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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050446/management-of-mycoses-in-daily-practice
#1
Lorenzo Drago, Giuseppe Micali, Manuela Papini, Bianca M Piraccini, Stefano Veraldi
The guideline recommendations, albeit founded on thorough reviews of clinically relevant literature data, are often not immediately adaptable to everyday life. Considering the marked heterogeneity of superficial mycoses, each of them requires specific management in a real life context; in all cases diagnostic confirmation is required with microscopic and culture examination. In tinea capitis oral therapy is necessary (minimum six weeks) and should be continued until clinical and, above all, mycological healing...
December 2017: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050442/correlated-responses-to-long-term-divergent-selection-for-8-week-body-weight-in-female-white-plymouth-rock-chickens-sexual-maturity
#2
M Jambui, C F Honaker, P B Siegel
Reported here are correlated responses for reproductive traits to long-term divergent selection (54 generations) for 8-week body weight (BW8). Comparisons involved both selected and relaxed lines. Traits measured were age at first egg (AFE), body weight at first egg (WFE), and ratio of body weight and age at first egg (WAFE). Although sexual maturity was delayed in the selected lines, the effect was more pronounced in the low than high selected and relaxed lines. Selection for low BW resulted in decreases in WFE and WAFE...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050441/the-physiological-response-of-broiler-chickens-to-the-dietary-supplementation-of-the-bacteriocin-nisin-and-ionophore-coccidiostats
#3
B Kieronczyk, M Sassek, E Pruszynska-Oszmalek, P Kolodziejski, M Rawski, S Swiatkiewicz, D Józefiak
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with nisin alone or in combination with salinomycin or monensin on broiler chickens in terms of growth performance, selected blood parameters, digestive enzyme activity, apparent nutrient digestibility, and tibiotarsus mineralization, as well as selected gastrointestinal tract (GIT) organ weights, intestinal length, and central immune organ weights. Two independent experiments, each including 400 one-day-old female Ross 308 chicks differing in ionophore coccidiostats, i...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050437/development-and-validation-of-a-novel-snp-panel-for-the-genetic-characterization-of-italian-chicken-breeds-by-next-generation-sequencing-discovery-and-array-genotyping
#4
E Viale, E Zanetti, D Özdemir, C Broccanello, A Dalmasso, M De Marchi, M Cassandro
The aim of this study was to compare the intra and inter genetic variability and population structure of 7 indigenous chicken breeds of the Veneto region, through a novel panel of 64 SNP, each located in an exonic region and mostly on different chromosomes. A total of 753 blood samples from 7 local chicken breeds (Ermellinata di Rovigo, Millefiori di Lonigo, Polverara, Pepòi, Robusta Lionata, Robusta Maculata, and Padovana) was collected and analyzed. Two strains of Polverara (Nera and Bianca) and Padovana (Dorata and Camosciata) were included in the study...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050433/effect-of-the-addition-of-glycosaminoglycans-on-bone-and-cartilaginous-development-of-broiler-chickens
#5
Sarah Sgavioli, Elaine T Santos, Liliana L Borges, Giuliana M Andrade-Garcia, Diana M C Castiblanco, Vitor R Almeida, Rodrigo G Garcia, Antônio C Shimano, Irenilza A Nääs, Silvana M Baraldi-Artoni
Locomotion issues in broiler production may decrease performance (carcass yield and traits) and lead to high financial losses. This study evaluates the addition of glucosaminoglycans in broiler diets to minimize the lack of proper bone development and joint weakening. The experiment was conducted using 2,160 broilers randomly distributed in a factorial pattern (3 × 3) using 3 levels of glucosamine sulfate (0, 0.12, and 0.24%) and 3 levels of chondroitin sulfate addition (0, 0.08, and 0.16%). Eight repetitions were used for each treatment, distributed in 72 pens with 30 broilers each...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050432/dietary-sugarcane-bagasse-and-coarse-particle-size-of-corn-are-beneficial-to-performance-and-gizzard-development-in-broilers-fed-normal-and-high-sodium-diets
