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Epidemiology of disaster

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642142/epidemiology-and-outcomes-of-bloodstream-infections-in-177-severe-burn-patients-from-an-industrial-disaster-a-multicenter-retrospective-study
#1
Chenqi Tang, Junqiang Li, Beiming Shou, Bohan Pan, Tiansheng Chen, Yongqiang Xiao, Xiaopeng Zheng, Shichu Xiao, Qian Tan, Zhaofan Xia
OBJECTIVES: To determine the characteristics of bloodstream infections (BSIs) and to evaluate the impact of BSIs on mortality in severe burn patients. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted in 20 tertiary hospitals. A total of 185 Patients who experienced a massive dust explosion in eastern China were included. RESULTS: After exclusion, 177 patients were analyzed. The median total body surface area (TBSA) burned was 95% (interquartile range [IQR], 85%-98%)...
June 19, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622920/post-9-11-sarcoidosis-in-wtc-exposed-firefighters-and-emergency-medical-service-workers
#2
Mayris P Webber, Jennifer Yip, Rachel Zeig-Owens, William Moir, Patompong Ungprasert, Cynthia S Crowson, Charles B Hall, Nadia Jaber, Michael D Weiden, Eric L Matteson, David J Prezant
INTRODUCTION: The World Trade Center (WTC) disaster released a huge quantity and variety of toxicants into the environment. To-date, studies from each of the three major cohorts of WTC-exposed workers have suggested "greater than expected" numbers of post-9/11 cases in some workers. We undertook this study to estimate the incidence of post-9/11 sarcoidosis in ∼13,000 male firefighters and EMS workers enrolled in The Fire Department of the City of New York (FDNY) WTC Health Program; to compare FDNY incidence to rates from unexposed, demographically similar men in the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP); and, to examine rates by level of WTC exposure...
June 7, 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605622/factors-associated-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-among-community-volunteers-during-the-sewol-ferry-disaster-in-korea
#3
Ju-Yeon Lee, Sung-Wan Kim, Kyung-Yeol Bae, Jae-Min Kim, Il-Seon Shin, Jin-Sang Yoon
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics associated with volunteerism and identify the factors that contributed to posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among community volunteers following the Sewol ferry disaster in Korea. METHODS: In total, 2,298 adults (aged 30-70 years) from the Jin-do area, where the Sewol ferry disaster occurred, participated in this study. A cross-sectional survey was conducted 1 month after the disaster...
June 3, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602558/public-health-information-in-crisis-affected-populations-a-review-of-methods-and-their-use-for-advocacy-and-action
#4
REVIEW
Francesco Checchi, Abdihamid Warsame, Victoria Treacy-Wong, Jonathan Polonsky, Mark van Ommeren, Claudine Prudhon
Valid and timely information about various domains of public health underpins the effectiveness of humanitarian public health interventions in crises. However, obstacles including insecurity, insufficient resources and skills for data collection and analysis, and absence of validated methods combine to hamper the quantity and quality of public health information available to humanitarian responders. This paper, the second in a Series of four papers, reviews available methods to collect public health data pertaining to different domains of health and health services in crisis settings, including population size and composition, exposure to armed attacks, sexual and gender-based violence, food security and feeding practices, nutritional status, physical and mental health outcomes, public health service availability, coverage and effectiveness, and mortality...
June 7, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578748/epidemiological-effectiveness-and-cost-of-a-fungal-meningitis-outbreak-response-in-new-river-valley-virginia-local-health-department-and-clinical-perspectives
#5
Nargesalsadat Dorratoltaj, Margaret L O'Dell, Paige Bordwine, Thomas M Kerkering, Kerry J Redican, Kaja M Abbas
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effectiveness and cost of a fungal meningitis outbreak response in the New River Valley of Virginia during 2012-2013 from the perspective of the local public health department and clinical facilities. The fungal meningitis outbreak affected 23 states in the United States with 751 cases and 64 deaths in 20 states; there were 56 cases and 5 deaths in Virginia. METHODS: We conducted a partial economic evaluation of the fungal meningitis outbreak response in New River Valley...
June 5, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560942/categorization-and-analysis-of-disaster-health-publications-an-inventory
#6
Marvin L Birnbaum, Sowmya Adibhatla, Olivia Dudek, Jessica Ramsel-Miller
Disaster Medicine is a relatively new discipline. Understanding of the current status of its science is needed in order to develop a roadmap for the direction and structure of future studies that will contribute to building the science of the health aspects of disasters (HADs). The objective of this study was to examine the existing, peer-reviewed literature relevant to the HADs to determine the status of the currently available literature underlying the science of the HADs. A total of 709 consecutive, peer-reviewed articles published from 2009-2014 in two disaster-health-related medical journals, Prehospital and Disaster Medicine (PDM) and Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness (DMPHP), were examined...
