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Health issues in disaster

Ashleigh Elain McKinzie
PURPOSE: In this article, I explore emotions, trauma, and mental health issues residents experienced after tornadoes in Tuscaloosa, Alabama and Joplin, Missouri in 2011. METHODS: The research is based on 162 interviews and fieldwork from 2013-2015. I draw from literature on social suffering and trauma to ask how experiencing mental health and trauma changes how people make sense of their social worlds. RESULTS: I discuss four common themes: 1...
December 2018: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
Judy McKimm, Michelle Mclean, Trevor Gibbs, Ewa Pawlowicz
BACKGROUND: Global economic forces, political decisions, and natural disasters are only some of the factors that affect contemporary healthcare education. Given the centrality of health in all settings, the future of healthcare education depends on how we overcome these difficult circumstances. METHODS: Through a series of collaborative activities involving healthcare educators from around the world and their attempts to overcome these difficulties, the authors have developed a conceptual model centered around the people involved, the impact of culture, and organizations and systems...
February 28, 2018: Medical Teacher
Bingli Du, Xiaozhi Ma, Xiancai Ou, Ye Jin, Pengwei Ren, Jing Li
In 2008, an 8.0 Richter scale earthquake devastated Wenchuan in China, which resulted in heavy casualties, and had wide-reaching psychological effects on survivors. To examine its impact on the survivors, this study aims to investigate the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and posttraumatic growth (PTG) in adolescents eight years after the earthquake. The cross-section survey was conducted in two different earthquake-affected areas, and data were collected from 4118 respondents. Instruments included the questionnaire on demographic information, the questionnaire on seismic exposure, PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) questionnaire, Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI), Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS) and Simple Coping Style Questionnaire (SCSQ)...
February 5, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Eliezer Be'eri, Simon Owen, Maurit Beeri, Scott R Millis, Arik Eisenkraft
OBJECTIVES: Chemical-biological-radio-nuclear (CBRN) gas masks are the standard means for protecting the general population from inhalation of toxic industrial compounds (TICs), for example after industrial accidents or terrorist attacks. However, such gas masks would not protect patients on home mechanical ventilation, as ventilator airflow would bypass the CBRN filter. We therefore evaluated in vivo the safety of adding a standard-issue CBRN filter to the air-outflow port of a home ventilator, as a method for providing TIC protection to such patients...
February 21, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Mina Shrestha, Rebekah Moles, Eurek Ranjit, Betty Chaar
BACKGROUND: Accessibility and affordability of evidence-based medicines are issues of global concern. For low-income countries like Nepal, it is crucial to have easy and reliable access to affordable, good-quality, evidence-based medicines, especially in the aftermath of natural or manmade disasters. Availability of affordable and evidence-based high quality medicines depends on the medicine procurement procedure, which makes it an important aspect of healthcare delivery. In this study, we aimed to investigate medicine procurement practices in hospital pharmacies of Nepal within the framework of International Pharmaceutical Federation [FIP] hospital pharmacy guidelines "the Basel Statements"...
2018: PloS One
Roberta Redfern, Jennifer Micham, Rebecca Daniels, Sue Childers
Early on August 2, 2014, in the city of Toledo, Ohio, a media alert informed the public that traces of microcystin, a hazardous toxin, had been detected in the drinking water. The warning stated that residents should not drink, boil, or even touch the contaminated water. A water crisis of this magnitude was recognized to pose a potentially serious and significant impact on patient care and safety in health care environments. ProMedica Toledo Hospital's Emergency Operation Plan addressed 3 critical issues: safe water availability, alternate cleaning solutions, and preparations for a prolonged crisis...
February 5, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Claudia Der-Martirosian, Anne R Griffin, Karen Chu, Aram Dobalian
Background Like other integrated health systems, the US Department of Veterans Affairs has widely implemented telehealth during the past decade to improve access to care for its patient population. During major crises, the US Department of Veterans Affairs has the potential to transition healthcare delivery from traditional care to telecare. This paper identifies the types of Veterans Affairs telehealth services used during Hurricane Sandy (2012), and examines the patient characteristics of those users. Methods This study conducted both quantitative and qualitative analyses...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare
Hassan Khodadadi, Soudabeh Vatankhah, Tabandeh Sadeghi
OBJECTIVE: The elderly are especially susceptible to death and injury in disasters. This study aimed to identify indexes of caring for elderly people in an earthquake according to the Iranian experience. METHODS: This qualitative study was conducted during 2014-2016 by use of the content analysis technique. Data were collected through individual deep interviews with the elderly and people with experience providing services to the elderly during earthquakes in an urban area of Iran...
January 31, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Veronica Tucci, Nidal Moukaddam, Jonathan Meadows, Suhal Shah, Sagar C Galwankar, G Bobby Kapur
The media and public health generally focus on the biological and physical ramifications of epidemics. Mental health issues that coincide with emerging diseases and epidemics are rarely examined and sometimes, even eschewed due to cultural considerations. Psychiatric manifestations of various infectious diseases, especially with a focus on Ebola Virus disease (EVD) and Zika Virus, are discussed in this commentary to illustrate the continued need of care after the resolution of the actual illness. Various infectious diseases have associations with mental illness, such as an increased risk of obsessive-compulsive disorders and Tourette syndrome in children with Group B streptococcal infection...
October 2017: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
Atsushi Sakuma, Ikki Ueda, Shigehito Rengi, Toshiyasu Shingai, Hiroo Matsuoka, Kazunori Matsumoto
INTRODUCTION: Major natural disasters have a significant impact on the mental health of survivors in affected communities. Although it has been speculated that the number of survivors requiring admission to psychiatric hospital increases immediately after a major disaster, few studies have examined the issue. METHODS: On March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent tsunami devastated the relatively isolated city of Kesennuma. We therefore compared the weekly number of patients admitted to 2 psychiatric hospitals in Kesennuma in the 4 weeks immediately after the earthquake with those in the 4 weeks immediately preceding the earthquake...
