the pro-inflammatory M1 state to the anti-inflammatory and tissue-reparative M2 phenotype may be an effective therapeutic strategy for ischemic stroke. Celastrol, a traditional oriental medicine, may have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Richard Rammo, Karam Asmaro, Lonni Schultz, Lisa Scarpace, Salim Siddiqui, Tobias Walbert, Steven Kalkanis, Ian Lee
Cerebral radiation necrosis (CRN) is a known complication of radiation therapy. Treatment options are limited and include steroids, bevacizumab, and surgery. This study seeks to determine the safety of laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) for CRN and identify the pattern of post-ablation volume change over time. Patients undergoing LITT for tumor treatment at Henry Ford Hospital between November 2013 and January 2016 with biopsy-confirmed CRN were prospectively collected and retrospectively reviewed with attention to ablation volume, survival, demographic data, steroid dose, and complications...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
L Wessels, N Hecht, P Vajkoczy
Since the introduction of cerebral bypass surgery by Professor Yasargil in 1967, a plethora of literature has been published on direct cerebral revascularization. Against this background, it is remarkable that at present, only three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) exist in the field, both dealing with extracranial to intracranial bypass surgery for flow augmentation in patients at risk to suffer ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke due to cerebrovascular disease. Next to flow augmentation, the other main indication for bypass surgery is to provide flow replacement following proximal vessel sacrifice for treatment of complex aneurysms or skull base tumors...
March 13, 2018: Neurosurgical Review
Ali Harati, Rolf Schultheiß, Stefan Rohde, Thomas Deitmer
BACKGROUND: Jugulotympanic paraganglioma (JTP) are benign, high-vascularized lesions that frequently invade the jugular foramen, temporal bone, the upper neck, and the posterior fossa cavity, resulting in a wide variety of clinical symptoms. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we assess the clinical symptoms and discuss the individual multidisciplinary treatment and outcome of 22 patients with JTP. RESULTS: In 12 patients, a hearing deficit was the presenting symptom, whereas pulsatile tinnitus and otalgia were present in six and four patients respectively...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Jian Zheng, Chun Wang, Fengqiang Liu
Intraparenchymal epidermoid cysts (IECs) are rare lesions, thus the preoperative diagnosis and proper surgical management are still a challenge. We searched the database at our institution and performed a search of English literature in PubMed and Google Scholar. Keywords used were as follows: "intraparenchymal"; "intracerebral"; "intraaxial"; "epidermoid cyst"; "brainstem"; "cholesteatoma"; "pearly tumor". Only cases that were true intraparenchymally located and contained adequate clinical information were included...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Taichi Ishiguro, Masayuki Nitta, Takashi Komori, Takashi Maruyama, Yoshihiro Muragaki, Takakazu Kawamata
BACKGROUND: Transient focal MRI abnormalities after status epilepticus (SE) are rarely seen in patients with benign brain tumors, and the underlying mechanism is still unknown. We report a rare case of cerebral cavernous malformation with transient focal MRI abnormalities around the tumor and accumulation of 11C-methionine on PET after SE. These findings mimicked those of a glioma because the MRI and methionine PET findings were similar. We also speculate about the cause of this phenomenon in relation to pathological findings of this case...
March 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Katsuya Komatsu, Masahiko Wanibuchi, Takeshi Mikami, Yukinori Akiyama, Satoshi Iihoshi, Kei Miyata, Toshiya Sugino, Kengo Suzuki, Aya Kanno, Shouhei Noshiro, Shunya Ohtaki, Nobuhiro Mikuni
BACKGROUND: Preoperative evaluation of malignancy in gliomas is important for surgical planning, particularly to determine if a 1,3-bis-2-chloroethyl-1-nitrosourea wafer should be placed into the tumor cavity. In some cases, the intraoperative pathological diagnosis of World Health Organization grade differs from the final diagnosis. Supplemental methods in addition to the routine contrast tomography or magnetic resonance imaging sequences may provide a more accurate preoperative diagnosis...
March 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Ornella Franzese, Fiorenzo Battaini, Grazia Graziani, Lucio Tentori, Maria Luisa Barbaccia, Angelo Aquino, Mario Roselli, Maria Pia Fuggetta, Enzo Bonmassar, Francesco Torino
In recent years, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICpI) have provided the ground to bring tumor immunity back to life thanks to their capacity to afford a real clinical benefit in terms of patient's survival. Essential to ICpI success is the presence of tumor-associated neoantigens generated by non-synonymous mutations, since a direct relationship between mutation load of malignant cells and susceptibility to ICpI has been confidently established. However, it has been also suggested that high intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) associated with subclonal neoantigens could not elicit adequate immune responses...
March 9, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Chrysoula Vraka, Monika Dumanic, Teresa Racz, Florian Pichler, Cecile Philippe, Theresa Balber, Eva-Maria Klebermass, Karl-Heinz Wagner, Marcus Hacker, Wolfgang Wadsak, Markus Mitterhauser
In drug development, biomarkers for cerebral applications have a lower success rate compared to cardiovascular drugs or tumor therapeutics. One reason is the missing blood brain barrier penetration, caused by the tracer's interaction with efflux transporters such as the P-gp (MDR1 or ABCB1). Aim of this study was the development of a reliable model to measure the interaction of radiotracers with the human efflux transporter P-gp in parallel to the radiolabeling process. LigandTracer® Technology was used with the wildtype cell line MDCKII and the equivalent cell line overexpressing human P-gp (MDCKII-hMDR1)...
February 14, 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
Baocheng Zhang, Mingqiang Gao, Jie Shen, Daikun He
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) could produce excess reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn induce neurological dysfunction and inflammation in cerebral tissues. This study was designed to study the effect of methane on cerebral I/R injury. METHODS: Fifty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used to induce an animal model of cerebral I/R injury. Methane was mixed with air to achieve a final concentration of 2.2%. Rats started to inhale methane-air mixture after ischemia and continued it during the reperfusion...
August 2017: Archives of Medical Research
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