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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151264/renal-protection-strategies-after-heart-transplantation
#1
REVIEW
Daniel Reichart, Hermann Reichenspurner, Markus Johannes Barten
Renal dysfunction caused by calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) nephrotoxicity occurs often and contributes significantly to late mortality after heart transplantation (HTx). Over the last decades, this has prompted many clinical studies in an effort to develop kidney-protecting immunosuppressive strategies including delayed CNI start, minimization, withdrawal or even de-novo CNI avoidance. In the past, these strategies often failed due to the lack of efficacy. Since 2009, novel CNI-reducing strategies are under investigation...
November 19, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150086/the-ex-vivo-toll-like-receptor-7-tolerance-induction-in-donor-lymphocytes-prevents-murine-acute-graft-versus-host-disease
#2
Nikolaos Zogas, Garyfalia Karponi, Fotios Iordanidis, Stylianos Malasidis, Vasilios Paraskevas, Anastasia Papadopoulou, Zaharias George Scouras, Achilles Anagnostopoulos, Evangelia Yannaki
BACKGROUND AIMS: Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, mediated by alloreactive donor T cells. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), a family of conserved pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), represent key players in donors' T-cell activation during aGVHD; however, a regulatory, tolerogenic role for certain TLRs has been recognized in a different context. We investigated whether the ex vivo-induced TLR-2,-4,-7 tolerance in donor cells could prevent alloreactivity in a mismatched transplantation model...
November 14, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141886/pd-l1-genetic-overexpression-or-pharmacological-restoration-in-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells-reverses-autoimmune-diabetes
#3
Moufida Ben Nasr, Sara Tezza, Francesca D'Addio, Chiara Mameli, Vera Usuelli, Anna Maestroni, Domenico Corradi, Silvana Belletti, Luca Albarello, Gabriella Becchi, Gian Paolo Fadini, Christian Schuetz, James Markmann, Clive Wasserfall, Leonard Zon, Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti, Paolo Fiorina
Immunologically based clinical trials performed thus far have failed to cure type 1 diabetes (T1D), in part because these approaches were nonspecific. Because the disease is driven by autoreactive CD4 T cells, which destroy β cells, transplantation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) has been recently offered as a therapy for T1D. Our transcriptomic profiling of HSPCs revealed that these cells are deficient in programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), an important immune checkpoint, in the T1D nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model...
November 15, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141069/a-novel-multi-targeting-approach-to-treating-hair-loss-using-standardized-nutraceuticals
#4
Patricia K Farris, Nicole Rogers, Amy McMichael, Sophia Kogan
<p>Hair loss is a complicated problem that causes significant concern for those who are affected. Patients seeking medical treatment have limited options that include topical minoxidil and oral finasteride. While these treatments are backed by long term clinical use and research outcomes, many patients find topical minoxidil difficult to incorporate into their daily routine and some are concerned with the side effects associated with finasteride. In the office setting, patients may be treated with more invasive procedures such as platelet-rich plasma injections (PRP) and hair transplantation, treatments that often must be repeated and can lead to a costly investment...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140547/islet-transplantation-as-safe-and-efficacious-method-to-restore-glycemic-control-and-to-avoid-severe-hypoglycemia-after-donor-organ-failure-in-pancreas-transplantation
#5
Philipp A Gerber, Michel Hochuli, Bara D Benediktsdottir, Richard A Zuellig, Oliver Tschopp, Michael Glenck, Olivier de Rougemont, Christian Oberkofler, Giatgen A Spinas, Roger Lehmann
The aim of this study was to assess safety and efficacy of islet transplantation after initial pancreas transplantation with subsequent organ failure. Patients undergoing islet transplantation at our institution after pancreas organ failure were compared to a control group of patients with pancreas graft failure, but without islet transplantation and to a group receiving pancreas re-transplantation. 10 patients underwent islet transplantation after initial pancreas transplantation failed and were followed for a median of 51 months...
