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Health issues in disaster

Stefan E Schulenberg
This article serves as an introduction to the Journal of Clinical Psychology's special issue on disaster mental health and positive psychology. The special issue comprises two sections. The first section presents a series of data-driven articles and research-informed reviews examining meaning and resilience in the context of natural and technological disasters. The second section presents key topics in the area of disaster mental health, with particular relevance for positive psychology and related frameworks...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Lucy Annang Ingram, Chiwoneso B Tinago, Robin Estrada, Sacoby Wilson, Louisiana Wright Sanders, Tina Bevington, Bethany Carlos, Evangeline Cornelius, Erik R Svendsen, Julia Ball
INTRODUCTION: In 2005, a train derailment and subsequent chlorine spill ravaged the rural town of Graniteville in South Carolina, resulting in one of the worst chlorine gas exposures in US. HISTORY: Significant health and economic challenges persist in the community more than a decade later. Healthcare providers offered healthcare services to community members in the immediate aftermath of the disaster, and many still live in the community and continue to provide healthcare services...
July 2016: Rural and Remote Health
Daniel M Meyer, Linda M Kaste, Kathy M Lituri, Scott Tomar, Christopher H Fox, Poul Erik Petersen
This article provides an example of interprofessional collaboration for policy development regarding environmental global health vis-à-vis the Minamata Convention on Mercury. It presents an overview of mercury and mercury-related environmental health issues; public policy processes and stakeholders; and specifics including organized dentistry's efforts to create global policy to restrict environmental contamination by mercury. Dentistry must participate in interprofessional collaborations and build on such experiences to be optimally placed for ongoing interprofessional policy development...
October 2016: Dental Clinics of North America
Leena Smadi, Aiman Al Sumadi
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to review oral and dental health aspects in female patients presented to Jordanian Royal Medical Services (RMS) international humanitarian missions over a 3-year period. DESIGN AND METHOD: Analysis of humanitarian missions of RMS data and records over a 3-year period (2011-2013) in regard to women's oral and dental health issues was done. The data were analyzed in regard to the number of women seen, the presenting conditions, and the prevalence of oral and dental diseases and procedures in these cases...
January 2016: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
Erin McClelland, Richard Amlôt, M Brooke Rogers, G James Rubin, John Tesh, Julia M Pearce
In recent years, a series of large-scale, high-profile natural disasters and terrorist attacks have demonstrated the need for thorough and effective disaster preparedness. While these extreme events affect communities and societies as a whole, they also carry specific risks for particular population groups. Crises such as Hurricane Katrina and the 2011 earthquake and tsunami disaster in Japan have illustrated the risk of significant and disproportionate morbidity and mortality among older adults during disasters...
September 20, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Sue Anne Bell, Lisa A Folkerth
: Introduction Survivors of natural disasters in the United States experience significant health ramifications. Women particularly are vulnerable to both post-disaster posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, and research has documented that these psychopathological sequelae often are correlated with increased incidence of intimate partner violence (IPV). Understanding the link between these health concerns is crucial to informing adequate disaster response and relief efforts for victims of natural disaster...
September 19, 2016: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Aqeel Sahi, David Lai, Yan Li
Cloud computing was introduced as an alternative storage and computing model in the health sector as well as other sectors to handle large amounts of data. Many healthcare companies have moved their electronic data to the cloud in order to reduce in-house storage, IT development and maintenance costs. However, storing the healthcare records in a third-party server may cause serious storage, security and privacy issues. Therefore, many approaches have been proposed to preserve security as well as privacy in cloud computing projects...
