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Epidemiology of disaster

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890362/epidemiology-of-polio-virus-infection-in-pakistan-and-possible-risk-factors-for-its-transmission
#1
REVIEW
Mahvish Kabir, Muhammad Sohail Afzal
End Polio Pakistan program still has to overcome many hurdles; unfortunately on 8th February 2016 first polio case of the year has surfaced in Karachi. It seems that battle against polio demands little bit more conviction and motivation. WHO has set a goal of polio eradication in Pakistan till 2018, in order to evaluate the success of this target; polio eradication campaign in Pakistan has been analyzed in different perspectives. Our analysis indicated that major obstacles in eradication are low literacy rate, poor health infrastructure, lack of planning, natural disaster, economic crisis, counter insurgencies and almost no protection for polio health workers...
November 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845946/global-trends-in-suicide-epidemiology
#2
Mark Sinyor, Robyn Tse, Jane Pirkis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Suicide is a major cause of mortality accounting for nearly 1 million deaths globally per year. Suicide occurs throughout the lifespan; therefore, large epidemiological samples are needed to identify patterns in suicide death. This review examines emerging evidence relating to risk and protective factors as well as preventive measures for suicide. RECENT FINDINGS: The global financial crisis, natural disasters, air pollution and second-hand smoke have all been associated with increased suicide rates...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804911/preparing-the-health-system-to-respond-to-ebola-virus-disease-in-new-york-city-2014
#3
Jay K Varma, David J Prezant, Ross Wilson, Celia Quinn, Glenn Asaeda, Nicholas V Cagliuso, Jennifer L Rakeman, Marisa Raphael
The world's largest outbreak of Ebola virus disease began in West Africa in 2014. Although few cases were identified in the United States, the possibility of imported cases led US public health systems and health care facilities to focus on preparing the health care system to quickly and safely identify and respond to emerging infectious diseases. In New York City, early, coordinated planning among city and state agencies and the health care delivery system led to a successful response to a single case diagnosed in a returned health care worker...
November 2, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756685/quantitative-bias-analysis-in-an-asthma-study-of-rescue-recovery-workers-and-volunteers-from-the-9-11-world-trade-center-attacks
#4
Anne M Jurek, George Maldonado
PURPOSE: When learning bias analysis, epidemiologists are taught to quantitatively adjust for multiple biases by correcting study results in the reverse order of the error sequence. To understand the error sequence for a particular study, one must carefully examine the health study's epidemiologic data-generating process. In this article, we describe the unique data-generating process of a man-made disaster epidemiologic study. METHODS: We described the data-generating process and conducted a bias analysis for a study associating September 11, 2001 dust cloud exposure and self-reported newly physician-diagnosed asthma among rescue-recovery workers and volunteers...
November 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726771/cholera
#5
Donatella Lippi, Eduardo Gotuzzo, Saverio Caini
Cholera is an acute disease of the gastrointestinal tract caused by Vibrio cholerae. Cholera was localized in Asia until 1817, when a first pandemic spread from India to several other regions of the world. After this appearance, six additional major pandemics occurred during the 19th and 20th centuries, the latest of which originated in Indonesia in the 1960s and is still ongoing. In 1854, a cholera outbreak in Soho, London, was investigated by the English physician John Snow (1813 to 1858). He described the time course of the outbreak, managed to understand its routes of transmission, and suggested effective measures to stop its spread, giving rise to modern infectious disease epidemiology...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27724836/disaster-mental-health-epidemiology-methodological-review-and-interpretation-of-research-findings
#6
Carol S North
Worldwide, disasters are increasing in frequency and severity. Mental health consequences of disasters are extensive, and knowledge of anticipated mental health effects is needed for effective disaster response. Difficulties inherent in conducting disaster research have limited the understanding of research findings. This article presents and interprets disaster mental health research findings in the context of research methods. A brief history of the disaster mental health research field is provided, and the presentation of findings is ordered into topical areas of disaster mental health consequences and timing and prediction of mental health outcomes...
2016: Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640552/epidemiology-of-emergency-medical-services-ems-utilization-in-four-indian-emergency-departments
#7
Olindi Wijesekera, Amanda Reed, Parker S Chastain, Shauna Biggs, Elizabeth G Clark, Tamorish Kole, Anoop T Chakrapani, Nandy Ashish, Prasad Rajhans, Alan H Breaud, Gabrielle A Jacquet
: Introduction Without a universal Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system in India, data on the epidemiology of patients who utilize EMS are limited. This retrospective chart review aimed to quantify and describe the burden of disease and patient demographics of patients who arrived by EMS to four Indian emergency departments (EDs) in order to inform a national EMS curriculum. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on patients transported by EMS over a three-month period in 2014 to four private EDs in India...