November 15, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139625/late-graft-failure-after-kidney-transplantation-as-the-consequence-of-late-versus-early-events
#6
Robert S Gaston, Ann Fieberg, Lawrence Hunsicker, Bertram L Kasiske, Robert Leduc, Fernando G Cosio, Sita Gourishankar, Joseph Grande, Roslyn B Mannon, David Rush, Michael J Cecka, John Connett, Arthur J Matas
Beyond the first posttransplant year, 3% of kidney transplants fail annually. In a prospective, multicenter cohort study, we tested the relative impact of early versus late events on risk of long-term death-censored graft failure (DCGF). In grafts surviving at least 90 days, early events (acute rejection [AR] and delayed graft function [DGF] before day 90) were recorded; serum creatinine (Cr) at day 90 was defined as baseline. Thereafter, a 25% rise in serum Cr or new onset proteinuria triggered graft biopsy (index biopsy, IBx), allowing comparison of risk of DCGF associated with early events (AR, DGF, baseline serum Cr >2...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138892/-partial-and-complete-joint-transplantation-with-fresh-osteochondral-allografts-the-flocsat-concept
#7
REVIEW
C Krettek, J-D Clausen, N Bruns, C Neunaber
Cartilage defects in adult patients do not heal well. Fresh osteochondral allograft (OCA) transplantation is based on mature, living, mechanically sound hyaline cartilage attached to a bone interface, which is brought into an osteochondral defect, where it becomes osseointegrated. According to current knowledge, intact hyaline cartilage tissue is immune privileged and does not, in contrast to bone, meniscus or ligaments, cause an immune reaction. The technique has the unique advantage of transplanting viable, mature and mechanically stable hyaline cartilage into the affected area...
November 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137478/effects-of-increased-myocardial-tissue-concentration-of-myristic-palmitic-and-palmitoleic-acids-on-the-course-of-cardiac-atrophy-of-the-failing-heart-unloaded-by-heterotopic-transplantation
#8
M Pokorný, I Mrázová, J Malý, J Pirk, I Netuka, Z Vaňourková, Š DoleŽelová, L Červenková, H Maxová, V Melenovský, J Šochman, J Sadowski, L Červenka
The present experiments were performed to evaluate if increased heart tissue concentration of fatty acids, specifically myristic, palmitic and palmitoleic acids that are believed to promote physiological heart growth, can attenuate the progression of unloading-induced cardiac atrophy in rats with healthy and failing hearts. Heterotopic abdominal heart transplantation (HT(x)) was used as a model for heart unloading. Cardiac atrophy was assessed from the ratio of the native- to-transplanted heart weight (HW)...
November 10, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137234/the-af4-mll-fusion-transiently-augments-multilineage-hematopoietic-engraftment-but-is-not-sufficient-to-initiate-leukemia-in-cord-blood-cd34-cells
#9
Cristina Prieto, Rolf Marschalek, Alessa Kühn, Adelheid Bursen, Clara Bueno, Pablo Menéndez
The translocation t(4;11)(q21;q23) is the hallmark genetic abnormality associated with infant pro-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) and has the highest frequency of rearrangement in Mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) leukemias. Unlike other MLL translocations, MLL-AF4-induced proB-ALL is exceptionally difficult to model in mice/humans. Previous work has investigated the relevance of the reciprocal translocation fusion protein AF4-MLL for t(4;11) leukemia, finding that AF4-MLL is capable of inducing proB-ALL without requirement for MLL-AF4 when expressed in murine hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs)...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135993/bioequivalence-between-innovator-and-generic-tacrolimus-in-liver-and-kidney-transplant-recipients-a-randomized-crossover-clinical-trial
#10
Rita R Alloway, Alexander A Vinks, Tsuyoshi Fukuda, Tomoyuki Mizuno, Eileen C King, Yuanshu Zou, Wenlei Jiang, E Steve Woodle, Simon Tremblay, Jelena Klawitter, Jost Klawitter, Uwe Christians
BACKGROUND: Although the generic drug approval process has a long-term successful track record, concerns remain for approval of narrow therapeutic index generic immunosuppressants, such as tacrolimus, in transplant recipients. Several professional transplant societies and publications have generated skepticism of the generic approval process. Three major areas of concern are that the pharmacokinetic properties of generic products and the innovator (that is, "brand") product in healthy volunteers may not reflect those in transplant recipients, bioequivalence between generic and innovator may not ensure bioequivalence between generics, and high-risk patients may have specific bioequivalence concerns...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132746/diabetes-mellitus-as-a-poor-mobilizer-condition
#11
REVIEW
Gian Paolo Fadini, John F DiPersio
Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation in an effective and curative therapy for numerous hematological malignancies. Mobilization of HSCs from bone marrow (BM) to peripheral blood (PB) followed by apheresis is the gold standard for obtaining HSCs for both autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplantation. After administration of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), up to 30% of patients fail to mobilize "optimal" numbers of HSCs required for engraftment. This review summarizes the current experimental and clinical evidence that diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for poor mobilization...
