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Epidemiology of disaster

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228178/the-state-of-emergency-medical-services-ems-systems-in-africa
#1
Nee-Kofi Mould-Millman, Julia M Dixon, Nana Sefa, Arthur Yancey, Bonaventure G Hollong, Mohamed Hagahmed, Adit A Ginde, Lee A Wallis
: Introduction Little is known about the existence, distribution, and characteristics of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems in Africa, or the corresponding epidemiology of prehospital illness and injury. METHODS: A survey was conducted between 2013 and 2014 by distributing a detailed EMS system questionnaire to experts in paper and electronic versions. The questionnaire ascertained EMS systems' jurisdiction, operations, finance, clinical care, resources, and regulatory environment...
February 23, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215195/tetanus-a-potential-public-health-threat-in-times-of-disaster
#2
Paige Finkelstein, Laura Teisch, Casey J Allen, Gabriel Ruiz
BACKGROUND: Tetanus is a potentially fatal condition that is rare in urban environments but is seen in developing countries and post-natural-disaster. Therefore, the purpose of this report was to review the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and management of tetanus in the trauma patient. METHODS: A thorough literature review was conducted to look for the most current and thorough guidelines on the prophylaxis and treatment of tetanus. PUBMED (National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health; Bethesda, Maryland USA), MEDLINE (US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health; Bethesda, Maryland USA), and Cochrane Library (The Cochrane Collaboration; Oxford, United Kingdom) databases were searched for articles in English, published from 2005 to 2015, using the keywords "Tetanus," "Trauma/Surgery," and "Disaster...
February 20, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203271/a-review-of-the-epidemiology-and-treatment-of-orthopaedic-injuries-after-earthquakes-in-developing-countries
#3
REVIEW
James S MacKenzie, Bibek Banskota, Norachart Sirisreetreerux, Babar Shafiq, Erik A Hasenboehler
BACKGROUND: Earthquakes in developing countries are devastating events. Orthopaedic surgeons play a key role in treating earthquake-related injuries to the extremities. We describe orthopaedic injury epidemiology to help guide response planning for earthquake-related disasters. METHODS: Several databases were searched for articles reporting primary injury after major earthquakes from 1970 to June 2016. We used the following key words: "earthquake" AND "fracture" AND "injury" AND "orthopedic" AND "treatment" AND "epidemiology...
2017: World Journal of Emergency Surgery: WJES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142052/design-of-the-health-examination-survey-on-early-childhood-physical-growth-in-the-great-east-japan-earthquake-affected-areas
#4
Hiroko Matsubara, Mami Ishikuro, Masahiro Kikuya, Shoichi Chida, Mitsuaki Hosoya, Atsushi Ono, Noriko Kato, Susumu Yokoya, Toshiaki Tanaka, Tsuyoshi Isojima, Zentaro Yamagata, Soichiro Tanaka, Shinichi Kuriyama, Shigeo Kure
BACKGROUND: To investigate the impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on preschool children's physical growth in the disaster-affected areas, the three medical universities in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures conducted a health examination survey on early childhood physical growth. METHODS: The survey was conducted over a 3-year period to acquire data on children who were born in different years. Our targets were as follows: 1) children who were born between March 1, 2007 and August 31, 2007 and experienced the disaster at 43-48 months of age, 2) children who were born between March 1, 2009 and August 31, 2009 and experienced the disaster at 19-24 months of age, and 3) children who were born between June 1, 2010 and April 30, 2011 and were under 10 months of age or not born yet when the disaster occurred...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111422/humidifier-disinfectant-disaster-what-do-we-know-and-what-are-left-to-be-clarified
#5
Sungkyoon Kim, Domyung Paek
After the initial investigations of Korean CDC in 2011, more than 1,000 suspicious cases of humidifier disinfectant victims were subsequently reported up to 2015, and numbers are still increasing dramatically in 2016 in the midst of prosecutor's office investigation. In this study, we tried to summarize the current understandings of humidifier disinfectant related health effects based upon systemic review of published epidemiologic studies and toxicology investigations. Published studies of humidifier disinfectants were searched through 'pubmed' and 'toxline'?under the heading of 'humidifier disinfectant', and related reports were identified from the references and published report list of regulatory agencies including Korean National Institute of Environmental Research, US Environmental Protection Agency, and EU European Chemicals Agency...
December 4, 2016: Environmental Health and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027558/cognitive-evoked-potentials-p300-after-radiation-exposure
#6
K M Loganovsky, K V Kuts
OBJECTIVE: The study was aimed at evaluating features of brain information processes and cognitive functioning in the remote period after irradiation due to the Chornobyl accident by using cognitive evoked potentials P300. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 128 people, 112 male Chornobyl clean up workers in 1986-1987 with the records of radiation doses available in Clinical and Epidemiological Registry (CER) of State Institution «National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine» (NRCRM) (study group) and 16 unexposed persons due to the Chornobyl disaster (control group)...
