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Epidemiology of disaster

Donatella Lippi, Eduardo Gotuzzo, Saverio Caini
Cholera is an acute disease of the gastrointestinal tract caused by Vibrio cholerae. Cholera was localized in Asia until 1817, when a first pandemic spread from India to several other regions of the world. After this appearance, six additional major pandemics occurred during the 19th and 20th centuries, the latest of which originated in Indonesia in the 1960s and is still ongoing. In 1854, a cholera outbreak in Soho, London, was investigated by the English physician John Snow (1813 to 1858). He described the time course of the outbreak, managed to understand its routes of transmission, and suggested effective measures to stop its spread, giving rise to modern infectious disease epidemiology...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Carol S North
Worldwide, disasters are increasing in frequency and severity. Mental health consequences of disasters are extensive, and knowledge of anticipated mental health effects is needed for effective disaster response. Difficulties inherent in conducting disaster research have limited the understanding of research findings. This article presents and interprets disaster mental health research findings in the context of research methods. A brief history of the disaster mental health research field is provided, and the presentation of findings is ordered into topical areas of disaster mental health consequences and timing and prediction of mental health outcomes...
2016: Psychiatry
Olindi Wijesekera, Amanda Reed, Parker S Chastain, Shauna Biggs, Elizabeth G Clark, Tamorish Kole, Anoop T Chakrapani, Nandy Ashish, Prasad Rajhans, Alan H Breaud, Gabrielle A Jacquet
: Introduction Without a universal Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system in India, data on the epidemiology of patients who utilize EMS are limited. This retrospective chart review aimed to quantify and describe the burden of disease and patient demographics of patients who arrived by EMS to four Indian emergency departments (EDs) in order to inform a national EMS curriculum. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on patients transported by EMS over a three-month period in 2014 to four private EDs in India...
September 19, 2016: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Sebastián Eduardo Espinoza Espinoza, Anibal Enrique Vivaceta De la Fuente, Constanza Andrea Machuca Contreras
OBJECTIVE: To describe and relate the main environmental risk factors in the emergency process after a large urban fire in Valparaiso, Chile, in April 2014. METHODS: An observational, cross-sectional descriptive study was performed. All 243 reports from an ad hoc web/mobile website created on the Ushahidi/Crowdmap platform were reviewed. Reports were recorded in a new database with dichotomist variables based on either the presence or absence of the relevant category in each report...
September 13, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Eugenia E Lee, Barclay Stewart, Yuanting A Zha, Thomas A Groen, Frederick M Burkle, Adam L Kushner
BACKGROUND: Climate extremes will increase the frequency and severity of natural disasters worldwide.  Climate-related natural disasters were anticipated to affect 375 million people in 2015, more than 50% greater than the yearly average in the previous decade. To inform surgical assistance preparedness, we estimated the number of surgical procedures needed.   METHODS: The numbers of people affected by climate-related disasters from 2004 to 2014 were obtained from the Centre for Research of the Epidemiology of Disasters database...
2016: PLoS Currents
Fauziah Rabbani, Leah Shipton, Franklin White, Iman Nuwayhid, Leslie London, Abdul Ghaffar, Bui Thi Thu Ha, Göran Tomson, Rajiv Rimal, Anwar Islam, Amirhossein Takian, Samuel Wong, Shehla Zaidi, Kausar Khan, Rozina Karmaliani, Imran Naeem Abbasi, Farhat Abbas
BACKGROUND: Public health has multicultural origins. By the close of the nineteenth century, Schools of Public Health (SPHs) began to emerge in western countries in response to major contemporary public health challenges. The Flexner Report (1910) emphasized the centrality of preventive medicine, sanitation, and public health measures in health professional education. The Alma Ata Declaration on Primary Health Care (PHC) in 1978 was a critical milestone, especially for low and middle-income countries (LMICs), conceptualizing a close working relationship between PHC and public health measures...