#6
S K Kheravii, R A Swick, M Choct, Shu-Biao Wu
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of sugarcane bagasse (SB) and particle size on broiler performance, gizzard development, ileal microflora, litter quality, and bird welfare under a wet litter challenge model. A total of 672 one-day-old Ross 308 male broilers was allocated to 48 pens using a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with corn particle size-coarse 3,576 μm (CC) or fine 1,113 μm (FC) geometric mean diameter, SB - 0 or 2% and sodium (Na) - 0.16 or 0.40% with increased Na level to induce wet litter...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050431/a-study-on-the-sternum-growth-and-mineralization-kinetic-of-meat-duck-from-35-to-63-days-of-age
#7
H Y Zhang, H Liao, Q F Zeng, J P Wang, X M Ding, S P Bai, K Y Zhang
The sternum as an important part of the skeleton and not only provides a crucial attachment site for the pectoral muscles and protects internal organs such as the heart and lungs for meat duck, but may also be considered as the primary ventilator in the avian respiratory system. Therefore, this study focuses on the sternum growth and mineralization kinetics of ducks from 35 d to 63 d of age. A total of 72 one-d-old males and 72 females were chosen and fed with the same diet until the age of 9 weeks. The sternum and serum were harvested at 35 d, 42 d, 49 d, 56d, and 63 d of feeding...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050430/extraction-and-physicochemical-characterization-of-broiler-gallus-gallus-domesticus-skin-gelatin-compared-to-commercial-bovine-gelatin
#8
E Aykin-Dinçer, A Koç, M Erbas
Gelatin was extracted from broiler (Gallus gallus domesticus) skins and analyzed to compare its physicochemical properties with those of commercial bovine gelatin. The average yield of broiler skin gelatin was 6.5% on a wet weight basis. Broiler skin gelatin had more α1-and α2-chains than β-chain and contained high molecular weight (γ-chain) polymers. Glycine was the dominant amino acid in broiler skin gelatin (20.26%), followed by proline (Pro) (15.12%) then hydroxyproline (Hyp) (11.36%). Compared to commercial bovine gelatin, broiler skin gelatin had less total imino acids (Pro and Hyp) but a higher (33...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050429/isolation-and-genetic-characterization-of-a-novel-adeno-associated-virus-from-muscovy-ducks-in-china
#9
X N Su, J J Liu, Q F Zhou, X H Zhang, L C Zhao, Q M Xie, W G Chen, F Chen
Adeno-associated virus (AAV; genus Dependoparvovirus, family Parvoviridae) was first discovered in 1965 as a contaminant in adenovirus preparations. The AAVs are generally considered non-pathogenic, and they have the ability to attenuate the replication of other more pathogenic viruses, which makes them attractive as potential therapeutics or preventative measures. This study characterized a novel AAV isolated from Muscovy ducks in China. The novel virus (MHH-05-2015) was isolated after propagating a field isolate of the DAdV-3 virus (a type 3 duck adenovirus) in duck embryo fibroblasts...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050425/sodium-butyrate-improved-performance-while-modulating-the-cecal-microbiota-and-regulating-the-expression-of-intestinal-immune-related-genes-of-broiler-chickens
#10
C Bortoluzzi, A A Pedroso, J J Mallo, M Puyalto, W K Kim, T J Applegate
This study evaluated the effect of sodium butyrate (SB) on performance, expression of immune-related genes in the cecal tonsils, and cecal microbiota of broiler chickens when dietary energy and amino acids concentrations were reduced. Day-old male Ross 708 broiler chicks were fed dietary treatments in a 3 × 2 factorial design (8 pens per treatment) with 3 dietary formulations (control diet; reduction of 2.3% of amino acids and 60 kcal/kg; and reduction of 4.6% of amino acids and 120 kcal/kg) with or without the inclusion of 0...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050424/a-functional-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-in-the-tyrosinase-gene-promoter-affects-skin-color-and-transcription-activity-in-the-black-boned-chicken
