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Epidemiology of disaster

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800810/international-emergency-psychiatry-challenges-disaster-medicine-war-human-trafficking-displaced-persons
#1
REVIEW
Michael Jaung, Suni Jani, Sophia Banu, Joy M Mackey
Mental health disorders are a major cause of morbidity and a growing burden in low-income and middle-income countries; but there is little existing literature on the detailed epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment in low-resource settings. Special situations with vulnerable populations, such as those created by international humanitarian emergencies, refugees or internally displaced people, and victims of human trafficking, are increasing in prevalence. These victims are often resettled in developed countries and come to the emergency department seeking care...
September 2017: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760171/utility-of-ambulance-data-for-real-time-syndromic-surveillance-a-pilot-in-the-west-midlands-region-united-kingdom
#2
Dan Todkill, Paul Loveridge, Alex J Elliot, Roger A Morbey, Obaghe Edeghere, Tracy Rayment-Bishop, Chris Rayment-Bishop, John E Thornes, Gillian Smith
Introduction The Public Health England (PHE; United Kingdom) Real-Time Syndromic Surveillance Team (ReSST) currently operates four national syndromic surveillance systems, including an emergency department system. A system based on ambulance data might provide an additional measure of the "severe" end of the clinical disease spectrum. This report describes the findings and lessons learned from the development and preliminary assessment of a pilot syndromic surveillance system using ambulance data from the West Midlands (WM) region in England...
August 1, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723949/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-and-other-mental-disorders-in-the-general-population-after-lorca-s-earthquakes-2011-murcia-spain-a-cross-sectional-study
#3
Fernando Navarro-Mateu, Diego Salmerón, Gemma Vilagut, Mª José Tormo, Guadalupe Ruíz-Merino, Teresa Escámez, Javier Júdez, Salvador Martínez, Karestan C Koenen, Carmen Navarro, Jordi Alonso, Ronald C Kessler
AIMS: To describe the prevalence and severity of mental disorders and to examine differences in risk among those with and without a lifetime history prior to a moderate magnitude earthquake that took place in Lorca (Murcia, Spain) at roughly the mid-point (on May 11, 2011) of the time interval in which a regional epidemiological survey was already being carried out (June 2010 -May 2012). METHODS: The PEGASUS-Murcia project is a cross-sectional face-to-face interview survey of a representative sample of non-institutionalized adults in Murcia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721171/response-to-an-unusual-outbreak-in-a-high-risk-situation
#4
Mahmood Muazu Dalhat, Olufunmilayo Ibitola Fawole, Patrick Mboya Nguku, Meeyoung Mattie Park, Casey Daniel Hall, Nasir Sani-Gwarzo
In 2010, a series of lead poisoning outbreaks linked to artisanal gold processing killed at least 400 young children in Zamfara State in northwestern Nigeria. There were several efforts to respond to the outbreaks as they occurred. Subsequent recurrence of lead poisoning outbreaks within Zamfara and beyond suggested that there were no efforts to mitigate the outbreaks as recommended for disaster management. This case study, to be completed within 3 hours, is suitable for senior level public health officials and those training for such positions...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689142/factors-associated-with-post-traumatic-stress-symptoms-among-adolescents-exposed-to-the-sewol-ferry-disaster-in-korea
#5
Ju-Yeon Lee, Sung-Wan Kim, Kyung-Yeol Bae, Jae-Min Kim, Il-Seon Shin, Jin-Sang Yoon
This study evaluated the factors associated with post-traumatic stress symptoms in Korean adolescents who lived in a disaster-affected community. A total of 1101 students attending secondary and high schools in Jindo, the location of the Sewol ferry disaster, were enrolled in a cross-sectional survey. The Child Report of Post-traumatic Symptoms (CROPS), the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the State Anxiety Inventory for Children (SAIC) were administered. Female gender, older children, poor academic achievement, and directly witnessing the rescue scene were associated with post-traumatic stress symptoms...
July 4, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671060/retrospective-analysis-of-mosh-pit-related-injuries
#6
Andrew M Milsten, Joseph Tennyson, Stacy Weisberg
OBJECTIVES: Moshing is a violent form of dancing found world-wide at rock concerts, festivals, and electronic dance music events. It involves crowd surfing, shoving, and moving in a circular rotation. Moshing is a source of increased morbidity and mortality. The goal of this study was to report epidemiologic information on patient presentation rate (PPR), transport to hospital rate (TTHR), and injury patterns from patients who participated in mosh-pits. Materials and Methods Subjects were patrons from mosh-pits seeking medical care at a single venue...
July 3, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642142/epidemiology-and-outcomes-of-bloodstream-infections-in-177-severe-burn-patients-from-an-industrial-disaster-a-multicenter-retrospective-study
#7
Chenqi Tang, Junqiang Li, Beiming Shou, Bohan Pan, Tiansheng Chen, Yongqiang Xiao, Xiaopeng Zheng, Shichu Xiao, Qian Tan, Zhaofan Xia
OBJECTIVES: To determine the characteristics of bloodstream infections (BSIs) and to evaluate the impact of BSIs on mortality in severe burn patients. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted in 20 tertiary hospitals. A total of 185 Patients who experienced a massive dust explosion in eastern China were included. RESULTS: After exclusion, 177 patients were analyzed. The median total body surface area (TBSA) burned was 95% (interquartile range [IQR], 85%-98%)...