December 2016: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027557/pathological-personality-development-after-the-chornobyl-disaster-and-the-anti-terrorist-operation
#7
K M Loganovsky, M V Gresko
: Objective of the study was to determine pathological changes of the personality of the clean up workers (liquida tors) of the Chornobyl accident and the participants in the anti terrorist operation (ATO) in Eastern Ukraine and radiation threat perception assessment.Design, object and methods. The cross sectional and retrospective assessments of the clean up workers of the Chornobyl accident (n = 185), evacuees from the Chornobyl Exclusion Zone (n = 112) from the randomized sample of individuals who are registered in the Clinical and epidemiological registry (CER) of the State Institution «National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine» [NRCRM] and partici pants of the ATO in Eastern Ukraine (n = 62) who underwent treatment and rehabilitation in the Department of Radiation Psychoneurology of the NRCRM Clinic have been done...
December 2016: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027540/state-institution-%C3%A2-national-research-center-for-radiation-medicine-of-the-national-academy-of-medical-sciences-of-ukraine%C3%A2-research-activities-and-scientific-advance-in-2015
#8
D Bazyka, V Sushko, A Chumak, V Buzunov, V Talko, L Yanovych
Research activities and scientific advance achieved in 2014 at the State Institution «National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine» (NRCRM) concerning medical problems of the Chornobyl disaster, radiation medicine, radiobiology, radiation hygiene and epidemiology in collaboration with the WHO network of medical preparedness and assistance in radiation accidents are outlined in the annual report.The report presents the results of fundamental and applied research works of the study of radiation effects and health effects of the Chornobyl accident; fulfillment of tasks of «State social program for improving safety, occupational health and working environment in 2014-2018 years»...
December 2016: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006696/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-and-depression-among-adult-survivors-8-years-after-the-2008-wenchuan-earthquake-in-china
#9
Jing Guo, Huan He, Zhiyong Qu, Xiaohua Wang, Chengbin Liu
BACKGROUND: The Wenchuan earthquake was China's worst natural disaster of the past three decades. Although the psychological sequelae of disasters can last for many years, the long-term sequelae and their risk factors tend to receive little research attention. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the present study were to estimate the prevalences of symptomalogical PTSD and depression among survivors 8 years after the Wenchuan earthquake, and to identify the shared and unshared risk factors associated with PTSD and depression, using data from a cross-sectional survey...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997324/an-evaluation-of-the-buffering-effects-of-types-and-sources-of-support-on-depressive-symptoms-among-natural-disaster-exposed-chinese-adults
#10
Brian J Hall, Kalon Sou, Wen Chen, Fangjing Zhou, Kay Chang, Carl Latkin
OBJECTIVE: Social support is a key protective factor for people exposed to natural disasters. The effect of type and source of this support is not well documented. Investigations are needed to identify the specific modifying role of received and perceived support from family and friends on the association between disaster exposure and depressive symptoms. METHODS: Face-to-face household interviews were conducted in 2014 with a random sample of 751 adults recruited from Yuexiu and Tianhe districts in Guangzhou, China...
2016: Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960236/radiation-associated-neoplasia-clinical-pathological-and-genomic-correlates
#11
REVIEW
Lynette M Sholl, Justine A Barletta, Jason L Hornick
Ionizing radiation is an established risk factor for the development of benign and malignant tumours. The epidemiology of radiation-associated neoplasia has been studied over the decades in diverse populations, including Japanese atomic bomb survivors, exposed communities following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster, and paediatric and adult populations receiving therapeutic irradiation. Radiation has been associated with an increased risk of neoplasia throughout the human body, with some sites showing a markedly increased relative risk of developing tumours (thyroid; soft tissues), depending on patient age and the context of exposure...
January 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921037/acute-kidney-injury-in-western-countries
#12
REVIEW
Josée Bouchard, Ravindra L Mehta
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequent and is associated with poor outcomes, including increased mortality, higher risk of chronic kidney disease, and prolonged hospital lengths of stay. The epidemiology of AKI mainly derives from studies performed in Western high-income countries. More limited data are available from Western low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) located in Central and South America. SUMMARY: In this review, we summarize the most recent data on the epidemiology of AKI in Western countries, aiming to contrast results from industrialized high-income countries with LMICs...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921036/acute-kidney-injury-in-asia
#13
REVIEW
Li Yang
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common disorder and is associated with a high morbidity and mortality worldwide. The diversity of the climate and of the socioeconomic and developmental status in Asia has a great influence on the etiology and presentation of AKI in different regions. In view of the International Society of Nephrology's 0by25 initiative, more and more attention has been paid to AKI in Asian countries. SUMMARY: In this review, we summarize the recent achievements with regard to the prevalence and clinical patterns of AKI in Asian countries...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890362/epidemiology-of-polio-virus-infection-in-pakistan-and-possible-risk-factors-for-its-transmission
#14
REVIEW
Mahvish Kabir, Muhammad Sohail Afzal
End Polio Pakistan program still has to overcome many hurdles; unfortunately on 8th February 2016 first polio case of the year has surfaced in Karachi. It seems that battle against polio demands little bit more conviction and motivation. WHO has set a goal of polio eradication in Pakistan till 2018, in order to evaluate the success of this target; polio eradication campaign in Pakistan has been analyzed in different perspectives. Our analysis indicated that major obstacles in eradication are low literacy rate, poor health infrastructure, lack of planning, natural disaster, economic crisis, counter insurgencies and almost no protection for polio health workers...