2016: BMC Public Health
E J Bromet, L Atwoli, N Kawakami, F Navarro-Mateu, P Piotrowski, A J King, S Aguilar-Gaxiola, J Alonso, B Bunting, K Demyttenaere, S Florescu, G de Girolamo, S Gluzman, J M Haro, P de Jonge, E G Karam, S Lee, V Kovess-Masfety, M E Medina-Mora, Z Mneimneh, B-E Pennell, J Posada-Villa, D Salmerón, T Takeshima, R C Kessler
BACKGROUND: Research on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following natural and human-made disasters has been undertaken for more than three decades. Although PTSD prevalence estimates vary widely, most are in the 20-40% range in disaster-focused studies but considerably lower (3-5%) in the few general population epidemiological surveys that evaluated disaster-related PTSD as part of a broader clinical assessment. The World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys provide an opportunity to examine disaster-related PTSD in representative general population surveys across a much wider range of sites than in previous studies...
August 30, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Eizaburo Tanaka, Atsuro Tsutsumi, Norito Kawakami, Satomi Kameoka, Hiroshi Kato, Yongheng You
BACKGROUND: Most epidemiological studies on adolescent survivors' mental health have been conducted within 2 years after the disaster. Longer-term psychological consequences remain unclear. This study explored psychological symptoms in secondary school students who were living in Sichuan province 6 years after the Wenchuan earthquake. METHODS: A secondary data analysis was performed on data from a final survey of survivors conducted 6 years after the Wenchuan earthquake as part of the five-year mental health and psychosocial support project...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Deon V Canyon, Rick Speare, Frederick M Burkle
OBJECTIVE: Climate change is expected to cause extensive shifts in the epidemiology of infectious and vector-borne diseases. Scenarios on the effects of climate change typically attribute altered distribution of communicable diseases to a rise in average temperature and altered incidence of infectious diseases to weather extremes. METHODS: Recent evaluations of the effects of climate change on Hawaii have not explored this link. It may be expected that Hawaii's natural geography and robust water, sanitation, and health care infrastructure renders residents less vulnerable to many threats that are the focus on smaller, lesser developed, and more vulnerable Pacific islands...
August 12, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Ibrahim Arziman
Disasters cause an acute deterioration in all stages of life. An area affected by the disaster in which the normal activities of life are disrupted is described as a "Field" in disaster terminology. Although it is not easy to define the borders of this zone, the area where there is normally functioning society is accepted as the boundary. Disaster management is the responsibility of the local government. However, in many large disaster responses many non-governmental and international organizations play a role...
October 2015: Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine
Mary Anne Duncan, Maureen F Orr
When a large chemical incident occurs and people are injured, public health agencies need to be able to provide guidance and respond to questions from the public, the media, and public officials. Because of this urgent need for information to support appropriate public health action, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) of the US Department of Health and Human Services has developed the Assessment of Chemical Exposures (ACE) Toolkit. The ACE Toolkit, available on the ATSDR website, offers materials including surveys, consent forms, databases, and training materials that state and local health personnel can use to rapidly conduct an epidemiologic investigation after a large-scale acute chemical release...
August 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Danielle Horyniak, Jason S Melo, Risa M Farrell, Victoria D Ojeda, Steffanie A Strathdee
INTRODUCTION: Forced migration is occurring at unprecedented levels. Forced migrants may be at risk for substance use for reasons including coping with traumatic experiences, co-morbid mental health disorders, acculturation challenges and social and economic inequality. This paper aimed to systematically review the literature examining substance use among forced migrants, and identify priority areas for intervention and future research. METHODS: Seven medical, allied health and social science databases were searched from inception to September 2015 in accordance with PRISMA guidelines to identify original peer-reviewed articles describing any findings relating to alcohol and/or illicit drug use among refugees, internally displaced people (IDPs), asylum seekers, people displaced by disasters and deportees...