June 19, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622920/post-9-11-sarcoidosis-in-wtc-exposed-firefighters-and-emergency-medical-service-workers
#8
Mayris P Webber, Jennifer Yip, Rachel Zeig-Owens, William Moir, Patompong Ungprasert, Cynthia S Crowson, Charles B Hall, Nadia Jaber, Michael D Weiden, Eric L Matteson, David J Prezant
INTRODUCTION: The World Trade Center (WTC) disaster released a huge quantity and variety of toxicants into the environment. To-date, studies from each of the three major cohorts of WTC-exposed workers have suggested "greater than expected" numbers of post-9/11 cases in some workers. We undertook this study to estimate the incidence of post-9/11 sarcoidosis in ∼13,000 male firefighters and EMS workers enrolled in The Fire Department of the City of New York (FDNY) WTC Health Program; to compare FDNY incidence to rates from unexposed, demographically similar men in the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP); and, to examine rates by level of WTC exposure...
June 7, 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605622/factors-associated-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-among-community-volunteers-during-the-sewol-ferry-disaster-in-korea
#9
Ju-Yeon Lee, Sung-Wan Kim, Kyung-Yeol Bae, Jae-Min Kim, Il-Seon Shin, Jin-Sang Yoon
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics associated with volunteerism and identify the factors that contributed to posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among community volunteers following the Sewol ferry disaster in Korea. METHODS: In total, 2,298 adults (aged 30-70 years) from the Jin-do area, where the Sewol ferry disaster occurred, participated in this study. A cross-sectional survey was conducted 1 month after the disaster...
June 3, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602558/public-health-information-in-crisis-affected-populations-a-review-of-methods-and-their-use-for-advocacy-and-action
#10
REVIEW
Francesco Checchi, Abdihamid Warsame, Victoria Treacy-Wong, Jonathan Polonsky, Mark van Ommeren, Claudine Prudhon
Valid and timely information about various domains of public health underpins the effectiveness of humanitarian public health interventions in crises. However, obstacles including insecurity, insufficient resources and skills for data collection and analysis, and absence of validated methods combine to hamper the quantity and quality of public health information available to humanitarian responders. This paper, the second in a Series of four papers, reviews available methods to collect public health data pertaining to different domains of health and health services in crisis settings, including population size and composition, exposure to armed attacks, sexual and gender-based violence, food security and feeding practices, nutritional status, physical and mental health outcomes, public health service availability, coverage and effectiveness, and mortality...
June 7, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578748/epidemiological-effectiveness-and-cost-of-a-fungal-meningitis-outbreak-response-in-new-river-valley-virginia-local-health-department-and-clinical-perspectives
#11
Nargesalsadat Dorratoltaj, Margaret L O'Dell, Paige Bordwine, Thomas M Kerkering, Kerry J Redican, Kaja M Abbas
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effectiveness and cost of a fungal meningitis outbreak response in the New River Valley of Virginia during 2012-2013 from the perspective of the local public health department and clinical facilities. The fungal meningitis outbreak affected 23 states in the United States with 751 cases and 64 deaths in 20 states; there were 56 cases and 5 deaths in Virginia. METHODS: We conducted a partial economic evaluation of the fungal meningitis outbreak response in New River Valley...
June 5, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560942/categorization-and-analysis-of-disaster-health-publications-an-inventory
#12
Marvin L Birnbaum, Sowmya Adibhatla, Olivia Dudek, Jessica Ramsel-Miller
Disaster Medicine is a relatively new discipline. Understanding of the current status of its science is needed in order to develop a roadmap for the direction and structure of future studies that will contribute to building the science of the health aspects of disasters (HADs). The objective of this study was to examine the existing, peer-reviewed literature relevant to the HADs to determine the status of the currently available literature underlying the science of the HADs. A total of 709 consecutive, peer-reviewed articles published from 2009-2014 in two disaster-health-related medical journals, Prehospital and Disaster Medicine (PDM) and Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness (DMPHP), were examined...
May 31, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516826/fatalities-from-firearm-related-injuries-in-selected-governorates-of-iraq-2010-2013
#13
Maximilian P Nerlander, Eva Leidman, Ahmed Hassan, Abdul-Salam Saleh Sultan, Syed Jaffar Hussain, Lauren B Browne, Oleg O Bilukha
BACKGROUND: In Iraq, where Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) and other groups have contributed to escalating violence in recent years, understanding the epidemiology of intentional firearm-related fatalities is essential for public health action. METHODS: The Iraqi Ministry of Health (MoH; Baghdad, Iraq) compiles surveillance of fatal injuries in eight of Iraq's 18 governorates (Baghdad, Al-Anbar, Basrah, Erbil, Kerbala, Maysan, Ninevah, and Al-Sulaimaniya)...