November 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845946/global-trends-in-suicide-epidemiology
#15
Mark Sinyor, Robyn Tse, Jane Pirkis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Suicide is a major cause of mortality accounting for nearly 1 million deaths globally per year. Suicide occurs throughout the lifespan; therefore, large epidemiological samples are needed to identify patterns in suicide death. This review examines emerging evidence relating to risk and protective factors as well as preventive measures for suicide. RECENT FINDINGS: The global financial crisis, natural disasters, air pollution and second-hand smoke have all been associated with increased suicide rates...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804911/preparing-the-health-system-to-respond-to-ebola-virus-disease-in-new-york-city-2014
#16
Jay K Varma, David J Prezant, Ross Wilson, Celia Quinn, Glenn Asaeda, Nicholas V Cagliuso, Jennifer L Rakeman, Marisa Raphael
The world's largest outbreak of Ebola virus disease began in West Africa in 2014. Although few cases were identified in the United States, the possibility of imported cases led US public health systems and health care facilities to focus on preparing the health care system to quickly and safely identify and respond to emerging infectious diseases. In New York City, early, coordinated planning among city and state agencies and the health care delivery system led to a successful response to a single case diagnosed in a returned health care worker...
November 2, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756685/quantitative-bias-analysis-in-an-asthma-study-of-rescue-recovery-workers-and-volunteers-from-the-9-11-world-trade-center-attacks
#17
Anne M Jurek, George Maldonado
PURPOSE: When learning bias analysis, epidemiologists are taught to quantitatively adjust for multiple biases by correcting study results in the reverse order of the error sequence. To understand the error sequence for a particular study, one must carefully examine the health study's epidemiologic data-generating process. In this article, we describe the unique data-generating process of a man-made disaster epidemiologic study. METHODS: We described the data-generating process and conducted a bias analysis for a study associating September 11, 2001 dust cloud exposure and self-reported newly physician-diagnosed asthma among rescue-recovery workers and volunteers...
November 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726771/cholera
#18
Donatella Lippi, Eduardo Gotuzzo, Saverio Caini
Cholera is an acute disease of the gastrointestinal tract caused by Vibrio cholerae. Cholera was localized in Asia until 1817, when a first pandemic spread from India to several other regions of the world. After this appearance, six additional major pandemics occurred during the 19th and 20th centuries, the latest of which originated in Indonesia in the 1960s and is still ongoing. In 1854, a cholera outbreak in Soho, London, was investigated by the English physician John Snow (1813 to 1858). He described the time course of the outbreak, managed to understand its routes of transmission, and suggested effective measures to stop its spread, giving rise to modern infectious disease epidemiology...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27724836/disaster-mental-health-epidemiology-methodological-review-and-interpretation-of-research-findings
#19
Carol S North
Worldwide, disasters are increasing in frequency and severity. Mental health consequences of disasters are extensive, and knowledge of anticipated mental health effects is needed for effective disaster response. Difficulties inherent in conducting disaster research have limited the understanding of research findings. This article presents and interprets disaster mental health research findings in the context of research methods. A brief history of the disaster mental health research field is provided, and the presentation of findings is ordered into topical areas of disaster mental health consequences and timing and prediction of mental health outcomes...
2016: Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640552/epidemiology-of-emergency-medical-services-ems-utilization-in-four-indian-emergency-departments
#20
Olindi Wijesekera, Amanda Reed, Parker S Chastain, Shauna Biggs, Elizabeth G Clark, Tamorish Kole, Anoop T Chakrapani, Nandy Ashish, Prasad Rajhans, Alan H Breaud, Gabrielle A Jacquet
: Introduction Without a universal Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system in India, data on the epidemiology of patients who utilize EMS are limited. This retrospective chart review aimed to quantify and describe the burden of disease and patient demographics of patients who arrived by EMS to four Indian emergency departments (EDs) in order to inform a national EMS curriculum. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on patients transported by EMS over a three-month period in 2014 to four private EDs in India...
December 2016: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
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