May 31, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516826/fatalities-from-firearm-related-injuries-in-selected-governorates-of-iraq-2010-2013
#7
Maximilian P Nerlander, Eva Leidman, Ahmed Hassan, Abdul-Salam Saleh Sultan, Syed Jaffar Hussain, Lauren B Browne, Oleg O Bilukha
BACKGROUND: In Iraq, where Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) and other groups have contributed to escalating violence in recent years, understanding the epidemiology of intentional firearm-related fatalities is essential for public health action. METHODS: The Iraqi Ministry of Health (MoH; Baghdad, Iraq) compiles surveillance of fatal injuries in eight of Iraq's 18 governorates (Baghdad, Al-Anbar, Basrah, Erbil, Kerbala, Maysan, Ninevah, and Al-Sulaimaniya)...
May 18, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505500/increase-in-the-prescription-rate-of-antidepressants-after-the-sewol-ferry-disaster-in-ansan-south-korea
#8
Kyu-Man Han, Kyoung-Hoon Kim, Mikyung Lee, Sang-Min Lee, Young-Hoon Ko, Jong-Woo Paik
BACKGROUND: Previous pharmaco-epidemiological studies have reported increases in the prescription of psychotropic medications after a disaster, reflecting post-disaster changes in psychiatric conditions and mental health service utilization. We investigated changes in the prescription of psychotropic medications in the Danwon district of Ansan city (Ansan Danwon) compared to a control community before and after the Sewol Ferry disaster on April 16, 2014. METHODS: Data was collected from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service database...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502272/adverse-childhood-experiences-exposure-to-a-natural-disaster-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-among-survivors-of-the-2011-great-east-japan-earthquake-and-tsunami
#9
Y Inoue, A Stickley, A Yazawa, J Aida, I Kawachi, K Kondo, T Fujiwara
AIMS: To investigate whether adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) modify the impact of exposure to a natural disaster (the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami) on the occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among older people. METHODS: Data were collected as part of the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES), which is an on-going epidemiological survey investigating social determinants of health among older people across Japan. Information on PTSD symptoms based on the Screening Questionnaire for Disaster Mental Health, traumatic exposure to the earthquake (i...
May 15, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437765/suicidality-associated-with-ptsd-depression-and-disaster-recovery-status-among-adult-survivors-8-years-after-the-2008-wenchuan-earthquake-in-china
#10
Jing Guo, Huan He, Mingqi Fu, Ziqiang Han, Zhiyong Qu, Xiaohua Wang, Liding Guan
It has been eight years since the Wenchuan earthquake. We don't know how the lives of those affected by the disaster may remain blighted by its effects, or how many remain thus affected. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship of disaster exposure, PTSD, depression and suicidal behaviors, using data from a cross-sectional survey conducted in earthquake-affected areas of China. 1369 participants were recruited from two different sites that were severely affected by the Wenchuan earthquake...
April 12, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430097/zika-virus-update-more-on-an-emerging-arboviral-disease-in-the-western-hemisphere
#11
Kelly G Vest
Zika virus has captivated the world with its quick spread throughout the Western Hemisphere. Increased emphasis has been placed on the infection of pregnant women and subsequent adverse and severe effects in the developing fetus and newborn. This article supplements a previous article and provides updated information on new and evolving evidence that strengthens the association between Zika virus and unique congenital and neurologic diseases, updates what is known about the epidemiology of the disease, and provides new and updated material for primary care providers as they counsel patients who may be exposed or infected...
April 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418689/an-official-american-thoracic-society-workshop-report-chemical-inhalational-disasters-biology-of-lung-injury-development-of-novel-therapeutics-and-medical-preparedness
#12
Eleanor M Summerhill, Gary W Hoyle, Sven-Eric Jordt, Bronwen J Jugg, James G Martin, Sadis Matalon, Steven E Patterson, David J Prezant, Alfred M Sciuto, Erik R Svendsen, Carl W White, Livia A Veress
This report is based on the proceedings from the Inhalational Lung Injury Workshop jointly sponsored by the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Countermeasures Against Chemical Threats (CounterACT) program on May 21, 2013, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The CounterACT program facilitates research leading to the development of new and improved medical countermeasures for chemical threat agents. The workshop was initiated by the Terrorism and Inhalational Disasters Section of the Environmental, Occupational, and Population Health Assembly of the ATS...
June 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394737/alcohol-and-nonmedical-prescription-drug-use-to-cope-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-an-analysis-of-hurricane-sandy-survivors
#13
Sarah R Lowe, Laura Sampson, Megan N Young, Sandro Galea
BACKGROUND: Postdisaster increases in substance use have been attributed to use of substances to cope with emotional reactions. However, no study to our knowledge has explored disaster survivors' substance use to cope with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the prevalence and correlates of alcohol use and nonmedical prescription drug use (NMPDU) to cope with PTSD symptoms in two population-based samples of adult residents of New York City neighborhoods affected by Hurricane Sandy...