May 18, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505500/increase-in-the-prescription-rate-of-antidepressants-after-the-sewol-ferry-disaster-in-ansan-south-korea
#14
Kyu-Man Han, Kyoung-Hoon Kim, Mikyung Lee, Sang-Min Lee, Young-Hoon Ko, Jong-Woo Paik
BACKGROUND: Previous pharmaco-epidemiological studies have reported increases in the prescription of psychotropic medications after a disaster, reflecting post-disaster changes in psychiatric conditions and mental health service utilization. We investigated changes in the prescription of psychotropic medications in the Danwon district of Ansan city (Ansan Danwon) compared to a control community before and after the Sewol Ferry disaster on April 16, 2014. METHODS: Data was collected from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service database...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502272/adverse-childhood-experiences-exposure-to-a-natural-disaster-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-among-survivors-of-the-2011-great-east-japan-earthquake-and-tsunami
#15
Y Inoue, A Stickley, A Yazawa, J Aida, I Kawachi, K Kondo, T Fujiwara
AIMS: To investigate whether adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) modify the impact of exposure to a natural disaster (the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami) on the occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among older people. METHODS: Data were collected as part of the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES), which is an on-going epidemiological survey investigating social determinants of health among older people across Japan. Information on PTSD symptoms based on the Screening Questionnaire for Disaster Mental Health, traumatic exposure to the earthquake (i...
May 15, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437765/suicidality-associated-with-ptsd-depression-and-disaster-recovery-status-among-adult-survivors-8-years-after-the-2008-wenchuan-earthquake-in-china
#16
Jing Guo, Huan He, Mingqi Fu, Ziqiang Han, Zhiyong Qu, Xiaohua Wang, Liding Guan
It has been eight years since the Wenchuan earthquake. We don't know how the lives of those affected by the disaster may remain blighted by its effects, or how many remain thus affected. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship of disaster exposure, PTSD, depression and suicidal behaviors, using data from a cross-sectional survey conducted in earthquake-affected areas of China. 1369 participants were recruited from two different sites that were severely affected by the Wenchuan earthquake...
April 12, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430097/zika-virus-update-more-on-an-emerging-arboviral-disease-in-the-western-hemisphere
#17
Kelly G Vest
Zika virus has captivated the world with its quick spread throughout the Western Hemisphere. Increased emphasis has been placed on the infection of pregnant women and subsequent adverse and severe effects in the developing fetus and newborn. This article supplements a previous article and provides updated information on new and evolving evidence that strengthens the association between Zika virus and unique congenital and neurologic diseases, updates what is known about the epidemiology of the disease, and provides new and updated material for primary care providers as they counsel patients who may be exposed or infected...
April 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418689/an-official-american-thoracic-society-workshop-report-chemical-inhalational-disasters-biology-of-lung-injury-development-of-novel-therapeutics-and-medical-preparedness
#18
Eleanor M Summerhill, Gary W Hoyle, Sven-Eric Jordt, Bronwen J Jugg, James G Martin, Sadis Matalon, Steven E Patterson, David J Prezant, Alfred M Sciuto, Erik R Svendsen, Carl W White, Livia A Veress
This report is based on the proceedings from the Inhalational Lung Injury Workshop jointly sponsored by the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Countermeasures Against Chemical Threats (CounterACT) program on May 21, 2013, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The CounterACT program facilitates research leading to the development of new and improved medical countermeasures for chemical threat agents. The workshop was initiated by the Terrorism and Inhalational Disasters Section of the Environmental, Occupational, and Population Health Assembly of the ATS...
June 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394737/alcohol-and-nonmedical-prescription-drug-use-to-cope-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-an-analysis-of-hurricane-sandy-survivors
#19
Sarah R Lowe, Laura Sampson, Megan N Young, Sandro Galea
BACKGROUND: Postdisaster increases in substance use have been attributed to use of substances to cope with emotional reactions. However, no study to our knowledge has explored disaster survivors' substance use to cope with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the prevalence and correlates of alcohol use and nonmedical prescription drug use (NMPDU) to cope with PTSD symptoms in two population-based samples of adult residents of New York City neighborhoods affected by Hurricane Sandy...
April 10, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358820/epidemiological-evaluation-of-cat-health-at-a-first-response-animal-shelter-in-fukushima-following-the-great-east-japan-earthquakes-of-2011
#20
Aki Tanaka, Philip H Kass, Beatriz Martinez-Lopez, Shinichi Hayama
The Great East Japan Earthquakes of March 11, 2011 caused immense harm to the community and subsequent nuclear accident in Fukushima Prefecture extended the damage. Local residents were forced to evacuated without pets and the left behind animals were rescued from the restricted zone one month later. Unplanned animal rescue and unregulated sheltering caused secondary damage to animals such as disease epidemics at impounded animal shelter. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the incidence of upper respiratory infection (URI) and diarrhea in cats at the first response animal shelter in Fukushima, and investigate factors affecting the duration of disease and determinants of treatments performed...
2017: PloS One
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