#11
S Yu, J Liao, M Tang, Y Wang, X Wei, L Mao, C Zeng, G Wang
The tyrosinase (TYR) gene is the major melanogenesis-related gene for skin (fur) or plumage color in mammals and birds. Genetic variation in the promoter region of a gene may affect gene expression and phenotypes. This study compared the TYR promoter region between pooled DNA (n = 8) of chickens (Gallus gallus) with black and white skin using direct sequencing. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) c.-2228A>T was found to have the opposite allele distribution in the two groups. The results of genotyping in a larger population (n = 188) revealed that SNP c...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050421/performance-nutrient-utilization-and-energy-partitioning-in-broiler-chickens-offered-high-canola-meal-diets-supplemented-with-multicomponent-carbohydrase-and-mono-component-protease
#12
M Toghyani, S B Wu, R A Pérez-Maldonado, P A Iji, R A Swick
Two broiler chicken experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of canola meal (CM) replacing soybean meal (SBM) in diets supplemented with carbohydrase and protease on performance and partitioning of energy. First, a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was employed to evaluate: protein meals (CM vs. SBM), carbohydrase (none or 300 mg/kg), protease (none or 200 mg/kg), and their interactions. Each treatment was fed to 6 replicated pens of 16 male broilers (Ross 308) from d 10 to 35. In the second experiment, 32 broiler chicks were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement to investigate CM and carbohydrase effects on energy partitioning...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050419/successful-chilling-of-red-legged-partridge-alectoris-rufa-sperm-for-use-in-artificial-insemination
#13
J Santiago-Moreno, C Castaño, A Toledano-Díaz, M C Esteso, A López-Sebastián, S Villaverde-Morcillo, S G Dávila, M G Gil, E Blesbois
The fertilizing capacity of pure, fresh avian semen may disappear in just half an hour, hindering its successful use in artificial insemination (AI) projects. Longer storage requires the use of infra-physiological temperatures and of semen diluents that help preserve the spermatozoa but that do not interfere with their fertilizing capacity. This study examines the effect on sperm quality of storing red-legged partridge sperm for 3 h at 5°C with 2 different semen extenders: 1) a medium referred to as L&R-84, composed of sodium glutamate, glucose, magnesium acetate, potassium acetate, and polyvinylpyrrolidone, and 2) Lake 7...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050417/influence-of-swimming-time-in-alleviating-the-deleterious-effects-of-hot-summer-on-growing-muscovy-duck-performance
#14
Mohamed F A Farghly, Khalid M Mahrose, Zafar Ullah, Zaib Ur Rehman, Chan Ding
This experiment was conducted to observe the effects of varying swimming times (ST) of Muscovy ducks, raised in an open-sided house, in alleviating the deleterious effects of high temperature in hotter times of the day in the summer season on growth performance (body weight, average daily gain, feed consumption, and feed conversion ratio), carcass characteristics, body temperature, and some health aspects. We hypothesized that swimming times during the hottest periods of the day would show different performances...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050413/laying-hens-in-aviaries-with-different-litter-substrates-behavior-across-the-flock-cycle-and-feather-lipid-content
#15
D L M Campbell, A B A Ali, D M Karcher, J M Siegford
The tiered aviary for laying hens includes a floor litter area to promote foraging and dust bathing. Data are needed on hens' use of different litter substrates and effectiveness of substrates in removing excess feather lipids to ensure a suitable litter area. Bovans White hens were housed in commercial-style aviaries with access to one of 3 litter substrates (wood shavings, straw, or plastic turf mats-AstroTurf®, n = 4 aviary pens per substrate, 144 cage-reared hens populated per pen). Litter areas were videoed across 2 d each at 4 ages: immediately following first aviary opening (25 wk), then at 28, 50, and 68 weeks...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050412/adaptive-response-to-exercise-of-fast-growing-and-slow-growing-chicken-strains-blood-oxidative-status-and-non-enzymatic-antioxidant-defense