September 12, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Shigeatsu Hashimoto, Masato Nagai, Shingo Fukuma, Tetsuya Ohira, Mitsuaki Hosoya, Seiji Yasumura, Hiroaki Satoh, Hitoshi Suzuki, Akira Sakai, Akira Ohtsuru, Yukihiko Kawasaki, Atsushi Takahashi, Kotaro Ozasa, Gen Kobashi, Kenji Kamiya, Shunichi Yamashita, Shun-Ichi Fukuhara, Hitoshi Ohto, Masafumi Abe
AIM: After the Great East Japan Earthquake, over 160,000 residents near the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant were forced to evacuate due to a nuclear accident. Health problems in these evacuees have since become major issues. We examined the association between evacuation and incidence of metabolic syndrome (METS) among residents in Fukushima. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study among residents aged 40-74 years without METS at the time of the disaster in Fukushima...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
Robert L Kerner, Kathleen Gallo, Michael Cassara, John DʼAngelo, Anthony Egan, John Galbraith Simmons
Simulation in multiple contexts over the course of a 10-week period served as a core learning strategy to orient experienced clinicians before opening a large new urban freestanding emergency department. To ensure technical and procedural skills of all team members, who would provide care without on-site recourse to specialty backup, we designed a comprehensive interprofessional curriculum to verify and regularize a wide range of competencies and best practices for all clinicians. Formulated under the rubric of systems integration, simulation activities aimed to instill a shared culture of patient safety among the entire cohort of 43 experienced emergency physicians, physician assistants, nurses, and patient technicians, most newly hired to the health system, who had never before worked together...
October 2016: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
Biblia S Cha, Rachel I Lawrence, Jesse C Bliss, Kenneth B Wells, Anita Chandra, David P Eisenman
OBJECTIVE: Local health departments (LHDs) have little guidance for operationalizing community resilience (CR). We explored how community coalitions responded to 4 CR levers (education, engagement, partnerships, and community self-sufficiency) during the first planning year of the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience (LACCDR) Project. METHODS: Sixteen communities were selected and randomly assigned to the experimental CR group or the control preparedness group...
August 11, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Elizabeth Eckermann
Individual and community resilience are undoubtedly important targets for health enhancement and invaluable aspirational outcomes in the health promotion endeavour especially in disaster contexts. However, overreliance on resilience as a proxy for positive well-being has serious personal and political implications in many contexts, as illustrated in research findings on women's quality of life in southern Lao PDR. Case studies derived from focus group interviews with ethnic minority Lao women about their quality of life are used to exemplify how overt signs of resilience may mask, rather than mirror, covert existential reality leaving women without a voice...
August 4, 2016: Health Promotion International
Kasumi Sakurai, Hidekazu Nishigori, Toshie Nishigori, Satoshi Mizuno, Taku Obara, Noriyuki Iwama, Zen Watanabe, Mami Ishikuro, Nozomi Tatsuta, Ichiko Nishijima, Junichi Sugawara, Ikuma Fujiwara, Takahiro Arima, Shinichi Kuriyama, Hirohito Metoki, Fumiaki Takahashi, Kunihiko Nakai, Nobuo Yaegashi
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to clarify the correlation between the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and domestic violence (DV) against pregnant females after the disaster in Miyagi Prefecture, an area damaged by the earthquake and tsunami. METHODS: We analyzed 7600 pregnant females from June to December 2011. The incidence of physical and mental DV and the proportions in the inland, north coastal, and south coastal areas of Miyagi Prefecture and nationwide were calculated, and a chi-square test was conducted for comparison...
July 27, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Daniel J Kevles
Making nuts-and-bolts public policy is not--and never has been--the long suit of professional historians, but general historical work, whatever its durée, has done a good deal to shape discourse on public issues. Jo Guldi and David Armitage neglect that fact, as well as the opinion-shaping influence of history conveyed via nonprint media. They also ignore the large body of scholarship produced in all media during recent decades in the history of science, technology, and science-related medicine (SciTech), even though SciTech itself looms enormously large in the modern era as an instrument of national and international security, a driver of the economy, and a transformer of medicine, public health, and the environment...