November 8, 2017: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131092/value-of-intraoperative-parathyroid-hormone-assay-during-parathyroidectomy-in-dialysis-and-renal-transplant-patients-with-secondary-and-tertiary-hyperparathyroidism
#12
Amr El-Husseini, Kevin Wang, Annick Edon, David Saxon, Florence Lima, David Sloan, B Peter Sawaya
BACKGROUND: In dialysis and renal transplant patients with secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism (HPT), the value of intraoperative parathyroid hormone (ioPTH) during parathyroidectomy (PTX) and its association with long-term PTH levels are unknown. The present study aims at evaluating the relationship of ioPTH with long-term PTH levels post-PTX in dialysis and renal transplant patients in a single-center study. METHODS: The ioPTH was measured in 57 dialysis patients (33 females and 24 males) and 18 renal transplant recipients (12 males and 6 females) who underwent PTX from 2005 to 2015 for refractory HPT...
November 9, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128933/proven-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-in-stem-cell-transplant-recipient-due-to-aspergillus-sublatus-a-cryptic-species-of-a-nidulans
#13
Vanda Chrenkova, Vit Hubka, Petr Cetkovsky, Michal Kouba, Barbora Weinbergerova, Pavlina Lyskova, Ludmila Hornofova, Petr Hubacek
Invasive fungal disease represents one of the severe complications in haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. We describe a case of a patient treated for relapse of chronic lymphoblastic leukaemia 6 years after HSCT. The patient was treated for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis but died 3 months later from multiple organ failures consisting of haemorrhagic necrotizing fungal pneumonia, refractory chronic hepatic graft versus host disease and cytomegalovirus hepatitis. Autopsy samples revealed histopathological evidence of fungal hyphae and an unusual Aspergillus nidulans-like species was isolated in pure culture...
November 11, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128574/conjunctivochalasis-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Anna Marmalidou, Ahmad Kheirkhah, Reza Dana
Conjunctivochalasis (CCH) is a conjunctival condition characterized by loose, redundant conjunctival folds, most typically in the inferior bulbar conjunctiva of both eyes. Although CCH is a common cause of ocular irritation and discomfort, especially in the elderly, it is often overlooked in clinical practice. Conjunctivochalasis may be associated with various ocular and non-ocular conditions; however, the most important risk factor is aging. Although often asymptomatic, CCH may cause symptoms related to tear film instability and/or delayed tear clearance...
November 8, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126914/targeting-immuno-metabolism-to-improve-anti-cancer-therapies
#15
Kevin Beezhold, Craig A Byersdorfer
The immunology community has made significant strides in recent years in using the immune system to target and eliminate cancer. Therapies such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are the standard of care treatment for several malignancies, while therapies incorporating chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells or checkpoint molecule blockade have been revolutionary. However, these approaches are not optimal for all cancers and in some cases, have failed outright. The greatest obstacle to making these therapies more effective may be rooted in one of the most basic concepts of cell biology, metabolism...