2016: PloS One
C Ottomann, B Hartmann, V Antonic
With the increasing numbers of passengers and crew on board vessels that are becoming larger and larger, the demand for ship's doctors who can adequately treat burns on board has also increased. In the cruise ship industry it is usually those doctor's with internal and general medical training who are recruited from an epidemiological point of view. Training content or recommendations for the treatment of thermal lesions with the limited options available in ship's hospitals and where doctors with no surgical training operate do not yet exist...
September 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Daniel G Bausch, Amanda Rojek
The outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) that occurred from 2013 to 2016 in the West African countries of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, with imported cases to three neighboring African countries as well as to the United States and Europe, constituted a major humanitarian disaster. The outbreak numbered over 28,500 cases, more than 10 times the number cumulatively registered from all previous EVD outbreaks combined, with at least 11,000 deaths, and resulted in billions of dollars of lost economic growth to an already impoverished region...
June 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Awi Wiesel, Gabriela Stolz, Annette Queisser-Wahrendorf
BACKGROUND: The evidence concerning safety of occupational exposure to ionizing radiation on teratogenic effects mainly relies on animal models, disaster epidemiology and experience in cancer etiology. Following an explorative result on maternal exposure in medical occupations we conducted a feasibility study, addressing congenital anomalies (CA) in the offspring of health workers potentially exposed to radiation. METHODS: In a prospective follow-up study, we enrolled women, identified by mandatory registration at the office of radiation protection as wearing a dosimeter...
June 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology
Fabrizio Faggiano, Roberta Pirastu, Elias Allara, Manuele Falcone, Gianluigi Ferrante, Barbara Pacelli, Patrizia Schifano, Carlo Senore, Maria Serinelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
Susan Lindee
In this article, I reflect on the Radiation Effects Research Foundation and its ongoing studies of long-term radiation risk. Originally called the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (1947-1975), the Radiation Effects Research Foundation has carried out epidemiological research tracking the biomedical effects of radiation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki for almost 70 years. Radiation Effects Research Foundation scientists also played a key role in the assessment of populations exposed at Chernobyl and are now embarking on studies of workers at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant...
April 2016: Social Studies of Science
Umar Saeed, Zahra Zahid Piracha
Pakistan is a developing country that has a population of 190 million people and faces a huge burden of viral diseases. Every year during monsoon season heavy rain fall and lack of disaster management skills potentially increase the transmission of waterborne diseases, vector borne diseases and viral outbreaks. Due to severe flooding, thousands of people lose their lives and millions are displaced each year. In most of the cases the children who lose their family members are forced into illegal professions of begging, child labor and prostitution which make them prone to sexually transmitted infections...
May 12, 2016: World Journal of Virology
Jessica M Hameed, Ramona L McCaffrey, Andrea McCoy, Tracy Brannock, Gregory J Martin, William T Scouten, Krista Brooks, Shannon D Putnam, Mark S Riddle
Travelers' diarrhea (TD) is the most common ailment affecting travelers, including deployed U.S. military. Continuing Promise 2011 was a 5-month humanitarian assistance/disaster response (HA/DR) military and non-governmental organization training mission aboard the hospital ship USNS Comfort, which deployed to Central and South America and the Caribbean between April and September 2011. Enhanced TD surveillance was undertaken during this mission for public health purposes. Passive surveillance (clinic visits), active surveillance (self-reported questionnaires), and stool samples were collected weekly from shipboard personnel...
2016: PloS One
Lydia B Zablotska
It has been 30 years since the worst accident in the history of the nuclear era occurred at the Chernobyl power plant in Ukraine close to densely populated urban areas. To date, epidemiological studies reported increased long-term risks of leukemia, cardiovascular diseases, and cataracts among cleanup workers and of thyroid cancer and non-malignant diseases in those exposed as children and adolescents. Mental health effects were the most significant public health consequence of the accident in the three most contaminated countries of Ukraine, Belarus, and the Russian Federation...
June 2016: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
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