#16
S Mattioli, A Dal Bosco, S Ruggeri, M Martino, L Moscati, C Pesca, C Castellini
The adaptation of chickens to free-range rearing systems mainly involves the locomotory behavior, which is very different in fast-growing (FG) and slow-growing (SG) strains. This study aimed to compare the effect of moderate locomotory activity (induced and prolonged) on the blood oxidative status in a slow-growing chicken strain with that in a fast-growing one. Thirty FG (Ross 308) birds and 30 SG (Hubbard) birds were divided into 2 groups for each strain and subjected to different treatments: no exercise (the control group [C]) and 1 h of walking at 4 km/h (the exercise group [E])...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050409/the-effect-of-space-allowance-and-cage-size-on-laying-hens-housed-in-furnished-cages-part-ii-behavior-at-the-feeder
#17
T M Widowski, L J Caston, T M Casey-Trott, M E Hunniford
Standards for feeder (a.k.a. feed trough) space allowance (SA) are based primarily on studies in conventional cages where laying hens tend to eat simultaneously, limiting feeder space. Large furnished cages (FC) offer more total space and opportunities to perform a greater variety of behaviors, which may affect feeding behavior and feeder space requirements. Our objective was to determine the effects of floor/feeder SA on behavior at the feeder. LSL-Lite hens were housed in FC equipped with a nest, perches, and a scratch mat...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050408/effect-of-space-allowance-and-cage-size-on-laying-hens-housed-in-furnished-cages-part-i-performance-and-well-being
#18
T M Widowski, L J Caston, M E Hunniford, L Cooley, S Torrey
There are few published data on the effects of housing laying hens at different densities in large furnished cages (FC; a.k.a. enriched colony cages). The objective of this study was to determine the effects of housing laying hens at 2 space allowances (SA) in 2 sizes of FC on measures of production and well-being. At 18 wk of age, 1,218 LSL-Lite hens were housed in cages furnished with a curtained nesting area, perches, and scratch mat, and stocked at either 520 cm2 (Low) or 748 cm2 (High) total floor space...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050406/microbiological-quality-assessment-and-validation-of-antimicrobials-against-unstressed-or-cold-stress-adapted-salmonella-and-surrogate-enterococcus-faecium-on-broiler-carcasses-and-wings
#19
Lacey Lemonakis, KaWang Li, Jeremy M Adler, Cangliang Shen
This study aims to evaluate the microbiological quality and efficacy of antimicrobials to inactivate unstressed or cold-stress adapted Salmonella and Enterococcus on broiler carcasses and wings processed at a small USDA-inspected slaughter facility in West Virginia. The first part of the study included 42 carcasses that were pre- and secondarily-enriched in bacterial media followed by streak-plating onto XLT-4 and HardyCHROM™-agar Salmonella and confirmation using an API20E-kit. The aerobic plate counts (APC), Escherichia coli (ECC), total coliforms (TCC), and yeast/molds were analyzed on petri-films...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050405/comparative-effects-of-in-ovo-versus-subcutaneous-administration-of-the-marek-s-disease-vaccine-and-pre-placement-holding-time-on-the-processing-yield-of-ross-708-broilers
#20
E D Peebles, T M Barbosa, T S Cummings, J Dickson, S K Womack, P D Gerard
Effects of the in ovo (i.o.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) method of administration (moa) of the Marek's disease (MD) vaccine and 4 or 18 h pre-placement holding time (pht) on the processing yield of male broilers through 49 d of age (doa) were investigated. Ross 708 broiler hatching eggs (3,900) were either i.o.-vaccinated at 18 d of incubation or chicks from eggs that were not i.o.-vaccinated were s.c.-vaccinated at hatch. The i.o. injections (50 μL) were delivered by a commercial multi-egg injector and s.c. injections (200 μL) were delivered by an automatic pneumatic s...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
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