November 7, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125713/outbreak-of-invasive-aspergillosis-in-heart-transplant-recipients-the-role-of-screening-computed-tomography-scans-in-asymptomatic-patients-and-universal-antifungal-prophylaxis
#16
Dima Kabbani, Livia Goldraich, Heather Ross, Coleman Rotstein, Shahid Husain
BACKGROUND: Delays in diagnosing invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IA), a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among heart transplant recipients (HTRs), may impact on successful treatment. The appropriate screening strategy for IA in these patients remains undefined, particularly in the setting of nosocomial outbreaks. We describe our experience employing chest computed tomography (CT) scans as a screening method for IA. In addition, we comment on antimicrobial prophylaxis in HTRs in the setting of an outbreak...
November 10, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121538/therapeutic-options-for-leukemic-transformation-in-patients-with-myeloproliferative-neoplasms
#17
REVIEW
Maliha Khan, Rabbia Siddiqi, Naseema Gangat
Approximately 5-10% of patients with Philadelphia chromosome negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) comprising of essential thrombocythemia, polycythemia vera and primary myelofibrosis) experience transformation to acute myeloid leukemia (AML, ≥20% blasts). Treatment options for post-MPN AML patients are limited, as conventional approaches like standard chemotherapy, fail to offer long-term benefit. Median survival for secondary AML is ∼2.4 months. Post-MPN AML therefore represents an area of urgent clinical need...
October 27, 2017: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121094/pleckstrin-homology-like-domain-family-a-member-3-phlda3-deficiency-improves-islets-engraftment-through-the-suppression-of-hypoxic-damage
#18
Naoaki Sakata, Yohko Yamaguchi, Yu Chen, Masayuki Shimoda, Gumpei Yoshimatsu, Michiaki Unno, Shoichiro Sumi, Rieko Ohki
Islet transplantation is a useful cell replacement therapy that can restore the glycometabolic function of severe diabetic patients. It is known that many transplanted islets failed to engraft, and thus, new approaches for overcoming graft loss that may improve the outcome of future clinical islet transplantations are necessary. Pleckstrin homology-like domain family A, member 3 (PHLDA3) is a known suppressor of neuroendocrine tumorigenicity, yet deficiency of this gene increases islet proliferation, prevents islet apoptosis, and improves their insulin-releasing function without causing tumors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120568/common-bile-duct-stricture-after-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy-case-report
#19
Ivan Zoričić, Ivo Soldo, Ivan Simović, Marko Sever, Branko Bakula, Martin Grbavac, Marinko Marušić, Anamaria Soldo
Despite progress in laparoscopic surgery and increasing surgical experience, the incidence of bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy fails to fall below 0.3%-0.6% and it is still higher than those recorded in the era of open cholecystectomy. Bile duct injuries belong to the most serious complications of abdominal surgery in general and often end up with liver transplantation as the only hope for cure. We present a case of a 78-year-old jaundiced male patient who sustained common hepatic duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy eight months earlier...
March 2017: Acta Clinica Croatica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116018/tissue-specific-role-of-rhbdf2-in-cutaneous-wound-healing-and-hyperproliferative-skin-disease
#20
Vishnu Hosur, Bonnie L Lyons, Lisa M Burzenski, Leonard D Shultz
OBJECTIVE: Gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in RHBDF2 cause tylosis. Patients present with hyperproliferative skin, and keratinocytes from tylosis patients' skin show an enhanced wound-healing phenotype. The curly bare mouse model of tylosis, carrying a GOF mutation in the Rhbdf2 gene (Rhbdf2 (cub) ), presents with epidermal hyperplasia and shows accelerated cutaneous wound-healing phenotype through enhanced secretion of the epidermal growth factor receptor family ligand amphiregulin...
November 7, 2017: BMC Research Notes
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