December 28, 2017: Asia-Pacific Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Pacific Rim College of Psychiatrists
Tory V Whitten, Maureen M Sullivan, Stefan Saravia, Jayne Griffith, Joni M Scheftel, Richard N Danila
From the Field is a semi-regular column that explores what it means to be a local health professional on the front lines of an emergency. Typically, National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO) members share their stories of preparing for and responding to disasters, epidemics, and other major health issues. This month's column features a submission from a state health department that describes their experience in investigating white powder incidents. Through exploring the analysis of the challenges faced and the solutions developed, readers can learn how these public health champions keep their communities safe even in extreme situations...
November 2017: Health Security
J I Ruzek, C M Yeager
Internet and mobile technologies offer potentially critical ways of delivering mental health support in low-resource settings. Much evidence indicates an enormous negative impact of mental health problems in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and many of these problems are caused, or worsened, by exposure to wars, conflicts, natural and human-caused disasters, and other traumatic events. Though specific mental health treatments have been found to be efficacious and cost-effective for low-resource settings, most individuals living in these areas do not have access to them...
2017: Global Mental Health
Krzysztof Wołk, Agnieszka Wołk, Wojciech Glinkowski
People with speech, hearing, or mental impairment require special communication assistance, especially for medical purposes. Automatic solutions for speech recognition and voice synthesis from text are poor fits for communication in the medical domain because they are dependent on error-prone statistical models. Systems dependent on manual text input are insufficient. Recently introduced systems for automatic sign language recognition are dependent on statistical models as well as on image and gesture quality...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Lynette Cusack, Kristine Gebbie
Clinical practices are based on a common understanding of nursing's professional standards in all aspects of patient care, no matter what the circumstances are. Circumstances can however, change dramatically due to emergencies, disasters, or pandemics and may make it difficult to meet the standard of care in the way nurses are accustomed. The Australian nursing profession has not yet facilitated a broad discussion and debate at the professional and institutional level about adapting standards of care under extreme conditions, a dialogue which goes beyond the content of basic emergency and disaster preparedness...
2017: Collegian: Journal of the Royal College of Nursing, Australia
Suresh Thapaliya, Pawan Sharma, Kapil Upadhyaya
BACKGROUND: Suicide and self harm behavior has become a major public health issue in recent years in Nepal. This small south Asian country was ranked 7th by suicide rate globally by the 2014 World Health Organization report with an estimated 6,840 suicides annually, or 24.9 suicides per 100,000 people. We decided to explore the epidemiology of suicidal behaviour and self harm, modes of attempt, associated risk factors and trends in specific population. METHODOLOGY: Two researchers independently reviewed 47 studies published in the US National Library of Medicine's PubMed electronic Database and Google Scholar till December 2016...
February 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Lea H Mallett, Ruth A Etzel
Floods are the most common type of natural disaster in both developed and developing countries and have led to extensive morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Worldwide, over the past 30 years, flooding has claimed the lives of more than 200,000 people and affected more than 2.8 billion others. The impact of flooding on health varies among populations and depends primarily on vulnerability and the kind of event experienced. It severely disrupts livelihoods and has a significant impact on the health of pregnant women and children...
October 23, 2017: Disasters
Aya Murakami, Hiroyuki Sasaki, Dyshelly Nurkartika Pascapurnama, Shinichi Egawa
OBJECTIVE: Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), including mental disorders, have become major threats to human health worldwide. People with NCDs are particularly vulnerable to disasters. We systematically reviewed reports describing studies of NCDs at the time of the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) to clarify the circumstances of people with NCDs and to build strong measures to support them. METHODS: Relevant articles published from March 2011 through December 2016 were collected by searching the PubMed database (National Library of Medicine)...
October 16, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Catherine L Blaser, Christine Murto
From the Field is a semi-regular column that explores what it means to be a local health professional on the front lines of an emergency. National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO) members share their stories of preparing for and responding to disasters, epidemics, and other major health issues. Through exploring the analysis of the challenges faced and the solutions developed, readers can learn how these public health champions keep their communities safe even in extreme situations. Readers may submit topics of interest to the column's editor, Meghan McGinty, PhD, MPH, MBA, at mmcginty@naccho...
September 2017: Health Security
Ossama T Osman, Laeth Nasir, Richard F Mollica, Taoufik Zoubeidi, James Lavelle, Noor Amawi
Objective: To explore in Arab communities the prevalence, dynamics, and resources available to address the physical and psychological consequences that may arise from psychiatric disorders. Methods: An online survey of psychiatrists and primary care physicians from 17 Arab countries was conducted between September 2011 and June 2012. The survey serves as a needs assessment in a scientifically valid and culturally sensitive manner. Additionally, it focuses attention on the clinical strengths and weaknesses of Middle Eastern primary health care and mental health centers in identifying and treating trauma-related health and mental health issues...
September 28, 2017: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
Keith Nicholls, Steven J Picou, Selena C McCord
Community health workers (CHWs) have significant potential to contribute to public health in the United States by promoting disaster preparedness, speeding postdisaster recovery, and building disaster resilience in their communities. To maximize this potential, however, they must undergo rigorous and relevant training. As part of the Gulf Region Health Outreach Program, an appropriate curriculum was developed and delivered in several training sessions conducted from 2013 to 2016. This article provides insights into the primary issues associated with such training and offers a detailed elaboration of the basic and specialized curricula as presented and adapted over the course of the program...
November 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
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