June 2016: Isis; An International Review Devoted to the History of Science and its Cultural Influences
Debajyoti Pati, Kristi Gaines, Shabboo Valipoor
OBJECTIVES: An exploratory examination of rural hospital staff experiences to determine whether the physical state of rural healthcare facilities influence the healthcare experience and perception of care quality. BACKGROUND: Rural hospitals have served as the backbone of rural communities in the United States. Over time, these facilities have witnessed enhanced expectations, expanding their scope of operations from acute care to diversified services through linked provider networks and disaster management...
October 2016: HERD
David Shaw, Bernice S Elger
In this article, we describe and analyse three issues in publication ethics that are raised when conducting research in emergencies and disasters. These include reluctance to share data and samples because of concerns about publications, loss of individual authorship in high high-profile multi-entity publications, and the deaths of authors during dangerous research projects. An emergency research pledge may be useful in avoiding some of these issues.
July 13, 2016: Journal of Public Health
James T Decker, Jodi L Constantine Brown, Jessica Tapia
Survivors of armed conflict may experience traumatic stress, psychological symptoms, distress, or other behavioral health issues related to the disaster of war. This article outlines the historical background of the Russian-Georgian war, details the implementation of social work in the developing country of Georgia, and describes the training and application of social work knowledge and values using macro and micro examples of interventions that provide Masters of social work students and social workers with tools to address the needs of refugees affected by disaster...
July 8, 2016: Social Work in Public Health
Bipin Adhikari, Shiva Raj Mishra, Shristi Raut
Nepal underwent two major earthquakes during 2015 which claimed 9,000 deaths, left more than 23,000 injured, displaced about 2 million people and destroyed about 1,000 health facilities. Emerging health issues and disease outbreaks soon after the earthquakes were major priorities. However, preventive measures such as health education, health promotion and trainings embedded in community engagement remained largely unimplemented. Establishing community preparedness by delivering knowledge about the disasters, preparing contingency plans and conducting disaster drills can be promising in Nepal where geographical inaccessibility invariably impedes the on time management during disasters...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Adriano Valerio, Matteo Verzè, Francesco Marchiori, Igor Rucci, Lucia De Santis, Irene Aprili, Lucia Antolini, Anna Sannino, Alessia Canello, Enrico Checchin, Francesca Mazzola, Sara Ferrari, Marta Garon, Alberto Schonsberg, Stefano Tardivo
Carbon monoxide acute intoxication is a common cause of accidental poisoning in industrialized countries and sometimes it produces a real mass casualty incident. The incident described here occurred in a church in the province of Verona, when a group of people was exposed to carbon monoxide due to a heating system malfunction. Fifty-seven people went to the Emergency Department. The mean carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) level was 10.1±5.7% (range: 3-25%). The clinicians, after medical examination, decided to move 37 patients to hyperbaric chambers for hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy...
July 4, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Kineko Sato, Maki Oikawa, Mai Hiwatashi, Mari Sato, Nobuko Oyamada
BACKGROUND: The Great East Japan Earthquake occurred at 2:46 p.m. on March 11, 2011. The epicenter was off the coast of Miyagi prefecture, and the magnitude of the earthquake was 9.0 with a maximum seismic intensity of 7.0. Although it has already been four years, victims continue to have complex problems. In the stricken areas of Miyagi prefecture, almost ten percent of the residents continue to live in temporary housing. Life altering events that force relocation and a change of living environment are known to adversely affect mental health...
2016: BioPsychoSocial Medicine
Curtis Harris, Tawny Waltz, James Patrick O'Neal, Kelly Nadeau, Matthew Crumpton, Sara Ervin
The watershed events of September 11, 2001; the anthrax attacks; Hurricane Katrina; and H1N1 necessitated that the United States define alternative mechanisms for disaster response. Specifically, there was a need to shift from a capacity building approach to a capabilities based approach that would place more emphasis on the health care community rather than just first responders. Georgia responded to this initiative by creating a Regional Coordinating Hospital (RCH) infrastructure that was responsible for coordinating regional responses within their individual geographic footprint...
February 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
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