April 10, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358820/epidemiological-evaluation-of-cat-health-at-a-first-response-animal-shelter-in-fukushima-following-the-great-east-japan-earthquakes-of-2011
#14
Aki Tanaka, Philip H Kass, Beatriz Martinez-Lopez, Shinichi Hayama
The Great East Japan Earthquakes of March 11, 2011 caused immense harm to the community and subsequent nuclear accident in Fukushima Prefecture extended the damage. Local residents were forced to evacuated without pets and the left behind animals were rescued from the restricted zone one month later. Unplanned animal rescue and unregulated sheltering caused secondary damage to animals such as disease epidemics at impounded animal shelter. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the incidence of upper respiratory infection (URI) and diarrhea in cats at the first response animal shelter in Fukushima, and investigate factors affecting the duration of disease and determinants of treatments performed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318462/the-epidemiology-of-operation-stress-during-continuing-promise-2011-a-humanitarian-response-and-disaster-relief-mission-aboard-a-us-navy-hospital-ship
#15
William T Scouten, Melissa L Mehalick, Elizabeth Yoder, Andrea McCoy, Tracy Brannock, Mark S Riddle
Introduction Operational stress describes individual behavior in response to the occupational demands and tempo of a mission. The stress response of military personnel involved in combat and peace-keeping missions has been well-described. The spectrum of effect on medical professionals and support staff providing humanitarian assistance, however, is less well delineated. Research to date concentrates mainly on shore-based humanitarian missions. Problem The goal of the current study was to document the pattern of operational stress, describe factors responsible for it, and the extent to which these factors impact job performance in military and civilian participants of Continuing Promise 2011 (CP11), a ship-based humanitarian medical mission...
March 20, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245517/marked-decline-of-sudden-mass-fatality-events-in-new-zealand-1900-to-2015-the-basic-epidemiology
#16
Nick Wilson, Adrienne Morales, Nicola Guy, George Thomson
OBJECTIVE: To describe the basic epidemiology of sudden mass fatality events for the 1900 to 2015 period in New Zealand (NZ). METHODS: Official lists and internet searches were used to identify the events. Events were categorised, rates calculated and time trends analysed. RESULTS: A total of 56 sudden mass fatality events with 10 or more fatalities between 1900 and 2015 in NZ were identified. There were 1,896 deaths in total, with the worst event being the Hawke's Bay earthquake (258 deaths)...
June 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237238/epidemiological-evaluation-of-cats-rescued-at-a-secondary-emergency-animal-shelter-in-miharu-fukushima-after-the-great-east-japan-earthquakes
#17
Aki Tanaka, Beatriz Martinez-Lopez, Philip Kass
The aims of this research were to report characteristics of rescued cats at a secondary emergency animal shelter in Fukushima prefecture, Japan, and evaluate how adoptability, stress level, upper respiratory infection (URI) syndrome incidence, and URI pathogen prevalence were associated with the cat's shelter intake source and shelter characteristics. All cats admitted to the Miharu shelter, Fukushima Prefecture from 2012 to 2014 were included in the study. The results demonstrate that in situ corticosteroid and antibiotic use were associated with cats subsequently developing upper respiratory infections (URI)...
March 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228178/the-state-of-emergency-medical-services-ems-systems-in-africa
#18
Nee-Kofi Mould-Millman, Julia M Dixon, Nana Sefa, Arthur Yancey, Bonaventure G Hollong, Mohamed Hagahmed, Adit A Ginde, Lee A Wallis
Introduction Little is known about the existence, distribution, and characteristics of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems in Africa, or the corresponding epidemiology of prehospital illness and injury. METHODS: A survey was conducted between 2013 and 2014 by distributing a detailed EMS system questionnaire to experts in paper and electronic versions. The questionnaire ascertained EMS systems' jurisdiction, operations, finance, clinical care, resources, and regulatory environment...
February 23, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215195/tetanus-a-potential-public-health-threat-in-times-of-disaster
#19
Paige Finkelstein, Laura Teisch, Casey J Allen, Gabriel Ruiz
BACKGROUND: Tetanus is a potentially fatal condition that is rare in urban environments but is seen in developing countries and post-natural-disaster. Therefore, the purpose of this report was to review the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and management of tetanus in the trauma patient. METHODS: A thorough literature review was conducted to look for the most current and thorough guidelines on the prophylaxis and treatment of tetanus. PUBMED (National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health; Bethesda, Maryland USA), MEDLINE (US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health; Bethesda, Maryland USA), and Cochrane Library (The Cochrane Collaboration; Oxford, United Kingdom) databases were searched for articles in English, published from 2005 to 2015, using the keywords "Tetanus," "Trauma/Surgery," and "Disaster...
February 20, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203271/a-review-of-the-epidemiology-and-treatment-of-orthopaedic-injuries-after-earthquakes-in-developing-countries
#20
REVIEW
James S MacKenzie, Bibek Banskota, Norachart Sirisreetreerux, Babar Shafiq, Erik A Hasenboehler
BACKGROUND: Earthquakes in developing countries are devastating events. Orthopaedic surgeons play a key role in treating earthquake-related injuries to the extremities. We describe orthopaedic injury epidemiology to help guide response planning for earthquake-related disasters. METHODS: Several databases were searched for articles reporting primary injury after major earthquakes from 1970 to June 2016. We used the following key words: "earthquake" AND "fracture" AND "injury" AND "orthopedic" AND "treatment" AND "epidemiology...
2017: World Journal of Emergency Surgery: WJES
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