December 2016: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618881/valparaiso-s-2014-fire-evaluation-of-environmental-and-epidemiological-risk-factors-during-the-emergency-through-a-crowdsourcing-tool
#8
Sebastián Eduardo Espinoza Espinoza, Anibal Enrique Vivaceta De la Fuente, Constanza Andrea Machuca Contreras
OBJECTIVE: To describe and relate the main environmental risk factors in the emergency process after a large urban fire in Valparaiso, Chile, in April 2014. METHODS: An observational, cross-sectional descriptive study was performed. All 243 reports from an ad hoc web/mobile website created on the Ushahidi/Crowdmap platform were reviewed. Reports were recorded in a new database with dichotomist variables based on either the presence or absence of the relevant category in each report...
September 13, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617165/surgical-care-required-for-populations-affected-by-climate-related-natural-disasters-a-global-estimation
#9
Eugenia E Lee, Barclay Stewart, Yuanting A Zha, Thomas A Groen, Frederick M Burkle, Adam L Kushner
BACKGROUND: Climate extremes will increase the frequency and severity of natural disasters worldwide.  Climate-related natural disasters were anticipated to affect 375 million people in 2015, more than 50% greater than the yearly average in the previous decade. To inform surgical assistance preparedness, we estimated the number of surgical procedures needed.   METHODS: The numbers of people affected by climate-related disasters from 2004 to 2014 were obtained from the Centre for Research of the Epidemiology of Disasters database...
2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604901/schools-of-public-health-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-an-imperative-investment-for-improving-the-health-of-populations
#10
Fauziah Rabbani, Leah Shipton, Franklin White, Iman Nuwayhid, Leslie London, Abdul Ghaffar, Bui Thi Thu Ha, Göran Tomson, Rajiv Rimal, Anwar Islam, Amirhossein Takian, Samuel Wong, Shehla Zaidi, Kausar Khan, Rozina Karmaliani, Imran Naeem Abbasi, Farhat Abbas
BACKGROUND: Public health has multicultural origins. By the close of the nineteenth century, Schools of Public Health (SPHs) began to emerge in western countries in response to major contemporary public health challenges. The Flexner Report (1910) emphasized the centrality of preventive medicine, sanitation, and public health measures in health professional education. The Alma Ata Declaration on Primary Health Care (PHC) in 1978 was a critical milestone, especially for low and middle-income countries (LMICs), conceptualizing a close working relationship between PHC and public health measures...
2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573281/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-associated-with-natural-and-human-made-disasters-in-the-world-mental-health-surveys
#11
E J Bromet, L Atwoli, N Kawakami, F Navarro-Mateu, P Piotrowski, A J King, S Aguilar-Gaxiola, J Alonso, B Bunting, K Demyttenaere, S Florescu, G de Girolamo, S Gluzman, J M Haro, P de Jonge, E G Karam, S Lee, V Kovess-Masfety, M E Medina-Mora, Z Mneimneh, B-E Pennell, J Posada-Villa, D Salmerón, T Takeshima, R C Kessler
BACKGROUND: Research on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following natural and human-made disasters has been undertaken for more than three decades. Although PTSD prevalence estimates vary widely, most are in the 20-40% range in disaster-focused studies but considerably lower (3-5%) in the few general population epidemiological surveys that evaluated disaster-related PTSD as part of a broader clinical assessment. The World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys provide an opportunity to examine disaster-related PTSD in representative general population surveys across a much wider range of sites than in previous studies...
August 30, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27544312/long-term-psychological-consequences-among-adolescent-survivors-of-the-wenchuan-earthquake-in-china-a-cross-sectional-survey-six-years-after-the-disaster
#12
Eizaburo Tanaka, Atsuro Tsutsumi, Norito Kawakami, Satomi Kameoka, Hiroshi Kato, Yongheng You
BACKGROUND: Most epidemiological studies on adolescent survivors' mental health have been conducted within 2 years after the disaster. Longer-term psychological consequences remain unclear. This study explored psychological symptoms in secondary school students who were living in Sichuan province 6 years after the Wenchuan earthquake. METHODS: A secondary data analysis was performed on data from a final survey of survivors conducted 6 years after the Wenchuan earthquake as part of the five-year mental health and psychosocial support project...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515507/forecasted-impact-of-climate-change-on-infectious-disease-and-health-security-in-hawaii-by-2050
#13
Deon V Canyon, Rick Speare, Frederick M Burkle
OBJECTIVE: Climate change is expected to cause extensive shifts in the epidemiology of infectious and vector-borne diseases. Scenarios on the effects of climate change typically attribute altered distribution of communicable diseases to a rise in average temperature and altered incidence of infectious diseases to weather extremes. METHODS: Recent evaluations of the effects of climate change on Hawaii have not explored this link. It may be expected that Hawaii's natural geography and robust water, sanitation, and health care infrastructure renders residents less vulnerable to many threats that are the focus on smaller, lesser developed, and more vulnerable Pacific islands...
August 12, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27437527/field-organization-and-disaster-medical-assistance-teams
#14
REVIEW
Ibrahim Arziman
Disasters cause an acute deterioration in all stages of life. An area affected by the disaster in which the normal activities of life are disrupted is described as a "Field" in disaster terminology. Although it is not easy to define the borders of this zone, the area where there is normally functioning society is accepted as the boundary. Disaster management is the responsibility of the local government. However, in many large disaster responses many non-governmental and international organizations play a role...
October 2015: Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27417212/toolkit-for-epidemiologic-response-to-an-acute-chemical-release
#15
Mary Anne Duncan, Maureen F Orr
When a large chemical incident occurs and people are injured, public health agencies need to be able to provide guidance and respond to questions from the public, the media, and public officials. Because of this urgent need for information to support appropriate public health action, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) of the US Department of Health and Human Services has developed the Assessment of Chemical Exposures (ACE) Toolkit. The ACE Toolkit, available on the ATSDR website, offers materials including surveys, consent forms, databases, and training materials that state and local health personnel can use to rapidly conduct an epidemiologic investigation after a large-scale acute chemical release...
August 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27411086/epidemiology-of-substance-use-among-forced-migrants-a-global-systematic-review
#16
Danielle Horyniak, Jason S Melo, Risa M Farrell, Victoria D Ojeda, Steffanie A Strathdee
INTRODUCTION: Forced migration is occurring at unprecedented levels. Forced migrants may be at risk for substance use for reasons including coping with traumatic experiences, co-morbid mental health disorders, acculturation challenges and social and economic inequality. This paper aimed to systematically review the literature examining substance use among forced migrants, and identify priority areas for intervention and future research. METHODS: Seven medical, allied health and social science databases were searched from inception to September 2015 in accordance with PRISMA guidelines to identify original peer-reviewed articles describing any findings relating to alcohol and/or illicit drug use among refugees, internally displaced people (IDPs), asylum seekers, people displaced by disasters and deportees...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27344547/burn-care-on-cruise-ships-epidemiology-international-regulations-risk-situation-disaster-management-and-qualification-of-the-ship-s-doctor
#17
C Ottomann, B Hartmann, V Antonic
With the increasing numbers of passengers and crew on board vessels that are becoming larger and larger, the demand for ship's doctors who can adequately treat burns on board has also increased. In the cruise ship industry it is usually those doctor's with internal and general medical training who are recruited from an epidemiological point of view. Training content or recommendations for the treatment of thermal lesions with the limited options available in ship's hospitals and where doctors with no surgical training operate do not yet exist...
September 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27337474/west-africa-2013-re-examining-ebola
#18
Daniel G Bausch, Amanda Rojek
The outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) that occurred from 2013 to 2016 in the West African countries of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, with imported cases to three neighboring African countries as well as to the United States and Europe, constituted a major humanitarian disaster. The outbreak numbered over 28,500 cases, more than 10 times the number cumulatively registered from all previous EVD outbreaks combined, with at least 11,000 deaths, and resulted in billions of dollars of lost economic growth to an already impoverished region...
June 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27301560/evidence-for-a-teratogenic-risk-in-the-offspring-of-health-personnel-exposed-to-ionizing-radiation
#19
Awi Wiesel, Gabriela Stolz, Annette Queisser-Wahrendorf
BACKGROUND: The evidence concerning safety of occupational exposure to ionizing radiation on teratogenic effects mainly relies on animal models, disaster epidemiology and experience in cancer etiology. Following an explorative result on maternal exposure in medical occupations we conducted a feasibility study, addressing congenital anomalies (CA) in the offspring of health workers potentially exposed to radiation. METHODS: In a prospective follow-up study, we enrolled women, identified by mandatory registration at the office of radiation protection as wearing a dosimeter...
June 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27291200/-epidemiology-of-natural-disasters-let-us-learn-form-the-l-aquila-earthquake
#20
Fabrizio Faggiano, Roberta Pirastu, Elias Allara, Manuele Falcone, Gianluigi Ferrante, Barbara Pacelli, Patrizia Schifano, Carlo Senore, Maria Serinelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
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